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1

Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (?24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r?=?0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-01-01

2

Triglycerides  

MedlinePLUS

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

3

An elevation of triglycerides reflecting decreased triglyceride clearance may not be pathogenic – relevance to high-carbohydrate diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that carbohydrate-rich diets often increase plasma triglycerides has led some to question the wisdom of such diets. This increase is primarily attributable to a decrease in the efficiency of triglyceride clearance – whereas the elevation of triglycerides observed in insulin-resistant subjects stems mainly from increased hepatic production of VLDL particles. There is growing reason to suspect that the

Mark F. McCarty

2004-01-01

4

Acute pancreatitis owing to very high triglyceride levels treated with insulin and heparin infusion  

PubMed Central

Hypertriglyceridaemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis in the USA. The treatment approach for hypertriglyceridaemia to date has largely been conservative including weight loss, exercise and avoidance of medications that raise triglyceride levels. This approach, however, is not practical in cases of acute pancreatitis due to severely elevated triglycerides. A small number of case reports have been published supporting the treatment of acute pancreatitis due to severely elevated triglyceride levels with insulin and heparin. We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a young woman due to a triglyceride level of 15?215?mg/dl who was successfully treated with insulin and heparin. PMID:23608843

Aryal, Madan Raj; Mainali, Naba Raj; Gupta, Shobhit; Singla, Manoj

2013-01-01

5

Galanin preproprotein is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Objective There is increasing physiological evidence in rodents connecting the neuropeptide galanin to triglyceride (TG) levels. We hypothesized that variation in the galanin preproprotein (GAL) gene may contribute to hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in humans. Methods and Results We investigated GAL as a TG candidate gene by genotyping four tagSNPs in Dutch, Finnish and Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) families as well as in Caucasian combined hyperlipidemia cases/controls (n=2,471). The common allele of rs2187331, residing in the promoter region of GAL, was significantly associated with HTG (p-value=0.00038). In an unascertained population sample of 4,463 Finnish males, the rare allele of rs2187331 was associated with higher TGs (p-value=0.0028?0.00016). We also observed an allele specific difference with rs2187331 in reporter gene expression and nuclear factor binding in vitro. Furthermore, we detected differential expression of many key lipid genes in adipose tissue based on rs2187331 genotypes. Conclusions The SNP rs2187331 is associated with HTG in FCHL and Caucasian combined hyperlipidemia cases/controls and influences TG levels in the population. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the allelic difference observed between FCHL and the general population. Functional evidence shows that rs2187331 has an allele specific cis-regulatory function and influences the expression of lipid related genes in adipose. PMID:18988886

Plaisier, Christopher L; Kyttälä, Mira; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Riba, Laura; Ramķrez-Jiménez, Salvador; de Bruin, Tjerk W. A.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Malloy, Mary J.; Kane, John P.; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Herrera, Miguel F.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Kallen, Carla J. H. van der; Pajukanta, Päivi

2009-01-01

6

High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.  

PubMed

Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sįnchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germįn

2013-07-15

7

Impaired brachial artery endothelial function is not predicted by elevated triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to determine if patients with modest hyperlipidemia, and no other risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), have impaired endothelium-dependent (ED) vasoactivity.BACKGROUNDHypercholesterolemia impairs ED vasodilation, but the impact of elevated triglycerides on endothelial function is not as well established.METHODSHigh-resolution ultrasound was used to determine flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (BA) after a

Greg B. Schnell; Annette Robertson; Deborah Houston; Linda Malley; Todd J. Anderson

1999-01-01

8

Major loci influencing serum triglyceride levels on 2q14 and 9p21 localized by  

E-print Network

Major loci influencing serum triglyceride levels on 2q14 and 9p21 localized by homozygosity triglyceride (TG) level is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity (1Ā­5). Variation in serum triglyceride (TG) levels among individuals results from both environmental

Abney, Mark

9

CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid  

SciTech Connect

Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2013-01-15

10

Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1988-01-01

11

Soy protein reduces triglyceride levels and triglyceride fatty acid fractional synthesis rate in hypercholesterolemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of protein source and isoflavones on triglyceride (TG) fatty acid (TGFA) and cholesterol biosynthesis, subjects (>50 years, LDL cholesterol >130 mg\\/dl) underwent a four-phase randomized cross-over feeding trial. Diets contained either isolated soy protein or common sources of animal protein (25 g\\/1000 kcal), without or with isoflavones (49 mg\\/1000 kcal) and were each fed for 6

Yanwen Wanga; Peter J. H. Jones; Lynne M. Ausmanb; Alice H. Lichtenstein

12

Bile acids lower triglyceride levels via a pathway involving FXR, SHP, and SREBP-1c  

PubMed Central

We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and its lipogenic target genes. Through the use of mouse mutants for the short heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver X receptor (LXR) ? and ?, we demonstrate the critical dependence of the reduction of SREBP-1c expression by either natural or synthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists on both SHP and LXR? and LXR?. These results suggest that strategies aimed at increasing FXR activity and the repressive effects of SHP should be explored to correct hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:15146238

Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Houten, Sander M.; Wang, Li; Moschetta, Antonio; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Heyman, Richard A.; Moore, David D.; Auwerx, Johan

2004-01-01

13

VLDL compositional changes and plasma levels of triglycerides and high density lipoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

VLDL chemical composition is related to plasma levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. We evaluated patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia with or without hypoalphalipoproteinemia and subjects with normotriglyceridemia with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. The pattern observed in all the groups was an enrichment in the triglyceride content of VLDL and in apo B-VLDL. Compared to controls, LpC-III:B levels were higher in hypertriglyceridemic patients with low

Fernando D Brites; Carla D Bonavita; Marcelo Cloės; Mario J Yael; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Graciela R Castro; Regina W Wikinski

1998-01-01

14

The PNPLA3 Ile148Met interacts with overweight and dietary intakes on fasting triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

The Ile148Met (rs738409, G-allele) in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) associates with liver fat content and may lead to loss-of-function (hydrolysis) or gain-of-function (CoA-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase) defects. PNPLA3 is up-regulated by dietary carbohydrates, and interactions between rs738409 and carbohydrates, and sugar and ?6:?3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio on hepatic fat accumulation have been reported. We examined interaction between rs738409 and overweight, and between rs738409 and dietary intakes (carbohydrates, sucrose and ?6:?3-PUFA ratio), on fasting triglyceride levels. From the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort, 4,827 individuals without diabetes aged 58 ± 6 years, 2,346 with BMI ? 25 kg/m(2) and 2,478 with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), were included in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary data were collected by a modified diet history method. Overweight modified the association between rs738409 and fasting triglyceride levels (P interaction = 0.003). G-allele associated with lower triglycerides only among overweight individuals (P = 0.01). Nominally, significant interaction on triglyceride levels was observed between rs738409 and sucrose among normal-weight individuals (P interaction = 0.03). G-allele associated with lower triglycerides among overweight individuals in the lowest tertiles of carbohydrate and ?6:?3-PUFA ratio (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) and with higher triglycerides among normal-weight individuals in the highest tertile of sucrose (P = 0.001). We conclude that overweight and dietary sucrose may modify the association between rs738409 and fasting triglyceride levels. PMID:24563329

Stojkovic, Ivana A; Ericson, Ulrika; Rukh, Gull; Riddestråle, Martin; Romeo, Stefano; Orho-Melander, Marju

2014-03-01

15

Increased cellular triglyceride levels in human monocytic and rat smooth muscle cells after lovastatin.  

PubMed

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors reduce plasma LDL cholesterol by upregulating hepatic LDL receptors. However, their effects on lipid metabolism in extrahepatic cells may also contribute to their therapeutic benefit. We examined the effects of lovastatin (LOV) on cellular lipid levels in the human monocytic Mono Mac 6sr and cultured rat smooth muscle cells. In both cell types, LOV produced a dose-dependent increase in cellular triglycerides. This increase was observed in cells grown in the absence of exogenous lipids in the culture medium, but was more pronounced after additions of oleic acid (50 to 200 microM) and VLDL (50 to 200 microg ml-1). In Mono Mac 6sr cells grown in medium containing 10% delipidated FCS for the last 16 h, the LOV-induced rise in triglyceride levels was completely reversed by 2 mM mevalonic acid and was associated with a decrease in cellular cholesterol. However, when cells were maintained in lipoprotein-replete medium, the LOV-induced rise in triglycerides did not correlate with cellular cholesterol. LOV also reduced cellular cholesterol esterification and increased the synthesis of fatty acids and their incorporation into triglycerides and phospholipids. Increased triglyceride levels were also seen in Mono Mac 6sr cells treated with the lanosterol demethylase inhibitor RS-21607 and the acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor SaH 58035. Our findings suggest that the LOV-induced triglyceride accumulation involves changes in intracellular cholesterol pools regulating cellular fatty acid concentrations. Although decreased cholesterol levels in cells participating in plaque formation are beneficial, the impact of the herein described shift in intracellular neutral lipid metabolism on other cellular functions warrants further investigation. PMID:9434135

Hrboticky, N; Becker, A; Kruse, H J; Weber, P C

1997-11-30

16

High levels of dietary arachidonic acid triglyceride exhibit no subchronic toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (AA), an n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA), serves an important role in the body as a structural fatty acid of many tissues including neurological tissues. It is also a precursor of the n-6 class of eicosanoids and is the most abundant n-6 LC-PUFA found in human breast milk. We have optimized the production of a microfungal source of a triglyceride oil (ARASCO) which is enriched in AA to about 40% by weight. To establish the safety of this oil as a food, we evaluated the effect of ARASCO in Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) gavaged at dose levels of 1.0 and 2.5 g/kg/d for a period of 90 d, paying special attention to any potential neurotoxicity of the oil. Two groups of control animals received either untreated standard laboratory diet (untreated control) or the same diet and vehicle oil at the same dose volume administered to the treated animals (vehicle control). Physical observations, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology parameters, neurobehavioral assessments, and macroscopic as well as microscopic postmortem evaluations were performed. Tissue fatty acid analyses indicated that the AA levels in the brain, heart, and liver of the high-dose ARASCO-fed animals increased by 8, 59, and 76%, respectively, indicating that the AA in the oil was readily incorporated into tissue lipids. In spite of this high elevation in tissue AA levels, no developmental, histopathological, or neuropathological differences were seen in the animals administered ARASCO compared with the vehicle control animals. Being highly enriched in AA, ARASCO offers the means to study the effect of this fatty acid in experimental settings and in human metabolic studies. PMID:9113628

Koskelo, E K; Boswell, K; Carl, L; Lanoue, S; Kelly, C; Kyle, D

1997-04-01

17

Effect of prolonged exercise on the level of triglycerides in the rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on the level of triglycerides (TG) in rat liver. The rats were divided into groups: 1-control, 2-treated with nicotinic acid, 3-fed with glucose during exercise, 4-fasted, 5-adrenalectomized, 6-adrenalectomized and fed with oil. In the control group, there was gradual accumulation of TG in the liver and their level was doubled at exhaustion

Jan Górski; Miros?awa Nowacka; Zbigniew Namiot; Urszula Puch

1988-01-01

18

Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

2015-02-01

19

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Leaf on Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Serum and Liver of Rats Administered Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Effects of aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana (Zm) leaf on serum and liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol were studied in chronic alcohol administered rats. Pretreatment co-administration and post treatment protocols were employed. Rats fed alcohol only for 6 weeks had significantly (p<0.05) elevated levels of both serum and liver cholesterol and triglyceride. Pretreatment of rats with 400 mg\\/kg bw

D. Dahiru; O. Obidoa

2009-01-01

20

Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apoE phenotype: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between apoE phenotype and plasma lipid levels was analyzed in the combined data of published studies. Accordingly, 45 population samples from 17 different countries were included in the analysis. The mean plasma values of cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-CH of the apoE 2\\/2, 3\\/2, 4\\/3, 4\\/4, and 4\\/2 groups were compared with the same

J. Dallongeville; S. Lussier-Cacan; J. Davignon

21

Acute high-intensity endurance exercise is more effective than moderate-intensity exercise for attenuation of postprandial triglyceride elevation.  

PubMed

Acute exercise has been shown to attenuate postprandial plasma triglyceride elevation (PPTG). However, the direct contribution of exercise intensity is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on PPTG and postprandial fat oxidation. One of three experimental treatments was performed in healthy young men (n = 6): nonexercise control (CON), moderate-intensity exercise (MIE; 50% Vo2peak for 60 min), or isoenergetic high-intensity exercise (HIE; alternating 2 min at 25% and 2 min at 90% Vo2peak). The morning after the exercise, a standardized meal was provided (16 kcal/kg BM, 1.02 g fat/kg, 1.36 g CHO/kg, 0.31 g PRO/kg), and measurements of plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and ?-hydroxybutyrate were made in the fasted condition and hourly for 6 h postprandial. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation in the fasted condition and 2, 4, and 6 h postprandial. Compared with CON, both MIE and HIE significantly attenuated PPTG [incremental AUC; 75.2 (15.5%), P = 0.033, and 54.9 (13.5%), P = 0.001], with HIE also significantly lower than MIE (P = 0.03). Postprandial fat oxidation was significantly higher in MIE [83.3 (10.6%) of total energy expenditure] and HIE [89.1 (9.8) %total] compared with CON [69.0 (16.1) %total, P = 0.039, and P = 0.018, respectively], with HIE significantly greater than MIE (P = 0.012). We conclude that, despite similar energy expenditure, HIE was more effective than MIE for lowering PPTG and increasing postprandial fat oxidation. PMID:23372145

Trombold, Justin R; Christmas, Kevin M; Machin, Daniel R; Kim, Il-Young; Coyle, Edward F

2013-03-15

22

Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

2013-01-01

23

Genetic Variation in SULF2 Is Associated with Postprandial Clearance of Triglyceride-Rich Remnant Particles and Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Context Nonfasting (postprandial) triglyceride concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease risk factor that results from accumulation of remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in the circulation. The remnant TRLs are cleared from the circulation by hepatic uptake, but the specific mechanisms involved are unclear. The syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) pathway is important for the hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs in mice, but its relevance in humans is unclear. Objective We sought to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for HSPG assembly and disassembly contribute to atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias in humans. Patients And Design We performed an oral fat load in 68 healthy subjects. Lipoproteins (chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins 1 and 2) were isolated from blood, and the area under curve and incremental area under curve for postprandial variables were calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding syndecan-1 and enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of HSPG were genotyped in the study subjects. Results Our results indicate that the genetic variation rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with postprandial clearance of remnant TRLs and triglyceride levels in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the SNP rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels. Conclusions In humans, mild but clinically relevant postprandial hyperlipidemia due to reduced hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs may result from genetic polymorphisms that affect hepatic HSPG. PMID:24278138

Romeo, Stefano; Hakkarainen, Antti; Adiels, Martin; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Lundbom, Nina; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Orho-Melander, Marju; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Borén, Jan

2013-01-01

24

Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families  

PubMed Central

Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

2014-01-01

25

Isoflavone supplementation influenced levels of triglyceride and luteunizing hormone in Korean postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of soy-derived isoflavone on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sex hormones related to cardiovascular disease in Korean postmenopausal women. One hundred thirteen postmenopausal women were recruited from the Seoul metropolitan area. To confirm postmenopausal and gynecologic status, the subjects were clinically examined by a gynecologist using ultra sound and X-ray. Finally, 85 postmenopausal women whose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were higher than 40 IU/ml were enrolled. Subjects received either 70 mg isoflavone or placebo capsules daily for 12 weeks. As a result, the values of fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as those of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and FFA, were not different between the groups after supplementation. However, triglyceride (TG) levels in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of the placebo group (p = 0.0215). The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.027); however, the levels of FSH, estrone and estradiol were not changed after intervention. In conclusion, isoflavone supplement of 70 mg/day for 12 weeks decreased blood levels of TG and LH in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23475289

Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, Okhwa; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Young, Kwon Dae; Jeong, Yang Hye; Choue, Ryowon

2013-03-01

26

Elevated serum neopterin levels in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Plasma levels of neopterin were determined in patients with different clinical stages of atherosclerosis. Non-hospitalized patients with atherosclerosis had serum and plasma neopterin levels within the normal range of the assay (6 +/- 2 nM). These values were not significantly different from those reported for healthy blood donors (5 +/- 2 nM). In contrast, about 50% (29 out of 61) of hospitalized patients undergoing conservative or surgical therapy had neopterin plasma levels, which exceeded the normal range (greater than 10 nM) up to 10-fold. The two groups differ on a significance level of P less than 0.01. For further evaluation hospitalized patients were subgrouped according to neopterin levels. In the subgroup with elevated neopterin levels patients with higher Frederickson types of atherosclerosis were overrepresented compared to patients with normal neopterin levels. Type 4 differed significantly from patients without pathological changes of lipoprotein (P less than 0.05). Only 3 patients suffered from minimal skin necrosis, two of them had elevated neopterin levels. Significantly more patients with peripheral artery occlusions had elevated neopterin levels than patients with occlusions of central arteries (P less than 0.05). All other criteria used for comparison (sex, age, smoking, antioxidant status, diabetes, hypertension, adipositas, hyperuricemia) did not vary significantly in both subgroups. These data indicate that neopterin plasma levels might be a valuable parameter in activity staging and therapeutic follow up of atherosclerotic patients. Additionally, an involvement of the nonspecific immune system in atherogenesis is suggested by the increased plasma neopterin concentrations. PMID:1793448

Tatzber, F; Rabl, H; Koriska, K; Erhart, U; Puhl, H; Waeg, G; Krebs, A; Esterbauer, H

1991-08-01

27

Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n?=?10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10?8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10?8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]?=?1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p?=?0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR?=?0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p?=?0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR?=?1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p?=?0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR?=?0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p?=?0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

2014-01-01

28

Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-02-09

29

A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans.  

PubMed

The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10(-8))) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (-1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10(-9)). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l(-1) dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

Timpson, Nicholas J; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R B; Ring, Susan M; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole

2014-01-01

30

A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans  

PubMed Central

The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (?1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10?8)) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (?1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10?9). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5?mmol?l?1 dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

Timpson, Nicholas J.; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R. B.; Ring, Susan M.; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Al Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, Maria; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inźs; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Davey Smith, George; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N. M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaėlle; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quail, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shihab, Hasheem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Tim; St Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; St Pourcian, Beate; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Timpson, Nicholas; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T. R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou-Feng

2014-01-01

31

Association of apolipoprotein A5 concentration with serum insulin and triglyceride levels and coronary artery disease in Korean men  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

OBJECTIVE: Whereas the relation between apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triglycerides (TG) levels is well established, the associations between apoA5 concentrations, TG and coronary artery disease (CAD) remain controversial. Therefore, we investigated these relations in the setting ...

32

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in ā16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare

Len A. Pennacchio; Michael Olivier; Jaroslav A. Hubacek; Ronald M. Krauss; Edward M. Rubin; Jonathan C. Cohen

2002-01-01

33

Influences of APOA5 Variants on Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Uyghur Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene are associated with triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibriums (LDs) of the SNPs in addition to their effects on TG levels vary greatly between Caucasians and East Asians. The distributions of the SNPs/haplotypes and their associations with TG levels in Uyghur population, an admixture population of Caucasians and East Asians, have not been reported to date. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to address these. Methods Genotyping of four SNPs in APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) was performed in 1174 unrelated Uyghur subjects. SNP/haplotype and TG association analyses were conducted. Results The frequencies of the SNPs in Uyghurs were in between those in Caucasians and East Asians. The LD between rs662799 and rs2266788 in Uyghurs was stronger than that in East Asians but weaker than that in Caucasians, and the four SNPs resulted in four haplotypes (TGGT, CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT arranged in the order of rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) representing 99.2% of the population. All the four SNPs were significantly associated with TG levels. Compared with non-carriers, carriers of rs662799-C, rs3135506-C, rs2075291-T, and rs2266788-C alleles had 16.0%, 15.1%, 17.1%, and 12.4% higher TG levels, respectively. When haplotype TGGT was defined as the reference, the haplotypes CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT resulted in 16.1%, 19.0%, and 19.8% higher TG levels, respectively. The proportions of variance in TG explained by APOA5 locus were 2.5%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 1.9% for single SNP rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788, respectively, and 3.0% for the haplotypes constructed by them. Conclusions The association profiles between the SNPs and haplotypes at APOA5 locus and TG levels in this admixture population differed from those in Caucasians and East Asians. The functions of these SNPs and haplotypes need to be elucidated comprehensively. PMID:25313938

Wang, Yi; Wu, Di; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

34

Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels  

PubMed Central

Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.

Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

2015-01-01

35

Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Harrison, James

36

The effect of heat-stable extract from bovine sublingual salivary gland on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits.  

PubMed

An extract of bovine sublingual glands (SLF3) reduced the serum cholesterol levels of normal rabbits 34.6% and serum triglyceride levels 19.6% when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 20 mg/kg body wt on alternate days for 7 days. SLF3 also reduced serum cholesterol levels 69.0% and triglyceride levels 46.5% in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, while in similar rabbits injected with a control muscle tissue extract, the rate of decrease in serum cholesterol levels was 33.3% and triglyceride levels 26.7%. PMID:2613177

Omidfar, H; Güven, Y; Oz, H

1989-12-01

37

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in several animal species  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of YM-53601 ((E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene) ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride), a new inhibitor of squalene synthase, in reducing both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and fibrates, respectively. YM-53601 equally inhibited squalene synthase activities in hepatic microsomes prepared from several animal species and also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED50, 32?mg?kg?1). In guinea-pigs, YM-53601 and pravastatin reduced plasma nonHDL-C (=total cholesterol–high density lipoprotein cholesterol) by 47% (P<0.001) and 33% (P<0.001), respectively (100?mg?kg?1, daily for 14 days). In rhesus monkeys, YM-53601 decreased plasma nonHDL-C by 37% (50?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 21 days, P<0.01), whereas the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, failed to do (25?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 28 days). YM-53601 caused plasma triglyceride reduction in hamsters fed a normal diet (81% decrease at 50?mg?kg?1, daily for 5 days, P<0.001). In hamsters fed a high-fat diet, the ability of YM-53601 to lower triglyceride (by 73%, P<0.001) was superior to that of fenofibrate (by 53%, P<0.001), the most potent fibrate (dosage of each drug: 100?mg?kg?1, daily for 7 days). This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor is superior to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in lowering plasma nonHDL-C level in rhesus monkeys and is superior to a fibrate in significantly lowering plasma triglyceride level. YM-53601 may therefore prove useful in treating hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in humans. PMID:10960070

Ugawa, Tohru; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hirosh; Matsuda, Koyo; Ishihara, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Naganuma, Shin; Iizumi, Yuichi; Shikama, Hisataka

2000-01-01

38

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in several animal species.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of YM-53601 ((E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene) ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride), a new inhibitor of squalene synthase, in reducing both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and fibrates, respectively. YM-53601 equally inhibited squalene synthase activities in hepatic microsomes prepared from several animal species and also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED(50), 32 mg kg(-1)). In guinea-pigs, YM-53601 and pravastatin reduced plasma nonHDL-C (=total cholesterol - high density lipoprotein cholesterol) by 47% (P<0.001) and 33% (P<0.001), respectively (100 mg kg(-1), daily for 14 days). In rhesus monkeys, YM-53601 decreased plasma nonHDL-C by 37% (50 mg kg(-1), twice daily for 21 days, P<0.01), whereas the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, failed to do (25 mg kg(-1), twice daily for 28 days). YM-53601 caused plasma triglyceride reduction in hamsters fed a normal diet (81% decrease at 50 mg kg(-1), daily for 5 days, P<0.001). In hamsters fed a high-fat diet, the ability of YM-53601 to lower triglyceride (by 73%, P<0.001) was superior to that of fenofibrate (by 53%, P<0.001), the most potent fibrate (dosage of each drug: 100 mg kg(-1), daily for 7 days). This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor is superior to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in lowering plasma nonHDL-C level in rhesus monkeys and is superior to a fibrate in significantly lowering plasma triglyceride level. YM-53601 may therefore prove useful in treating hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in humans. PMID:10960070

Ugawa, T; Kakuta, H; Moritani, H; Matsuda, K; Ishihara, T; Yamaguchi, M; Naganuma, S; Iizumi, Y; Shikama, H

2000-09-01

39

[Alterations in cholesterol, triglyceride and total phospholipid levels in plasma of Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni].  

PubMed

Little information is available on the lipid changes caused by Schistosoma mansoni reinfection. In this work it was evaluated alteration in the plasma lipids due to one reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni in the non human primate Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Blood samples from C. jacchus, prior and after 60 days infection and reinfection, were collected by intravenous puncture, anticoagulated with EDTA (1mg/mL) and centrifuged at 2,500 xg, in order to obtain the plasma. Total cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride levels were determined by spectrophotometer methods. The results showed that there are significant reduction in cholesterol total, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride concentrations in plasma of animals reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni, in comparison to the same animals prior and after one infection. This study showed that a second infection of Callithrix jacchus by Schistosoma mansoni causes plasma lipid alterations, which are more significant than after a single infection. PMID:15042181

Ramos, Thadzia Maria de Brito; de Vasconcelos, Amanda Soares; de Carvalho, Vera Cristina Oliveira; Lima, Vera Lścia de Menezes

2004-01-01

40

Effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum\\/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice with and without the influence of fenofibrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in mice. In the present study, the effective kinetics of schisandrin B on\\u000a serum\\/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice without and with the influence of fenofibrate were investigated.\\u000a Parameters on hepatic index (the ratio of liver weight to body weight

Si-Yuan Pan; Hang Dong; Bao-feng Guo; Yi Zhang; Zhi-Ling Yu; Wang-Fun Fong; Yi-Fan Han; Kam-Ming Ko

2011-01-01

41

Triglycerides and gallstone formation.  

PubMed

Changes in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gallbladder function are critical factors in the pathogenesis of gallstones. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) - often overweight and insulin resistant - are at risk for gallstone disease. The question arises whether HTG itself contributes to gallstone formation or whether gallstone disease only associates with this disorder. Triglycerides are formed in response to fluxes of non-esterified fatty acids and glucose. Hypertriglyceridemia results from either overproduction of triglycerides by the liver, impaired lipolysis or a combination of both. Hyperinsulinemia, as observed in the insulin resistant state, stimulates very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptors (LXRs), farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) are the nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of lipogenesis. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in the production of VLDL and its activation is also under control of transcription factors as FXR and Forkhead box-O1 (FoxO1). Triglyceride and BA metabolism are linked. There is an inverse relationship between bile acid fluxes and pool size and VLDL production and SHP (small heterodimer partner) and FXR are the link between BAs and TG metabolism. BAs are also ligands for FXR and G-protein-coupled receptors, such as TGR5. FXR activation by BAs suppresses the expression of MTP, transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c and other lipogenic genes. LXRs stimulate lipogenesis whereas FXRs inhibit the metabolic process. Synthesis of BAs from cholesterol occurs either via the classical pathway (7?-hydroxylation of cholesterol; CYP7A1) or via the alternate pathway (CYP39A1 or CYP7B1). BAs induce FXR, which inhibits CYP7A1 transcription by activation of SHP and inhibition of HNF4? transactivation. Bile composition (supersaturation with cholesterol), gallbladder dysmotility, inflammation, hypersecretion of mucin gel in the gallbladder and slow large intestinal motility and increased intestinal cholesterol absorption may contribute to the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. In HTG patients supersaturated bile may be related to the presence of obesity rather than to HTG itself. Contraction and relaxation of the gallbladder are regulated by neuronal, hormonal and paracrine factors. Postprandial gallbladder emptying is regulated by cholecystokinin (CCK). Poor postprandial gallbladder contraction may be due to the magnitude of the CCK response and to the amount of CCK receptors in the gallbladder smooth muscle cells. In the fasting state gallbladder motility is associated with the intestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) activity and with elevated plasma motilin levels. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF19), produced on arrival of bile acids in the ileum, is also important for gallbladder motility. Gallbladder motility is impaired in HTG patients compared to BMI matched controls. There is evidence that the gallbladder in HTG is less sensitive to CCK and that this sensitivity improves after reversal of high serum TG levels by use of TG lowering agents. In hypertriglyceridemia TG lowering therapy (fibrates or fish-oil) is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis. Fibrates, however, also increase the risk for cholelithiasis by increasing biliary cholesterol saturation and by reduction of bile acid synthesis. On the other hand fish-oil decreases biliary cholesterol saturation. Fish-oil may increase bile acid synthesis by activation of 7alpha-hydroxylase and may inhibit VLDL production and secretion through activation of nuclear factors and increased apoB degradation. In HTG patients, gallbladder motility improves during bezafibrate as well as during fish-oil therapy. The question remains whether improvement of gallbladder motility and increased lithogenicity of bile by bezafibrate therapy counteract each other or still result in gallstone formation in HTG patients. PMID:20699090

Smelt, A H M

2010-11-11

42

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-03-01

43

View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

44

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

45

Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5?g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1?g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46?g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

46

Postprandial triglycerides and endothelial function.  

PubMed

Several studies support the association between postprandially elevated triglyceride levels and atherosclerosis. Histological and cell culture investigations revealed, that triglyceride rich postprandial lipoproteins are taken up by macrophages and smooth muscle cells and are detectable as part of foam cells in vascular lesions. Remnant particles, generated by lipolysis of postprandial lipoproteins in vitro and fatty acids increase the permeability of the endothelium and are cytotoxic for endothelial cells. Besides these morphological changes of cells, lipoproteins have been shown to exert effects on cellular functions like the expression of membrane proteins and the production or release of several bioactive substances regulating communication with blood cells and other cell systems of the vascular wall, blood pressure and hemostasis. This review concentrates on the influence of postprandial lipoproteins on factors involved in the interaction of endothelial cells with blood leukocytes and factors mediating blood pressure regulation. Increased expression of adhesion molecules has been detected immunehistochemically in atherosclerotic plaques in animals and humans. It was demonstrated that patients with elevated triglyceride levels have increased levels of soluble adhesion molecules. Furthermore, postprandial lipoproteins were shown to induce membrane expression of adhesion molecules. This effect seems to be at least in part mediated by the oxidative modification of the particles. Accordingly chylomicrons separated after ingestion of safflower oil, rich in polyunsaturated linoleic acid, induced higher adhesion molecule expression at higher oxidant concentration compared with chylomicrons separated after ingestion of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated oleic acid. Several authors described effects of fatty acids on the expression of adhesion molecules. On the one hand, they may exert stimulatory effects as such, on the other hand cytokine induced adhesion molecule expression may be enhanced by certain fatty acids and inhibited by others, implying an interference with signal transduction processes. Effects of lipoproteins on vasoactive substances seem to be implicated in endothelial dysfunction, too. The endothelium-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO) has gained increasingly attention in the last two decades and is regarded as protective against hypertension and atherosclerosis. It was demonstrated that chylomicrons and their remnants inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated aortas. Vasodilatatory responses and nitric oxide metabolism were shown to be affected by the amount and composition of dietary fat. Cell culture experiments revealed modulation of NO release by certain fatty acids. Plasma levels of endothelin-1, a strong vasoconstrictor, have been shown to be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Postprandially elevated triglycerides increased endothelin-levels in addition to insulin in patients with metabolic syndrome. In summary, there is evidence that the association between postprandial triglycerides and the metabolic syndrome is driven by direct influences on endothelial functions because plasma triglyceride levels are associated with levels of humoral risk markers of endothelial origin, and postprandial lipoproteins stimulate the release and/or expression of endothelial mediators in vitro, which induce atherogenesis and hypertension. PMID:11453041

Jagla, A; Schrezenmeir, J

2001-01-01

47

Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

2007-01-01

48

Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats  

SciTech Connect

Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1990-09-01

49

1914G variant of BCHE gene associated with enzyme activity, obesity and triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have been reported to be associated to weight, BMI variance and hypertriglyceridemia in adults and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of -116A (SNP: G/A; rs1126680) and 1914G (SNP: A/G; rs3495) variants of BCHE gene with anthropometric and biochemical variables associated with obesity in population sample of 115 individuals, from Southern Brazil. Participants were grouped in two categories: obese (BMI?30) and non-obese (BMI<30). The 1914G allele showed significantly higher frequency in the obese group, and carriers of 1914G allele showed lower mean BChE activity when compared to 1914A carriers (p=0.006). Higher means of BMI (p=0.02) and triglyceride (TG; p=0.01) were found in 1914G carriers (BMI=27.57 kg/m(2); TG=150.8 mg/dL) when compared to 1914A homozygotes (BMI=25.55 kg/m(2); TG=107.9 mg/dL). Carriers of the -116A allele showed lower mean BChE activity than usual homozygotes, and the -116A variant was found in cis with 1914G (p<0.0001; D'=1). The region of BCHE gene that contains the 1914G mutation site is target of microRNAs (miRs) and the response of BChE to glucocorticoids is especially influenced by these miRs. Therefore, it is possible that the 1914G allele can be interfering in gluconeogenesis, hyperglycemia, lipolysis and body fat distribution. This lower activity may cause an imbalance in lipid metabolism, which may lead to an increased predisposition to obesity and to a lower ability to maintain metabolic homeostasis. PMID:24001779

Lima, Jovana Karoline; Leite, Neiva; Turek, Luciane Viater; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

2013-12-10

50

Relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and VLDL triglyceride concentration, insulin levels and insulin sensitivity: studies in randomly selected normo- and hypertriglyceridaemic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Impaired fibrinolytic function secondary to elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia are frequent findings in patients with coronary heart disease. It has been debated whether VLDL or insulin is the major regulator of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. This study examines the relationships between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and VLDL triglyceride concentration, fasting and post-oral glucose

A. Asplund-Carlson; A. Hamsten; B. Wiman; L. A. Carlson

1993-01-01

51

Using high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplements to lower triglyceride levels in 10–19 year-olds  

PubMed Central

Background Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) supplements lower triglyceride (TG) levels in adults; little pediatric information is available. We evaluated their effect in hypertriglyceridemic adolescents. Methods 25 patients ages 10–19 years with TG levels 150–1000 mg/dL were randomized to 6 months double-blind trial of Lovaza [?3360 mg docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid/day] vs. Placebo. Results Baseline mean TG levels were 227 mg/dl (SD 49). TG levels declined at 3 months in the Lovaza group by 54 ± 27 mg/dL [mean ± standard error (SE)] (p=0.02) and by 34 ± 26 mg/dL (p=0.16) in the Placebo group. The difference in TG lowering between groups was not significant (p=0.52). There were no between-group differences in endothelial function, blood pressure, body mass index, C-reactive protein or side effects. Conclusions High dose omega-3 FA supplements are well tolerated in adolescents. However, declines in TG levels did not differ significantly from Placebo in this small study. PMID:24707021

de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Milliren, Carly E.; Denhoff, Erica R.; Steltz, Sarah K.; Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.

2015-01-01

52

A role of apolipoprotein D in triglyceride metabolism[S  

PubMed Central

Apolipoproteins (apo) are constituents of lipoproteins crucial for lipid homeostasis. Aberrant expression of apolipoproteins is associated with metabolic abnormalities. Here we characterized apolipoprotein D (apoD) in triglyceride metabolism. Unlike canonical apolipoproteins that are mainly produced in the liver, apoD is an atypical apolipoprotein with broad tissue distribution. We show that circulating apoD is present mainly in HDL and, to a lesser extent, in LDL and VLDL and that its plasma levels were reduced in db/db mice with visceral obesity and altered lipid metabolism. Elevated apoD production, derived from adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, resulted in significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels in mice. This effect was attributable to en­hanced LPL activity and improved catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles. In contrast, VLDL triglyceride production remained unchanged in response to elevated apoD production. These findings were recapitulated in high-fat–induced obese mice. Obese mice with elevated apoD production exhibited significantly improved triglyceride profiles, correlating with increased plasma LPL activity and enhanced postprandial fat tolerance. ApoD was shown to promote LPL-mediated hydrolysis of VLDL in vitro, correlating with its TG-lowering action in vivo. Apolipoprotein D plays a significant role in lipid metabolism. These data provide important clues to clinical observations that genetic variants of apoD are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20124557

Perdomo, German; Kim, Dae Hyun; Zhang, Ting; Qu, Shen; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Toledo, Frederico G. S.; Slusher, Sandra; Fan, Yong; Kelley, David E.; Dong, H. Henry

2010-01-01

53

9. EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION LEVEL Copy photograph of photogrammetric ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION -- LEVEL Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-T-1736-201L. - First Parish Church (Unitarian), Northwest corner of U.S. Route 1 & State Route 35, Kennebunk, York County, ME

54

A polymorphism near MC4R gene (rs17782313) is associated with serum triglyceride levels in the general Japanese population: the J-MICC Study.  

PubMed

Previously reported associations of a common polymorphism near melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene (rs17782313) with BMI/obesity were inconsistent, especially in East Asia, and the associations of the polymorphism with serum lipid levels have not been fully elucidated. This study evaluated the association between rs17782313 and obesity-related traits and serum lipid levels in the general Japanese population. A total of 2,035 subjects (aged 35-69 years, 1,024 males and 1,011 females) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. We examined the associations between near MC4R polymorphism (rs17782313) and obesity-related traits [height, weight, body mass index (BMI), weight change from 20 years old], serum lipid levels (triglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol), and intake of nutrients (total energy and macronutrients). Polymorphism of rs17782313 (minor C allele) was positively associated with serum triglyceride levels (P for trend = 0.020) adjusted for age and sex. Analysis using a general linear model revealed that the number of minor C alleles was positively associated with serum triglyceride levels after adjustment for age, sex, and potential confounders (P for trend = 0.004). Statistical significance did not change after further adjustment for total energy intake and BMI. There was no significant association between rs17782313 and obesity-related traits including BMI. Interactions between rs17782313 and sex, BMI, or total energy intake for triglyceride levels were not significant. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated for the first time that rs17782313 was associated with serum triglyceride levels in Asian population. Further studies are needed to confirm this result. PMID:24880622

Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Uemura, Hirokazu; Arisawa, Kokichi; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Wakai, Kenji; Okada, Rieko; Suzuki, Sadao; Taguchi, Naoto; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kairupan, Tara Sefanya; Matsui, Daisuke; Oze, Isao; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

2014-09-01

55

Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?  

PubMed Central

Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed.

Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

2015-01-01

56

Genomewide Scan for Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia Genes in Finnish Families, Suggesting Multiple Susceptibility Loci Influencing Triglyceride, Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein B Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The disease is characterized by increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), or both. We recently localized the first locus for FCHL, on chromosome 1q21-q23. In the present study, a genomewide screen for additional FCHL loci was per- formed. In stage 1,

Päivi Pajukanta; Joseph D. Terwilliger; Markus Perola; Tero Hiekkalinna; Ilpo Nuotio; Pekka Ellonen; Maija Parkkonen; Jaana Hartiala; Kati Ylitalo; Jussi Pihlajamäki; Kimmo Porkka; Markku Laakso; Jorma Viikari; Christian Ehnholm; Marja-Riitta Taskinen; Leena Peltonen

1999-01-01

57

APOA5 gene polymorphism modulates levels of triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and FER HDL but is not a risk factor for coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the APOA5 gene has been shown to be associated with triglyceride levels in several independent population studies. It was our objective to determine if a relationship existed between selected genotypes or haplotypes of the APOA5 gene and findings on selective coronary angiography (SCA) in an independent cohort. The Vancouver SCA Cohort consists of individuals referred for angiography between

Kenny W. J Lee; Amir F Ayyobi; Jiri J Frohlich; John S Hill

2004-01-01

58

Triglyceride Levels Are Closely Associated with Mild Declines in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese with Normal Serum Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. Design and Methods In this study, we included 2647 participants who were ?40 years old and had normal serum lipid levels. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to estimate the GFR. A mildly reduced eGFR was defined as 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2. First, multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association of lipid profiles with the eGFR. Then, the levels of each lipid component were divided into four groups, using the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles as cut-off points. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of different lipid components with the risk of mildly reduced eGFR. Results In the group with a mildly reduced eGFR, TG and LDL-C levels were significantly increased, but HDL-C levels were significantly decreased. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), smoking and drinking, only TC and TG were independently related to the eGFR. Additionally, only TG showed a linear relationship with an increased risk of a mildly reduced eGFR, with the highest quartile group (TG: 108–150 mg/dl [1.22–1.70 mmol/L]) having a significantly increased risk after adjusting for the above factors. Conclusions Triglyceride levels are closely associated with a mildly reduced eGFR in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. Dyslipidemia with lower TG levels could be used as new diagnostic criteria for subjects with mildly reduced renal function. PMID:25275610

Zhang, Xiuping; Zhao, Xiangmin; Wang, Yulian; Li, Chengqiao; Li, Mei; Wang, Shaoyuan; Yang, Weifang; Ma, Zeqiang; Ma, Aixia; Zheng, Huizhen; Wu, Jiahui; Sun, Yu; Song, Jun; Lin, Peng; Liang, Kai; Gong, Lei; Wang, Meijian; Liu, Fuqiang; Li, Wenjuan; Xiao, Juan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Junpeng; Wang, Lingshu; Tian, Meng; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Ruxing; Chen, Shihong; Chen, Li

2014-01-01

59

A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome. PMID:21773030

Walker, LaToya R.; Rattigan, Meghan; Canterino, Joseph

2011-01-01

60

46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

61

A Review of Omega-3 Ethyl Esters for Cardiovascular Prevention and Treatment of Increased Blood Triglyceride Levels  

PubMed Central

The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death. PMID:17326331

von Schacky, Clemens

2006-01-01

62

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels  

PubMed Central

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58–175% increase, P < 0.05–0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64–75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19–38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3–1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101–137% increase, P < 0.05–0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63–192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance. PMID:19237736

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-01-01

63

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

PubMed Central

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr?1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

2009-01-01

64

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

2009-01-01

65

Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever  

SciTech Connect

Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

1988-11-01

66

Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice  

PubMed Central

Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramķrez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suįrez, Yajaira; Baldįn, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernįndez-Hernando, Carlos

2014-01-01

67

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

68

The potential significance of elevated vitreous sodium levels at autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of sodium that may be detected in the analysis of post-mortem fluid samples may arise from a wide variety of organic illnesses and environmental factors that have caused either water depletion or solute gain. When hypernatraemia is suspected at autopsy a careful history is required with particular emphasis on pre-existing medical conditions such as renal or gastrointestinal disease.

Annabel I. Ingham; Roger W. Byard

2009-01-01

69

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

70

THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

Corrźa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalćes, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

2014-01-01

71

The common adiponutrin variant p.I148M does not confer gallstone risk but affects fasting glucose and triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Recently the common adiponutrin (PNPLA3) polymorphism p.I148M has been identified as a genetic determinant of severe forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Additionally, insulin resistance - linked to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis - increases the risk of developing gallstones. Here we assessed whether the PNPLA3 p.I148M (c.444 C-G) polymorphism affects glucose and lipid levels and increases gallstone risk. We analysed 229 individuals with gallstones from 108 families (age 24-80 years, BMI 17-55 kg/m(2)) and 258 gallstone-free controls (age 20-70 years, BMI 14-43 kg/m(2)). Fasting glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol serum levels were determined. The p.I148M polymorphism was genotyped using a PCR-based assay with 5'-nuclease and fluorescence detection. Case-control association tests and nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis in sib-pairs were performed. Individuals carrying the [GG] genotype had significantly (P<0.0001) higher median fasting glucose levels as compared to [GC] and [CC] carriers. After adjustment for multiple testing, we detected a trend for an association between triglyceride levels and variant adiponutrin in gallstone patients (P=0.032), and gallstone cases carrying the genotype [CC] presented with significantly higher triglyceride levels than the corresponding controls (P<0.003). No significant effects on cholesterol metabolism were detected. Neither genotype distributions nor NPL scores provided evidence for association or linkage between the PNPLA3 variant and gallstones. In conclusion, homozygous carriers of the PNPLA3 risk allele display higher fasting glucose. Although this adiponutrin variant may affect triglyceride homeostasis, it does not increase the risk of cholelithiasis. PMID:21893698

Krawczyk, M; Gruenhage, F; Mahler, M; Tirziu, S; Acalovschi, M; Lammert, F

2011-06-01

72

Elevated levels of authentic plasma hydroperoxides in NIDDM.  

PubMed

Using a precise technique for measuring authentic plasma lipid hydroperoxides (ROOHs), we show that individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have higher levels of ROOH than do control subjects. ROOHs were measured by the ferrous oxidation with xylenol orange assay coupled with the selective ROOH reductant triphenylphosphine. Formation of the ferric xylenol orange complex was determined at 560 nm and calibrated against H2O2. For 22 individuals with NIDDM, a concentration of 9.04 +/- 4.3 mumol/l (mean +/- SD) ROOH was recorded. This concentration was higher (P < 0.0005 by separate-variance t test) than that of plasma ROOHs from control subjects (3.76 +/- 2.48 mumol/l). There was no difference between concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive material (TBARM) in NIDDM or control subjects (1.00 +/- 0.70 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.62 mumol/l, respectively; P > 0.1). A trend to lower vitamin E levels in the NIDDM group (9.03 +/- 3.31 vs. 10.31 +/- 5.02 micrograms/ml in control subjects) failed to achieve significance at the 95% confidence level. Plasma ROOHs in the diabetic group did not correlate with total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, HbA1, vitamin E, or TBARM levels. These data indicate that measurement of authentic ROOHs shows NIDDM to be associated with oxidative stress, which may be unrelated to abnormalities in lipid metabolism and glycemic control. PMID:7657028

Nourooz-Zadeh, J; Tajaddini-Sarmadi, J; McCarthy, S; Betteridge, D J; Wolff, S P

1995-09-01

73

Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain  

SciTech Connect

The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. (Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, (India))

1992-02-01

74

Association of Serum Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with Risk for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) levels (serum lipid profile) in subjects with chronic periodontitis and the possible association for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: Total of 80 participants (42 males and 38 females) who were in the age range of 30-65 years were divided into test group (group I- 40 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control group (group II- 40 subjects with healthy periodontium), based on their periodontal disease statuses. Three ml of venous blood samples were taken for measurement of parameters of lipid metabolism [serum cholesterol (chol); triglycerides (Tg); HDL and LDL. Results: Significant increase in serum cholesterol and LDL (P<0.05) were observed in test group (group I), whereas serum triglycerides and HDL (P>0.66) showed no significant increase in test group (group I) as compared to their values in the control group (group II). A P-value of < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Conclusions: Subjects with chronic periodontitis showed increased serum cholesterol and LDL levels. This may suggest that these subjects are potentially at a risk of getting CVD. PMID:24596778

Sandi, R.M.; Pol, K.G.; Basavaraj, P.; Khuller, Nitin; Singh, Shilpi

2014-01-01

75

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

2010-01-01

76

48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

77

42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

78

9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

79

Serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels are elevated in myasthenia gravis.  

PubMed

MMP-3 is capable of degrading a variety of proteins, including agrin, which plays a critical role in neuromuscular signalling by controlling acetylcholine receptor clustering. The degradation of agrin by MMP-3 may disrupt the neuromuscular junction leading to a failure of neuromuscular transmission and muscle weakness. We have therefore examined the levels of MMP-3 in 116 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and 90 healthy controls. A significant elevation in MMP-3 levels was observed in 10% of seronegative and 17% of seropositive MG patients, indicating that MMP-3 may play a pathogenic role in a proportion of MG patients. PMID:18262287

Romi, Fredrik R; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Luckman, Steven P

2008-03-01

80

Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (?1.605; range, ?3.095 to ?0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were ?1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ?4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ?3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (? = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Elevated serum DDE levels are associated with an increased risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ?4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ?4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD. PMID:24473795

Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

2014-01-01

81

Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32??g/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32??g/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15-28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.53. PMID:25073434

Edwards, Sharon E; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C

2014-07-30

82

Low dose of the liver X receptor agonist, AZ876, reduces atherosclerosis in APOE*3Leiden mice without affecting liver or plasma triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists are atheroprotective but often induce hypertriglyceridaemia and liver steatosis. We investigated the effect of a novel high-affinity LXR activator, AZ876, on plasma lipids, inflammation and atherosclerosis, and compared the effects with another LXR agonist, GW3965. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH APOE*3Leiden mice were fed an atherogenic diet alone or supplemented with either AZ876 (5 or 20 µmol·kg?1·day?1) or GW3965 (17 µmol·kg?1·day?1) for 20 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured using commercial kits. Plasma cytokines were determined by using bead-based multiplex suspension array kits with the Luminex technology. Atherosclerosis was assessed histochemically and lesion composition was assessed by immunohistochemical methods. KEY RESULTS Low-dose AZ876 had no effect on plasma or liver lipids, whereas high-dose AZ876 increased plasma triglycerides (+110%) and reduced cholesterol (?16%) compared with controls. GW3965 increased plasma triglycerides (+70%). Low-dose AZ876 reduced lesion area (?47%); and high-dose AZ876 strongly decreased lesion area (?91%), lesion number (?59%) and severity. In either dose, AZ876 did not affect lesion composition. GW3965 reduced atherosclerosis and collagen content of lesions (?23%; P < 0.01). High-dose AZ876 and GW3965, but not low-dose AZ876, reduced inflammation as reflected by lower cytokine levels and vessel wall activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We have identified a novel LXR agonist that when given in a low dose inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis without inducing anti-inflammatory effects, liver steatosis or hypertriglyceridaemia. Therefore, the primary protective action of a low-dose AZ876 is likely to be an increased reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:21175581

van der Hoorn, JWA; Lindén, D; Lindahl, U; Bekkers, MEA; Voskuilen, M; Nilsson, R; Oscarsson, J; Lindstedt, EL; Princen, HMG

2011-01-01

83

Elevated circulating fibrocyte levels in patients with hypertensive heart disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Autopsy and biopsy studies have shown that there is significantly more fibrosis in hearts of patients with hypertensive heart disease compared to normal hearts. Fibrocytes, a population of circulating bone marrow-derived cells, have been shown to home to tissues and promote scar formation in several diseases, but their role in human hypertensive heart disease has not been investigated to date. Our objective was to determine whether fibrocyte levels are elevated in individuals with hypertensive heart disease. Methods We measured peripheral blood fibrocyte levels and their activated phenotypes in 12 individuals with hypertensive heart disease as determined by increased left ventricular mass on noninvasive imaging and compared them to fibrocyte levels from 19 healthy normal controls and correlated them to cardiac MRI findings. Results Compared to normal controls, individuals with hypertensive heart disease had significantly higher circulating levels of total fibrocytes [median (interquartile range); 149000 (62200–220000) vs. 564500 (321000–1.2900e+006), P < 0.0001, respectively] as well as activated fibrocytes [15700 (6380–19800) vs. 478500 (116500–1.2360e+006) P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the fibrocyte subsets expressing the chemokine markers CXCR4 (P < 0.0001), CCR2 (P < 0.0001), CCR7 (P < 0.0001) and coexpression of both CXCR4 and CCR2 (P < 0.0001) were significantly elevated in patients with hypertensive heart disease compared to controls. Lastly, in patients with hypertensive heart disease there was a strong correlation between left ventricular mass index and total fibrocytes (r = 0.65, P = 0.037) and activated fibrocytes (r = 0.70, P = 0.016). Conclusion Our data suggest that bone marrow-derived circulating fibrocytes are associated with the presence and extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertensive heart disease. PMID:22796709

Keeley, Ellen C.; Mehrad, Borna; Janardhanan, Rajesh; Salerno, Michael; Hunter, Jennifer R.; Burdick, Marie M.; Field, Joshua J.; Strieter, Robert M.; Kramer, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

84

Elevated platelet microparticle levels in valvular atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Platelet activation occurs in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and could be related to abnormal thrombogenesis. However, the plasma level of platelet microparticles (PMPs), a marker of platelet activation, in patients with valvular AF remains unresolved. We performed a case control study of 20 patients with chronic rheumatic MS and chronic long AF and 10 healthy volunteers who were in sinus rhythm. Peripheral plasma levels of PMP were assessed by quantifying CD41-positive microparticles by flow cytometry. The mitral valve area was calculated by means of the Doppler pressure half-time method. The levels of circulating PMP were elevated significantly in valvular AF patients when compared with controls (12.36+/-5.51 x 10(5)/ml versus 7.56+/-0.86 x 10(5)/ml, P=0.011). Correlation analysis demonstrated that there was a significantly direct relationship between the severity of MS and PMP levels (r=-0.507, P=0.004). We conclude that in patients with rheumatic MS and AF, there is evidence of platelet activation detected by high PMP levels which have a significantly direct relationship with the severity of MS. PMID:19941743

Azzam, Hanan; Zagloul, Maged

2009-12-01

85

Elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Correlation with body mass index and serum triglyceride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous clinical studies reported elevated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but there are not sufficient data about SSAO in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The present study was conducted to investigate serum SSAO activity in NIDDM patients compared with nondiabetic and IDDM patients. Serum SSAO activity in 61 patients with diabetes (n = 34 NIDDM and

Zsuzsa Mészįros; Tamįs Szombathy; Laura Raimondi; Istvįn Karįdi; Lįszló Romics; Kįlmįn Magyar

1999-01-01

86

Fenofibrate Effect on Triglyceride and Postprandial Response of Apolipoprotein A5 Variants: The GOLDN Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (hypertriglyceridemia), one of the characteristic features of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), have been recognized as an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Lowering TG concentration by dietary or drug intervention reduces CHD risk. Fenofibr...

87

Elevated hair cortisol levels in chronically stressed dementia caregivers.  

PubMed

Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to reflect integrated long-term cortisol levels and have been proposed as a promising endocrine marker of chronic psychological stress. The current study examined HCC in relation to caregiving burden, a well-established naturalistic model of chronic stress in humans. HCC and relevant psychosocial data were examined in 20 caregivers of relatives with dementia and 20 non-caregiver controls matched for age and sex. Results revealed elevated HCC in dementia caregivers compared to non-caregiver controls (F(1,38)=4.4, p=.04, ?p2=.10). Further, within caregivers, a trend for a positive association of HCC with self-reported caregiving burden (r=.43, p=.058) and a positive association with depressiveness (r=.48, p=.045) were observed. No other associations between HCC and subjective measures were seen. These findings concur with the notion that HCC sensitively capture endocrine aberrations in stress-exposed groups. PMID:25001953

Stalder, Tobias; Tietze, Antje; Steudte, Susann; Alexander, Nina; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2014-09-01

88

Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar.  

PubMed

Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 ?g/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 ?g/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults. PMID:24530581

van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L; Mailloux, Brian

2014-04-15

89

Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:8450056

Karpe, F; Steiner, G; Olivecrona, T; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A

1993-01-01

90

The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility of type 2 diabetes, reduced fasting plasma glucose levels, increased triglycerides levels and lower HOMA-IR in Japanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently reported that GCKR rs780094 was associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglyceride (TG) levels in various ethnic populations (A allele for low FPG and high TG). An association between GCKR rs780094 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (A allele for low risk) has also been reported. We examined the association between GCKR rs780094 and T2DM in

Hiroshi Onuma; Yasuharu Tabara; Ryuichi Kawamoto; Ikki Shimizu; Ryoichi Kawamura; Yasunori Takata; Wataru Nishida; Jun Ohashi; Tetsuro Miki; Katsuhiko Kohara; Hideichi Makino; Haruhiko Osawa

2010-01-01

91

Global tectonic and climatic control of mean elevation of continents, and Phanerozoic sea level change  

E-print Network

Global tectonic and climatic control of mean elevation of continents, and Phanerozoic sea level continents, as well as mean elevation of individual continents, should be at the fundamental level controlled factors in controlling mean elevation of continents. The model is able to account for the positive

Zhang, Youxue

92

Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

2013-01-01

93

Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels.  

PubMed

Hyperprolactinaemia is suggested to be associated with metabolic and hormonal complications. No previous study has compared the effect of different dopamine agonists on plasma lipids, carbohydrate metabolism markers and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. The study included eight bromocriptine-resistant women with prolactinoma (group 1) and twelve matched women with hyperprolactinaemia unrelated to prolactinoma (group 2). Group 1 was then treated with cabergoline, while group 2 with bromocriptine. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed before and after 6 months of therapy. Both treatments normalized plasma prolactin levels. Cabergoline reduced triglycerides, 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and circulating levels of IGF-1, free fatty acids (FFA), uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. With the exception of a reduction in HOMA-IR, bromocriptine treatment produced no significant effect on the investigated biomarkers. Cabergoline was superior to bromocriptine in affecting 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, as well as circulating levels of IGF-1, FFA, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Our results may suggest that cabergoline is superior to bromocriptine when it comes to affecting atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of cardiovascular risk factors in hyperprolactinaemic patients. These findings seem to support previous observations that cabergoline may be a better treatment for patients with elevated prolactin levels than bromocriptine. PMID:25123447

Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogus?aw

2015-03-01

94

Cholesterol, Oxysterol, Triglyceride, and Coenzyme Q Homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the Hypothesis That Elevated 27-Hydroxycholesterol Is a Pathogenic Factor  

PubMed Central

High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M.; Björkhem, Ingemar

2014-01-01

95

Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to assess the impact of the association between elevated oestradiol (E2) and low testosterone (T) levels on erectile dysfunction (ED) severity. A total of 614 male patients with ED and a normal or low T level in association with normal or elevated E2 levels were enrolled. Patients underwent routine laboratory investigations in addition to measurements of total T, total E2, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin. We compared the responses to the erectile function domain, Q3 (achieving erection) and Q4 (maintaining erection) of the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) score in patients with the following: normal T and E2 levels; low T level; low T level and elevated E2 level; and elevated E2 level. Of the patients included, 449 (73.1%) had normal T and E2 levels, 110 (17.9%) had a low T level, 36 (5.9%) had a low T level and an elevated E2 level, and 19 (3.1%) had an elevated E2 level. Increased ED severity was significantly associated with low T levels, elevated E2 levels, and both a low T level and an elevated E2 level. Additionally, the mean values of the EF-domain, Q3 and Q4 were significantly lower in patients with both a low T level and an elevated E2 level compared to patients with any condition alone. In conclusion, a low T level had the primary effect on erectile function; however, a concomitantly elevated E2 level had an additive impairment effect. PMID:23644871

El-Sakka, Ahmed I

2013-01-01

96

Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is upregulated in epicardial fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and correlates with glucose and triglyceride plasma levels.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein receptor expression plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of adipose tissue in in vivo models of diabetes. However, there are no studies in diabetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression in epicardial and subcutaneous fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with nondiabetic patients and (b) the possible correlation between the expression of these receptors and plasmatic parameters. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained from diabetic (n = 54) and nondiabetic patients (n = 22) undergoing cardiac surgery before the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adipose LRP1 and VLDLR expression was analyzed at mRNA level by real-time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Adipose samples were also subjected to lipid extraction, and fat cholesterol ester, triglyceride, and free cholesterol contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. LRP1 expression was higher in epicardial fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (mRNA 17.63 ± 11.37 versus 7.01 ± 4.86; P = 0.02; protein 11.23 ± 7.23 versus 6.75 ± 5.02, P = 0.04). VLDLR expression was also higher in epicardial fat from diabetic patients but only at mRNA level (231.25 ± 207.57 versus 56.64 ± 45.64, P = 0.02). No differences were found in the expression of LRP1 or VLDLR in the subcutaneous fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Epicardial LRP1 and VLDLR mRNA overexpression positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01 and R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.03, respectively) and epicardial LRP1 also correlated with plasma glucose levels (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.03). These results suggest that epicardial overexpression of certain lipoprotein receptors such as LRP1 and VLDLR expression may play a key role in the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23096408

Nasarre, L; Juan-Babot, O; Gastelurrutia, P; Llucia-Valldeperas, A; Badimon, L; Bayes-Genis, A; Llorente-Cortés, V

2014-02-01

97

Elevated Serum ALT Levels during Pegylated Interferon Monotherapy May Be Caused by Hepatic Iron Overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Persistently elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been observed in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy. We investigated whether elevated serum ALT levels during PEG-IFN therapy are associated with iron overload. Methods: Sixty-three CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN?-2a monotherapy were evaluated. The associations between elevated serum ALT levels (?70 IU\\/l) were investigated before and

Miki Nagashima; Masatoshi Kudo; Hobyung Chung; Emi Ishikawa; Tatsuo Inoue; Tatsuya Nakatani; Kensaku Dote

2008-01-01

98

J Biol Chem . Author manuscript Hepatitis C virus proteins induce lipogenesis and defective triglyceride  

E-print Network

and defective triglyceride secretion in transgenic mice Herv LeratĆ© 1 * , H l ne L. KammounĆ© ĆØ 2 , Isabelle triglyceride levels. Triglyceride secretion was impaired while lipogenesis was activated. Increased lipogenic-length polyprotein at low, physiological levels, have decreased plasma triglyceride levels and develop hepatocellular

Boyer, Edmond

99

Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereospecific analysis determines how the fatty acids of triglycerides are distributed over the three different positions\\u000a of the glycerol. The special problem is the differentiation of position I-1 and L-3 of glycerol. In the presently known methods,\\u000a triglycerides are first degraded to mixtures of diglycerides, either by the action of a lipase or by degradation with a Grignard\\u000a reagent. The

H. Brockerhoff

1971-01-01

100

HPLC of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride separation was investigated on a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column using two\\u000a different solvent systems. Complete separation of model compounds differing by two methylene groups was achieved. Partial\\u000a or complete separation was also observed in critical pairs; for example, the different types of triglycerides consisting of\\u000a palmitic and oleic acids. This observation was confirmed on natural

B. Herslöf; O. Podlaha; B. Töregård

1979-01-01

101

Elevation of nitrate levels in pregnant ewes and their fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator released by endothelial cells that may play an important role in modulating maternal and fetal vascular tone in normal pregnancy. The current study was designed to evaluate whether plasma or urine nitrite and nitrate (the metabolites of nitric oxide) concentrations are elevated in pregnant compared with those of nonpregnant sheep and whether the

Daseng Yang; Uwe Lang; Suzanne G. Greenberg; Leslie Myatt; Kenneth E. Clark

1996-01-01

102

Renal stone disease, elevated iPTH level and normocalcemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a well establishedrelationship between primary hyperparathyroidismand recurrent calcium-containing calculi.Traditionally, the diagnosis is confirmed bythe presence of elevated intact parathyroidhormone (iPTH) and serum ionised calciumlevels. The prevalence and role of elevatediPTH in the presence of normocalcemia inpatients with renal stone disease is poorlyunderstood. The aim of the present study was todescribe the findings in patients who hadrenal stone

Nada B. Dimkovic; Abdul Aziz Wallele; Dimitrios G. Oreopoulos

2002-01-01

103

Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.  

PubMed

It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxa–time relationships and distance–decay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification. PMID:25756110

Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

2014-12-01

104

Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in 17-year-old Jerusalem offspring of Jews from 19 countries of birth.  

PubMed

The distribution of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was examined in 6,654 17-yr-old young men and women who attended an army medical examination. There were highly significant differences among the four main groups, classified according to their father's place of birth: Israel, the Asian Near East, North Africa and Europe (including the Americas, Oceania and Southern Africa). Mean levels of plasma cholesterol in each group varied in males from 126.9 to 137.4 mg/dl, TG from 72.1 to 77.8 mg/dl and HDL-C from 41.3 to 44.4 mg/dl. In females, the cholesterol levels ranged from 144.6 to 154.8 mg/dl, TG from 72.7 to 76.3 and HDL-C from 47.3 to 50.5 mg/dl. In the various groups, subjects of North African origin consistently had the lowest lipid values, and subjects whose fathers were born in Europe or Israel, the highest. When the subjects were classified according to their fathers' specific country of origin, mean cholesterol values ranged from a low of 126.2 mg/dl in Moroccan males to a high of 143.0 in Austrian and Swiss males, and from 137.6 mg/dl in Tunisian females to 161.6 in those whose fathers had emigrated from North American countries. HDL-C ranged in males from 40.0 mg/dl in the Egyptian group to 47.0 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group; in females, the values ranged from 46.0 mg/dl in the Algerian group to 53.4 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group. These findings are discussed in light of published reports of lipid and lipoprotein levels in individuals living in different countries. PMID:7161044

Halfon, S T; Eisenberg, S; Baras, M; Davies, A M; Halperin, G; Stein, Y

1982-11-01

105

Impact of Serum Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Normoglycemic and Prediabetic Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Increased triglycerides (TGs) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are established as diabetic risks for nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, and early-phase insulin secretion in normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects. Methods We evaluated 663 Japanese subjects who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. On the basis of these results, the subjects were divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=341), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG; n=211), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT; n=71), and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT; n=40). Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) (?insulin/?glucose [30 to 0 minutes]) and disposition index (DI) (IGI/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Results In prediabetic subjects (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG+IGT), linear regression analyses revealed that IGI and DI were positively correlated with HDL-C levels. Moreover, in subjects with i-IGT and (IFG+IGT), but not with i-IFG, the indices of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with the log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. In both the subjects with i-IGT, multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that DI was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively with log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. On the other hand, in subjects with NGT, there was no association between insulin secretion and lipid profiles. Conclusion These results revealed that serum TG and HDL-C levels have different impacts on early-phase insulin secretion on the basis of their glucose tolerance status. PMID:25215276

Niwa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Hanyu, Norinao; Nakayama, Tomohiro

2014-01-01

106

Variations in plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels are strong correlates of the triglyceride response to a high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet and a high-carbohydrate diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine how a diet rich in carbohydrates (high-CHO) vs a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (high MUFA) consumed ad libitum modulated plasma apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) levels and to examine the extent to which diet-induced changes in plasma apo C-III were associated with concurrent variations in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Forty-seven men

W. Roodly Archer; Sophie Desroches; Benoīt Lamarche; Olivier Dériaz; Nancy Landry; Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson; Jean Bergeron; Patrick Couture; Nathalie Bergeron

2005-01-01

107

Analysis of elevated oxidant levels in the southern part of Korean Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The annual averaged oxidant-levels at Yeochun and Dongkwangyang area, located in the southern part of Korean Peninsula, has increased noticeably since early 1990. This area is characterized by high emissions from petrochemical industries, steel-making industries and two fossil fuel powered electric stations. The number of hours of high oxidant has also increased over the past few years. Previous study has suggested that local meteorology and elevated background oxidant level in the springtime contribute to the elevated surface oxidant level. To elevate the effect of local and synoptic scale meteorology and the changes in emissions on elevated oxidant levels, integrated analyses have been performed. Results from the trend analysis of oxidant levels in the region and model analysis for the period of high oxidant level days will be presented.

Shim, S.G.; Moon, K.C.; Ghim, Y.S. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

1996-12-31

108

Testosterone Substitution Normalizes Elevated Serum Leptin Levels in Hypogonadal Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ob gene product leptin (OB) is a feedback signal from the adipocyte to the hypothalamus and is involved in regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents. A major determinant of serum OB levels is fat mass. Several studies suggest that men have lower OB levels than women even after adjustment for percent body fat. We, therefore, investigated

FRIEDRICH JOCKENHOVEL; WERNER F. BLUM; ELISABETH VOGEL; PIERA ENGLARO; DIRK MULLER-WIELAND; DANKWART REINWEIN; WOLFGANG RASCHER; WILHELM KRONE

109

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

110

Elevated serum lipoprotein(a) levels in young women with endometriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated serum lipoportein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase the risk of cardiovacsular disease if levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are also high. The biological function of Lp(a) is unknown, but plasma levels may be elevated in inflammatory disease. Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder in which endometrial tissue is found outside of the lining of the uterine cavity. There is an immune

David Crook; Rosemary Howell; Mandeep Sidhu; D. Keith Edmonds; John C. Stevenson

1997-01-01

111

4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

112

Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels  

SciTech Connect

Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States)]|[Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-06-01

113

Elevated blood ethanol levels caused by ‘non-alcoholic’ beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of non-alcoholic beer, many patients are substituting non-alcoholic beer for regular beer. Moreover, several clinicians advocate the use of non-alcoholic beer by alcoholics when there is a possibility of relapse. However, patients with alcoholic end-stage liver disease can accumulate substantial circulating ethanol levels even when they consume non-alcoholic beer. We present a case of a patient with

Andrea F DiMartini; Kalipatnapu N Rao

1999-01-01

114

Elevated Peptide YY Levels in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:PeptideYY(PYY)isanintestinallyderivedanorexigen that acts via the Y2 receptor, and Y2 receptor deletion in rodents increases bone formation. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with a deliberate reduction in food intake and low bone density, but en- docrine modulators of food intake in AN are not known. In addition, knownregulatorsofboneturnover,suchasGH,cortisol,andestrogen, explain only a fraction of the variability in bone turnover marker levels. Hypotheses:

Madhusmita Misra; Karen K. Miller; Patrika Tsai; Katie Gallagher; Alvin Lin; Noel Lee; David B. Herzog; Anne Klibanski

115

Photosynthetic acclimation of maize to growth under elevated levels of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on the photochemistry, biochemistry and physiology of C4 photosynthesis were studied in maize (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown at ambient (350??L?L?1) or ca. 3 times ambient (1100??L?L?1) CO2 levels under high light conditions in a greenhouse for 30?d. Relative to plants grown at ambient CO2 levels, plants grown under elevated CO2 accumulated

Joćo P. Maroco; Gerald E. Edwards; Maurice S. B. Ku

1999-01-01

116

Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

1997-01-01

117

Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramķrez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

2013-01-01

118

Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center  

SciTech Connect

Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

2002-05-14

119

Effects of icosapent ethyl on lipid and inflammatory parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus-2, residual elevated triglycerides (200–500 mg/dL), and on statin therapy at LDL-C goal: the ANCHOR study  

PubMed Central

Background Icosapent ethyl (IPE) is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (?500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. ANCHOR was a 12-week, phase 3 study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of IPE in patients (N?=?702) with residual high fasting TG levels (?200 and <500 mg/dL) despite having optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (?40 and <100 mg/dL) on statin therapy. Among patients randomized to IPE (4 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo, 514 (73%) had diabetes mellitus. Methods A post hoc subgroup analysis of the ANCHOR study was conducted to assess the effects of IPE on median placebo-adjusted percent change from baseline in efficacy end point parameters in 3 subgroups: total (all subjects with diabetes—overall median baseline glycosylated hemoglobin A1c [A1c]?=?6.8%), better-controlled diabetes (below median baseline A1c), and less-controlled diabetes (above median baseline A1c). Results Baseline efficacy parameters were similar among all groups except high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), which was higher in the total and less-controlled diabetes groups. Compared with placebo, IPE 4 g/day significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, apolipoprotein B (Apo B), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, VLDL-TG, oxidized LDL, and remnant-like particle cholesterol in all 3 diabetes groups, LDL-C in the total diabetes group, and hsCRP in the total and less-controlled diabetes groups. Decreases in hsCRP and Apo B were much greater in patients with less-controlled diabetes. There were no significant increases in fasting plasma glucose, A1c, insulin, or homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance in any group. Conclusion IPE 4 g/day significantly improved lipid and lipid-related parameters without worsening glycemic control in patients with diabetes and mixed dyslipidemia, with possibly greater effects among those with less-controlled diabetes. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01047501 PMID:23835245

2013-01-01

120

Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

121

Elevated Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels as the Reproductive Phenotype in the Brothers of Women with  

E-print Network

. Brothers of women with PCOS had significantly elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels positive linear relationship between DHEAS levels in PCOS probands and their brothers (r 0.35; P 0.001). There was no significant bimodal distribution in DHEAS levels, and there were no significant differences in other

Wang, Steve C.

122

Elevated Troponin Serum Levels in Adult Onset Still's Disease  

PubMed Central

Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory systemic disease that occasionally may affect myocardium. Diagnosis is based on typical AOSD symptoms after the exclusion of well-known infectious, neoplastic, or autoimmune/autoinflammatory disorders. In the case of abrupt, recent onset AOSD, it could be particularly difficult to make the differential diagnosis and in particular to early detect the possible heart involvement. This latter event is suggested by the clinical history of the four patients described here, incidentally observed at our emergency room. All cases were referred because of acute illness (high fever, malaise, polyarthralgias, skin rash, and sore throat), successively classified as AOSD, and they presented abnormally high levels of serum troponin without overt symptoms of cardiac involvement. The timely treatment with steroids (3 cases) or ibuprofen (1 case) leads to the remission of clinicoserological manifestations within few weeks. These observations suggest that early myocardial injury might be underestimated or entirely overlooked in patients with AOSD; routine cardiac assessment including troponin evaluation should be mandatory in all patients with suspected AOSD. PMID:25767733

Manzini, Carlo Umberto; Brugioni, Lucio; Colaci, Michele; Tognetti, Maurizio; Spinella, Amelia; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo

2015-01-01

123

Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ~ 180 to 1100 ?atm) in Kongsfjorden off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. OA distinctly affected the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton thrived. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Besides being grazed, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2013-02-01

124

Elevated indoor radon levels and elevated incidence of lung cancer in Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio: Cause or coincidence?  

SciTech Connect

Columbus, and Franklin County, Ohio, have been identified as having elevated residential radon levels. Research by the Columbus Health Department, the Ohio Department of Health, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has shown that average screening measurements for the county range from 63% to 73% above 148 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, 23% to 27% above 370 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, and 1% above 1850 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, for both males and females, respectively. The observed cancer rate per 100,000 persons for the period 1979-1986 for the City of Columbus was 62.8 and for the State of Ohio, 49.3, for the bronchi, lungs, and trachea. The reliability of residential radon data, the effect of smoking, mobility of residents, and other confounding factors are referenced. We suggest that while current evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a causal or coincidental relationship between elevated radon levels and higher-than-average rates of lung cancer, the measurement data suggest that Franklin County, Ohio, is an appropriate site for such research.

Grafton, H.E. [Indoor Air Consultations, Columbus, OH (United States); West, D.R. [Insul-Tech, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States)

1992-12-31

125

Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

2014-01-01

126

Echo-Lucency of Computerized Ultrasound Images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Are Associated With Increased Levels of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as Well as Increased Plaque Lipid Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results—The study included 137 patients with neurological

Marie-Louise M. Grųnholdt; Bųrge G. Nordestgaard; Britt M. Wiebe; Jens E. Wilhjelm; Henrik Sillesen

127

Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8%) had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140?mg/dL). IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4%) had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD. PMID:22693517

Ryu, Jay H.; Horie, Ryohei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Peikert, Tobias; Yi, Eunhee S.

2012-01-01

128

Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8%) had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140?mg/dL). IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4%) had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD. PMID:22693517

Ryu, Jay H; Horie, Ryohei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Peikert, Tobias; Yi, Eunhee S

2012-01-01

129

Triglyceride levels are ethnic-specifically associated with an index of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and n-3 PUFA levels in Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulated evidence suggests that hypertriglyc- eridemia (HTG) is independently associated with an in- creased incidence of cardiovascular disease. The hypotriglyc- eridemic effects of n-3 PUFAs have been confirmed in Caucasians, but the effect in Asians is less clear. Recent evi- dence indicates that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity induced with high-carbohydrate diets increases plasma tri- glyceride levels. We investigated the relationship

Kuninori Shiwaku; Michio Hashimoto; Keiko Kitajima; Akiko Nogi; Erdembileg Anuurad; Byambaa Enkhmaa; Jung-Man Kim; In-Shik Kim; Sung-Kook Lee; Tsendsuren Oyunsuren; Osamu Shido; Yosuke Yamane

2004-01-01

130

[Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

Lincoln, D.E.

1995-10-01

131

Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

2014-01-01

132

Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

2015-02-01

133

Impact of metabolic syndrome on elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels in the Japanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level is used as an initial test for detection of liver diseases, and recent studies have also highlighted its potential value as a measure of overall health and survival as a marker of an increased risk of metabolic disorder. This study was designed to clarify the prevalence of elevated ALT levels in the

Takafumi Saito; Yuko Nishise; Naohiko Makino; Hiroaki Haga; Rika Ishii; Kazuo Okumoto; Jun-itsu Ito; Hisayoshi Watanabe; Koji Saito; Hiroaki Takeda; Hitoshi Togashi; Isao Kubota; Makoto Daimon; Takeo Kato; Sumio Kawata

2009-01-01

134

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

135

Elevated Corticosterone Levels in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human or Bovine Growth Hormone Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectopic expression of human or bovine growth hormone (GH) genes in 6 lines of transgenic mice was associated with a significant increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Elevated corticosterone levels were detected in both sexes under basal conditions and after ether stress. The adrenal activity of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was measured in two of these lines and was found to be significantly

Marcelo Cecim; Pradip K. Ghosh; Ana I. Esquifino; Timothy Began; Thomas E. Wagner; Junes S. Yun; Andrzej Bartke

1991-01-01

136

Wound Fluid from Chronic Leg Ulcers Contains Elevated Levels of Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to

Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell

1993-01-01

137

Inhibition of Stabilin-2 elevates circulating hyaluronic acid levels and prevents tumor metastasis  

E-print Network

by elevating circulating HA levels. Stab2 may be a po- tential target in antitumor therapy. cancer | hyaluronan% homology at the protein level, and ex- pressed on HSECs (2). Stab1 and Stab2 are large type I transmembrane). Despite these two glyco- proteins' structural similarity, the spectrum of their ligands dif- fers

Gleeson, Joseph G.

138

Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 ?mol.mol?1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2015-01-01

139

Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria.  

PubMed

A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 ?mol.mol(-1)) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields. PMID:25750640

Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2015-01-01

140

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, I.C.

2007-01-01

141

Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.  

PubMed

Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:23803162

Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

2014-05-01

142

Magnesium-deficiency elevates circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and endothelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have developed two rodent models of diet-induced magnesium-deficiency in which histologically defined cardiac lesions can\\u000a be induced within two to three weeks. During the development of these lesions, the magnesium-deficient animals exhibit circulating\\u000a cytokine levels which are indicative of a generalized inflammatory state. Dramatic elevations of the macrophage-derived cytokines,\\u000a IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-? together with signigicantly elevated levels of

William B. Weglicki; Terry M. Phillips; Anthony M. Freedman; Marie M. Cassidy; Benjamin F. Dickens

1992-01-01

143

Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

2009-01-01

144

Enrichment of Elevated Plasma F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Individuals with Autism Who Are Stratified by Presence of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Etiology is unknown in the majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One strategy to investigate pathogenesis is to stratify this heterogeneous disorder based on a prominent phenotypic feature that enriches for homogeneity within population strata. Co-occurring gastrointestinal dysfunction (GID) characterizes a subset of children with ASD. Our current objective was to investigate a potential pathophysiological measure to test the hypothesis that children with both ASD and GID have a more severe metabolic dysfunction than children with ASD-only, given that the highly metabolically active brain and gastrointestinal system may additively contribute measurable impairment. Plasma levels of F2t-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), a gold standard biomarker of oxidative stress, were measured in 87 children in four groups: ASD-GID, ASD-only, GID-only and Unaffected. F2-IsoP levels were elevated in all 3 clinical groups compared to the Unaffected group, with the ASD-GID group significantly elevated above the ASD-only group (mean, SD in pg/mg: ASD-GID 53.6, 24.4; ASD-only 36.5, 13.3; p?=?0.007). Adjusting for age, sex, and triglyceride levels, F2-IsoP levels remained significantly different between study groups, with a moderate effect size of ?p2?=?0.187 (p?=?0.001). Elevation in peripheral oxidative stress is consistent with, and may contribute to, the more severe functional impairments in the ASD-GID group. With unique medical, metabolic, and behavioral features in children with ASD-GID, the present findings serve as a compelling rationale for both individualized approaches to clinical care and integrated studies of biomarker enrichment in ASD subgroups that may better address the complex etiology of ASD. PMID:23844202

Gorrindo, Phillip; Lane, Christianne Joy; Lee, Evon Batey; McLaughlin, BethAnn; Levitt, Pat

2013-01-01

145

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

PubMed

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

2013-05-01

146

Rare LPL gene variants attenuate triglyceride reduction and HDL cholesterol increase in response to fenofibric acid therapy in  

E-print Network

Rare LPL gene variants attenuate triglyceride reduction and HDL cholesterol increase in response t Objective: Individuals with mixed dyslipidemia have elevated triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipo reserved. 1. Introduction Multiple studies have shown that genetic variants can affect triglycerides (TG

Keinan, Alon

147

Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: Role of hepatic triglyceride utilization.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduces liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. However, the mechanisms mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The aim of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty-acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and killed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low-protein offspring, both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity, suggesting increased fatty-acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-?, and plasma levels of ?-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring, indicating a lack of change in fatty-acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein, were similar between low protein and control offspring. Because enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low-protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty-acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. PMID:25641378

Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez-Garcia, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D'Mello, Anil P

2015-04-01

148

Methyl protodioscin increases ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux while inhibiting gene expressions for synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides by suppressing SREBP transcription and microRNA 33a/b levels.  

PubMed

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate homeostasis of LDL, HDL and triglycerides. This study was aimed to determine if inhibition of SREBPs by methyl protodioscin (MPD) regulates downstream gene and protein expressions of lipid metabolisms. In THP-1 macrophages, MPD increases levels of ABCA1 mRNA and protein in dose- and time-dependent manners, and apoA-1-mediated cholesterol efflux. The underlying mechanisms for the effects is that MPD inhibits the transcription of SREBP1c and SREBP2, and decreases levels of microRNA 33a/b hosted in the introns of SREBPs, which leads to reciprocally increase ABCA1 levels. In HepG2 cells, MPD shows the same effects as these observed in THP-1 macrophages. MPD also decreases the gene expressions of HMGCR, FAS and ACC for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. MPD further promotes LDL receptor through reducing the PCSK9 level. Collectively, the study demonstrates that MPD potentially increase HDL cholesterol while reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:25733328

Ma, Weilie; Ding, Hang; Gong, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Yalin; Zhang, Zhizhen; Lin, Guorong

2015-04-01

149

Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance  

PubMed Central

The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC–CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [3H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC–CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC–CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC–CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC–CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC–CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative impact of constitutively elevated cholinergic signaling capacity. PMID:24274995

Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F.; Ennis, Elizabeth A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D.

2014-01-01

150

Plasma triglyceride secretion in squirrel monkeys: effects of nicotine.  

PubMed

The acute effects of intravenous nicotine on the appearance of plasma triglycerides have been studied in anaesthetised squirrel monkeys given Triton-WR 1339. At both dose levels studied, 4 and 10 mug/kg/30 sec, nicotine caused a stimulation in the rate of accumulation of plasma glycerides, the larger dose producing the greater effect. Nicotine caused a transient elevation in plasma free fatty acids (FFA), also in proportion to the dose given. It is suggested the changes in plasma glycerides are due to enhanced hepatic secretion secondary to increased plasma FFA. The administration of Triton-WR 1339 caused a rapid and sustained fall in plasma cholesterol concentrations. This fall was similar to that observed in plasma Triton and evidence is presented to suggest that Triton and cholesterol are removed from the circulation by a similar mechanism. There was no effect of nicotine on plasma cholesterol. The implications of the effects of nicotine of plasma triglycerides in relation to coronary heart disease are discussed briefly. PMID:809729

Topping, D L; Turner, D M

1975-01-01

151

Dietary supplementation with cacao liquor proanthocyanidins prevents elevation of blood glucose levels in diabetic obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEffective approaches should be established to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has been increasing in developed countries. The present study examined whether dietary supplementation with cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CLPr) could prevent elevation of blood glucose levels in mice with diabetes mellitus and obesity.

Makoto Tomaru; Hirohisa Takano; Naomi Osakabe; Akiko Yasuda; Ken-ichiro Inoue; Rie Yanagisawa; Tsuneto Ohwatari; Hiroshi Uematsu

2007-01-01

152

Elevated serum ceruloplasmin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum ceruloplasmin was reported to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether serum ceruloplasmin level is elevated in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS, insulin resistance syndrome) in a community-based population. A total 883 subjects over 40 years of age were studied among a population of the Chongup district, a rural area of South Korea. Serum ceruloplasmin

Chul-Hee Kim; Joong Yeol Park; Jin Yeob Kim; Cheol Soo Choi; Young Il Kim; Yun Ey Chung; Moo Song Lee; Sung Kwan Hong; Ki-Up Lee

2002-01-01

153

Increased methane emissions from an invasive wetland plant under elevated carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands function as important climate regulators by providing conditions for the large-scale production and release of methane from vegetation. Several studies have suggested an apparent link between two global warming gases that result in higher emissions of methane from rice paddies and wetlands subjected to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2. We show that an increase in the relative abundance of

Jenny Kao-Kniffin; Dominique S. Freyre; Teri C. Balser

2011-01-01

154

PLASMA SELENIUM LEVELS CORRELATE WITH ELEVATED IMMUNOCOMPETENCE OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS LARVAE AGAINST BACULOVIRUS INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have previously found that dietary Sodium Selenium (Se) impacted the growth and development of Trichoplusia ni reared for many generations on diet containing extremely low levels of Se. Larvae had an elevated resistance to per os infection with a baculovirus. In this study we examine how dietar...

155

Does Plant Litter Become More Recalcitrant Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Levels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration exert several positive and negative effects on litter dynamics, but the net impact of climate change on litter decomposition and the carbon balance of the terrestrial ecosystem is yet unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on litter dynamics under elevated CO2 levels with a view to using

B. Mohan KUMAR; Kikuo HAIBARA; Hiroto TODA

156

Developmental Timing of Exposure to Elevated Levels of Phenylalanine Is Associated with ADHD Symptom Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a focus on how the timing of a known biological insult affects ADHD symptom expression. The sample consists of children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine, either postnatally as in Phenylketonuria (PKU; n = 46) or prenatally as in Maternal PKU (MPKU; n = 15). Non-hyperphenylalaninemic siblings of children with PKU

Kevin M. Antshel; Susan E. Waisbren

2003-01-01

157

There is no elevation of immunoglobulin e levels in Albanian patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases.  

PubMed

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

158

The progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).  

PubMed

To investigate the progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks, 36 Guinea fowl and 36 Muscovy ducks were divided into two groups, for each species, and fed either a standard (STD = commercial poultry feed) or high-fat diet (HFD = commercial poultry feed with 20% palm oil and 2% lard) for up to 12 weeks. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets, six birds from each group were euthanized and blood samples collected. Osmotic fragility was assessed by measuring the haemoglobin released by erythrocytes placed in serially diluted solutions of phosphate-buffered saline, spectrophotometrically. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. Fragiligrams from erythrocytes from both species of birds on the HFD were not different to those on the STD. However, Muscovy duck erythrocytes were more resistant to haemolysis compared with Guinea fowl erythrocytes. Final body mass and serum triglyceride levels were not significantly different (p > 0.05, anova) between the birds in the HFD and STD groups, for both species of birds. In contrast, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in birds on the HFD compared with those on the STD, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of feeding, for both species of birds. Feeding Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks a high-fat diet for up to 12 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolaemia but had no effect on final body mass, erythrocyte osmotic fragility or serum triglyceride concentrations in either bird species. PMID:24313871

Donaldson, J; Dangarembizi, R; Mtetwa, B; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

2014-10-01

159

Flavor and Stability of Pasteurized Milk with Elevated Levels of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Vaccenic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theobjectivesofthisstudyweretodetermineifflavor differences between 2% fat pasteurized milks with and without naturally enhanced vaccenic acid (VA) and cis- 9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) levels could be detected over the commercial shelf life of the product and to determine if milk with elevated VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels was more susceptible to develop- ment of light-induced oxidative flavor defects. Cows

J. M. Lynch; A. L. Lock; D. A. Dwyer; R. Noorbakhsh; D. M. Barbano; D. E. Bauman

2005-01-01

160

Plasma PCSK9 Levels Are Elevated with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Two Independent Retrospective Angiographic Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD) or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. Methods and Results Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (<30% coronary stenosis) and 3,273 cases of CAD (>50% stenosis in a major coronary artery) from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD). Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml) compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p?=?0.004) in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml) compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p?=?3.7×10?4). Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute) MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. Conclusion Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI. PMID:25180781

Almontashiri, Naif A. M.; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Dandona, Sonny; Roberts, Robert; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Chen, Hsiao-Huei; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.

2014-01-01

161

Particle Size Evidence of Intertidal Elevation: A Basis for Quantitative Sea-level Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame is controlled largely by hydroperiod and proximity to tidal ingress. Here, the upper part of the intertidal zone is characterised by poorly sorted, near symmetrical, platy- to mesokurtic, fine-grained particle size distributions due to particle settling from suspension as the tidal flow velocity decreases to high tide slack water. Indeed, an elevational or spatial gradient in particle size distribution can be observed whereby shorter hydroperiods (higher elevations) are accompanied by slower and more variable flow velocities. However, this gradient may become complicated by creek networks, whereby particle size can be observed to decrease away from creek margins, or extant vegetation that increases bed friction. Unvegetated, planar tidal flats in the Yangtze estuary offer an ideal test bed to explore evidence for a quantitative relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame. Such a relationship would then serve as an effective proxy for tidal level preserved within sediment cores, and thus a means for reconstructing past sea level. This principle is based largely on ecological transfer function-based reconstructions of Holocene sea level from foraminifera and diatoms. Surface sediment samples were collected along three transects extending eastwards from Chongming Island in South Branch channel of the Yangtze estuary. Sample positions relative to the high water mark were determined using RTK surveying, and particle size analysis was undertaken using laser granulometry. Unconstrained cluster analysis, based on unweighted Euclidean distance, was undertaken on the particle size classes at 0.25 phi intervals (up to 50 size bins) as well as Udden-Wentworth size classes (6-7 size bins). All three transects demonstrate a good clustering of particle size classes with distance and elevation, i.e. sites that are higher within the tidal frame and closer to the high water mark are characterised by higher percentages of clay and silt grades. Distance and elevation show a strong negative correlation for all transects (r2: -0.88 to -0.97), whilst cluster order is positively correlated with distance (r2: 0.41 to 0.80) and negatively correlated with elevation (r2: -0.68 to -0.75). A weighted average (WA) transfer function analysis of the relationship with elevation was then undertaken to examine how the predictability of elevation changes according to the number of data points and the number of size classes. For the largest dataset (middle transect), the WA elevation transfer function offers good predictability but limited precision (r2jack c.0.76, RMSEPjack c.0.60 m), both of which increase as the number of size classes is reduced. The smallest dataset (north transect) offers reduced predictability and precision (r2jack c.0.45, RMSEPjack c.0.60-0.90 m). Although the precision of these transfer functions is disappointing, due to the relatively widespread occurrence of size classes with elevation and distance, the r2jack values compare very well with ecological transfer functions used for reconstructing past tidal level. It is proposed that, in the absence or poor preservation of microfossils, particle size distributions offer a means for reconstructing trends in past sea level from dated sediment cores.

Plater, Andrew; Mills, Hayley; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin

2014-05-01

162

Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change. PMID:24198270

Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

163

A case report of retroperitoneal extrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma presented with elevated level of Alpha fetoprotein  

PubMed Central

Background: High level of alpha-fetoprotein is usually associated with testis cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma a primary tumor of the liver. Case: We report the case of a 72-year-old male patient with chronic renal failure who presented with a high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level and a retroperitoneal mass, which was subsequently diagnosed to be an extrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion: A retroperitoneal mass with elevated AFP level and no detected liver lesions is not always caused by a testicular cancer. PMID:25125960

Yuce, S; Sahin, OZ; Bedir, R; Ayaz, T; Durakoglugil, T

2014-01-01

164

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

165

Rapid and sensitive enzymatic-radiochemical assay for the determination of triglycerides  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic-radiochemical method suitable for the determination of triglyceride levels of cells in culture is described. The method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids which then complex with /sup 63/Ni. The method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. The procedure extends the sensitivity of triglyceride measurement to as low as 0.25 nanomoles.

Khoo, J.C.; Miller, E.; Goldberg, D.I.

1987-07-01

166

Colorimetric Measurement of Triglycerides Cannot Provide an Accurate Measure of Stored Fat Content in  

E-print Network

Colorimetric Measurement of Triglycerides Cannot Provide an Accurate Measure of Stored Fat Content methods for evaluating the levels of stored fat (triglycerides) in flies is a coupled colorimetric assay used for measurement of mammalian serum triglycerides, which are present in soluble lipoprotein

Zinn, Kai

167

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Prime Aortic Endothelium for an Enhanced Inflammatory Response to Tumor  

E-print Network

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Prime Aortic Endothelium for an Enhanced Inflammatory Response, Anne A. Knowlton, Anthony G. Passerini, Scott I. Simon Abstract--High levels of triglyceride. (Circ Res. 2007;100:381-390.) Key Words: triglyceride-rich lipoprotein endothelium monocyte NF B

Simon, Scott I.

168

Elevated CO(2) levels cause mitochondrial dysfunction and impair cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Elevated CO(2) concentrations (hypercapnia) occur in patients with severe lung diseases. Here, we provide evidence that high CO(2) levels decrease O(2) consumption and ATP production and impair cell proliferation independently of acidosis and hypoxia in fibroblasts (N12) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Cells exposed to elevated CO(2) died in galactose medium as well as when glucose-6-phosphate isomerase was knocked down, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. High CO(2) levels led to increased levels of microRNA-183 (miR-183), which in turn decreased expression of IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2). The high CO(2)-induced decrease in cell proliferation was rescued by ?-ketoglutarate and overexpression of IDH2, whereas proliferation decreased in normocapnic cells transfected with siRNA for IDH2. Also, overexpression of miR-183 decreased IDH2 (mRNA and protein) as well as cell proliferation under normocapnic conditions, whereas inhibition of miR-183 rescued the normal proliferation phenotype in cells exposed to elevated levels of CO(2). Accordingly, we provide evidence that high CO(2) induces miR-183, which down-regulates IDH2, thus impairing mitochondrial function and cell proliferation. These results are of relevance to patients with hypercapnia such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and muscular dystrophies. PMID:21903582

Vohwinkel, Christine U; Lecuona, Emilia; Sun, Haying; Sommer, Natascha; Vadįsz, Istvįn; Chandel, Navdeep S; Sznajder, Jacob I

2011-10-28

169

Elevated CO2 Levels Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Impair Cell Proliferation*  

PubMed Central

Elevated CO2 concentrations (hypercapnia) occur in patients with severe lung diseases. Here, we provide evidence that high CO2 levels decrease O2 consumption and ATP production and impair cell proliferation independently of acidosis and hypoxia in fibroblasts (N12) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Cells exposed to elevated CO2 died in galactose medium as well as when glucose-6-phosphate isomerase was knocked down, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. High CO2 levels led to increased levels of microRNA-183 (miR-183), which in turn decreased expression of IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2). The high CO2-induced decrease in cell proliferation was rescued by ?-ketoglutarate and overexpression of IDH2, whereas proliferation decreased in normocapnic cells transfected with siRNA for IDH2. Also, overexpression of miR-183 decreased IDH2 (mRNA and protein) as well as cell proliferation under normocapnic conditions, whereas inhibition of miR-183 rescued the normal proliferation phenotype in cells exposed to elevated levels of CO2. Accordingly, we provide evidence that high CO2 induces miR-183, which down-regulates IDH2, thus impairing mitochondrial function and cell proliferation. These results are of relevance to patients with hypercapnia such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and muscular dystrophies. PMID:21903582

Vohwinkel, Christine U.; Lecuona, Emilia; Sun, Haying; Sommer, Natascha; Vadįsz, Istvįn; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

2011-01-01

170

Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The largest known dioxin contamination occurred between 1962 and 1970, when 12 million gallons of Agent Orange, a defoliant mixture contaminated with a form of the most toxic dioxin, were sprayed over southern and central Vietnam. Studies were performed to determine if elevated dioxin levels persist in Vietnamese living in the south of Vietnam. METHODS. With gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, human milk, adipose tissue, and blood from Vietnamese living in sprayed and unsprayed areas were analyzed, some individually and some pooled, for dioxins and the closely related dibenzofurans. RESULTS. One hundred sixty dioxin analyses of tissue from 3243 persons were performed. Elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) levels as high as 1832 ppt were found in milk lipid collected from southern Vietnam in 1970, and levels up to 103 ppt were found in adipose tissue in the 1980s. Pooled blood collected from southern Vietnam in 1991/92 also showed elevated TCDD up to 33 ppt, whereas tissue from northern Vietnam (where Agent Orange was not used) revealed TCDD levels at or below 2.9 ppt. CONCLUSIONS. Although most Agent Orange studies have focused on American veterans, many Vietnamese had greater exposure. Because health consequences of dioxin contamination are more likely to be found in Vietnamese living in Vietnam than in any other populations, Vietnam provides a unique setting for dioxin studies. PMID:7702115

Schecter, A; Dai, L C; Thuy, L T; Quynh, H T; Minh, D Q; Cau, H D; Phiet, P H; Nguyen, N T; Constable, J D; Baughman, R

1995-01-01

171

Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.  

PubMed

Kawasaki's disease is a disease of unknown cause. The characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki's disease are fever> or =102 degrees F for> or =5 days accompanied by a bilateral bulbar conjunctivitis/conjunctival suffusion, erythematous rash, cervical adenopathy, pharyngeal erythema, and swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet. Kawasaki's disease primarily affects children and is rare in adults. In children, Kawasaki's disease is more likely to be associated with aseptic meningitis, coronary artery aneurysms, and thrombocytosis. In adult Kawasaki's disease, unilateral cervical adenopathy, arthritis, conjunctival suffusion/conjunctivitis, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]/serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) are more likely. Kawasaki's disease in adults may be mimicked by other acute infections with fever and rash, that is, group A streptococcal scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). Because there are no specific tests for Kawasaki's disease, diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and the syndromic approach. In addition to rash and fever, scarlet fever is characterized by circumoral pallor, oropharyngeal edema, Pastia's lines, and peripheral eosinophilia, but not conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis, or an elevated SGOT/SGPT. In TSS, in addition to rash and fever, there is conjunctival suffusion, oropharyngeal erythema, and edema of the dorsum of the hands/feet, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, and thrombocytopenia. Patients with TSS do not have cervical adenopathy or splenomegaly. RMSF presents with fever and a maculopapular rash that becomes petechial, first appearing on the wrists/ankles after 3 to 5 days. RMSF is accompanied by a prominent headache, periorbital edema, conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, but not oropharyngeal erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normal<189 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adult Kawasaki's disease with highly elevated serum ferritin levels. This is also the first report of splenomegaly in adult Kawasaki's disease. We conclude that Kawasaki's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with rash/fever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. PMID:20207278

Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

2010-01-01

172

Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.  

PubMed

Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (?10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

2014-04-25

173

Top Ten Things to Know: Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... or use of unsaturated fats, especially those containing marine omega-3 fatty acids, lower triglyceride levels. 7. ... and Metabolism; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on the ...

174

Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of circulating casomorphins (CM), the exogenous opioid peptides from milk casein, may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism in children. Because several mass spectrometry studies failed to detect casomorphins in autistic children, it was questioned whether these peptides can be detected in body fluids by mass spec. Here we demonstrated, using a novel high sensitivity ELISA method, that autistic children have significantly higher levels of urine CM-7 than control children. The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders. PMID:24657283

Sokolov, Oleg; Kost, Natalya; Andreeva, Olga; Korneeva, Ekaterina; Meshavkin, Viktor; Tarakanova, Yulia; Dadayan, Aleksander; Zolotarev, Yurii; Grachev, Sergei; Mikheeva, Inna; Varlamov, Oleg; Zozulya, Andrey

2014-06-01

175

Effect of soybean leci-vita product on serum lipids and fatty acid composition in patients with elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to examine the effects of soybean Leci-Vita, product rich in polyunsaturated phospholipids (with 7% lecithin, 17% soy protein) on serum lipids and serum and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid composition in patients with different types of hyperlipidemia. 106 patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia (IHTG), combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) and isolated hypercholesterolemia (IHCH), aged 40-70 years, were given 20g of

Danijela Risti? Medi?; Vanja Risti?; Vesna Tepši?; Marija Rani?; Gordana Risti?; Ilona Estelecki

2003-01-01

176

The effects of the ? -glucosidase inhibitor BAY g 5421 (Acarbose) on meal-stimulated elevations of circulating glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In blind studies the effects of a newa-glucosidase inhibitor (BAY g 5421) were tested in normal weight and overweight male volunteers after oral application of 75, 150, or 300 mg of BAY g 5421 or placebo per os before three standardized main meals of one day. Before and three hours after each meal blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum

I. Hillebrand; K. Boehme; G. Frank; H. Fink; P. Berchtold

1979-01-01

177

Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that

Cesare Mondadori; Thomas Ducret; Albert Hiiusler

1992-01-01

178

Elevated Circulating Free Fatty Acid Levels Impair Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that insulin-resistant obese sub- jects exhibit impaired endothelial function. Here, we test the hypothesis that elevation of circulating FFA to levels seen in insulin-resistant subjects can impair endothelial function. We studied leg blood flow responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (Mch) or the endothelium-indepen- dent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside during the

Helmut O. Steinberg; Manal Tarshoby; Robert Monestel; Ginger Hook; Jessica Cronin; Ann Johnson; Basel Bayazeed; Alain D. Baron

179

Elevated Salt and Nitrate Levels in Drinking Water Cause an Increase of Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To assess the influence on blood pressure in schoolchildren, of elevated sodium (Na+) and nitrate (NO–3) levels in the drinking water. Methods: The blood pressure was recorded in three groups of age- and weight-matched schoolchildren (fourth and fifth graders) ingesting differing Na+ and NO–3 concentrations with their drinking water. Group 1 (n = 452) imbibed high-Na+, high-NO–3 water (196

Avishalom Pomeranz; Ze’ev Korzets; Daniel Vanunu; Haim Krystal; Baruch Wolach

2000-01-01

180

Elevated Troponin Levels are Predictive of Mortality in Surgical Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Elevated troponin levels are a common occurrence after ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and have been described\\u000a as a neurogenic form of myocardial injury. The prognostic significance of this event is controversial with numerous studies\\u000a citing conflicting results. The importance of cardiac stress is of particular relevance in the operative management of intracerebral\\u000a hemorrhage (ICH). To this end, we

Matthew C. Garrett; Ricardo J. Komotar; Robert M. Starke; Darshan Doshi; Marc L. Otten; E. Sander Connolly

2010-01-01

181

KL6 levels are elevated in plasma from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

KL-6 levels are elevated in plasma from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. H. Sato, M.E.J. Callister, S. Mumby, G.J. Quinlan, K.I. Welsh, R.M. duBois, T.W. Evans. #ERS Journals Ltd 2004. ABSTRACT: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an extreme form of lung injury characterised by disruption to the alveolar epithelium. KL-6 is a mucin-like glycoprotein expressed on type

H. Sato; M. E. J. Callister; S. Mumby; G. J. Quinlan; K. I. Welsh; R. M. duBois; T. W. Evans

2004-01-01

182

Photosynthetic inhibition after long-term exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of long-term exposure to elevated levels of CO2 on biomass partitioning, net photosynthesis and starch metabolism was examined in cotton. Plants were grown under controlled conditions at 350, 675 and 1000 ?l l-1 CO2. Plants grown at 675 and 1000 ?l l-1 had 72% and 115% more dry weight respectively than plants grown at 350 ?l l-1. Increases

Evan H. Delucia; Thomas W. Sasek; Boyd R. Strain

1985-01-01

183

Elevated Plasma SPARC Levels Are Associated with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. Design/Methods Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. Results GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT) and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG), Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. Conclusions SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM. PMID:24349098

Xu, Lu; Ping, Fan; Yin, Jinhua; Xiao, Xinhua; Xiang, Hongding; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wu, Huaizhu; Li, Ming

2013-01-01

184

Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality. PMID:25518819

Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

2015-02-01

185

Acute psychological stress reduces plasma triglyceride clearance.  

PubMed

Acute stress elevates blood lipids, with the largest increases among men and postmenopausal women. The mechanisms for the effect are unknown, but may be due to altered lipid metabolism. This study investigated if acute stress induces transient reductions in triglyceride clearance in middle-aged men and women, and determined if gender and menopause affect triglyceride metabolism. Of the 35 women, half were premenopausal, and half were naturally postmenopausal; men (n = 35) were age matched. Clearance of an intravenously administered fat emulsion was assessed twice: once during a nonstress session, and again during a stress-testing session. During the stress session, a battery of behavioral stressors (serial subtraction, speech, mirror tracing, and Stroop) were performed for 40 min. The clearance rate of exogenous fat was significantly diminished during the stress, relative to the nonstress session. Women had more efficient clearance, relative to men, but there were no effects of menopausal status. The diminished ability to clear an intravenous fat emulsion during stress suggests one mechanism for stress-induced elevations in lipids. PMID:12206298

Stoney, Catherine M; West, Sheila G; Hughes, Joel W; Lentino, Lisa M; Finney, Montenique L; Falko, James; Bausserman, Linda

2002-01-01

186

Cholesterol, triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses

Angelina R. Sutin; Antonio Terracciano; Barbara Deiana; Manuela Uda; David Schlessinger; Edward G. Lakatta; Paul T. Costa Jr.

2010-01-01

187

Heparanase levels are elevated in the urine and plasma of type 2 diabetes patients and associate with blood glucose levels.  

PubMed

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Utilizing an ELISA method capable of detection and quantification of heparanase, we examined heparanase levels in the plasma and urine of a cohort of 29 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 14 T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, and 47 healthy volunteers. We provide evidence that heparanase levels in the urine of T2DM patients are markedly elevated compared to healthy controls (1162 ± 181 vs. 156 ± 29.6 pg/ml for T2DM and healthy controls, respectively), increase that is statistically highly significant (P<0.0001). Notably, heparanase levels were appreciably decreased in the urine of T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, albeit remained still higher than healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Increased heparanase levels were also found in the plasma of T2DM patients. Importantly, urine heparanase was associated with elevated blood glucose levels, implying that glucose mediates heparanase upregulation and secretion into the urine and blood. Utilizing an in vitro system, we show that insulin stimulates heparanase secretion by kidney 293 cells, and even higher secretion is observed when insulin is added to cells maintained under high glucose conditions. These results provide evidence for a significant involvement of heparanase in diabetic complications. PMID:21364956

Shafat, Itay; Ilan, Neta; Zoabi, Samih; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nakhoul, Farid

2011-01-01

188

Serum Levels of Glycoproteins are Elevated in Patients with Ovarian Cancer.  

PubMed

Identification of reliable biomarkers for detection and staging of cancer and monitoring the outcome of anticancer therapy has been considered to be of high importance. We aimed to estimate the levels of serum glycoproteins, protein bound-hexose, protein bound hexosamine, protein bound fucose, protein bound sialic acid and protein bound carbohydrate in 32 ovarian cancer patients and compared them with the levels that found in 25 normal subjects. As compared to the normal subjects, all the four fractions of glycoproteins level were significantly elevated in ovarian cancer patients (p < 0.05). Chemotherapy in these patients significantly decreased the levels of serum glycoproteins (p < 0.05). Thus, high levels of serum glycoproteins in ovarian cancer patients could be due to abnormal protein glycosylation indicating malignant transformation of the cells. PMID:24966484

Thakkar, Vikram; Patel, Purvi; Prajapati, Neelam; Kaur, Ranjit; Nandave, Mukesh

2014-07-01

189

Elevated levels of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofilament (NF) subunits NF-H, NF-M and NF-L are hyperphosphorylated and elevated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. We investigated the level and phosphorylation states of NF subunits in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from living patients by bienzyme substrate-recycle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found: (i), that the levels of phosphorylated NF-H\\/M (pNF-H\\/M), non-phosphorylated NF-H\\/M (npNF-H\\/M) and NF-L were significantly higher (pNF-H\\/M, ?12–24-fold;

Yuan-Yuan Hu; Shan-Shu He; Xiao-Chuang Wang; Qiu-Hong Duan; Sabiha Khatoon; Khalid Iqbal; Inge Grundke-Iqbal; Jian-Zhi Wang

2002-01-01

190

Elevation of intracellular Zn2+ level by nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban in rat thymocytes.  

PubMed

It was recently reported that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent, were detected in human blood after the use of soap containing triclocarban. Due to the widespread use of triclocarban in adult and infant personal care products, the report prompted us to study its cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of triclocarban was examined in rat thymocytes by using a cytometric technique with propidium iodide for examining cell lethality, FluoZin-3-AM for monitoring the intracellular Zn(2+) level, and 5-chloromethylfluorescencein diacetate for estimating the cellular content of non-protein thiol. The incubation with triclocarban at nanomolar concentrations (50-500nM) for 1h did not affect cell lethality but significantly elevated the intracellular Zn(2+) level. The elevation of the intracellular Zn(2+) level by triclocarban was not significantly dependent on external Zn(2+) level. There was a negative correlation (r=-0.9225) between the effect on the intracellular Zn(2+) level and that on the cellular content of non-protein thiol. These results suggest that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban decrease the cellular content of non-protein thiol, leading to intracellular Zn(2+) release. Since zinc plays physiological roles in mammalian cells, the percutaneous absorption of triclocarban from soap may, therefore, affect some cellular functions. PMID:23099084

Morita, Junpei; Teramachi, Aoi; Sanagawa, Yosuke; Toyson, Saramaiti; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Oyama, Yasuo

2012-12-17

191

The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.  

PubMed

Although elevated ground-level O? has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O? pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O? Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O?-tolerant (YD6) and the O?-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O? pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O? negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O? pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O? pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O? pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O?. PMID:25576991

Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

2015-02-01

192

Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

2007-01-01

193

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

2000-01-01

194

Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

2011-01-01

195

Successful Treatment of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia with a Formula Diet Rich in Omega–3 Fatty Acids and Medium-Chain Triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with highly increased plasma triglyceride levels are at risk of developing serious complications such as pancreatitis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore it is important to rapidly decrease plasma triglyceride levels. A sufficient control of triglyceride levels with drugs like fibrates, statins or nicotinic acid can usually only be attained after a couple of weeks. Plasma exchange appears

Annette Hauenschild; Reinhard G. Bretzel; Henning Schnell-Kretschmer; Hans-Ulrich Kloer; Philip D. Hardt; Nils Ewald

2010-01-01

196

Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms. PMID:23043271

2012-01-01

197

Elevated Levels of miR-155 in Blood and Urine from Patients with Nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Background. Both circulating and urinary miRNAs may represent a potential noninvasive molecular biomarker capable of predicting chronic kidney disease, and, in the present study, we will investigate the serum and urinary levels of miR-155 in patients with nephrolithiasis. Methods. Serum and urinary levels of miR-155 are quantified in 60 patients with nephrolithiasis; the result was compared to 50 healthy volunteers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) was calculated and, by simple regression analysis, the correlations of miR-155/eGFR and miR-155/CRP (C-reactive protein) levels were analyzed as well. Results. The median levels of serum and urinary levels of miR-155 are significantly higher in nephrolithiasis patients than in controls. eGFR inversely correlates with urinary level of miR-155; CRP positively correlates with urinary miR-155. Urinary level of miR-155 inversely correlates with urinary expression of interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ? and positively correlates with urinary expression of regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES). Conclusion. Serum and urinary levels of miR-155 were significantly elevated in patients with nephrolithiasis, and the upregulation of miR-155 was correlated with decline of eGFR and elevation of CRP. Our results suggested that miR-155 might play important roles in the pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis via regulating inflammatory cytokines expression. Further study on the molecular pathogenic mechanism and larger scale of clinical trial are required. PMID:25197634

Hu, Yang-Yang; Dong, Wei-Da; Xu, Yun-Fei; Yao, Xu-Dong; Peng, Bo; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-Hua

2014-01-01

198

Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n?=?91), TC (n?=?98), and CC (n?=?14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P?=?0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P?=?0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism. PMID:24775272

2014-01-01

199

High-Intensity Targeted Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in 2 Inner-City Chicago Communities  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (? 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), risk factors, and previous blood lead testing among children in 2 high-risk Chicago, Ill, communities. Methods. Through high-intensity targeted screening, blood lead levels were tested and risks were assessed among a representative sample of children aged 1 to 5 years who were at risk for lead exposure. Results. Of the 539 children who were tested, 27% had elevated blood lead levels, and 61% had never been tested previously. Elevated blood lead levels were associated with chipped exterior house paint. Conclusions. Most of the children who lived in these communities—where the prevalence for elevated blood lead levels among children was 12 times higher than the national prevalence—were not tested for lead poisoning. Our findings highlight the need for targeted community outreach that includes testing blood lead levels in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations. PMID:15514235

Dignam, Timothy A.; Evens, Anne; Eduardo, Eduard; Ramirez, Shokufeh M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Kilpatrick, Nikki; Noonan, Gary P.; Flanders, W. Dana; Meyer, Pamela A.; McGeehin, Michael A.

2004-01-01

200

Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of particular importance for patients harbouring a myeloma clone which produces large amounts of HGF. PMID:24716444

2014-01-01

201

Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in North Central Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationship between local ground water flows and NO3- transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO3- concentrations decreased from ???3 mg N L-1 beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L-1 at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl- concentrations and NO3/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO3- dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect looted ???5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO3- sink. Subsurface NO3- injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L-1 was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO3- retention under both background and elevated NO 3- levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO3- was followed by transient NO2- formation and, in the presence of C2H2, by N2O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO3- associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO 3- levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO3- transport to the channel. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

Duff, J.H.; Jackman, A.P.; Triska, F.J.; Sheibley, R.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

2007-01-01

202

The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-06-01

203

Occurrence of elevated protoporphyrin levels in relation to lead burden in infants  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous blood lead (PbB), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), and hematocrit measurements were made semiannually in 232 normal infants from 6 to 24 months of age. The PbB averaged 7 (SD = 5) and ranged from 0 to 64 ..mu..g/dl. The incidence of elevated EP, a marker for deranged heme synthesis, was unrelated to PbB at levels below 15 ..mu..g/dl but was fourfold greater among the infants with PbB above 15 ..mu..g/dl. This relationship persisted even after eliminating the 31 (4%) anemic (hematocrit < 33%) samples. The confounding effects of iron deficiency are discussed.

Rabinowitz, M.B.; Leviton, A.; Needleman, H.L.

1986-04-01

204

Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with subchorionic hematoma.  

PubMed

Subchorionic hematoma might be associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Two intra cytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancies complicated with subchorionic hematoma were found to have elevated mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. One of them had miscarriage at 16 weeks' gestation and the other delivered a healthy baby by cesarean section. The valid interpretation of triple test result might be complicated by subchorionic hematoma. Therefore, it is better not to order triple test in such cases to avoid unnecessarily provoking the anxiety of the couple. PMID:19883262

Kumbak, Banu; Sahin, Levent

2010-07-01

205

Elevation of circulating LOX-1 ligand levels in Zucker obese and diabetic rats.  

PubMed

LOX-1 ligands containing apolipoprotein B (LAB) reflect ligand activity of LOX-1, which is a key molecule for initiation of atherosclerosis. The Zucker rat is a well-known model used for research on obesity and diabetes. Blood levels of LAB were compared among Zucker fatty (ZF), Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats. Log-transformed LAB was significantly higher in ZF and ZDF rats than in control ZL rats, while no significant difference was found in log-transformed LAB of ZF and ZDF rats. This study for the first time demonstrated that circulating LOX-1 ligands were elevated in obesity and diabetes model rats. PMID:25434992

Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Uchida, Kagehiro

2015-01-01

206

Angelica sinensis polysaccharide regulates glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in prediabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through the elevation of glycogen levels and reduction of inflammatory factors.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), in prediabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. It was observed that fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in both models were reduced after a 4-week oral administration of ASP or metformin, and abnormal fasting serum insulin (FINS) concentrations were ameliorated as well. Moreover, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was decreased strikingly and body weight (BW) was reduced significantly in prediabetic mice after treatment with ASP. In addition, ASP also contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced after treatment with ASP in prediabetic mice or STZ-induced diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic glycogen (HG) and muscle glycogen (MG) concentrations were increased while insulin resistance (IR)-related inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-? in serum were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological examination indicated that the impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues or adipose tissues were effectively restored in STZ-induced diabetic mice or prediabetic mice after the ASP treatment. Taken together, these results revealed that ASP efficiently exerted hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic benefits, and its potential effect was associated with the amelioration of IR. ASP can be applied in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. PMID:25630053

Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Shui, Weizhi; Yang, Qiuxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Zhang, Yu

2015-03-11

207

Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care. PMID:16527276

Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2006-06-01

208

Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations  

SciTech Connect

The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

1993-11-01

209

Elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal in body. Impairment in skeletal muscle glucose handling capacity leads to the state of insulin resistance. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) cytokine has now emerged as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function. However, the role of TWEAK in skeletal muscle metabolic function remains less understood. Here, we demonstrate that with progressive age, skeletal muscle-specific TWEAK-transgenic (TWEAK-Tg) mice gain increased body weight (?16%) and fat mass (?64%) and show glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. TWEAK-Tg mice also exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy in the epididymal fat. Oxygen uptake, voluntary physical activity, and exercise capacity were significantly reduced in TWEAK-Tg mice compared with controls. Overexpression of TWEAK inhibited (?31%) 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced (?31%) the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) without affecting the Akt pathway. TWEAK also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (?32%) and repressed the levels of GLUT4 (?50%) in cultured myotubes from C57BL6 mice. TWEAK represses the levels of Krüppel-like factor 15; myocyte enhancer factor 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, which are required for the activation of the GLUT4 locus. Collectively our study demonstrates that elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle cause metabolic abnormalities. Inhibition of TWEAK could be a potential approach to prevent weight gain and type 2 diabetes.-Sato, S., Ogura, Y., Tajrishi, M.M., Kumar, A. Elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:25466899

Sato, Shuichi; Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Kumar, Ashok

2015-03-01

210

The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression  

SciTech Connect

Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.; [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

211

Elevated level of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with atrial septal defect  

PubMed Central

Background The study aimed to assess the level of plasma Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in patients before and after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) and to evaluate the usefulness of measuring ET-1 levels for the diagnosis and selection of candidates for ASD closure. Methods 80 patients (55 F, 25 M), mean age 42,2?±?11,5 years were enrolled for an attempt at ASD closure. A group of 19 healthy volunteers, (12 F, 7 M) mean age 39.2?±?9.15 served as controls. All ASD patients underwent: clinical and echocardiographic study and cardiopulmonary exercise test. ET-1 levels were measured before and after closure. Whole blood was collected from femoral artery and vein and from pulmonary artery during cardiac catheterization. Results ET-1 levels at peripheral artery and vein in ASD patients were significantly higher than in the volunteers (p?level presented the larger area of right ventricle and right atrium and higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure(p?level demonstrated longer time of exercise and higher peak oxygen consumption (p?level was observed. Conclusions 1. The level of ET-1 in ASD patients is elevated in compare to healthy subject. 2. The significant reduction of ET-1 level is observed after percutaneous closure of ASD. 3. Elevated level of ET-1 in patients with ASD is associated with right heart enlargement. 4. Measurements of ET-1 may be a supplemental diagnostic tool and may be helpful in establishing indications for defect closure. PMID:25099217

2014-01-01

212

Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?  

PubMed Central

Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p?=?0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

2014-01-01

213

Sensing, physiological effects and molecular response to elevated CO2 levels in eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is an important gaseous molecule that maintains biosphere homeostasis and is an important cellular signalling molecule in all organisms. The transport of CO(2) through membranes has fundamental roles in most basic aspects of life in both plants and animals. There is a growing interest in understanding how CO(2) is transported into cells, how it is sensed by neurons and other cell types and in understanding the physiological and molecular consequences of elevated CO(2) levels (hypercapnia) at the cell and organism levels. Human pulmonary diseases and model organisms such as fungi, C. elegans, Drosophila and mice have been proven to be important in understanding of the mechanisms of CO(2) sensing and response. PMID:19863692

Sharabi, Kfir; Lecuona, Emilia; Helenius, Iiro Taneli; Beitel, Greg J; Sznajder, Jacob Iasha; Gruenbaum, Yosef

2009-01-01

214

Areas of the United States with elevated screening levels of 222Rn  

SciTech Connect

As part of an Environmental Protection Agency/State cooperative program, 38 of the 48 contiguous states have successfully conducted probability-based surveys of indoor 222Rn. These surveys produced short-term screening measurements in approximately 55,000 randomly selected houses. An objective common to all surveys was to identify geographic regions within the state with elevated screening levels of 222Rn. This paper examines the survey results as they relate to this objective. The 38 states were partitioned into 225 geographic regions and summary statistics of 222Rn concentrations (e.g., arithmetic mean, geometric mean, percentage of houses exceeding a specified level) and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each region. Twenty-four of the 225 regions had arithmetic means exceeding 222 Bq m-3 (6 pCi L-1); these are analyzed in detail.

Alexander, B.; Rodman, N.; White, S.B.; Phillips, J. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1994-01-01

215

Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

2014-01-01

216

Low-Level Lead Exposure and Elevations in Blood Pressure during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Lead exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure during pregnancy; however, the magnitude of this relationship at low exposure levels is unclear. Objectives Our goal was to determine the association between low-level lead exposure and blood pressure during late pregnancy. Methods We collected admission and maximum (based on systolic) blood pressures during labor and delivery among 285 women in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord blood lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, median household income, parity, smoking during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index, and anemia. These models were used to calculate benchmark dose values. Results Geometric mean cord blood lead was 0.66 ?g/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.61–0.70). Comparing blood pressure measurements between those in the highest and those in the lowest quartile of lead exposure, we observed a 6.87-mmHg (1.51–12.21 mmHg) increase in admission systolic blood pressure and a 4.40-mmHg (0.21–8.59 mmHg) increase in admission diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for confounders. Corresponding values for maximum blood pressure increase were 7.72 (1.83–13.60) and 8.33 (1.14–15.53) mmHg. Benchmark dose lower limit values for a 1-SD increase in blood pressure were < 2 ?g/dL blood lead for all blood pressure end points. Conclusions A significant association between low-level lead exposures and elevations in maternal blood pressure during labor and delivery can be observed at umbilical blood lead levels < 2 ?g/dL. PMID:21292600

Wells, Ellen M.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Herbstman, Julie B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Halden, Rolf U.; Witter, Frank R.; Goldman, Lynn R.

2011-01-01

217

Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

218

Successful treatment of advanced endometriosis with extremely high CA 125 and moderately elevated CA 15-3 levels.  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient with advanced endometriosis who presented with chronic pelvic pain, bilateral unruptured ovarian endometrioma, massive peritoneal implants and extremely elevated CA 125, and also elevated CA 15-3 levels. Laparoscopy revealed bilateral unruptured ovarian endometrioma and diffuse peritoneal endometriotic implants. Increased association of elevated levels of CA 125 and CA 15-3 is not so common in advanced endometriosis. The case was successfully treated with laparoscopy and combined low-dose oral contraceptive with one year of follow-up. To the best of our knowledge among the reported cases this is the highest CA 15-3 level ever reported with an extremely elevated CA 125 level. PMID:18754302

Canda, M T; Demir, N; Sezer, O; Doganay, L

2008-01-01

219

Histologic Abnormalities in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Normal or Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the histological spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with normal, mildly elevated (26–50 U/L boys, 23–44 U/L girls), or elevated (> 50 boys, > 44 girls) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Study design The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) enrolls children 5–18 years with NAFLD. We analyzed baseline clinical and histological data from 91 children with suspected NAFLD and normal or mildly elevated ALT and liver biopsy within 180 days of ALT, and compared them with 392 children with elevated ALT. Results Of 91 children, 17 (19%) had normal and 74 (81%) had mildly elevated ALT levels. Overall, 45% of biopsies had ? 33% steatosis, lobular inflammation grade was ? 2 in 22%, 81% had portal inflammation, 29% had ballooned hepatocytes, 35% had “suspicious/borderline” steatohepatitis, and 8% had definite NASH, 34% had NAFLD activity score (NAS) ? 4. Overall, 46% had fibrosis (38% mild/moderate and 8% bridging/cirrhosis). Marked steatosis (50% vs 24%) and fibrosis (54% vs 12%) were significantly more common in mildly elevated vs normal, with no difference in ballooning, inflammation, or NAS ? 4. Fibrosis stage 3/4 was seen in none of the children with normal ALT, and in 9% of the mildly elevated and 15% of the elevated. Conclusions Liver biopsies of children with NAFLD with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels show significant histologic abnormalities, including advanced fibrosis in children with mildly elevated ALT. ALT thus may underestimate liver injury in NAFLD. Appropriate ALT cut-off levels can help identify children at risk for more severe disease. PMID:24360992

Molleston, Jean P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Yates, Katherine P; Murray, Karen F; Cummings, Oscar W; Lavine, Joel E.; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Scheimann, Ann O; Unalp-Arida, Aynur

2013-01-01

220

Elevated serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules predict death in pre- dialysis patients: association with malnutrition, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

regression model showed that elevated sICAM-1 was, independent of age, SGA, CVD, and Log CRP, genesis via effects on soluble adhesion molecules or if elevated serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules are Methods. Serum levels of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 (n= 87) and sE-selectin (n=71) were analysed in a cohort merely markers of endothelial activation in patients with chronic renal failure. of

Peter Stenvinkel; Bengt Lindholm; Mikael Heimburger; Olof Heimburger

221

Elevated Levels of C-Reactive Protein at Discharge in Patients With Unstable Angina Predict Recurrent Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. Methods and Results—We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pyloriand Chlamydia pneumoniaeantibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary

Luigi M. Biasucci; Giovanna Liuzzo; Rita L. Grillo; Giuseppina Caligiuri; Antonio G. Rebuzzi; Antonino Buffon; Francesco Summaria; Francesca Ginnetti; Giovanni Fadda; Attilio Maseri

2010-01-01

222

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.  

SciTech Connect

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

1998-05-01

223

Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute interstitial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. We hypothesized that HSP47 could be a useful marker for fibrotic lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of HSP47 in patients with various idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods Subjects comprised 9 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), 12 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), 16 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 19 healthy adult volunteers. Results Patients with AIP had serum HSP47 levels that were significantly higher than those of COP, NSIP or IPF patients and those of healthy volunteers. In contrast, serum levels of HSP47 among patients with COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between AIP and COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy controls was 859.3 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that, among patients with various IIPs, serum levels of HSP47 were elevated specifically in patients with AIP. PMID:24650086

2014-01-01

224

Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma  

SciTech Connect

Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

1990-01-01

225

049. Massive pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis associated with elevated plasma levels of factor VIII  

PubMed Central

Background The association between elevated plasma coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) levels and Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) was first described in the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Until today the measurement of FVIII levels is not included in laboratory investigation of possible congenital thrombophilia in cases of unexplained VTE. Nevertheless, FVIII levels above 150% seemed to be correlated with high risk of VTE. Case report We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient who was admitted to the National Health System Pulmonary Department of “G. Papanicolaou” Hospital of Thessaloniki because of massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis was confirmed with a positive computed tomography angiography and the patient was started on low molecular weight heparin. An ultrasonography of deep leg veins showed extensive deep vein thrombosis. The patient had no identifiable secondary hypercoagulable conditions (among which no antiphospholipid syndrome or malignancy) so the search was extended towards hereditary thrombophilia. No one abnormality of antithrombin, protein C or S, factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, dysfibrinogenemia or hyperhomocysteinemia was uncovered. The only abnormality was the significant increase in the plasma levels of FVIII, which was measured at 383%. Conclusions Correlation of increased levels of FVIII to VTE risk, its role in recurrent thrombosis and its engagement in the pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease are discussed. Factor VIII assay should be considered in the work-up of idiopathic, recurrent VTE as well as the need of long-term anticoagulation therapy.

Ampelidou, Varvara; Chloros, Diamantis; Tryfon, Stavros; Karritevli, Melina; Tsara, Venetia

2015-01-01

226

Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 ?g/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 ?g/mmol (median 0.8 ?g/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level. PMID:21599964

2011-01-01

227

Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

Ahluwalia, A.

1996-08-01

228

Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ?100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer. PMID:24624890

Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

2014-05-01

229

Plasma Free H2S Levels are Elevated in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators. Methods and Results Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma?free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin?1 (TSP?1), Interleukin?6 (IL?6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (sICAM?1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n=66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n=13), or any vascular disease (n=140) had higher plasma?free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n=53). Plasma?free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL?6, ICAM?1, and TSP?1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition. Conclusions Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma?free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01407172. PMID:24152982

Peter, Elvis A.; Shen, Xinggui; Shah, Shivang H.; Pardue, Sibile; Glawe, John D.; Zhang, Wayne W.; Reddy, Pratap; Akkus, Nuri I.; Varma, Jai; Kevil, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

230

Elevated level of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumor cells interferes with IRF-1-mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

SUMOylation of transcription factors often attenuates transcription activity. This regulation of protein activity allows more diversity in the control of gene expression. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was originally identified as a regulator of IFN-alpha/beta, and its expression is induced by viral infection or IFN stimulation. Accumulating evidence supports the theory that IRF-1 functions as a tumor suppressor and represses the transformed phenotype. Here we report that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumors. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments disclose that the SUMOylation sites of IRF-1 are identical to the major ubiquitination sites. Consequently, SUMOylated IRF-1 displays enhanced resistance to degradation. SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its transcription activity, and SUMOylated IRF-1 inhibits apoptosis by repression of its transcriptional activity. These data support a mechanism whereby SUMOylation of IRF-1 inactivates its tumor suppressor function, which facilitates resistance to the immune response. PMID:17942705

Park, Junsoo; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Eun-Ju; Seo, Yun-Jee; Lim, Si-Nae; Park, Kyoungsook; Rho, Seung Bae; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Je-Ho

2007-10-23

231

Elevated nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of children with hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) resulting from impaired drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes hydrocephalus with damage to the central nervous system. Clinical symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in infants may be difficult to diagnose, leading to delayed treatment by shunt placement. Until now, no biochemical marker of elevated ICP has been available for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. In

Frederike Hochhaus; Petra Koehne; Christoph Schäper; Otfrid Butenandt; Ursula Felderhoff-Mueser; Elfride Ring-Mrozik; Michael Obladen; Christoph Bührer

2001-01-01

232

Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic conditions whereas the total annual sum is not climatically dependent. Nutrient cycles of Kilimanjaro forest ecosystems are significantly altered by land use and the associated changes of dominant tree species.

Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

233

Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

Gesch, Dean B.

2013-01-01

234

Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.  

PubMed

Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1? was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )). PMID:25433580

Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogo?anu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neam?u, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Bi??, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

2015-02-01

235

Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. PMID:25481356

Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

2015-03-01

236

Elevated HbA1c levels in individuals not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in Qatar: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Qatar and the Middle East is one of the highest in the world. It is estimated that about one quarter of the individuals with tbl2D are undiagnosed. Elevated HbA1c levels are an indicator of tbl2D or a pre-diabetic state. In this study we set out to examine which factors, such as anthropometric and socio-demographic risk factors, are associated with elevated HbA1c levels in a population without tbl2D. Methods: We examined 191 subjects with no record of tbl2D. Anthropometrics and HbA1c were measured. Socio-demographic (age, gender, ethnicity and educational level) and health information were assessed through questionnaires. Elevated HbA1c levels were defined as >6.0% (>42 mmol/mol). Individual risk factors were examined in relationship to having elevated HbA1c levels using logistic regression. Results: Thirty-eight (20%) study participants had elevated HbA1c levels. Participants from South Asian and Filipino descent were more likely to present with elevated HbA1c levels than Arab participants (adjusted odds ratios (OR): 13.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.24, 41.79), p < 0.001 for South Asian and 4.54 (95% CI: 1.04, 19.83), p = 0.04 for Filipinos). A body mass index of above 30 kg/m2 was associated with elevated HbA1c levels (adjusted OR: 2.90 (95% CI: 1.29, 6.51), p = 0.01). Neither gender nor educational level was associated with elevated HbA1c levels. Conclusions: Elevated HbA1c levels in individuals not diagnosed with diabetes were most frequently found in the South Asian and Filipino immigrant population. Special attention should therefore be given to the early identification of tbl2D in these subjects. PMID:25745600

Mook-Kanamori, Marjonneke J.; El-Din Selim, Mohammed M.; Takiddin, Ahmed H.; Al-Mahmoud, Khoulood A.S.; Al-Homsi, Hala; McKeon, Cindy; Al Muftah, Wadha A.; Kader, Sara Abdul; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Suhre, Karsten

2014-01-01

237

Triglycerides-based diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are under way in many countries, including India, to search for suitable alternative diesel fuels that are environment friendly. The need to search for these fuels arises mainly from the standpoint of preserving the global environment and the concern about long-term supplies of conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. Among the different possible sources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils\\/animal

Anjana Srivastava; Ram Prasad

2000-01-01

238

Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects.  

PubMed

In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical-antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25042713

Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

2015-04-01

239

Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical–antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. PMID:25042713

Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

2015-01-01

240

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

241

ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels  

PubMed Central

The sense of hearing is remarkable for its auditory dynamic range, which spans more than 1012 in acoustic intensity. The mechanisms that enable the cochlea to transduce high sound levels without damage are of key interest, particularly with regard to the broad impact of industrial, military, and recreational auditory overstimulation on hearing disability. We show that ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 receptor subunits in the cochlea are necessary for the development of temporary threshold shift (TTS), evident in auditory brainstem response recordings as sound levels rise. In mice null for the P2RX2 gene (encoding the P2X2 receptor subunit), sustained 85-dB noise failed to elicit the TTS that wild-type (WT) mice developed. ATP released from the tissues of the cochlear partition with elevation of sound levels likely activates the broadly distributed P2X2 receptors on epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic compartment. This purinergic signaling is supported by significantly greater noise-induced suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions derived from outer hair cell transduction and decreased suprathreshold auditory brainstem response input/output gain in WT mice compared with P2RX2-null mice. At higher sound levels (?95 dB), additional processes dominated TTS, and P2RX2-null mice were more vulnerable than WT mice to permanent hearing loss due to hair cell synapse disruption. P2RX2-null mice lacked ATP-gated conductance across the cochlear partition, including loss of ATP-gated inward current in hair cells. These data indicate that a significant component of TTS represents P2X2 receptor-dependent purinergic hearing adaptation that underpins the upper physiological range of hearing. PMID:23592720

Housley, Gary D.; Morton-Jones, Rachel; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M.; Telang, Ravindra S.; Paramananthasivam, Vinthiya; Tadros, Sherif F.; Wong, Ann Chi Yan; Froud, Kristina E.; Cederholm, Jennie M. E.; Sivakumaran, Yogeesan; Snguanwongchai, Peerawuth; Khakh, Baljit S.; Cockayne, Debra A.; Thorne, Peter R.; Ryan, Allen F.

2013-01-01

242

Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

2011-01-01

243

Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels  

PubMed Central

Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e), and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts. PMID:21496215

2011-01-01

244

Falsely elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level due to macro-TSH.  

PubMed

We encountered a 60-year-old woman with remarkably elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level as measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA), but with no specific symptoms, and with normal levels of free T3 and free T4. We performed the following investigations: polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation test, human antimouse IgG antibody (HAMA) interference test, and 3 additional TSH measurements by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). We then performed 2 gel filtration chromatography (GFC) procedures; one was at pH 7.2, and the other was at pH 3.0. Although the recovery of TSH shown by the PEG precipitation test was 4% which was extremely low, no HAMA interference was observed. Moreover, 3 CLIA instruments also showed various high values. The first GFC showed that the main peak of TSH immunoreactivity by ECLIA was located at a slightly larger molecular weight position than that of IgG. By the second GFC, the sample from the peak fraction of the first GFC showed that the TSH peak disappeared completely at the previous retention time but newly appeared at the same retention time as the TSH monomer. Protein G-Agarose gel removed the majority of the TSH complex. In conclusion, the majority of TSH in her serum was macro-TSH; TSH and anti- TSH IgG autoantibody complex. We should keep the possibility of macro-TSH in mind in cases with unexpectedly high TSH values, especially in autoimmune thyroidal disorders. PMID:19336948

Sakai, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Gen; Suzuki, Naoko; Watanabe, Choji; Odawara, Masato

2009-01-01

245

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

246

Elevated ground-level O(3) changes the diversity of anoxygenic purple phototrophic bacteria in paddy field.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the impact of elevated ground-level O(3) below ground the agro-ecosystem is limited. A field experiment in China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE-O(3)) facility on a rice-wheat rotation system was carried out to investigate responses of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria (AnPPB) to elevated ground-level O(3). AnPPB community structures and sizes in paddy soil were monitored by molecular approaches including PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR based upon the pufM gene on three typical rice growth stages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) in combination with culture-reliant method was conducted to reveal changes in genotypic diversity. Elevated ground-level O(3) statistically reduce AnPPB abundance and percentage in total bacterial community in flooded rice soil via decreasing their genotypic diversity and metabolic versatility. Concomitantly, their community composition changed after rice anthesis stage under elevated ground-level O(3). Our results from AnPPB potential responses imply that continuously elevated ground-level O(3) in the future would eventually harm the health of paddy ecosystem through negative effect on soil microorganisms. PMID:21698401

Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhu, Jianguo

2011-11-01

247

Regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein  

PubMed Central

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) facilitates the transport of dietary and endogenous fat by the intestine and liver by assisting in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Higher concentrations of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins predispose individuals to various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. These can potentially be avoided by reducing MTP activity. In this article, we discuss regulation of MTP during development, cellular differentiation and diurnal variation. Furthermore, we focus on the regulation of MTP that occurs at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Transcriptional regulation of MTP depends on a few highly conserved cis-elements in the promoter. Several transcription factors that bind to these elements and either increase or decrease MTP expression have been identified. Additionally, MTP is regulated by macronutrients, hormones and other factors. This article will address the many ways in which MTP is regulated and advance the idea that reducing MTP levels, rather than its inhibition, might be an option to lower plasma lipids. PMID:21808658

Hussain, M Mahmood; Nijstad, Niels; Franceschini, Lisa

2011-01-01

248

Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating ?3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/?mol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r?=?0.287, P?=?0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/?mol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated with the urine of patients with FSGS at presentation, and the signal could be reduced by a blocking antibody specific to uPAR. Conclusions Urinary suPAR was specifically elevated in patients with primary FSGS and was associated with disease severity. The elevated urinary suPAR could activate ?3 integrin on human podocytes. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/82. PMID:24884842

2014-01-01

249

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

Ames, Forrest E.

1994-01-01

250

Experimental study of vane heat transfer and aerodynamics at elevated levels of turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

Ames, Forrest E.

1994-11-01

251

Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant ?H2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

2008-01-01

252

Elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid ?-synuclein oligomers in healthy asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson’s disease (PD). To assess the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ?-synuclein oligomers in symptomatic and asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to investigate total and oligomeric forms of ?-synuclein in CSF samples. The CSF samples were collected from 33 Norwegian individuals with leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations: 13 patients were clinically diagnosed with PD and 20 patients were healthy, asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers. We also included 35 patients with sporadic PD (sPD) and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Levels of CSF ?-synuclein oligomers were significantly elevated in healthy asymptomatic individuals carrying leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations (n = 20; P < 0.0079) and in sPD group (n = 35; P < 0.003) relative to healthy controls. Increased ?-synuclein oligomers in asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers showed a sensitivity of 63.0% and a specificity of 74.0%, with an area under the curve of 0.66, and a sensitivity of 65.0% and a specificity of 83.0%, with an area under the curve of 0.74 for sPD cases. An inverse correlation between CSF levels of ?- synuclein oligomers and disease severity and duration was observed. Our study suggests that quantification of ?-synuclein oligomers in CSF has potential value as a tool for PD diagnosis and presymptomatic screening of high-risk individuals. PMID:25309429

Aasly, Jan O.; Johansen, Krisztina K.; Brųnstad, Gunnar; Warų, Bjųrg J.; Majbour, Nour K.; Varghese, Shiji; Alzahmi, Fatimah; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Amer, Dena A. M.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

2014-01-01

253

Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

254

Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future. PMID:20077130

O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

2010-01-01

255

Inhibition of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Elevates Brain Anandamide Levels and Produces Analgesia  

PubMed Central

The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:24705380

Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Ralph, Brian P.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T.; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W.; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C.; Deutsch, Dale G.; Ojima, Iwao

2014-01-01

256

Elevated nicotianamine levels in Arabidopsis halleri roots play a key role in zinc hyperaccumulation.  

PubMed

Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H; Husted, Sųren; Schjoerring, Jan K; Talke, Ina N; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

2012-02-01

257

Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W  

PubMed Central

Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, Sųren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

2012-01-01

258

Elevation of transcription factor Islet-1 levels in vivo increases ?-cell function but not ?-cell mass.  

PubMed

A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced ?-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance ?-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion without significant changes in ? cell mass. From our microarray study, we identify approximately 135 differentially expressed genes in the islets of Isl-1 overexpressing mice that have been implicated to function in numerous biological processes including protein trafficking, metabolism and differentiation. Using real-time PCR we have confirmed upregulation of Caps2, Sec14l4, Slc2a10, P2rx7, Afamin, and Neurogenin 3 that may in part mediate the observed improved insulin secretion in Isl-1 overexpressing mice. These findings show for the first time that Isl-1 is a key factor in regulating adult ? cell function in vivo, and suggest that Isl-1 elevation could be beneficial to improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:22595886

Liu, Jingxuan; Walp, Erik R; May, Catherine Lee

2012-01-01

259

Elevation of transcription factor Islet-1 levels in vivo increases ?-cell function but not ?-cell mass  

PubMed Central

A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced ?-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance ?-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion without significant changes in ? cell mass. From our microarray study, we identify approximately 135 differentially expressed genes in the islets of Isl-1 overexpressing mice that have been implicated to function in numerous biological processes including protein trafficking, metabolism and differentiation. Using real-time PCR we have confirmed upregulation of Caps2, Sec14l4, Slc2a10, P2rx7, Afamin, and Neurogenin 3 that may in part mediate the observed improved insulin secretion in Isl-1 overexpressing mice. These findings show for the first time that Isl-1 is a key factor in regulating adult ? cell function in vivo, and suggest that Isl-1 elevation could be beneficial to improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:22595886

Liu, Jingxuan; Walp, Erik R.; May, Catherine Lee

2012-01-01

260

Elevated urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 among Chinese factory workers exposed to trichloroethylene  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with renal cancer. The biological mechanisms involved are not exactly known although nephrotoxicity is believed to play a role. Studies on TCE nephrotoxicity among humans, however, have been largely inconsistent. We studied kidney toxicity in Chinese factory workers exposed to TCE using novel sensitive nephrotoxicity markers. Eighty healthy workers exposed to TCE and 45 comparable unexposed controls were included in the present analyses. Personal TCE exposure measurements were taken over a 2-week period before urine collection. Ninety-six percent of workers were exposed to TCE below the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (100 ppm 8h TWA), with a mean (SD) of 22.2 (35.9) ppm. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Pi-glutathione S transferase (GST) alpha were elevated among the exposed subjects as compared with the unexposed controls with a strong exposure-response association between individual estimates of TCE exposure and KIM-1 (P < 0.0001). This is the first report to use a set of sensitive nephrotoxicity markers to study the possible effects of TCE on the kidneys. The findings suggest that at relatively low occupational exposure levels a toxic effect on the kidneys can be observed. This finding supports the biological plausibility of linking TCE exposure and renal cancer. Abbreviations:GSTglutathione-S-transferaseKIM-1kidney injury molecule-1NAGN-acetyl-beta-(d)-glucosaminidaseOVMorganic vapour monitoringTCEtrichloroethyleneVEGFvascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:22665366

Vermeulen, Roel; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

2012-01-01

261

Short-term cognition deficits during early alcohol withdrawal are associated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients with alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Higher plasma homocysteine levels have been found in actively drinking alcoholics as well as in early abstinent patients.\\u000a Furthermore, elevated homocysteine levels are associated with cognitive decline in dementia and in healthy elderly people.\\u000a The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a possible association between homocysteine serum levels and clinically\\u000a well known cognitive deficits during alcohol withdrawal. We

J. Wilhelm; K. Bayerlein; T. Hillemacher; U. Reulbach; H. Frieling; B. Kromolan; D. Degner; J. Kornhuber; S. Bleich

2006-01-01

262

Elevated Plasma Levels of Interleukin-12p40 and Interleukin-16 in Overweight Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Obesity during adolescence is an increasing problem for both the individual and health care systems alike. In Western world countries, childhood adiposity has reached epidemic proportions. It is known that elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines can be found in the plasma of obese patients. In this study, we sought to determine the relation between IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and Interleukin-16 (IL-16) in overweight adolescents. Materials and Methods. Seventy-nine male Caucasian adolescents aged 13–17 years were included in this study. Thirty-seven of them had a body mass index (BMI) above the 90th age-specific percentile. Il-12p40, IL-12p70, and IL-16 were measured from plasma using Luminex multiplex technology. Results. Both IL-12p40 and IL-16 concentrations were significantly increased in overweight subjects compared to normal weight controls (IL-12p40: 1086.6?pg/mL?±?31.7?pg/mL SEM versus 1228.6?pg/mL?±?43.5?pg/mL SEM; IL-16 494.0?pg/mL?±?29.4?pg/mL SEM versus 686.6?pg/mL?±?52.5?pg/mL SEM, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, resp.). No differences were found for IL-12p70. Conclusions. Based on these results, we believe that the increased levels of IL-12p40 and IL-16 are associated with an ongoing inflammatory response in obese individuals and could lead to the development of disease conditions related to obesity. PMID:25710036

Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Fritzenwanger, Michael; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Gerdes, Norbert; Jung, Christian

2015-01-01

263

Vector Percolation Analysis of Triglyceride-based Thermoset Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermosetting Acrylated triglycerides (ATG) were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The distribution of acrylate groups was calculated from the distribution of unsaturation sites on unmodified oils, assuming a binomial distribution of acrylate groups. The ATG were both homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link density v, of the polymers was calculated using the recursive method of Miller and Macosko from a knowledge of the acrylate distribution. The cross-link density was found to increase with the level of acrylation A, in a vector percolation manner, and the trends in the cross-link density predictions matched the experimental results. The deviation in the experimental results and model predictions were the result of intramolecular cross-linking. Approximately 0.5 and 0.8 acrylates per triglyceride were lost to intramolecular cyclization for homopolymerized acrylated triglycerides and triglycerides copolymerized with styrene, respectively. Equations for the level of perfection p, of the triglyceride networks and the percolation threshold pc, were developed using the calculated number of acrylates lost to cyclization. Polymers with p < 0.1 without styrene, and p < 0.39 with styrene did not have mechanical integrity, validating the definition of the level of perfection and percolation threshold pc. The tensile strength, S ˜ [p-p]^1/2 and modulus E ˜ [p-pc]^3 , were in accord with vector percolation theory, where p could be derived experimentally via A ˜ [p-pc] , v ˜ A and FTIR analysis of the extent of reaction of the C=C groups. These results also indicated how mechanical properties were controlled by the fatty acid distribution function of the plant oils, and which oil would give the best particular property. Supported by EPA and DoE.

Lascala, John J.; Wool, Richard P.

2003-03-01

264

Elevated Levels of Triglyceride and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Triglyceride Induced by a High-Carbohydrate Diet Is Associated with Polymorphisms of APOA5-1131T>C and APOC3-482C>T in Chinese Healthy Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Changes in lipid profiles have been shown to be associated with diet and apolipoprotein (APO) polymorphisms. Therefore, 2 polymorphisms, i.e. APOA5-1131T>C and APOC3-482C>T, and serum lipids were examined in a Chinese healthy young population with high-carbohydrate\\/low-fat (HC\\/LF) diet intervention. Methods: After a wash-out diet for 7 days, 56 young adults (22.89 ± 1.80 years) received the HC\\/LF diet for

Jia Lin; Ding Zhi Fang; Juan Du; Sarah Shigdar; Li Ying Xiao; Xue Dong Zhou; Wei Duan

2011-01-01

265

Elevated Levels of Dickkopf-1 Are Associated with ?-Catenin Accumulation and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Chondrosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is an antagonist of Wnt/?-catenin signaling implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the biological role of DKK1 and ?-catenin involved in chondrosarcoma has not been sufficiently investigated. This study was designed to investigate the expression profiles of DKK1 and ?-catenin, and to clarify their clinical values in chondrosarcoma. Methods The mRNA and protein levels of DKK1 and ?-catenin in fresh chondrosarcoma and the corresponding non-tumor tissues were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The protein expression patterns of DKK1 and ?-catenin were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The associations among DKK1 level, ?-catenin accumulation, clinicopathological factors and the overall survival were separately evaluated. Results Both DKK1 and ?-catenin levels were remarkably elevated in chondrosarcoma compared with the corresponding non-tumor tissues. High DKK1 level and positive ?-catenin accumulation in chondrosarcoma specimens were 58.7% and 53.9%, respectively. Elevated DKK1 level significantly correlated with positive ?-catenin accumulation, and they were remarkably associated with histological grade and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society stage. Furthermore, DKK1 level and ?-catenin accumulation had significant impacts on the prognosis of chondrosarcoma patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that DKK1 level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Conclusions Elevated DKK1 levels associated with ?-catenin accumulation play a crucial role in chondrosarcoma. DKK1 can serve as a novel predictor of poor prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma. PMID:25144498

Chen, Changbao; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ma, Xinlong; Liu, Zhongjun; Liu, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

266

Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

Gesch, D.B.

2009-01-01

267

Direct Antidiabetic Effect of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from

Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger

1997-01-01

268

Angiopoietin-2 and Biliary Diseases: Elevated Serum, but Not Bile Levels Are Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is challenging especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and often delayed due to the lack of reliable markers. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) has been employed as a biomarker of angiogenesis and might be involved in tumor neoangiogenesis. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of Angpt-2 as a biomarker to detect patients with CC. Methods Bile and serum Angpt-2 levels were measured in patients with CC (n?=?45), PSC (n?=?74), CC complicating PSC (CC/PSC) (n?=?11) and patients with bile duct stones (n?=?37) in a cross sectional study. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 was compared to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry from human CC liver tissue samples was performed to localize the origin of Angpt-2. Results Serum Angpt-2 concentration was significantly elevated in patients with CC compared to control patients (p<0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis resulted in a higher area under the curve (AUC) value compared to CA19-9 (AUC: 0.85 versus 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74–0.93 versus 0.65–0.87, respectively). Angpt-2 was also detectable in bile, but was not associated with the presence of CC. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong induction of Angpt-2 expression in the tumor vasculature. Conclusions Circulating Angpt-2 in serum might be a promising protein candidate locally derived from the tumor vasculature in patients with CC. Measurement of Angpt-2 in serum may be useful for diagnosis and further clinical management of patients with CC. PMID:24823366

Thamm, Kristina; Schlué, Jerome; Metzger, Jochen; Manns, Michael P.; Lankisch, Tim O.

2014-01-01

269

Deletion polymorphism in the gene for angiotensin converting enzyme is associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme insertion\\/deletion (ACE I\\/D) polymorphism, and its association with other known risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis, has been studied, in a normal south Italian population. Subjects homozygous for deletion showed elevated fasting blood glucose levels when compared with subjects homozygous for insertion. The difference was consistent with an increased number of type 2

Adriana Zingone; Andrea Dominijanni; Evelina Mele; Onorina Marasco; Franca Melina; Pasquale Minchella; Barbara Quaresima; Maria Teresa Tiano; Agostino Gnasso; Arturo Pujia; Nicola Perrotti

1994-01-01

270

Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer. PMID:24474564

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2014-05-01

271

Assessment of Elevated Radionuclide Levels in Soils Associated with an Avian Colony in a High Arctic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an investigation into the occurrence of elevated levels of radionuclides in soils associated with a seabird colony in the Arctic. Soils and other materials were collected from a seabird colony (primarily composed of kittiwakes) in Kongsfjorden, located in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The samples were analyzed for a suite of gamma emitting

M. DOWDALL; J. P. GWYNN; G. W. GABRIELSEN; B. LIND

2005-01-01

272

Elevated plasma cell membrane glycoprotein levels and diminished insulin receptor autophosphorylation in obese, insulin-resistant rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In obese humans, insulin resistance is accompanied by elevated levels of plasma cell membrane glycoprotein (PC-1) and decreased insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle. PC-1 overexpression inhibits IR tyrosine kinase and possibly other downstream signaling events. The rhesus monkey in captivity is susceptible to obesity with concomitant insulin resistance. In the present study we analyzed obese (n

Celia Pender; Heidi K. Ortmeyer; Barbara C. Hansen; Ira D. Goldfine; Jack F. Youngren

2002-01-01

273

Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Blood Lead Screening Among US Children Aged One to Five Years: 1988 -1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To estimate the proportion of children 1 to 5 years of age who received blood lead testing during 1988 -1994 and to assess whether predic- tors of testing coincided with predictors of elevated blood lead levels. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur- vey. Participants. US children 1 to 5 years of

Rachel B. Kaufmann; Timothy L. Clouse; David R. Olson; Thomas D. Matte

2010-01-01

274

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

275

Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature  

PubMed Central

The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20%) and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C). The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 ?g mL–1) and biomass (210 ?g mL–1), which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%), were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30°C under elevated CO2 (6%). Although increases in temperature above 30°C resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30°C, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures. PMID:19333419

Chinnasamy, Senthil; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, Keshav C.

2009-01-01

276

The effect of elevated levels of thyroxine on the aerobic capacity of locomotor muscles of the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following extended periods of relative inactivity, or prior to migration, birds are able to increase the aerobic capacity of their locomotory muscles. Thyroid hormones may influence this process. A preliminary study was undertaken to assess the ability of elevated levels of thyroxine to increase the aerobic capacity of the locomotory and cardiac muscles of adult tufted ducks. Administration of thyroxine

C. M. Bishop; P. J. Butler; N. M. Atkinson

1995-01-01

277

Elevated levels of arsenic in the sediments of an urban pond: sources, distribution and water quality impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of significantly elevated levels of arsenic (As) in the sediments of Spy Pond motivated us to identify the principal As source and to investigate the extent of contamination within the pond. Spy Pond is located in Arlington (MA, USA), a residential and commercial town with no known history of As use by industry or agriculture. Spy Pond is

John L Durant; Tatiana Ivushkina; Kathy MacLaughlin; Heather Lukacs; James Gawel; David Senn; Harold F Hemond

2004-01-01

278

Property analysis of triglyceride-based thermosets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the Flory–Stockmayer theory. Although the model predictions overestimated the cross-link density, the trends in the cross-link density predictions matched the experimental results. In both cases, the cross-link density was

John La Scala; Richard P. Wool

2005-01-01

279

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inźs; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, Franēois; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?įkovį, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferričres, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njųlstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

2013-11-01

280

Amino Acid Change in the Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein is associated with lower triglycerides and myocardial infarction incidence depending on level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the PREDIMED trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variant (rs3812316, C771G, and Gln241His) in the MLXIPL (Max-like protein X interacting protein-like) gene encoding the carbohydrate response element binding protein has been associated with lower triglycerides. However, its association with cardiovascular diseases and gene-diet interactions modul...

281

Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.  

PubMed

Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:918-920. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25327935

Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

2015-05-01

282

Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO2.  

PubMed

The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high ?(9)-THC yielding varieties of Cannabis sativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 ?mol mol(-1)) significantly (p?elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)). An average increase of about 48 %, 45 %, 44 % and 38 % in P N and, about 177 %, 157 %, 191 % and 182 % in WUE was observed due to elevated CO2 (700 ?mol mol(-1)) as compared to ambient CO2 concentration in HPM, K2, MX and W1 varieties, respectively. The higher WUE under elevated CO2 conditions in Cannabis sativa, primarily because of decreased stomatal conductance and subsequently the transpiration rate, may enable this species to survive under expected harsh greenhouse effects including elevated CO2 concentration and drought conditions. The higher P N, WUE and nearly constant C i/C a ratio under elevated CO2 concentrations in this species reflect a close coordination between its stomatal and mesophyll functions. PMID:23573021

Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

2011-07-01

283

Long-term Follow-up of Patients with Elevated PTH Levels following Successful Exploration for Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have documented elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels after seemingly successful exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). It is not known if this is a transient phenomenon after pHPT surgery or if it predisposes to recurrent disease. A series of 99 consecutive patients with pHPT who had solitary parathyroid adenomas were followed for 5 years. Serum levels of PTH and

E. Nordenström; Johan Westerdahl; A. Bergenfelz

2004-01-01

284

Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when

E-ri M Sol; Meri Hovsepyan; Peter Bergsten

2009-01-01

285

Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and elevated alpha fetoprotein level in an infant with isolated hemihyperplasia.  

PubMed

A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 43-day-old baby girl with isolated hemihyperplasia and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein is presented. The child referred to our hospital with bilateral renal masses detected by prenatal and postnatal ultrasonography. A mass lesion was detected in segment 6 of liver and was diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia. We present this case to emphasize the presence of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient with isolated hemihypertrophy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. PMID:19011479

Demir, Hac Ahmet; Varan, Ali; Akēören, Zuhal; Haliloglu, Mithat; Büyükpamukcu, Münevver

2008-10-01

286

Source identification and budget analysis on elevated levels of formaldehyde within ship plumes: a photochemical/dynamic model analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) along the ship corridors have been observed by satellite sensors, such as ESA/ERS-2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and were also predicted by global 3-D chemistry-transport models. In this study, three likely sources of the elevated HCHO levels were investigated to identify the detailed sources and examine the contributions of the sources (budget) of the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors using a newly-developed ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model: (1) primary HCHO emission from ships; (2) secondary HCHO production via the atmospheric oxidation of Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from ships; and (3) atmospheric oxidation of CH4 within the ship plumes. From multiple ship-plume model simulations, CH4 oxidation by elevated levels of in-plume OH radicals was found to be the main factor responsible for the elevated levels of HCHO in the ship corridors. More than ~91% of the HCHO for the base ship plume case (ITCT 2K2 ship-plume case) is produced by this atmospheric chemical process, except in the areas close to the ship stacks where the main source of the elevated HCHO levels would be primary HCHO from the ships (due to the deactivation of CH4 oxidation from the depletion of in-plume OH radicals). Because of active CH4 oxidation (chemical destruction of CH4) by OH radicals, the instantaneous chemical lifetime of CH4 (? CH4) decreased to ~0.45 yr inside the ship plume, which is in contrast to ? CH4 of ~1.1 yr in the background (up to ~41% decrease). A variety of likely ship-plume situations at three locations at different latitudes within the global ship corridors was also studied to determine the extent of the enhancements in the HCHOlevels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) influenced by ship emissions. It was found that the ship-plume HCHO levels could be 20.5-434.9 pptv higher than the background HCHO levels depending on the latitudinal locations of the ship plumes (i.e., intensity of solar radiation and temperature), MBL stability and NOx emission rates. On the other hand, NMVOC emissions from ships were not found to be a primary source of photochemical HCHOproduction inside ship plumes due to their rapid and individual dilution. However, the diluted NMVOCs would contribute to the HCHO productions in the background air. The greater impact of ship-plume photochemistry on the atmospheric MBL oxidation cycles, global climate, and marine eco-system in the global ship corridors are also discussed based on the results in this study.

Song, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; von Glasow, R.; Brimblecombe, P.; Kim, J.; Park, R. J.; Woo, J. H.

2010-06-01

287

PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.  

PubMed

The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ? 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. PMID:24691744

Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuńa-Alonzo, Victor; Velįzquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramķrez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sįnchez, Nahśm; Cįrdenas, Vanessa; Bańuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sįnchez-Muńoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

2014-07-01

288

Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.  

PubMed

Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia. PMID:24984153

Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

2014-07-25

289

ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS DECLINE IN PRIMARY LEAVES OF BARLEY DURING GROWTH AT AMBIENT AND ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary leaves of barley plants which are grown in high light growth chambers in elevated CO2 (100Pa) often develop symptoms of senescence, e.g., chlorophyll a and b decline, chloroplast protein decline and decling net CO2 photoassimilation, compared with the primary leaves of barley plants grow...

290

The combined effects of elevated CO 2 levels and UV-B radiation on growth characteristics of Elymus athericus (= E. pycnanathus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elymus athericus (Link) Kerguélen, a C3 grass, was grown in a greenhouse experiment to determine the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO2 and elevated UV-B radiation levels on plant growth. Plants were subjected to the following treatments; a) ambient CO2-control UV-B, b) ambient CO2-elevated UV-B, c) double CO2-control UV-B, d) double CO2-elevated UV-B. Elevated CO2 concentrations stimulated plant growth, biomass production

J. W. M. Staaij; G. M. Lenssen; M. Stroetenga; J. Rozema

1993-01-01

291

Mutations of the microsomal triglyceride-transfer-protein gene in abetalipoproteinemia.  

PubMed

Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. PMID:8533758

Narcisi, T M; Shoulders, C C; Chester, S A; Read, J; Brett, D J; Harrison, G B; Grantham, T T; Fox, M F; Povey, S; de Bruin, T W

1995-12-01

292

Mutations of the microsomal triglyceride-transfer-protein gene in abetalipoproteinemia  

SciTech Connect

Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. 49 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Narcisi, T.M.E.; Shoulders, C.C.; Chester, S.A. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-12-01

293

Altered platelet reactivity in peripheral vascular disease complicated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated plasma concentrations of the sulphur-containing amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The mechanism by which Hcy exerts these effects has yet to be fully elucidated, although a variety of possible mechanisms have been proposed, including endothelial dysfunction or haemostatic abnormalities. However, the influence of Hcy on platelets, cells central to the

Rocio Riba; Anna Nicolaou; Max Troxler; Shervanthi Homer-Vaniasinkam; Khalid. M. Naseem

2004-01-01

294

PLANT ANIMAL INTERACTIONS Limited impact of elevated levels of polyphenol oxidase  

E-print Network

. Transgenic PPO-overexpressing poplar (Populus tremula Ā· Populus alba) was used as a source of elevated-feeding caterpillars: assessing individual plant defenses with transgenic poplar Raymond V. Barbehenn Ć? Christopher P Poplar Ɓ Transgenic trees Ɓ Herbivore Introduction Although polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is widely produced

Constabel, Peter

295

EFFECTS OF TILLAGE PRACTICE AND ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 LEVEL ON SOIL CO2 EFFLUX  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated atmospheric CO2 can affect both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which will impact the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere; research is needed to more accurately quantify the effects of CO2 on soil respirat...

296

Chief Complaint at Admission Relates to Troponin Level and Mortality in Patients With Non-ACS Troponin Elevation  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated level of troponin T (TnT) in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be caused by a number of conditions but the relevance of the chief complaint at admission for TnT level and prognosis has not been reported previously. The aim was to study whether TnT level differs among chief complaints or underlying causes in patients with non-ACS TnT elevation and if these factors predict mortality. Methods Patients admitted with TnT elevation were categorized as ACS or non-ACS and followed for 1 year. Statistical comparisons between different chief complaints and underlying causes were performed. Results Patients with non-ACS TnT elevation (n = 71) were less likely to present with chest pain compared to ACS (n = 50) (37% vs. 74%, P < 0.001) whereas dyspnea (25%), syncope/arrhythmia (14%) or other chief complaints (24%) were more common. Patients with dyspnea and other chief complaints had higher peak values of TnT compared to chest pain (P < 0.05). The most common peak occurred within 3 hours after admission for chest pain, dyspnea and other chief complaints whereas for arrhythmia it occurred after 3 - 9 hours (P < 0.01). A peak value > 15 hours after admission was only observed among dyspnea and other chief complaints. Mortality was higher in patients presenting with dyspnea (50%) or other causes (35%) compared to chest pain (8%) or syncope/arrhythmia (10%) (P < 0.05). Renal failure was the only underlying cause that predicted mortality. Conclusion Among patients with non-ACS TnT elevation, patients presenting with dyspnea had higher TnT and higher 1-year mortality, whereas patients with chest pain were at lower risk.

Piscator, Eva; Lowing Svensson, Lukas; Svensson, Per

2015-01-01

297

Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.  

PubMed

The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts. PMID:21166283

Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

2010-08-01

298

Impact of Elevated Levels of Atmospheric CO 2 and Herbivory on Flavonoids of Soybean ( Glycine max Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability\\u000a as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf\\u000a palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid

Bridget F. O’Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Orla Dermody; Damla D. Bilgin; Clare L. Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

2010-01-01

299

Growth Response and Tissue Accumulation Trends of Herbaceous Wetland Plant Species Exposed to Elevated Aqueous Mercury Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by

Jonathan M. Willis; Robert P. Gambrell; Mark W. Hester

2010-01-01

300

The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality.  

PubMed

This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were increased significantly (median 5.5; range 2.4-21.0 ng/mL) in 141 patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, compared to 31 healthy controls (median 2.6, range 1.5-4.0 ng/mL, p 0.001). Furthermore, suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients who died from the infection (n = 24) compared to survivors (n = 117; p < 0.001). No correlation was found between suPAR levels and C-reactive protein. In univariate logistic regression analysis, hypotension, renal failure, cerebral symptoms and high serum concentrations of protein YKL-40 and suPAR were associated significantly with mortality (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, only suPAR remained a significant predictor of death (mortality rate of 13 for suPAR levels of > 10 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.1-158). The increase in suPAR levels may reflect increased expression by vascular or inflammatory cells in the setting of pneumococcal sepsis. This plasma protein may be used to identify patients who are severely ill with pneumococcal bacteraemia. PMID:15113317

Wittenhagen, P; Kronborg, G; Weis, N; Nielsen, H; Obel, N; Pedersen, S S; Eugen-Olsen, J

2004-05-01

301

Adverse clinical outcomes associated with elevated blood alcohol levels at the time of burn injury.  

PubMed

Elevated blood alcohol content (BAC) on admission is associated with poorer outcomes, larger burns and more inhalation injury. This study's purpose was to examine the effects of alcohol through a matched case-controlled study, measuring early and extended markers of clinical outcomes. The hypothesis was that patients with an elevated admission BAC would require more resuscitation and have a longer hospital stay. Admissions 16 to 75 years of age with 15 to 75% TBSA and admission BACs were identified. Patients with BAC >30 mg/dl (BAC+, cases) were matched with patients with undetectable BAC (BAC-, controls), according to age, sex, TBSA, inhalation injury and mechanism. Screening identified 258 patients, 146 with admission BACs. Twenty-seven had a BAC > or = 30 mg/dl. There were 24 matched pairs. At 24 hours, BAC+ group had larger acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II scores (23.33 vs 18.75, P < .05), fluid requirements (5.25 vs 3.82 L (cc/kg/TBSA), P < .05), and base deficit (11.15 vs 7.15, P < .05). The duration of mechanical ventilation (14.85 vs 4.23 days, P < .05), intensive care unit length of stay (22.85 vs 9.38, P < .05), hospital length of stay (28.95 vs 15.68, P < .05), and mean hospital charges ($239,507 vs $144,598, P < .05) were increased in the BAC+ patients. Despite matched baseline injury characteristics, elevated BAC was associated with poorer short term and extended clinical outcomes, illustrating the impact of alcohol intoxication on physiologic derangement after burn injury. PMID:18695611

Silver, Geoffrey M; Albright, Joslyn M; Schermer, Carol R; Halerz, Marcia; Conrad, Peggie; Ackerman, Paul D; Lau, Linda; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Gamelli, Richard L

2008-01-01

302

Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary  

PubMed Central

Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

Sinha, Navin Kumar

2014-01-01

303

High plasma cholesterol, but low triglycerides and plaque-free arteries, in Mexican free-tailed bats.  

PubMed

Female mammals typically become hyperphagic from mid- to late pregnancy and during lactation. Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, double their nightly food intake from late pregnancy to peak lactation and consume an insect diet that is exceptionally high in fat. During late pregnancy and throughout lactation, fasting plasma levels of cholesterol in this insectivorous bat are high (215 +/- 8 mg/dl) and are nearly 10-fold higher than in three species of Old World frugivorous bats. Fasting triglycerides were unexpectedly low in T. brasiliensis (25 +/- 2 mg/dl), despite evidence of high fat intake during nightly feeding bouts (postprandial cholesterol and triglycerides, 268 +/- 18 and 122 +/- 20 mg/dl, respectively). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were extraordinarily high (124 +/- 5 mg/dl) and unaffected by feeding. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were correspondingly low (86 +/- 7 mg/dl). This unusual plasma lipid profile was not associated with coronary or aortic atherosclerosis, nor was there evidence of hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia. A high-fat diet and high levels of cholesterol in T. brasiliensis are not correlated with cardiovascular disease or (possibly) insulin resistance. Among several possible factors that might account for these observations, nightly bouts of powered flight (commuting and foraging for food) may contribute to elevated HDL cholesterol, which may protect this species from developing atherosclerosis. PMID:8945941

Widmaier, E P; Gornstein, E R; Hennessey, J L; Bloss, J M; Greenberg, J A; Kunz, T H

1996-11-01

304

Elevated Plasma Long Pentraxin-3 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pre-transplant, and 6 and 24 hours post reperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction<0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 hours were associated with PGD (OR=1.6, p=0.02 at 6hrs; OR=1.4, p=0.008 at 24hrs). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted. PMID:21883907

Diamond, Joshua M.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Ahya, Vivek N.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Deutschman, Clifford C.; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Ashish S.; Belperio, John A.; Wilkes, David; Reynolds, John M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2011-01-01

305

Elevated plasma long pentraxin-3 levels and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pretransplant, and 6 and 24 h postreperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 h of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction < 0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 h were associated with PGD (OR = 1.6, p = 0.02 at 6 h; OR = 1.4, p = 0.008 at 24 h). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted. PMID:21883907

Diamond, J M; Lederer, D J; Kawut, S M; Lee, J; Ahya, V N; Bellamy, S; Palmer, S M; Lama, V N; Bhorade, S; Crespo, M; Demissie, E; Sonett, J; Wille, K; Orens, J; Shah, P D; Weinacker, A; Weill, D; Kohl, B A; Deutschman, C C; Arcasoy, S; Shah, A S; Belperio, J A; Wilkes, D; Reynolds, J M; Ware, L B; Christie, J D

2011-11-01

306

Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma exhibit elevated levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells upon progression of disease.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) induced by tumor-derived factors are associated with inhibition of immune responses in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. We hypothesized that pro-MDSC cytokines and levels of MDSC in the peripheral blood would be elevated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with progressive disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 16 pancreatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and phenotyped for MDSC using a five antigen panel (CD33, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD14, CD15). Patients with stable disease had significantly lower MDSC levels in the peripheral blood than those with progressive disease (1.41 ± 1.12 vs. 5.14 ± 4.58 %, p = 0.013, Wilcoxon test). A cutoff of 2.5 % MDSC identified patients with progressive disease. Patients with ECOG performance status ?2 had a weaker association with increased levels of MDSC. Plasma was obtained from 15 chemonaive patients, 13 patients undergoing chemotherapy and 9 normal donors. Increases in the levels of pro-MDSC cytokines were observed for pancreatic cancer patients versus controls, and the pro-MDSC cytokine IL-6 was increased in those patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study suggests that MDSC in peripheral blood may be a predictive biomarker of chemotherapy failure in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:25305035

Markowitz, Joseph; Brooks, Taylor R; Duggan, Megan C; Paul, Bonnie K; Pan, Xueliang; Wei, Lai; Abrams, Zachary; Luedke, Eric; Lesinski, Gregory B; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Carson, William E

2015-02-01

307

Levels of Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... How do I know if my cholesterol and triglyceride levels are optimal? The following tables provide some ... or higher Gives some protection against heart disease Triglyceride Level Classification Less than 150 mg/dL Desirable ...

308

Elevated Cyclic AMP Levels in T Lymphocytes Transformed by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1?  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), transforms CD4+ T cells to permanent growth through its transactivator Tax. HTLV-1-transformed cells share phenotypic properties with memory and regulatory T cells (T-reg). Murine T-reg-mediated suppression employs elevated cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels as a key regulator. This led us to determine cAMP levels in HTLV-1-transformed cells. We found elevated cAMP concentrations as a consistent feature of all HTLV-1-transformed cell lines, including in vitro-HTLV-1-transformed, Tax-transformed, and patient-derived cells. In transformed cells with conditional Tax expression, high cAMP levels coincided with the presence of Tax but were lost without it. However, transient ectopic expression of Tax alone was not sufficient to induce cAMP. We found specific downregulation of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in HTLV-1-transformed cells, which was independent of Tax in transient expression experiments. This is in line with the notion that PDE3B transcripts and cAMP levels are inversely correlated. Overexpression of PDE3B led to a decrease of cAMP in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Decreased expression of PDE3B was associated with inhibitory histone modifications at the PDE3B promoter and the PDE3B locus. In summary, Tax transformation and its continuous expression contribute to elevated cAMP levels, which may be regulated through PDE3B suppression. This shows that HTLV-1-transformed cells assume biological features of long-lived T-cell populations that potentially contribute to viral persistence. PMID:20573814

Kress, Andrea K.; Schneider, Grit; Pichler, Klemens; Kalmer, Martina; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Grassmann, Ralph

2010-01-01

309

Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was more in DHM117 than HQPM1. This suggests that DHM117 utilized more assimilates in maintaining the homeostasis against imposed oxidative stress, causing less translocation of assimilates to reproductive parts and thus affecting the final yield. In terms of yield it is suggested that performance of HQPM1 (quality protein maize) was better than the DHM117 (non quality protein maize). PMID:25023387

Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2014-10-01

310

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

NONE

1998-08-01

311

Children's Elevated Cortisol Levels at Daycare: A Review and Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home…

Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

2006-01-01

312

Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure the neuropsychologic effects of unidentified childhood exposure to lead, the performance of 58 children with high and 100 with low dentine lead levels was compared. Children with high lead levels scored significantly less well on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) than those with low lead levels. This difference was also apparent on verbal subtests, on three

H. L. Needleman; C. Gunnoe; A. Leviton; R. Reed; H. Peresie; C. Maher; P. Barrett

1979-01-01

313

Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

2003-08-15

314

Elevated levels of serum type I collagen C-telopeptide in patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip.  

PubMed

We compared type I collagen degradation using serum cross-linking C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) in 18 patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthrosis and in 20 patients with slowly progressive osteoarthrosis of the hip. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. Total hip arthroplasty was performed in all patients. Serum levels of ICTP, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide were studied. Patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthrosis had higher mean (SD) serum ICTP levels than patients with slowly progressive osteoarthrosis [13.2 (5.6) versus 3.7 ng/ml (1.4), p=0.001] whereas no significant difference of all other markers was seen between the groups. Elevation of ICTP levels correlated significantly with decreased joint-space width assessed by radiographs of the hip (p=0.01). Our data suggest that rapidly destructive hip osteoarthrosis is associated with elevated serum ICTP levels, reflecting increased collagen type I degradation. PMID:15625614

Berger, Christian E; Kröner, Andreas; Stiegler, Helmar; Leitha, Thomas; Engel, Alfred

2005-02-01

315

Quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine optimum operating conditions, an extensive study was made of the variables affecting quantitative recovery and\\u000a resolution of model triglyceride mixtures. Parameters investigated included: flash heater temperature, carrier gas flow rate,\\u000a type of carrier gas, column length, glass and metal columns, temperature program rate, linearity of detector response, physical\\u000a design of gas chromatograph, and molecular species of triglyceride.\\u000a \\u000a Results

Carter Litchfield; R. D. Harlow; Raymond Reiser

1965-01-01

316

Elevated natural killer cell levels and autoimmunity synergistically decrease uterine blood flow during early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether natural killer (NK) cell and autoimmune antibody acts synergistically, by the action of autoantibodies to increase NK cell number and cytotoxicity, to decrease uterine blood flow during early pregnancy in pregnant women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Methods Seventy-five pregnant women (between 5 and 7 weeks gestation) with a history of unexplained RSA were included in the study group. Forty-one pregnant women without a history of RSA were included as controls. All women with a history of RSA were tested for autoantibodies and number of peripheral blood natural killer (pbNK) cell by flow cytometry. Study populations were stratified into four groups by existence of autoantibody and degree of increase of pbNK cells. The uterine radial artery resistance index (RI) was measured by color-pulsed Doppler transvaginal ultrasound. Results The mean RI of the autoimmune antibody-positive (AA+) group (0.63±0.09) was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (0.53±0.10, P=0.001). The mean RI of the AA+/only-NK elevated (eNK) group (0.63±0.09) was significantly higher than those of the only-AA+ group (0.55±0.07, P=0.019) and the only-eNK group (0.57±0.07, P=0.021). Conclusion Concurrent elevation in NK cells and autoimmunity results in decreased uterine blood flow during early pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of RSA remain unexplained and larger scale studies are needed to confirm our conclusion and to develop diagnostic and therapeutic plans for women with a history of RSA. PMID:24883292

Yi, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Jung Hyun; Koo, Hwa Seon; Bae, Ju Youn; Cha, Sun Wha

2014-01-01

317

The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p?=?0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Conclusion The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01634256 PMID:23497020

2013-01-01

318

Elevated vitreous nitric oxide levels in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine nitric oxide levels in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.METHODS: Using the spectrophotometric method based on Griess reaction, we measured levels of nitrite, the stable product of nitric oxide, in the vitreous of 21 eyes of 21 patients who underwent vitrectomy for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy with

Gürsel Yilmaz; Peter Esser; Norbert Kociek; Pinar Aydin; Klaus Heimann

2000-01-01

319

Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

2011-01-01

320

Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic  

SciTech Connect

Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ? Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ? Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ? Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ? Study subjects with arsenic-induced skin lesions show elevated plasma Big ET-1 levels. ? Arsenic-induced hypertension and skin lesions may be linked to plasma Big ET-1 levels.

Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh)] [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)] [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

2012-03-01

321

Chitinase 3-Like 1 Protein Levels Are Elevated in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background Currently there are few studies characterising the nature and aetiology of human schistosome-related inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40, a molecule associated with inflammatory processes, and schistosome infection, morbidity and systemic cytokine levels. Methods Serological levels of CHI3L1 and a panel of cytokines (IFN-y, IL-4/5/6/9/10/13 and 17) were measured in two Zimbabwean populations resident in a high and low schistosome infection area. CHI3L1 levels were related to schistosome infection, haematuria status and cytokine levels after allowing for confounding variables. The effect of antihelminthic treatment with praziquantel on CHI3L1 levels was determined in 246 participants 6 weeks post-treatment. Results CHI3L1 levels increased with age in both areas but were significantly higher in the high infection areas compared to the low infection area. CHI3L1 levels were also higher in infected compared to uninfected individuals with this difference being significant in the youngest age group. Curative antihelminthic treatment resulted in a significant decrease in CHI3L1 levels. Of the cytokines, only IL-10 and IL-17 had a significant association with CHI3L1 levels, and this association was negative. Conclusions Serum CHI3L1 levels differ between infected and uninfected people before and after antihelminthic treatment. The greatest difference occurs in the youngest age group, in keeping with the period when schistosome-related pathological processes are initiated. Following from previous studies in non-infectious diseases showing that CHI3L1 is a biomarker for the inflammatory process, this study suggests that the potential for CHI3L1 as a biomarker for schistosome-related pathology should be explored further. PMID:23145202

Appleby, Laura J.; Nausch, Norman; Bourke, Claire D.; Rujeni, Nadine; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Allen, Judith E.; Mutapi, Francisca

2012-01-01

322

Elevated Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in the Placenta Are Associated With in utero HIV-1 Mother-To-Child Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if there is an association between cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma isolated from the placenta and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Design We designed a case-control study of HIV-infected, pregnant women enrolled in the Malaria and HIV in Pregnancy cohort. Participants were recruited in Blantyre, Malawi from 2000-04. Cases were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-positive at birth (in utero MTCT) or HIV-1 DNA-negative at birth and HIV-1 DNA-positive at 6-weeks post-partum (intrapartum MTCT); controls were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-negative both at birth and 6-weeks post-partum. Methods After delivery, blood was isolated from an incision on the basal plate of the placenta. We used a Luminex assay to simultaneously quantify 27 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in placental plasma. HIV-1 RNA copies were quantified with the Roche Amplicor kit. Results Levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, eotaxin, IL1Ra and IP-10 were significantly elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of in utero HIV-1 MTCT. In contrast, only GCSF was elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of intrapartum MTCT. After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age, and peripheral CD4+ T cell count, every log10 increase in placental IP-10 was associated with a three-fold increase in the prevalence of in utero HIV-1 MTCT. Conclusions Elevated cytokine and chemokine levels in placental plasma were associated with in utero and not intrapartum MTCT. IP-10, which is both a T-cell chemokine and potentiator of HIV-replication, was robustly and independently associated with prevalent, in utero MTCT. PMID:22301415

Kumar, Surender B.; Rice, Cara E.; Milner, Danny A.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ackerman, William E.; Mwapasa, Victor; Turner, Abigail Norris; Kwiek, Jesse J.

2012-01-01

323

Elevation of cyclic AMP levels in HL-60 cells accumulated in G1 or G2 by transmethylation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Effects of the transmethylation inhibitors 3-deazaadenosine (c3Ado) and 3-deaza-(+/-)-aristeromycin (c3Ari) on cell cycle and cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were studied by flow cytometry and radioimmunoassay techniques. Previously described cell cycle accumulations, after incubation with drugs (25 microM) for two cell doublings (36 hr), were localized to G1 and G2 after incubation with c3Ado and c3Ari, respectively. cAMP levels were elevated in cells treated with c3Ado (35%) and c3Ari (92%) for 36 hr. Addition of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor theophylline, increased cAMP levels further, while cAMP responsiveness to the beta-adrenergic stimulator isoproterenol was attenuated after c3Ado and c3Ari incubation. Homocysteine thiolactone (Hcy) alone reduced cell growth slightly (5%) and increased cAMP levels (17%). Hcy increased the growth inhibitory effects of c3Ado, while no modulating effect was seen in combination with c3Ari, nor did Hcy counteract the effects on the cell cycle perturbations. The results suggest that c3Ado- and c3Ari-induced cell cycle accumulation is, at least in part, mediated through cAMP elevation, possibly due to PDE inhibition secondary to S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase inhibition and S-adenosyl-homocysteine build-up. PMID:1656997

Prytz, P S; Bang, B E; Endresen, P C; Mųller, C; Aarbakke, J

1991-10-01

324

Elevated Plasma Stromal-Cell-Derived Factor-1 Protein Levels Correlate with Severity in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate differential changes in plasma levels of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) before and after antibiotic treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and observe the association between the severity of CAP and the plasma SDF-1 level. Methods. We gathered blood specimens from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls to measure the plasma concentrations of SDF-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The plasma SDF-1 concentration was elevated significantly in patients with CAP before receiving treatment compared with the controls and decreased significantly after the patients received treatment. Leukocyte (WBC) and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels decreased significantly after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, differences in the plasma concentration of SDF-1 were significantly correlated with PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores (r = 0.389, P = 0.002, and n = 61; r = 0.449, P < 0.001, and n = 61; and r = 0.363, P = 0.004, and n = 61, resp.). Conclusions. An elevated plasma SDF-1 concentration can be used as a biological marker for the early diagnosis of CAP and for the early detection of its severity. PMID:25371597

Tsai, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wang, Hsiang-Ling; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Shun-Fa

2014-01-01

325

Elevated levels of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins in plasma from human cancers detected by C. septicum alpha toxin  

PubMed Central

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a glycan and lipid posttranslational modification added to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Certain enzymes within the GPI biosynthetic pathway, particularly the subunits of the GPI transamidase, are elevated in various human cancers. Specific GPI anchored proteins, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and mesothelin, have been described as potential biomarkers for certain cancers; however, the overall levels of GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from cases of human cancers have not been evaluated. We have developed the use of a bacterial toxin known as alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum to detect GPI anchored proteins in vitro. In this study, we use alpha toxin to detect GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from cases of several types of human cancers. Our data indicate that human cancers with previously documented elevations of GPI transamidase subunits show increased alpha toxin binding to plasma from patients with these cancers, indicating increased levels of GPI anchored proteins. Furthermore, our results reveal very low levels of alpha toxin binding to plasma from patients with no malignant disease indicating few GPI anchored proteins are present. These data suggest that GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from these cancers represent biomarkers with potential use for cancer detection. PMID:24643042

Dolezal, Samuel; Hester, Shanterian; Kirby, Pamela S.; Nairn, Allison; Pierce, Michael; Abbott, Karen L.

2014-01-01

326

Elevated levels of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins in plasma from human cancers detected by C. septicum alpha toxin.  

PubMed

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a glycan and lipid posttranslational modification added to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Certain enzymes within the GPI biosynthetic pathway, particularly the subunits of the GPI transamidase, are elevated in various human cancers. Specific GPI anchored proteins, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and mesothelin, have been described as potential biomarkers for certain cancers; however, the overall levels of GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from cases of human cancers have not been evaluated. We have developed the use of a bacterial toxin known as alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum to detect GPI anchored proteins in vitro. In this study, we use alpha toxin to detect GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from cases of several types of human cancers. Our data indicate that human cancers with previously documented elevations of GPI transamidase subunits show increased alpha toxin binding to plasma from patients with these cancers, indicating increased levels of GPI anchored proteins. Furthermore, our results reveal very low levels of alpha toxin binding to plasma from patients with no malignant disease indicating few GPI anchored proteins are present. These data suggest that GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from these cancers represent biomarkers with potential use for cancer detection. PMID:24643042

Dolezal, Samuel; Hester, Shanterian; Kirby, Pamela S; Nairn, Allison; Pierce, Michael; Abbott, Karen L

2014-01-01

327

Single-item screens identified patients with elevated levels of depressive and somatization symptoms in outpatient physical therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Develop efficient and accurate screening tools to identify elevated levels of depressive or somatization symptoms, which can\\u000a adversely affect functional status outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a secondary analysis of prospectively collected depressive and somatization symptoms (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised)\\u000a data from 10,920 patients receiving outpatient physical therapy for a variety of neuromusculoskeletal diagnoses. Item response\\u000a theory methods were used to analyze data,

Dennis L. HartMark; Mark W. Werneke; Steven Z. George; Daniel Deutscher

328

Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food  

SciTech Connect

When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

1988-01-01

329

Health of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) with elevated tissue levels of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were collected in 1996 from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Histologic examination was performed on major organs of 497 specimens and on the liver of 48 additional individuals. Preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatic changes consisted of vacuolated cell (n = 65), clear cell (n = 17), and acidophilic (n = 16) foci of altered hepatocyte, hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 12), cholangioma (n = 5), and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 28). Six fish were intersexes (1.2%), and 11.7% of the ovaries (26/223) had ducts containing spermatogonia or more differentiated cells of the male germ cell line. Asynchronous nodular maturation of the testes was present in 8.2% of the male fish (22/267). The mean hepatic concentrations of various contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes, pesticides, and trace metals, were 6 to 8 times higher in lake whitefish than in three other fish species (Ictalurus punctatus, Catostomus commersoni, and Stizostedion vitreum) collected at the same site. Condition factor of lake whitefish from this study was lower than that previously reported 40 to 50 years ago at this site and from contemporary pristine sites in the Great Lakes, USA. The presence of liver neoplasms, gonadal lesions, and a decreased condition factor in lake whitefish from the St. Lawrence River may be etiologically related to elevated tissue concentrations of toxic chemical contaminants. PMID:11883413

Mikaelian, Igor; de Lafontaine, Yves; Harshbarger, John C; Lee, Lucy L J; Martineau, Daniel

2002-03-01

330

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-07-01

331

Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose-response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. PMID:25281834

Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

2014-10-01

332

Rhode Island Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal salt marsh is especially sensitive to deterioration due to the effects of accelerated sea level rise when combined with other anthropogenically linked stressors, including crab herbivory, changes in tidal hydrology, nutrient loading, dam construction, changes in temperature...

333

Maintenance of elevated fetal hemoglobin levels by decitabine during dose interval treatment of sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (decitabine) aug- ments fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels in patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) who did not respond to hydroxyurea (HU). The present study was designed to determine the effect of repeated decitabine dosing on HbF levels and hematologic toxicity over a 9-month treatment period. Seven patients (5 HU nonresponders) were en- tered. One

Joseph DeSimone; Mabel Koshy; Louise Dorn; Donald Lavelle; Linda Bressler; Robert Molokie; Nasrin Talischy

334

Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.  

PubMed

To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:24072270

Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

2013-10-01

335

Elevated Plasma Total Cholesterol Level Is Associated with the Risk of Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is one of the most common causes of stroke, and dyslipidemia was one of the most common risk factors related to ICAS. However, the correlation between the plasma total cholesterol level (PTC) and ICAS, especially asymptomatic ICAS (AICAS) is not clear. Materials and Methods 5,300 participants were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of AICAS was made by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The participants were then divided into 5 essentially equal-sized groups based on their PTC levels. The multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the PTC level and the prevalence of AICAS. Results 13.0% of the participants were diagnosed with AICAS. The prevalence of AICAS gradually increased with the increasing PTC level. After adjusted by the possible confounding factors, the Odds Ratios (OR) of the AICAS prevalence between the 1st quintile group and the other 4 groups were 1.13, 1.23, 1.63 and 1.75 with 95% confident intervals (CI) of 0.84–1.52, 0.91–1.66, 1.20–2.22 and 1.23–2.47, respectively. The further subgroup analysis revealed that the PTC level was stronger for males (OR 1.42 95%CI 1.23–1.64), regarding the prevalence of AICAS. Conclusions In this large community-based study, the prevalence of AICAS is 13.0%, subjects with higher PTC levels showed a mild increase in the prevalence of AICAS. The PTC level is an independent risk factor of AICAS. Males seem to be significantly more vulnerable to the risk of AICAS. PMID:24992466

Wu, Jianwei; Qu, Weikai; Wang, Chunxue; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

2014-01-01

336

Experimentally elevated levels of testosterone at independence reduce fitness in a territorial bird.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions and individual strategies in early life may have a profound effect on fitness. A critical moment in the life of an organism occurs when an individual reaches independence and stops receiving benefits from its relatives. Understanding the consequences of individual strategies at the time of independence requires quantification of their fitness effects. We explored this period in the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). In this system, testosterone and parasite (Trichostrongylus tenuis) levels are known to influence survival and reproduction, the two key components of individual fitness. We experimentally and simultaneously manipulated testosterone and parasites at three levels (high, intermediate, and control levels for both factors) in 195 young males in five populations using a factorial experimental design. We explored the effects of our treatments on fitness by monitoring reproduction and survival throughout the life of all males and estimating lambda(ind), a rate-sensitive index of fitness. Parasite challenges increased the number of worms with a time lag, as previously found. However, we did not find significant effects of parasite manipulations on fitness, possibly because parasite abundance did not increase to harmful levels. Our hormone manipulation was successful at increasing testosterone at three different levels. Such increases in hormone levels decreased overall fitness. This was caused by reduced offspring production in the first breeding attempt rather than by any effect of the treatment on bird survival. Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels at independence, a strategy that might enhance short-term recruitment probability in territorial species such as Red Grouse, has a fitness cost, and can influence the resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and survival later in life. PMID:24933821

Martķnez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodrķguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S C; Redpath, S M

2014-04-01

337

Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.  

PubMed

To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

2015-02-01

338

Elevated plasma leptin levels of fasted rainbow trout decrease rapidly in response to feed intake.  

PubMed

Leptin has an anorexigenic effect in fish, indicating a role in regulation of growth and energy homeostasis. The study aimed to further clarify the physiological role of leptin in rainbow trout, specifically its short-term response to feed intake after a period of fasting. Utilizing a salmonid leptin radioimmunoassay, the study demonstrates differences in plasma leptin levels in fishes with different nutritional status and at the onset of feeding. Some of the fasted fish were clearly in a state of anorexia, and did not initiate feeding during the 72h refeeding period. For those fish that did initiate feeding, both previously fed and fasted, plasma leptin levels rapidly decreased during the first 24h in correlation with increased amount of food reaching the gastrointestinal tract, while non-feeding individuals retained a high plasma leptin levels. The data indicate that the leptin-induced anorexic state is broken after onset of feeding and that the regulatory mechanisms leading to decreased plasma leptin levels are linked to nutrient levels. PMID:25745812

Johansson, Marcus; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

2015-04-01

339

Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Microvesicles (MV) have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a) to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b) to determine their cellular origin; and (c) to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL) was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation). Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55), median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27). Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18%) had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

Curry, Nicola; Raja, Amber; Beavis, James; Stanworth, Simon; Harrison, Paul

2014-01-01

340

Acute mania is accompanied by elevated glutamate\\/glutamine levels within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) participates in the pathophysiology of mania. In particular, left-sided structural\\u000a and metabolic abnormalities have been described.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Clinical symptoms may be due to hyperactivity of cortical glutamatergic neurons, resulting in increased excitatory neurotransmitter\\u000a flux and thus enhanced Glx levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Glutamate\\/glutamine (Glx) levels were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in eight acute manic patients compared

Nikolaus Michael; Andreas Erfurth; Patricia Ohrmann; Michael Gössling; Volker Arolt; Walter Heindel; Bettina Pfleiderer

2003-01-01

341

Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion  

PubMed Central

Background Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when stimulatory secretion of insulin was reduced or basal secretion was elevated, respectively. Results After culture, cells were protein profiled by SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were discovered and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Complimentary protein profiles were obtained by the two approaches with SELDI-TOF-MS being more efficient in separating proteins in the low molecular range and 2D-PAGE in the high molecular range. Identified proteins included alpha glucosidase, calmodulin, gars, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, lon peptidase, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, proteasome p45, rab2, pyruvate kinase and t-complex protein. The observed glucose-induced differential protein expression pattern indicates enhanced glucose metabolism, defense against reactive oxygen species, enhanced protein translation, folding and degradation and decreased insulin granular formation and trafficking. Palmitate-induced changes could be related to altered exocytosis. Conclusion The identified altered proteins indicate mechanism important for altered ?-cell function in T2DM. PMID:19607692

Sol, E-ri M; Hovsepyan, Meri; Bergsten, Peter

2009-01-01

342

Effects of elevated peroxidase levels and corn earworm feeding on gene expression in tomato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato gene arrays were used to investigate how high levels of transgenic peroxidase expression and feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, affected expression of defensive and other genes. High peroxidase activity significantly upregulated proteinase inhibitors and a few other defensive gene...

343

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ELEVATED PTH LEVELS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS IN HOUSTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) have been reported in adolescents with low 25-hydroxyvitamins D status (25D). As part of a study evaluating longitudinal changes in calcium (Ca) metabolism, we gave Ca-fortified orange juice (Ca-OJ, Minute Maid) once daily with breakfast to 88 adolescents (...

344

Developmental and behavioural functions in young children with elevated blood lead levels.  

PubMed Central

Blood lead levels in some pre-schoolchildren living near a lead works and particularly in some children with fathers employed at the lead works showed evidence of increased exposure. Forty-seven of them took part three years later in a follow-up study of their developmental and behavioural functions. The children were aged between 4 and 5 1/2 years and were closely matched for age, sex, social class, parental education, area, and length of residence. Only three children had moved house since their blood lead levels had been examined at two years of age; these levels ranged between 18 and 64 microgram/100 ml. None of the children had clinical symptoms of plumbism. No statistically significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) differences were found on developmental and behavioural scores when the children were divided into two groups of less than or equal to 35 microgram/100 ml (n = 23) and greater than 35 microgram/100 ml (n = 24). The differences in scores were of the same order as those between boys and girls, which were themselves generally not significant. Behaviour ratings did not differ. The variations in developmental skills were generally found to be more related to age and schooling; neither these factors nor the difference in sex was related to blood lead levels. PMID:597680

Ratcliffe, J M

1977-01-01

345

Elevated mercury levels in pregnant woman linked to skin cream from Mexico.  

PubMed

Mercury exposure during pregnancy can have serious health effects for a developing fetus including impacting the child's neurologic and cognitive development. Through biomonitoring in a low-income Latina population in California, we identified a patient with high levels of mercury and traced the source to face creams purchased in a pharmacy in Mexico. PMID:23685000

Dickenson, Carrie A; Woodruff, Tracey J; Stotland, Naomi E; Dobraca, Dina; Das, Rupali

2013-08-01

346

Photosynthetic Losses and Peroxidase Induction in Field-grown Soybean in Elevated Ground-level Ozone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In industrialized countries of the northern hemisphere, ozone concentrations [O3]have risen by 0.5-2.5% per year, more rapidly than carbon dioxide [CO2]. Nearly 25% of the earth's surface is currently at risk from ground-level ozone in excess of 60 ppb. The US soybean-corn agricultural system cover...

347

Scand J Infect Dis 34: 323326, 2002 Serum Level of YKL-40 is Elevated in Patients  

E-print Network

with Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteremia and is Associated with the Outcome of the Disease GITTE KRONBORG1 in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia and to correlate these levels with clinical ndings has not previously been investigated. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of commu- nity

Price, Paul A.

348

Elevated levels of immunoglobulin A to Giardia lamblia during a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

During an outbreak of diarrheal illness among residents of a trailer park in rural Vermont, 37 (30%) of 122 residents met the case definition of outbreak-related giardiasis. Convalescent-phase sera from 24 residents and 20 nonresident control subjects were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies to Giardia lamblia. Residents showed higher levels of parasite-specific antibody than did nonresident controls for IgG and IgA but not IgM. Nine residents with giardiasis had a higher median level of G. lamblia-specific IgA but not IgG or IgM than 15 healthy residents (0.61 versus 0.16 optical density units; P = 0.004). Moreover, parasite-specific IgA levels were higher in those consuming tap water than in those who did not (0.31 versus 0.08 optical density units; P = 0.03) and increased with increasing water consumption. Levels of serum antibody to G. lamblia, particularly IgA, may be useful in determining exposure to G. lamblia-contaminated water and illness from G. lamblia during waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness. PMID:2768460

Birkhead, G; Janoff, E N; Vogt, R L; Smith, P D

1989-01-01

349

PROLONGED FASTING AND CORTISOL REDUCE MYOSTATIN MRNA LEVELS IN TILAPIA LARVAE, SHORT-TERM FASTING ELEVATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indices in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA...

350

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF AN ELEVATED GASEOUS RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the development of a screening technique to determine the maximum 1 hour ground level concentration of a gaseous emission from a stack located in flat terrain. The method does not require the use of a computer and eliminates the usual trial and error calculati...

351

The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

Aschengrau, A. [Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics] [Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D. [Office of Environmental Health, Boston, MA (United States). Boston Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program] [Office of Environmental Health, Boston, MA (United States). Boston Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

1998-10-01

352

Constitutively Elevated Levels of Putrescine and Putrescine-Generating Enzymes Correlated with Oxidant Stress Resistance in Conyza bonariensis and Wheat.  

PubMed Central

Oxidant stress resistance in Conyza bonariensis and wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been correlated with high levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, external oxidant stresses can increase a plant's levels of the enzymes of polyamine biosynthesis and polyamines, especially putrescine. We investigated the constitutive relationships between putrescine, putrescine-generating enzymes, and oxidant stress resistance in wheat and C. bonariensis. Putrescine was Constitutively elevated (2.5- to 5.7-fold) in 2-week-old-resistant wheat and C. bonariensis biotypes, which correlated with a 10- to 15-fold increase in paraquat oxidant resistance. Arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities doubled, along with higher putrescine levels in resistant C. bonariensis. The variations in levels of putrescine and arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities paralleled the constitutive variation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as oxidant resistance. Higher levels of both putrescine and antioxidant enzyme activities occurred during a peak of oxidant resistance at 10 weeks, when paraquat resistance in C. bonariensis plants is >50-fold greater than in the sensitive biotype. Application of 100 [mu]M putrescine can double oxidant-stress resistance in the resistant C. bonariensis. Putrescine may play an important role in contributing to the base level of oxidant resistance found at the nonpeak period. PMID:12223875

Ye, B.; Muller, H. H.; Zhang, J.; Gressel, J.

1997-01-01

353

Changes in Hepatic Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein and Triglyceride in Periparturient Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the relationship between micro- somal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) (activity, mass, and mRNA) and liver triglyceride concentration in 16 dairy cows (13 multiparous and three primipa- rous) from 27 d before expected calving (d -27) to 35 d postpartum (d 35), the time period when fatty liver is most likely to develop. In addition, dry matter intake, plasma

D. R. Bremmer; S. J. Bertics; S. A. Besong; R. R. Grummer

2000-01-01

354

Elevated Serum Levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective Inflammation and complement activation initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated serum MBL levels in type 2 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with persistent normoalbuminuria. Method Serum MBL levels were determined in 242 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 242 type 2 diabetes with persistent normoalbuminuria matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, as well as in 100 healthy control subjects. The prediction value of MBL was compared with HbA1c, Hs-CRP and with other known predictors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in diabetes with DN as compared to with persistent normoalbuminuria (P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common factors showed that serum MBL levels?2950ug/L was an independent indictor of DN (OR=7.55; 95%CI: 3.44–19.04). Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum MBL levels as an indicator for diagnosis of DN was projected to be 2950ug/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 77.2 % and a specificity of 80.8%, with the area under the curve at 0.809 (95%CI, 0.769—0.848). Conclusion Our findings suggested that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN in type 2 diabetes, and that determination of MBL status might be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing nephropathy complications. PMID:25803807

Guan, Ling-Zhi; Tong, Qiang; Xu, Jing

2015-01-01

355

Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges  

SciTech Connect

The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

1999-07-01

356

Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.  

PubMed

Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated. PMID:22858013

Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

2012-10-01

357

Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (?65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blč, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

2009-01-01

358

Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

J. Edward Hunter

2001-01-01

359

Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed at answering the question why feeding rats an oligofructose (OFS) supplemented diet could cause\\u000a a significant reduction in plasma lipid levels. Daily administration of a 10% (w\\/w) OFS-containing diet to normolipidemic\\u000a male rats resulted in a decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect\\u000a was observed after one week and lasted for at

Maria Fiordaliso; Nadine Kok; Jean-Pierre Desager; Fabienne Goethals; Dominique Deboyser; Marcel Roberfroid; Nathalie Delzenne

1995-01-01

360

Elevated homocysteine levels and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate whether elevated homocysteine levels were a predictor of subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality in the general population by a meta-analysis. Methods: In a systematic search conducted in the databases of PubMed and Embase prior to October 2013, we identified relevant prospective observational studies evaluating the association between baseline homocysteine levels and CHD mortality, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population. Pooled adjust risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated separately for categorical risk estimates and continuous risk estimates. Results: Twelve studies with 23 623 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest to lowest homocysteine level categories, CHD mortality increased by 66% (RR 1.66; 95% CI 1.12–2.47; P=0.012), cardiovascular mortality increased by 68% (RR 1.68; 95% CI 1.04–2.70; P=0.033), and all-cause mortality increased by 93% (RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.54–2.43; P<0.001). Moreover, for each 5 ?mol/L homocysteine increment, the pooled RR was 1.52 (95% CI 1.26–1.84; P<0.001) for CHD mortality, 1.32 (95% CI 1.08–1.61; P=0.006) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03–1.55; P=0.023) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Elevated homocysteine levels are an independent predictor for subsequent cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality, and the risks were more pronounced among elderly persons. PMID:25559959

Peng, Hui-yong; Man, Chang-feng; Xu, Juan; Fan, Yu

2015-01-01

361

Coffee Intake and Elevated Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B Levels in Men  

PubMed Central

Coffee intake from three-day diet records was studied in association with plasma lipoprotein concentrations in a cross-sectional sample of 77 middle-aged American men to determine the significance and form of their interrelationships. The number of cups consumed per day correlated positively with levels of apolipoprotein B (r =.27, P ? 0.01) and became more strongly correlated when adjusted for age, cigarette use, adiposity, aerobic capacity, nutrient intake, and stress. Coffee intake also correlated with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels when adjusted for these confounding factors. Graphic analyses revealed that plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B and LDL-cholesterol were unrelated to intake of up to 2 cups of coffee per day and positively associated with intake exceeding 2 to 3 cups. These results suggest that male heavy coffee drinkers have lipoprotein profiles suggestive of increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the causality remains to be determined. PMID:3968770

Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Albers, John J.; Garay, Susan C.; Taylor, C. Barr

2010-01-01

362

Roles of elevated intravitreal IL-1? and IL-10 levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the roles of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 in the vitreous of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Materials and Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained from 26 eyes of 26 patients with PDR and from eight eyes of eight cases without PDR. The IL-1? and IL-10 concentration in the vitreous was measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Levels of IL-1? and IL-10 in vitreous were higher in PDR patients compared with control group. And there was significantly negative correlation between IL-1? and IL-10 in control group (r = ?0.795; P = 0.032), whereas there was no significant correlation in PDR group (r = 0.176; P = 0.391). Conclusion: Levels of IL-1? and IL-10 were upregulated in vitreous of PDR patients, and these two cytokines play roles in regulating the development and progression of PDR. PMID:25005199

Mao, Chunjie; Yan, Hua

2014-01-01

363

In vitro study of PET tumor tracers at normal and elevated media glucose levels  

SciTech Connect

FDG uptake in tumors is decreased by hyperglycemia. Little is known about the effect of hyperglycemia on non-FDG PET tracer uptake in tumors. This study was designed to determine if PET tumor tracers are affected by chronic exposure of tumor cells to high media glucose levels. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma (HTB77IP3) cells normally grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose were grown in media with 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. At 20, 26 and 38 days after initial culture (6-7 days after subculture), uptakes of 3H-labeled FDG, Thymidine (Thy), Methionine (Met) and Leucine (Leu) into the cells (n=4) were determined at the same glucose level as growth media. Tracer uptake per 1 million cells was measured after a 60 min uptake period. Presented are percentage of tracer uptake of cells grown at 300 mg/dl of glucose relative to uptake of cells grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose (mean {plus_minus} SD of 20, 26, and 38 days culture). Paired t-tests were used to compare tracer uptake of cells grown and assayed at both glucose levels. P values <0.05 were considered significant. FDG uptake of cells grown and assayed at 300 mg/dl of glucose was significantly decreased, compared with uptake of cells grown and assayed at 100 mg/dl of glucose. By contrast, uptake of Thy, Met and Leu were not different between cells grown and assayed at 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. These results indicate that tumor uptake of Thy, Met and Leu do not depend on media glucose level and suggest that these tracers labeled with C-11 are suitable for hyperglycemic patients, in whom tumor FDG uptake is expected to be impaired.

Torizuka, T.; Clavo, A.C.; Wahl, R.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-05-01

364

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of elevated levels of small, dense LDL cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype (hypertriglyceridemia and increased waist circumference) has been proposed\\u000a as an inexpensive tool to monitor individuals with the atherogenic metabolic triad, hyperinsulinemia, hyperapobetalipoproteinemia,\\u000a and increased levels of small, dense LDL (sdLDL) particles. We assessed the association of the HTGW phenotype with the metabolic\\u000a syndrome (MetSyn) and the atherogenic metabolic triad in inhabitants (n=260) of northwestern Greece

Irene F. Gazi; Theodosios D. Filippatos; Vasilis Tsimihodimos; Vasilios G. Saougos; Evangelos N. Liberopoulos; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis; Alexandros D. Tselepis; Moses Elisaf

2006-01-01

365

Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramķrez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, Marķa-Trinidad; Sanjuįn, Juan

2014-01-01

366

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Film Cooling at Elevated Levels of Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of an experimental study on the influence of high level turbulence on vane film cooling and the influence of film cooling on vane heat transfer. Three different cooling configurations were investigated which included one row of film cooling on both pressure and suction surfaces, two staggered rows of film cooling on both suction and pressure surfaces, and a shower-head cooling array. The turbulence had a strong influence on film cooling effectiveness, particularly on the pressure surface where local turbulence levels were the highest. For the single row of holes, the spanwise mixing quickly reduced centerline effectiveness levels while mixing in the normal direction was more gradual. The film cooling had a strong influence on the heat transfer in the laminar regions of the vane. The effect of film cooling on heat transfer was noticeable in the turbulent regions but augmentation ratios were significantly lower. In addition to heat transfer and film cooling, velocity profiles were taken downstream of the film cooling rows at three spanwise locations. These profile comparisons documented the strong spanwise mixing due to the high turbulence. Total pressure exit measurements were also documented for the three configurations.

Ames, Forrest E.

1996-01-01

367

Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

2013-04-01

368

Elevated glucose 6-phosphate levels are associated with plasmid mutations in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The incubation in vitro of plasmid pBR322 DNA with glucose 6-phosphate (Glc-6-P) has been shown to have a mutagenic effect when the plasmid was transformed into wild-type Escherichia coli. To further investigate the modifications of DNA by the reducing sugar Glc-6-P, we have developed an in vivo model to monitor plasmid DNA mutations. E. coli strains that are defective for phosphoglucose isomerase (strain DF40) alone or phosphoglucose isomerase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (strain DF2000) accumulate Glc-6-P when grown in gluconate minimal medium in the presence of glucose. These strains and the control strain K10 were transformed with pAM006, a plasmid that carries the genes for ampicillin resistance and beta-galactosidase production, and grown for 24 hr under conditions that prompted the accumulation of Glc-6-P. An increase in plasmid mutations was observed (7- and 13-fold) that was associated with the increased intracellular levels of Glc-6-P (20- and 30-fold) present in the DF40 and DF2000 E. coli strains, respectively. Growth of the mutant bacteria in gluconate minimal medium does not increase the intracellular levels of Glc-6-P or the rate of plasmid mutations over background. Further characterization of the mutated plasmid DNA showed that insertions, deletions, and point mutations were responsible for the loss of beta-galactosidase production. The increase in plasmid mutations as a function of increased intracellular Glc-6-P levels suggests that the accumulation of adducts formed by Glc-6-P and other reducing sugars may contribute to DNA damage. Images PMID:2825185

Lee, A T; Cerami, A

1987-01-01

369

An elevated level of copper zinc superoxide dismutase fails to prevent oxygen induced retinopathy in mice.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: To determine whether a higher level of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) can reduce the severity of oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) in a mouse model. METHODS: CuZnSOD transgenic mice with a threefold increase in CuZnSOD activity and control non-transgenic mice were exposed to 90% oxygen for 12 hours a day during the first 5 days of life. After oxygen treatment, all mice were reared in room air for 10 days. Another group of transgenic and non-transgenic mice were kept in room air for 15 days and served as control groups for the oxygen effect. At day 15, all mice were killed and perfused with India ink. The retinas were flat mounted on slides and examined with a light microscope. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of OIR in mice exposed to high levels of oxygen, whether or not they were transgenic. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the severity of OIR between oxygen treated transgenic and non-transgenic mice. CONCLUSION: A threefold higher CuZnSOD activity does not protect against OIR in mice. This is an unexpected finding, since oxygen radicals are considered a major factor causing OIR, and increased CuZnSOD activity has reduced oxygen radical induced damage in several neuronal and non-neuronal systems. The possibility of a damaging role for other radicals not affected by CuZnSOD cannot be excluded. Images PMID:8695565

Klaeger, C; de Sa, L; Klaeger, A J; Carlson, E J; Good, W V; Epstein, C J

1996-01-01

370

Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.  

PubMed

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

2015-01-01

371

Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  

PubMed Central

Using a sensitive single isotope enzymatic assay we measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid histamine in asymptomatic normal (nonallergic), allergic rhinitic, and allergic asthmatic subjects. Normal subjects were found to have little or no detectable amounts of histamine in BAL fluid (11 +/- 11 pg/ml), and few BAL fluid mast cells. In comparison, the allergic rhinitics and allergic asthmatics had much higher amounts of BAL fluid histamine (113 +/- 53 and 188 +/- 42 pg/ml, respectively), and a significantly greater number of BAL fluid mast cells. Furthermore, despite having equivalent baseline pulmonary function values, allergic asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels greater than 100 pg/ml required only 7 +/- 2 breath units of methacholine to induce a 20% drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PD20FEV1) while asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels less than 100 pg/ml required 49 +/- 19 breath units (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that allergic asthmatics have ongoing lung mast cell degranulation that might contribute to the etiology of airway hyperresponsiveness. Images PMID:3549781

Casale, T B; Wood, D; Richerson, H B; Trapp, S; Metzger, W J; Zavala, D; Hunninghake, G W

1987-01-01

372

Retroviral vectors elevate coexpressed protein levels in trans through cap-dependent translation.  

PubMed

Retroviruses cause immunodeficiency and cancer but also are used as vectors for the expression of heterologous genes. Nevertheless, optimal translation of introduced genes often is not achieved. Here we show that transfection into mammalian cells of lentiviral or gammaretroviral vectors, including those with specific shRNAs, increased expression of a cotransfected gene relative to standard plasmid vectors. Levels of most endogenous cellular proteins were unchanged. Transfer of lentiviral vector sequences into a standard plasmid conferred the ability to give increased expression of cotransfected genes (superinduction). Superinduction by the retroviral vector was not dependent on the cell type or species, the type of reporter gene, or the method of transfection. No differences were detected in the IFN, unfolded protein, or stress responses in the presence of retroviral vectors. RT-PCRs revealed that RNA levels of cotransfected genes were unchanged during superinduction, yet Western blotting, pulse labeling, and the use of bicistronic vectors showed increased cap-dependent translation of cointroduced genes. Expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase target 4E-BP1, but not the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, preferentially inhibited superinduction relative to basal protein expression. Furthermore, transcription of lentiviral vector sequences from a doxycycline-inducible promoter eliminated superinduction, consistent with a DNA-triggered event. Thus, retroviral DNA increased translation of cointroduced genes in trans by an mTOR-independent signaling mechanism. Our experiments have broad applications for the design of retroviral vectors for transfections, DNA vaccines, and gene therapy. PMID:25737543

Gou, Yongqiang; Byun, Hyewon; Zook, Adam E; B Singh, Gurvani; Nash, Andrea K; Lozano, Mary M; Dudley, Jaquelin P

2015-03-17

373

Elevated selenium levels in bluegills and their effect on reproduction. [Lepomis macrochirus  

SciTech Connect

A series of 18 artificial crosses of bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, from Hyco Reservoir, North Carolina (mean Se = 7.94 ppm) and Roxboro City Lake, North Carolina (mean Se = 0.38 ppm) were generated. Neither percent fertilization nor percent hatch differed significantly among the parent combinations. However, all crosses of females with high Se body burdens resulted in larvae with edema; larvae from all crosses of females with low Se body burdens were normal. No differences were found in morphology of the membranes from immature ova between females of the two reservoirs. Sections of heart and intestines appear similar between larvae from females of Hyco Reservoir and Roxboro City Lake suggesting that edema occurs from physiological impairment and not from developmental abnormalities. Mean Se levels in the gonads and carcass of adult bluegills were more than 20 times higher in fishes from Hyco Reservoir than in those from Roxboro City Lake. The high Se concentration in ovaries of Hyco Reservoir bluegills, coupled with high Se levels in larvae from artificial crosses indicated that Se was transferred from females to offspring and resulted in larval edema. /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine was fed to adult bluegills. After 12 weeks of feeding, liver and testis had the highest /sup 75/Se activities according to gamma activity assays while ovary, heart and skeletal muscle had the lowest activities.

Gillespie, R.B.

1985-01-01

374

Intravenous injection of Candida-derived mannan results in elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in serum.  

PubMed Central

Intravenous injection of Candida albicans into mice produced elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. We hypothesized that immunostimulants released in vivo from C. albicans during fungal sepsis might contribute to the elevated levels of TNF-alpha in serum. We tested this hypothesis in mice with C. albicans mannan (CAM). Increased serum TNF-alpha levels were observed following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of CAM. Injection of CAM into mice resulted in increased serum TNF-alpha concentrations that reached 1,200 pg/ml of blood, compared with 2,400 microg/ml of blood following injection of 10 microg of endotoxin. The response to CAM was concentration dependent, requiring a minimum dose of 20 microg of CAM per g of body weight. Sera from mice were tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after intravenous injections with CAM. TNF-alpha concentrations were minimal 30 and 120 min after intravenous injection and maximal 60 and 90 min after CAM injection. The relative distribution of CAM in vivo in decreasing order was determined to be as follows: blood > liver > lung > spleen, 90 min following injection of a single 5-mg dose of CAM. CAM was confirmed as the stimulating substance by utilizing anti-CAM antibodies in vivo to block the response. Rabbit anti-mannan antibodies administered by intraperitoneal injection 24 h before CAM injection significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) the accumulation of TNF-alpha in the sera. Dexamethasone administered to mice before intravenous injection of mannan significantly reduced (40 to 90% reduction; P < 0.05) the concentrations of TNF-alpha in the sera of treated mice. Thus, when in vivo CAM clearance mechanisms are exceeded, sufficient CAM may become available to stimulate TNF-alpha production, making CAM an important part of pathogenesis in Candida sepsis. PMID:8890207

Garner, R E; Hudson, J A

1996-01-01

375

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  

PubMed

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

2011-08-01

376

Elevation of Proteasomal Substrate Levels Sensitizes Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Inhibition of Proteasomal Deubiquitinases  

PubMed Central

Inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the 20S proteasome are cytotoxic to tumor cells and are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma, whilst the deubiquitinase activity associated with the 19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome is also a valid target for anti-cancer drugs. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs and their selective toxicity towards cancer cells are not known. Here, we show that increasing the cellular levels of proteasome substrates using an inhibitor of Sec61-mediated protein translocation significantly increases the extent of apoptosis that is induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinase activity in both cancer derived and non-transformed cell lines. Our results suggest that increased generation of misfolded proteasome substrates may contribute to the mechanism(s) underlying the increased sensitivity of tumor cells to inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:25286379

Sun, Chao; Roboti, Peristera; Puumalainen, Marjo-Riitta; Fryknäs, Mårten; Wang, Xin; D'Arcy, Padraig; Hult, Malin; High, Stephen; Linder, Stig; Swanton, Eileithyia

2014-01-01

377

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

378

Serum Proteomic Analysis Reveals High Frequency of Haptoglobin Deficiency and Elevated Thyroxine Level in Heroin Addicts  

PubMed Central

Heroin addiction is a chronic, complex disease, often accompanied by other concomitant disorders, which may encumber effective prevention and treatment. To explore the differences in expression profiles of serum proteins in control and heroin addicts, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF, and identified 4 proteins of interest. Following validation of the increase in serum transthyretin, we assessed serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4), and observed a robust increase in T4 in heroin addicts compared to controls. In addition, we performed haptoglobin (Hp) phenotyping, and showed that the frequency of Hp0 (serum devoid of haptoglobin) was significantly higher in heroin addicts. Altogether, these findings indicated that: (1) thyroid hormone imbalance is present in heroin addicts; (2) anhaptoglobinemia (Hp0) might a risk factor or a deleterious effect of heroin abuse. PMID:24743330

Zhou, Bing-Ying; Yan, Shi-Yan; Shi, Wan-Lu; Qu, Zhi; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Min; Pu, Xiao-Ping

2014-01-01

379

Endothelial microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 facilitates neurotoxicity by elevating astrocytic Ca2+ levels.  

PubMed

Recurrent seizures may cause neuronal damage in the hippocampus. As neurons form intimate interactions with astrocytes via glutamate, this neuron-glia circuit may play a pivotal role in neuronal excitotoxicity following such seizures. On the other hand, astrocytes contact vascular endothelia with their endfeet. Recently, we found kainic acid (KA) administration induced microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor EP3 in venous endothelia and on astrocytes, respectively. In addition, mice deficient in mPGES-1 exhibited an improvement in KA-induced neuronal loss, suggesting that endothelial PGE(2) might modulate neuronal damage via astrocytes. In this study, we therefore investigated whether the functional associations between endothelia and astrocytes via endothelial mPGES-1 lead to neuronal injury using primary cultures of hippocampal slices. We first confirmed the delayed induction of endothelial mPGES-1 in the wild-type (WT) slices after KA-treatment. Next, we examined the effects of endothelial mPGES-1 on Ca(2+) levels in astrocytes, subsequent glutamate release and neuronal injury using cultured slices prepared from WT and mPGES-1 knockout mice. Moreover, we investigated which EP receptor on astrocytes was activated by PGE(2). We found that endothelial mPGES-1 produced PGE(2) that enhanced astrocytic Ca(2+) levels via EP3 receptors and increased Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release, aggravating neuronal injury. This novel endothelium-astrocyte-neuron signaling pathway may be crucial for neuronal damage after repetitive seizures, and hence could be a new target for drug development. PMID:21219953

Takemiya, Takako; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Hiroko; Yasuda, Shin; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Yamagata, Kanato

2011-03-01

380

Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from sputum is associated with elevated airborne levels in homes of patients with asthma.  

PubMed

Indoor bioaerosols, such as mold spores, have been associated with respiratory symptoms in patients with asthma; however, dose-response relationships and guidelines on acceptable levels are lacking. Furthermore, a causal link between mold exposure and respiratory infections or asthma remains to be established. The aim of this study was to determine indoor concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus and a subset of clinically relevant fungi in homes of people with asthma, in relation to markers of airways colonization and sensitization. Air and dust samples were collected from the living room of 58 properties. Fungal concentrations were quantified using mold-specific quantitative PCR and compared with traditional microscopic analysis of air samples. Isolation of A. fumigatus from sputum was associated with higher airborne concentrations of the fungus in patient homes (P = 0.04), and a similar trend was shown with Aspergillus/Penicillium-type concentrations analyzed by microscopy (P = 0.058). No association was found between airborne levels of A. fumigatus and sensitization to this fungus, or dustborne levels of A. fumigatus and either isolation from sputum or sensitization. The results of this study suggest that the home environment should be considered as a potential source of fungal exposure, and elevated home levels may predispose people with asthma to airways colonization. PMID:23198683

Fairs, A; Agbetile, J; Bourne, M; Hargadon, B; Monteiro, W R; Morley, J P; Edwards, R E; Wardlaw, A J; Pashley, C H

2013-08-01

381

Overexpression of Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Cassava Roots Elevates Protein and Free Amino Acids while Reducing Residual Cyanogen Levels  

PubMed Central

Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2–20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels. PMID:21799761

Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T.

2011-01-01

382

Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns  

PubMed Central

Perinatal hypoxia results in neuronal and endothelial cell damage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) expression and peripheral blood changes in perinatal asphyxia with neuronal injury markers in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. We compared the concentrations of serum sICAM-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibodies specific for NR2 glutamate receptors in 29 asphyxiated and 20 control infants using standard enzyme immunoassay procedures. The mean total concentrations of sICAM-1 and neuron-specific proteins (NSE and NR2-specific antibodies) were higher in the asphyxiated infants than in the control infants. The serum sICAM-1 concentrations significantly correlated with Apgar scoring and with the pH and lactate data from capillary or arterial cord blood. No significant correlation between serum concentrations of neuron specific proteins and blood changes of asphyxia was found. Therefore, endothelial sICAM-1 expression levels might be accepted as an indicator of the severity of perinatal asphyxia in LBW infants. PMID:25358349

Huseynova, Saadat; Panakhova, Nushaba; Orujova, Pusta; Hasanov, Safikhan; Guliyev, Mehman; Orujov, Agil

2014-01-01

383

Elevated copper ion levels as potential cause of impaired kinesin-dependent transport processes.  

PubMed

Copper is a trace element required to maintain essential life processes. In healthy organisms, copper metabolism is well balanced. If this balance is destroyed, the cellular level of free copper might increase and cause toxic effects. So far, the molecular mechanisms of copper intoxication are understood only partly. The present study revealed that the kinesin-dependent transport system is strongly affected by copper(II) ions. Both the microtubules, along which kinesin moves, and the kinesin itself were found to be the target structures of copper ions: Microtubule formation was suppressed by copper ions (IC50 26-70 µM) apparently chiefly by inhibition of binding of microtubule-associated proteins to tubulin. This inhibition could be widely compensated by the microtubule-stabilising agent paclitaxel. In addition, copper ions strongly inhibited the ATPase activity of neuron-specific kinesin KIF5A. At final KIF5A concentration of 112 nM, an IC50 of 1.3 µM was determined. Correspondingly, the motility activity of KIF5A, measured as velocity of microtubules gliding across a kinesin-covered surface, was blocked. The effects of copper ions on microtubules and on KIF5A are suggested to contribute to impaired transport processes within brain and other organs in cases of copper ion surplus. PMID:24853401

Böhm, Konrad J

2015-04-01

384

Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

2001-01-01

385

Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

Barnes, Peter W.

1990-01-01

386

An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

1994-06-01

387

Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-06-01

388

Postmortem lipid levels for the analysis of risk factors of sudden death: usefulness of the Ektachem and Monarch analyzers.  

PubMed

Elevated serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels have been identified as risk factors for sudden death from cardiovascular disease and increased risk for myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias; therefore, correlation of antemortem and postmortem lipid levels may be useful in establishing the cause, pathophysiology, or familial risk factors of sudden death. In the present study, antemortem (within 72 h) and postmortem (within 24 h) cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, and albumin levels were analyzed in seven autopsied hospitalized patients from the University of New Mexico Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin levels were measured by dry-slide technology on an Ektachem 700 analyzer, and the free fatty acid levels were measured on a Monarch analyzer with a commercially available kit from Wako Chemical. Postmortem cholesterol levels averaged 13% lower than antemortem levels, postmortem triglyceride levels averaged 38% higher than antemortem levels, postmortem free fatty acid levels averaged 23% lower than antemortem levels, and postmortem albumin levels were essentially unchanged (<0.01% higher) from antemortem levels. Whether the antemortem and postmortem differences in lipid levels were the result of postmortem degradation products, a general phenomenon (such as variable enzyme degradation), or an idiosyncracy of the Ektachem or Monarch systems could not be definitely established. These preliminary results suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting postmortem cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels analyzed on the Ektachem or Monarch systems. PMID:9430287

Hart, A P; Zumwalt, R E; Dasgupta, A

1997-12-01

389

Elevated titanium levels in Iraqi children with neurodevelopmental disorders echo findings in occupation soldiers.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic release of pollutants into the environment is especially harmful to growing fetuses and young children. These populations are at an increased risk of damage because exposure to pollutants during critical periods of development can cause many impairments. Children's exposure to mixtures of metals could be responsible for the rising numbers of neurological disorders surfacing in Iraqi children. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) are heavily used in war industries. Exposure to Ti and Mg has been linked to the dust in occupation soldiers' lungs. Hair samples of children in Hawija, Iraq (n?=?13) contained significantly higher levels of Ti compared to Iranian children (n?=?13) living near the Iraqi border (2080?±?940 vs 707?±?421 ?g/kg, p?

Savabieasfahani, M; Alaani, S; Tafash, M; Dastgiri, S; Al-Sabbak, M

2015-01-01

390

Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.  

PubMed

Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation. PMID:18497821

Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

2008-05-22

391

Elevated levels and mitogenic activity of lysophosphatidylinositol in k-ras-transformed epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In cell lines stably (KiKi) or reversibly (Ts) transformed by the k-ras oncogene originated from a differentiated rat thyroid line (FRTL5 cells), k-ras-induced transformation has been associated with an increased phospholipase A2 activity. Here we provide evidence that this enzymic activity is phosphoinositide specific and leads to the formation of lysophosphatidylinositol. The levels of this lysolipid increased by 2-3-fold in ras-transformed cells (KiKi cells and Ts cells at the permissive temperature of 33 degrees C) as compared to differentiated cells (FRTL5) or to Ts cells maintained at 39 degrees C, i.e. at the temperature where ras-p21, the product of the ras oncogene, is inactive. Since another lysoderivative, lysophosphatidic acid, has been shown to be a mitogen, we have tested whether lysophosphatidylinositol could have a similar activity on thyroid cells. Lysophosphatidylinositol (10-100 microM) induced a 5-10-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation in both FRTL5 and KiKi cells, whereas lysophosphatidic acid was active only in differentiated cells. Lysophosphatidylinositol (approximately 25 microM) and lysophosphatidic acid (50-100 microM) acted synergistically with insulin in increasing [3H]thymidine incorporation. Moreover, lysophosphatidylinositol at concentrations three-fold higher than those found to be mitogenic, inhibited the activity of the GTPase-activating protein. We conclude that lysophosphatidylinositol is a mitogen that might play a role in the modulation of k-ras transformed cell proliferation. PMID:8168525

Falasca, M; Corda, D

1994-04-01

392

Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

Chen Liang [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Jin Taiyi [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China) and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Nordberg, Gunnar [Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Nordberg, Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-08-15

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Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

2000-05-01