Sample records for elevated triglyceride levels

  1. Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China. PMID:23829426

  2. Effect of a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein particles in patients with elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar Alaupovic; Therese Heinonen; Linda Shurzinske; Donald M Black

    1997-01-01

    The effects of atorvastatin (lipitor) on cholesterol-rich and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were evaluated in this multicenter trial. Following a 6-week baseline period, 47 patients with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels were treated with atorvastatin 10 mg once daily (QD) for the initial 12 weeks (Period 1) increasing to 20 mg QD for the following 12 weeks (Period 2). At both the

  3. Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (?24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r?=?0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

  4. Positional distribution of fatty acids in the triglycerides of bovine milk fat with elevated levels of linoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Morrison; J. C. Hawke

    1977-01-01

    A stereospecific distribution of fatty acids in bovine milk fat containing 15.5% linoleic acid has been compared with the\\u000a distribution in bovine milk fat containing a normal level (1.8%) of linoleic acid. The positional distribution was obtained\\u000a by the separate analysis of milk fat triglycerides of high, medium, and low molecular weight. The order of preference for\\u000a linoleic acid in

  5. ELEVATED REMNANT-LIKE PARTICLE (RLP) CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS INDIABETIC MEN AND WOMENT IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are thought to be atherogenic. A new antibody-based assay allows isolation of remnant-like particles (RLP) from plasma or serum, and subsequent measurement of RLP cholesterol and triglyceride (RLPC and RLPTG). We hypothesized that diabetics (DM) would have ...

  6. The Association Between Triglyceride and Leptin Levels in Obese Subjects Following a Low-Carbohydrate or Low-Fat Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Obesity has been cited as the second leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Studies have determined that at risk overweight and obese individuals have high circulating levels of leptin indicative of leptin resistance as well as elevated levels of plasma triglycerides. Postulates have been formed that link elevated levels of triglycerides with the inhibition of leptin across

  7. How Do Elevated Triglycerides and Low HDL-Cholesterol Affect Inflammation and Atherothrombosis?

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Francine K.

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFK?, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The “functionality” of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C. PMID:23881582

  8. Olanzapine-induced triglyceride and aminotransferase elevations without weight gain or hyperglycemia normalized after switching to aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Pawelczyk, Tomasz; Pawelczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jablonska, Jolanta

    2014-07-01

    Olanzapine induced a marked elevation in triglyceride and cholesterol levels and in liver transaminase enzymes after 12 weeks of treatment in a patient with schizophrenia. These changes were not seen in an earlier 10-week course of treatment with risperidone, and improved substantially 1 week after the patient stopped olanzapine and began treatment with aripiprazole. The patient did not exhibit weight gain or hyperglycemia with any of the medications. This case and a review of the literature suggest that olanzapine may have unique properties that affect hepatic enzyme pathways, independent of any effects on weight and glucose, that may lead to hyperlipidemia and transaminitis in some patients. PMID:25036587

  9. Differential effects of dietary flaxseed protein and soy protein on plasma triglyceride and uric acid levels in animal models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam J Bhathena; Ali A Ali; Ali I Mohamed; Carl T Hansen; Manuel T Velasquez

    2002-01-01

    The effect of dietary soy protein and flaxseed meal on metabolic parameters was studied in two animal models, F344 rats with normal lipid levels and obese SHR\\/N-cp rats with elevated levels of cholesterol and triglyceride. The rats were fed AIN 93 diet differing only in the source of protein. The rats were fed either 20% casein, 20% soy protein or

  10. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  11. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Genes Influencing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Dawn K.; Schneider, Jennifer; Hu, Shirley L.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Puppala, Sobha; Farook, Vidya S.; Arya, Rector; Lehman, Donna M.; Blangero, John; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Elevated plasma triglyceride concentration is a component of the insulin resistance syndrome and is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and coronary heart disease. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage scan to identify genetic regions that influence variation in plasma triglyceride levels in families that are enriched with individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,026 individuals distributed across 294 Mexican-American families, who were ascertained for type 2 diabetes, from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Plasma triglyceride values were transformed, and a variance-components technique was used to conduct multipoint linkage analysis. RESULTS—After adjusting for the significant effects of sex and BMI, heritability for plasma triglycerides was estimated as 46 ± 7% (P < 0.0001). Multipoint linkage analysis yielded the strongest evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides near marker D12S391 on chromosome 12p (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 2.4). Our linkage signal on chromosome 12p provides independent replication of a similar finding in another Mexican-American sample from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). Combined multipoint linkage analysis of the VAGES and SAFDS data yielded significant evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides to a genetic location between markers GATA49D12 and D12S391 on 12p (LOD = 3.8, empirical P value = 2.0 × 10?5). This region on 12p harbors the gene-encoding adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), where we previously have shown that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations in the SAFDS. In the present study, we provided suggestive evidence in favor of association for rs929434 with triglyceride concentrations in the VAGES. CONCLUSIONS—Collectively, these results provide strong evidence for a major locus on chromosome 12p that influences plasma triglyceride levels in Mexican Americans. PMID:18931038

  12. A case-control study of apoA5 ?1131T?C polymorphism that examines the role of triglyceride levels in diabetic nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Baum; Maggie C. Y. Ng; Wing-Yee So; Emily Poon; Ying Wang; Vincent K. L. Lam; Brian Tomlinson; Juliana C. N. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) have increased plasma fasting triglyceride (TG) levels, and most prospective studies report that elevated TG precedes DN. TG-rich lipoprotein particles might promote progression of DN. To test the hypothesis that elevated TG levels contribute to the development of DN, one may examine whether a polymorphism strongly associated with TG levels affects DN risk. The apolipoprotein

  13. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. PMID:23142471

  14. Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild type and clock-disrupted mice, fed either ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (~17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g. PPAR?) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ~50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, however oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock. PMID:24506873

  15. Implitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, reduces progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice fed a Western-type diet: involvement of the inhibition of postprandial triglyceride elevation.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Koji; Akihisa-Umeno, Hitomi; Nagayoshi, Akira; Takakura, Shoji; Matsuo, Masahiko; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2005-02-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the synthesis of both chylomicron in the intestine and very low-density lipoprotein in the liver. An MTP inhibitor, (2S)-2-cyclopentyl-2-[4-[(2,4-dimethyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indol-9-yl)methyl]phenyl]-N-[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl]ethanamide (implitapide), has been shown to suppress atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) mice. To elucidate the antiatherosclerotic mechanisms of implitapide in the mice, we examined the effects on plasma lipid levels, triglyceride (TG) elevation after oral fat loading, and development of atherosclerosis in apoE KO mice fed a Western-type diet. Implitapide at a dosage of approximately 3.2 mg/kg/day significantly reduced both total cholesterol and TG levels during the 8-week treatment period. In addition, implitapide significantly inhibited the increase in plasma TG levels after oral olive oil loading tests conducted after 4 weeks of treatment. After the treatment, implitapide significantly suppressed the atherosclerotic lesion area by 83% compared with a control group. These results provide direct evidence that the antiatherosclerotic effects of implitapide in apoE KO mice are associated with the inhibition of postprandial TG elevation, in addition to the reduction of both plasma total cholesterol and TG levels. PMID:15684478

  16. Bile acids lower triglyceride levels via a pathway involving FXR, SHP, and SREBP-1c

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Houten, Sander M.; Wang, Li; Moschetta, Antonio; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Heyman, Richard A.; Moore, David D.; Auwerx, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and its lipogenic target genes. Through the use of mouse mutants for the short heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver X receptor (LXR) ? and ?, we demonstrate the critical dependence of the reduction of SREBP-1c expression by either natural or synthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists on both SHP and LXR? and LXR?. These results suggest that strategies aimed at increasing FXR activity and the repressive effects of SHP should be explored to correct hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:15146238

  17. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laubscher

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing

  18. The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.

    PubMed

    Maimanee, Tahia A

    2010-04-01

    Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam. PMID:20503603

  19. Association Between Serum Triglyceride Level and Early Prognosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang-Ho Choi; Man-Seok Park; Kyung-Wook Kang; Joon-Tae Kim; Seong-Min Choi; Seung-Han Lee; Byeong-Chae Kim; Myeong-Kyu Kim; Ki-Hyun Cho

    2008-01-01

    study. Patients were divided into five groups based on serum triglyceride levels. Results: The level of triglyceride was significantly lower in patients with 4 or more improvement in NIHSS score than in patients without improvement (100.4 versus 135.0 mg\\/dl, p<0.001). In a univariate analysis, thrombolytic therapy (p<0.001), atrial fibrillation (p <0.001), lower total cholesterol (p =0.001), lower LDL cholesterol (p=0.019)

  20. Human triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impair glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in L6 skeletal muscle cells independently of non-esterified fatty acid levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Pedrini; M. Kranebitter; A. Niederwanger; S. Kaser; J. Engl; P. Debbage; L. A. Huber; J. R. Patsch

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Elevated fasting and postprandial plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs), i.e. VLDL\\/remnants and chylomicrons\\/remnants, are a characteristic feature of insulin resistance and are considered a consequence of this state. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intact TGRL particles are capable of inducing insulin resistance.Methods  We studied the effect of highly purified TGRLs on glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase activity,

  1. Glucuronic Acid Epimerase Is Associated with Plasma Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Turks

    PubMed Central

    Hodo?lugil, U?ur; Williamson, David W.; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Mahley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in atherogenic dyslipidemic Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with plasma HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (non-permuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n = 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n = 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions on chromosome 15 resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce+/–apoe–/– mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism. PMID:21488854

  2. Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apoE phenotype: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dallongeville; S. Lussier-Cacan; J. Davignon

    The relationship between apoE phenotype and plasma lipid levels was analyzed in the combined data of published studies. Accordingly, 45 population samples from 17 different countries were included in the analysis. The mean plasma values of cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-CH of the apoE 2\\/2, 3\\/2, 4\\/3, 4\\/4, and 4\\/2 groups were compared with the same

  3. Dietary taurine supplementation reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol or a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Park, T; Lee, K

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and hepatic lipid levels and phospholipid profiles were evaluated in rats fed a high-cholesterol or a cholesterol-free diet. Four groups of male rats were fed one of the following diets for 5 weeks: cholesterol-free diet (CFD); high cholesterol diet (HCD); high cholesterol, high taurine diet (HCHTD); or high taurine diet (HTD). Rats fed a HCHTD had significantly lower plasma levels of total cholesterol (32% reduction), LDL-cholesterol (37% reduction) and triglyceride (43% reduction) than rats fed a HCD alone. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were also significantly reduced in rats fed a HTD compared to rats fed a CFD. Taurine supplementation to the HCD significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol (50% decrease) and triglyceride (30% decrease) levels in rats. Taurine supplementation to the CFD also significantly reduced the hepatic triglyceride concentration (43% decrease) and elevated hepatic free fatty acid levels (77% increase) compared to rats fed only a CFD. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation is both hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic in rats whose body cholesterol status is high or normal. PMID:9635047

  4. Serum free carnitine and total triglycerid levels in children with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, F; Hizel, S; Cetinkaya, O; Sekreter, E

    2001-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia and hyperlipidemia are common public health problems in Turkey. The connection between iron and lipid metabolisms has not been clarified yet. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of iron deficiency on carnitine and lipid metabolism. Study group was consisted of 70 children (mean age 14.7 +/- 1.3 months) suffering from iron deficiency anemia and 20 healthy children (mean age 13.7 +/- 1.2 months) attended to outpatient clinics of Cumhuriyet University, Sivas were enrolled the study as the control group. Assessments of serum free carnitine concentrations, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and VLDL levels were made in both groups. The mean serum free carnitine concentration was significantly lower than the control group (18.9 +/- 0.43 nmol/ml and 45.9 +/- 1.47 nmol/ml respectively, t = 17.5 p < 0.01). Results of our study also indicated higher serum total triglyceride, total cholesterol and VLDL levels in iron deficient patients than the healthy controls. Regression analyses indicated a negative correlation between serum free carnitine and total triglyceride levels in iron deficient patients. This study confirms that iron deficiency anemia may be linked to the endogenous carnitine synthesis in pediatric age group, and thus hyperlipidemia appears to be a risk factor for premature cardiovascular diseases. PMID:11276925

  5. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  6. Fenofibrate Increases Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Production Despite Reducing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; Maas, Annemarie C. E.; van der Hoorn, José W. A.; van Erk, Marjan J.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Havekes, Louis M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M. G.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (?38%) and TG (?60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[3H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (?68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [3H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver. PMID:20501652

  7. Heterozygous Deficiency of Endoglin Decreases Insulin and Hepatic Triglyceride Levels during High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Beiroa, Daniel; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Langa, Carmen; Bernabeu, Carmelo; López, Miguel; López-Novoa, José M.; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:23336009

  8. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families.

    PubMed

    Rees, Matthew G; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R; Davis, Mindy I; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S; Hegele, Robert A; Gloyn, Anna L

    2014-10-15

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  9. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  10. Distribution of cholesterol and triglycerides among lipoprotein fractions in fat-fed rabbits at different levels of serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Brattsand, R

    1976-01-01

    The serum lipoproteins of rabbits given semisynthetic cholesterol-free diets containing coconut oil or butter or a conventional rabbit chow supplemented with cholesterol, were studied by preparative ultracentrifugation and electrophoresis. (1) All three diets elevated the total cholesterol level but only the coconut oil diet markedly increased the triglyceride (TG) content in addition. All ultracentrifugation fractions showed elevated cholesterol/TG ratios, and this was especially evident for the cholesterol diet. In the hyperlipidemic rabbits cholesterol was therefore mainly transported in lipoproteins with a changed lipid composition. (2) The lipid levels of the "HDL" fraction were more or less unaffected by the lipid concentration in whole serum. In the total serum cholesterol ranges 150-500 (coconut oil diet) and 100-300 mg/100 ml (cholesterol diet), most cholesterol was transported as "LDL" cholesterol. This latter fraction reached maximum cholesterol concentrations of about 350 (coconut oil diet) and 400 mg/100 ml (cholesterol diet) at total cholesterol levels of approximately 600 and 1200 mg/100 ml serum, respectively. At still higher levels of total cholesterol, the whole increment was concentrated to the "VLDL" fraction. (3) With semisynthetic diets in the whole cholesterol range 250-400 mg/100 ml it was possible, with respect to cholesterol, to induce fairly similar concentrations and distributions to those seen in man, with about 60% transported as "LDL", 30% as "VLDL" and 10% as "HDL" cholesterol with the coconut oil diet and 65%, 20% and 15%, respectively, with the butter diet. Such experimental conditions seem to be suitable for testing the hypocholesterolemic action of drugs intended for human hyperlipidemia Type II. (4) Compared with earlier investigations on rabbits, the present distribution study suggests that the degree of aortic lipid infiltration in cholesterol-fed rabbits is better related to the levels of "LDL" than to "VLDL" cholesterol. PMID:1078396

  11. Bicyclol, a synthetic dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative, decreases hepatic lipids but increases serum triglyceride level in normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Dong, Hang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhao, Xin-Ye; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Wang, Hui; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2007-12-01

    Bicyclol is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China. In this study, the effects of bicyclol (100 or 300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in both normal and experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemic mice. Hypercholesterolaemia was induced by either oral administration of cholesterol/bile salt or feeding a diet containing lard/cholesterol. Daily administration of bicyclol for 7 days dose-dependently increased the serum triglyceride level (29-80%) but slightly decreased the hepatic total cholesterol level (12-17%) in normal mice. Co-administration of bicyclol with cholesterol/bile salt decreased the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (7-15% and 25-31%, respectively), when compared with the drug-untreated and cholesterol/bile salt-treated group. Bicyclol treatment for 7 days decreased hepatic triglyceride (5-76%) and total cholesterol (5-48%) levels in mice fed with high-fat/cholesterol diet. In contrast, bicyclol treatment increased the serum triglyceride level (18-77%) in mice treated with cholesterol/bile salt or fed with high-fat/cholesterol diet. Bicyclol treatment also caused an increase in hepatic index of normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice (3-32%). The results indicate that bicyclol treatment can invariably decrease hepatic lipid levels and increase serum triglyceride levels in normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice. PMID:18053327

  12. Elevation Zones Digital elevation data (meters above mean sea level) were

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Elevation Zones Africa Digital elevation data (meters above mean sea level) were obtained as a 1 kilometer resolution elevation\\bathymetry raster product from ISciences, L.L.C. Elevation zones were created by aggregating ranges of land elevation values into 12 thematic elevation classes. The 2004 ISciences data were

  13. Aerosolized bexarotene inhibits lung tumorigenesis without increasing plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Zhang, Jingjie; Liu, Pengyuan; Chen, Ruth; Chen, Da-ren; Lubet, Ronald; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2011-02-01

    Prior studies have shown the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist bexarotene has preventive efficacy in rodent models of mammary and lung tumorigenesis albeit causing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. We reasoned that bexarotene delivered by inhalation may provide sufficient dose directly to the respiratory tract to achieve efficacy while avoiding these side effects. In this study, the chemopreventive activity of aerosolized bexarotene was investigated in the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced mouse lung tumor model as assessed by tumor multiplicity and tumor load. Aerosolized bexarotene significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor load by 43% and 74%, respectively. Our data showed that bexarotene can both inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in vivo. Our data also show that aerosolized bexarotene did not increase plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level compared with diet group. These results indicate that aerosolization may be a safe and effective route of administering bexarotene for chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:21163938

  14. Male Gender, Increased Blood Viscosity, Body Mass Index and Triglyceride Levels Are Independently Associated with Systemic Relative Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

  15. Serum Triglyceride Levels Independently Contribute to the Estimation of Visceral Fat Amount Among Nondiabetic Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiao-Yu; Huang, Hsien-Liang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Lee, Long-Teng; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Tseng, Fen-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Determining the visceral fat amount is important in the risk stratification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related disorders. The area-based measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accurate but expensive and time-consuming method for estimating visceral fat amount. The aim of our study was to identify a practical predictive parameter for visceral obesity in clinical settings.In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 51 nondiabetic obese (body mass index [BMI] ? 27?kg/m) adults in Taiwan (21 men and 30 women, mean age 35.6?±?9.2 years, mean BMI 33.3?±?3.9?kg/m). VFA was quantified by a single-slice MRI image. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters including fasting plasma glucose, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, and lipid profiles were measured. The associations between different variables and VFA were analyzed by linear regression analysis.Increases in BMI, waist circumference, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides (TGs), and decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were correlated with larger VFA. After adjustment for age, sex, and anthropometric indices, only serum TG level remained as an independent correlate of VFA. Besides demographic and anthropometric indices, adding TG level may explain a greater variance of VFA. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, male sex, age, waist circumference, and serum TG level remained significant predictors of VFA. In a subgroup analysis among subjects with BMI ?30?kg/m, similar results were demonstrated and serum TG level remained as significant independent correlates of VFA in all of the predictive models.Among nondiabetic obese adults, serum TG level was positively associated with VFA. The combination of sex, age, anthropometric indices, and serum TG level may be used to estimate VFA in clinical settings. PMID:26061332

  16. Low triglyceride levels are associated with a better metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is well known in the literature that high triglyceride serum (TG) levels can jeopardize the metabolic control, little is known about the influence of low TG on type 1 diabetes patients (T1D). The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of TG serum levels in individuals with T1D and its relationship with metabolic control. Findings We reviewed the medical charts of 180 patients with T1D, who were classified in groups according to TG levels: 1) low (below 50 mg/dL); 2) normal (50-150 mg/dL); 3) high (above 150 mg/dL). TG were low in 21.1% (n = 38; group 1), normal in 68.6% (n = 123; group 2) and high in 10.6% (n = 19; group 3). High TG was associated with a poor metabolic control (p < 0.001). Patients with TG lower than 50 mg/dL had a lower HbA1c than those with TG between 50 and 150 mg/dL (7.41+/-1.50% vs 8.56%+/-1.94%; p = 0.002). Conclusion TG lower than 50 mg/dL was common and might be associated with a better metabolic control in patients with T1D, although it is not clear whether the former is the cause or consequence for the latter. PMID:21888624

  17. Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n?=?10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10?8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10?8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]?=?1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p?=?0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR?=?0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p?=?0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR?=?1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p?=?0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR?=?0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p?=?0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

  18. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Timpson, Nicholas J.; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R. B.; Ring, Susan M.; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Al Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, Maria; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Davey Smith, George; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N. M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quail, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shihab, Hasheem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Tim; St Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; St Pourcian, Beate; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Timpson, Nicholas; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T. R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (?1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10?8)) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (?1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10?9). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5?mmol?l?1 dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

  19. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Ppar?, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis. PMID:25879679

  20. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  1. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine. PMID:21139060

  2. Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harrison, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  3. Influences of APOA5 Variants on Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Uyghur Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Di; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene are associated with triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibriums (LDs) of the SNPs in addition to their effects on TG levels vary greatly between Caucasians and East Asians. The distributions of the SNPs/haplotypes and their associations with TG levels in Uyghur population, an admixture population of Caucasians and East Asians, have not been reported to date. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to address these. Methods Genotyping of four SNPs in APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) was performed in 1174 unrelated Uyghur subjects. SNP/haplotype and TG association analyses were conducted. Results The frequencies of the SNPs in Uyghurs were in between those in Caucasians and East Asians. The LD between rs662799 and rs2266788 in Uyghurs was stronger than that in East Asians but weaker than that in Caucasians, and the four SNPs resulted in four haplotypes (TGGT, CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT arranged in the order of rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) representing 99.2% of the population. All the four SNPs were significantly associated with TG levels. Compared with non-carriers, carriers of rs662799-C, rs3135506-C, rs2075291-T, and rs2266788-C alleles had 16.0%, 15.1%, 17.1%, and 12.4% higher TG levels, respectively. When haplotype TGGT was defined as the reference, the haplotypes CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT resulted in 16.1%, 19.0%, and 19.8% higher TG levels, respectively. The proportions of variance in TG explained by APOA5 locus were 2.5%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 1.9% for single SNP rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788, respectively, and 3.0% for the haplotypes constructed by them. Conclusions The association profiles between the SNPs and haplotypes at APOA5 locus and TG levels in this admixture population differed from those in Caucasians and East Asians. The functions of these SNPs and haplotypes need to be elucidated comprehensively. PMID:25313938

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company. PMID:25763276

  5. Plasma triglyceride and beta-hydroxybutyric acid levels in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at emergence from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Whittier, J M; Mason, R T

    1996-02-15

    Measurement of plasma levels of triglycerides and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in females and males of the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) suggest that the former may provide a useful physiological marker of condition. Levels of triglycerides at emergence from hibernation during a month of natural aphagia were significantly greater in females than in males and she-males, a subset of the male population that mimics females. Higher levels of triglycerides in the females may be attributed to their greater body mass per unit length, which was correlated with the level of triglycerides. Plasma triglyceride levels declined in females within one month of emergence, at the onset of feeding, and were unrelated to mating. PMID:8608816

  6. Higher Serum Triglyceride Level in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke Is Associated with Lower Infarct Volume on CT Brain Scans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slaven Pikija; Vladimir Trkulja; Nedeljko Sokol

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum triglyceride level and acute ischemic stroke severity using infarct volume on CT brain scans as a marker. A total of 121 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (53 males and 68 females, age 47–93 years) with anterior circulation (75%), posterior circulation (9%) or lacunar infarcts (16%) were examined. All patients were admitted within 24 h

  7. Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism, and plasma adiponectin levels in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Varady; D. J. Roohk; Y. C. Loe; B. K. McEvoy-Hein; M. K. Hellerstein

    2007-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) affects adipocyte function and reduces body weight. However, the effects of alternate- day fasting (ADF) on adipose biology remain unclear. This study examined the effects of ADF and modified ADF regi- mens on adipocyte size, triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and adiponectin levels in relation to changes in body weight and adipose mass. Twenty-four male C57BL\\/6J mice were ran-

  8. Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Coon, Alan B; Robinson, Sandra M; Moinuddin, Asif; Shultz, Jessica M; Nakaoke, Ryota; Morley, John E

    2004-05-01

    Obesity is associated with leptin resistance as evidenced by hyperleptinemia. Resistance arises from impaired leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), defects in leptin receptor signaling, and blockades in downstream neuronal circuitries. The mediator of this resistance is unknown. Here, we show that milk, for which fats are 98% triglycerides, immediately inhibited leptin transport as assessed with in vivo, in vitro, and in situ models of the BBB. Fat-free milk and intralipid, a source of vegetable triglycerides, were without effect. Both starvation and diet-induced obesity elevated triglycerides and decreased the transport of leptin across the BBB, whereas short-term fasting decreased triglycerides and increased transport. Three of four triglycerides tested intravenously inhibited transport of leptin across the BBB, but their free fatty acid constituents were without effect. Treatment with gemfibrozil, a drug that specifically reduces triglyceride levels, reversed both hypertriglyceridemia and impaired leptin transport. We conclude that triglycerides are an important cause of leptin resistance as mediated by impaired transport across the BBB and suggest that triglyceride-mediated leptin resistance may have evolved as an anti-anorectic mechanism during starvation. Decreasing triglycerides may potentiate the anorectic effect of leptin by enhancing leptin transport across the BBB. PMID:15111494

  9. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking. PMID:26068452

  10. View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5?g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1?g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46?g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  13. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Richardson; Stuart L. Shalat; Brian Buckley; Bozena Winnik; Padraig O'Suilleabhain; Ramon Diaz-Arrastia; Joan Reisch; Dwight C. German

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exposure to pesticides has been reported to increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but identification of the specific pesticides is lacking. Three studies have found elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in postmortem PD brains. Objective: To determine whether elevated levels of or- ganochlorine pesticides are present in the serum of pa- tients with PD. Design: Case-control study. Setting:

  14. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Richa; Voight, Benjamin F; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Burtt, Noël P; de Bakker, Paul I W; Chen, Hong; Roix, Jeffrey J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Daly, Mark J; Hughes, Thomas E; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David; Almgren, Peter; Florez, Jose C; Meyer, Joanne; Ardlie, Kristin; Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Isomaa, Bo; Lettre, Guillaume; Lindblad, Ulf; Lyon, Helen N; Melander, Olle; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nilsson, Peter; Orho-Melander, Marju; Råstam, Lennart; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Guiducci, Candace; Berglund, Anna; Carlson, Joyce; Gianniny, Lauren; Hackett, Rachel; Hall, Liselotte; Holmkvist, Johan; Laurila, Esa; Sjögren, Marketa; Sterner, Maria; Surti, Aarti; Svensson, Margareta; Svensson, Malin; Tewhey, Ryan; Blumenstiel, Brendan; Parkin, Melissa; Defelice, Matthew; Barry, Rachel; Brodeur, Wendy; Camarata, Jody; Chia, Nancy; Fava, Mary; Gibbons, John; Handsaker, Bob; Healy, Claire; Nguyen, Kieu; Gates, Casey; Sougnez, Carrie; Gage, Diane; Nizzari, Marcia; Gabriel, Stacey B; Chirn, Gung-Wei; Ma, Qicheng; Parikh, Hemang; Richardson, Delwood; Ricke, Darrell; Purcell, Shaun

    2007-06-01

    New strategies for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) require improved insight into disease etiology. We analyzed 386,731 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1464 patients with T2D and 1467 matched controls, each characterized for measures of glucose metabolism, lipids, obesity, and blood pressure. With collaborators (FUSION and WTCCC/UKT2D), we identified and confirmed three loci associated with T2D-in a noncoding region near CDKN2A and CDKN2B, in an intron of IGF2BP2, and an intron of CDKAL1-and replicated associations near HHEX and in SLC30A8 found by a recent whole-genome association study. We identified and confirmed association of a SNP in an intron of glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) with serum triglycerides. The discovery of associated variants in unsuspected genes and outside coding regions illustrates the ability of genome-wide association studies to provide potentially important clues to the pathogenesis of common diseases. PMID:17463246

  15. NASH Resolution is Associated with Improvements in HDL and Triglyceride Levels But Not Improvement in LDL or Non-HDL-C Levels

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Wilson, Laura A.; Cummings, Oscar W.; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aim To determine the relationship between resolution of NASH and dyslipidemia. Methods Individuals in the Pioglitazone versus Vitamin E versus Placebo for the Treatment of Nondiabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial with paired liver biopsies and fasting lipid levels were included (N=222). In the PIVENS trial individuals were randomized to pioglitazone 30mg, vitamin E 800IU or placebo for 96 weeks. Change in lipid levels at 96 weeks was compared between those with and without NASH resolution. Results Dyslipidemia at baseline was frequent, with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (<40mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women) in 63%, hypertriglyceridemia (?150 mg/dL) in 46%, hypercholesterolemia (?200 mg/dL) in 47%, and triglycerides (TG)/HDL>5.0 in 25%. Low-density lipoprotein (LD) ? 160 mg/dL was found in 16% and elevated non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (?130 mg/dL) in 73%. HDL increased with NASH resolution but decreased in those without resolution (2.9mg/dL vs. ?2.5mg/dL, P<0.001). NASH resolution was associated with significant decreases in TG and TG/HDL ratio compared to those without resolution (TG: ?21.1 vs. ?2.3mg/dL, P=0.03 and TG/HDL: ?0.7 vs 0.1, P=0.003). Non-HDL-C, LDL and cholesterol decreased over 96 weeks in both groups but there was no significant difference between groups. Treatment group did not impact lipids. Conclusions NASH resolution is associated with improvements in TG and HDL but not in other CVD risk factors including LDL and non-HDL-C levels. Individuals with resolution of NASH may still be at increased risk of CVD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00063622 PMID:25429853

  16. Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  17. 6. ELEVATOR AT JUNCTION OF BUILDINGS 148 AND 162. LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATOR AT JUNCTION OF BUILDINGS 148 AND 162. LEVEL 1; OVERHEAD RAILS INSIDE ELEVATOR ALLOWED WORKERS TO TRANSFER CARCASSES BETWEEN FLOORS IN THE COOLER BUILDING - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Relationship of maternal grain intake and serum triglyceride levels with infant birth weight: Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J-Y; Choi, H I; Kim, H; Jang, W; Ha, E-H; Park, C; Chang, N

    2015-06-01

    Background/ObjectivesMaternal serum triglyceride (TG) level is known to be associated with neonatal birth weight. Although Koreans traditionally consume relatively high amounts of grain and grain products, mainly in the form of white rice, and the consumption is positively associated with serum TG levels, no study has investigated the relationship between dietary grain intake, serum TG levels and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women. This study was conducted to identify the association between infant birth weight and maternal intake of grain, as well as serum TG levels.Subjects/MethodsSubjects were 1011 pregnant women at 12-28 weeks' gestational age and their offspring. Maternal serum TG levels, dietary intake and infant birth weight were measured.ResultsSerum TG levels were positively related to neonatal birth weight both at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0015) and at late pregnancy (P<0.0001). Such an association only existed in subjects with the highest tertile of grain intake at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0055) but was observed in all tertiles at late pregnancy (1st P=0.0186, 2nd P=0.0146, 3rd P=0.0099).ConclusionsThe relationship between maternal TG levels and infant birth weight may depend on dietary grain intake and stages of pregnancy in Korean pregnant women. PMID:25514901

  20. The Impact of Fasting on the Interpretation of Triglyceride Levels for Predicting Myocardial Infarction Risk in HIV-Positive Individuals: The D:A:D Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether fasting modifies the prognostic value of these measurements for the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Analyses used mixed effect models and Poisson regression. After confounders were controlled for, fasting triglyceride levels were, on average, 0.122 mmol/L lower than nonfasting levels. Each 2-fold increase in the latest triglyceride level was associated with a 38% increase in MI risk (relative rate, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.51); fasting status did not modify this association. Our results suggest that it may not be necessary to restrict analyses to fasting measurements when considering MI risk. PMID:21791653

  1. Evidence for a role of tumor necrosis factor ? in disturbances of triglyceride and glucose metabolism predisposing to coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Jovinge; Anders Hamsten; Per Tornvall; Anthony Proudler; Peter Båvenholm; Carl-Göran Ericsson; Ian Godsland; Ulf de Faire; Jan Nilsson

    1998-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired fibrinolytic function frequently aggregate in patients with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Experimetnal studies suggest that the cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) produced by adipocytes plays a part in the regulation of triglyceride and glucose metabolism. The present study examined whether TNF? is

  2. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat\\/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Yuan Pan; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hang Dong; Chun-Jing Xiang; Wang-Fun Fong

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat\\/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induc- tion of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, respectively) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels

  3. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  4. Effects of work overload and burnout on cholesterol and triglycerides levels: The moderating efffects of emotional reactivity among male and female employees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arie Shirom; Mina Westman; Ora Shamai; Rafael S. Carel

    1997-01-01

    The effects of objective and subjective overload, and of physical and emotional burnout, on cholesterol and triglycerides levels were studied in a quasiprospective design. The possible moderating effects of emotional reactivity on these relationships were also investigated. The study's hypotheses were tested separately for male and female employees. Time 1 (TI) data were collected from 665 healthy employees (30% women)

  5. 46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. Physiological Responses to Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels in Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul Stricker; Marc Bourgeau; Eric Fonberg; Denis Parent

    1997-01-01

    Comparative tests were conducted involving 22 persons sleeping in a normal and in an elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) environment to determine respirato ry and urinary responses. Carbon dioxide levels in bedrooms with 2 occupants with the bedroom doors and windows closed can rise to 4,500 ppm during the night. The results indicate that the exposure levels encountered in these bedrooms

  7. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr?1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  8. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  9. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  10. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. Elevated plasma histamine levels in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma).

    PubMed

    Falanga, V; Soter, N A; Altman, R D; Kerdel, F A

    1990-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen and other matrix proteins in the skin and internal organs. One hypothesis supports fibroblast stimulation for production of excess amounts of collagen by factors present in the blood or released by cells composing inflammatory tissue infiltrates. Increased numbers of mast cells are present in the involved skin of patients with systemic sclerosis, and histamine has been thought to be a possible mediator of fibrosis in this and other fibrotic conditions. We therefore measured plasma histamine levels in 32 patients with systemic sclerosis and found elevated levels in 18 patients (56%). Elevated plasma histamine levels were more common in patients with diffuse disease (74%), in contrast to limited disease (31%). The degree of clinical activity and the duration of disease could not be correlated with histamine levels. PMID:2310207

  12. THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

  13. Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Matthew

    Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Pharmacy Café/Food Court Sidewalk to Comer Children's Hospital Gift ShopStaff Elevator Accessible Entrance Medical Campus Map Garage) Elevator to Parking Garage Surgery Waiting (Level 2) ELEVATOR ELEVATOR ELEVATOR Mitchell Adult Hospital

  14. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sharon E; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cadmium (Cd) levels and relationships to demographics in an observational, prospective pregnancy cohort study in Durham County, North Carolina. Multivariable models were used to compare blood Cd levels across demographic characteristics. The relative risk of having a blood Cd level that exceeds the US national median (0.32??g/l) was estimated. Overall, >60% of the women had an elevated (>0.32??g/l) blood Cd level. Controlling for confounding variables, smoking was associated with 21% (95% CI: 15-28%) increased risk for an elevated blood Cd level. High Cd levels were also observed in non-smokers and motivated smoking status-stratified models. Race, age, education, relationship status, insurance status and cotinine level were not associated with risk of elevated Cd levels among smokers; however, older age and higher cotinine levels were associated with elevated Cd levels among non-smokers. Taken together, more than half of pregnant women in this cohort had elevated blood Cd levels. Additionally, among non-smokers, 53% of the women had elevated levels of Cd, highlighting other potential sources of exposure. This study expands on the limited data describing Cd levels in pregnant populations and highlights the importance of understanding Cd exposures among non-smokers. Given the latent health risks of both smoking and Cd exposure, this study further highlights the need to biomonitor for exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy among all women of child-bearing age. PMID:25073434

  15. Effects of endurance exercise training on plasma HDL cholesterol levels depend on levels of triglycerides: evidence from men of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C; Després, J P; Lamarche, B; Bergeron, J; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C

    2001-07-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations have been shown to increase with regular endurance exercise and, therefore, can contribute to a lower risk of coronary heart disease in physically active individuals compared with sedentary subjects. Although low HDL cholesterol levels are frequently observed in combination with hypertriglyceridemia, some individuals may be characterized by isolated hypoalphalipoproteinemia, ie, low HDL cholesterol levels in the absence of elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The present study compared the responses of numerous lipoprotein-lipid variables to a 20-week endurance exercise training program in men categorized on the basis of baseline TG and HDL cholesterol concentrations: (1) low TG and high HDL cholesterol (normolipidemia), (2) low TG and low HDL cholesterol (isolated low HDL cholesterol), (3) high TG and high HDL cholesterol (isolated high TGs), and (4) high TGs and low HDL cholesterol (high TG/low HDL cholesterol). A series of physical and metabolic variables was measured before and after the training program in a sample of 200 men enrolled in the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. At baseline, men with high TG/low HDL cholesterol had more visceral adipose tissue than did men with isolated low HDL cholesterol and men with normolipidemia. The 0.4% (not significant) exercise-induced increase in HDL cholesterol levels in men with isolated low HDL cholesterol suggests that they did not benefit from the "HDL-raising" effect of exercise. In contrast, men with high TG/low HDL cholesterol showed a significant increase in HDL cholesterol levels (4.9%, P<0.005). Whereas both subgroups of men with elevated TG levels showed reductions in plasma TGs ( approximately -15.0%, P<0.005), only those with high TG/low HDL cholesterol showed significantly reduced apolipoprotein B levels at the end of the study (-6.0%, P<0.005). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the exercise-induced change in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (10.6%, P<0.01) was the only significant correlate of the increase in plasma HDL cholesterol with training in men with high TG/low HDL cholesterol. Results of the present study suggest that regular endurance exercise training may be particularly helpful in men with low HDL cholesterol, elevated TGs, and abdominal obesity. PMID:11451756

  16. 48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Reisch, Joan; German, Dwight C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides has been reported to increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but identification of the specific pesticides is lacking. Three studies have found elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in postmortem PD brains. Objective To determine whether elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides are present in the serum of patients with PD. Design Case-control study. Setting An academic medical center. Participants Fifty patients with PD, 43 controls, and 20 patients with Alzheimer disease. Main Outcome Measures Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides in serum samples. Results ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) was more often detectable in patients with PD (76%) compared with controls (40%) and patients with Alzheimer disease (30%). The median level of ?-HCH was higher in patients with PD compared with controls and patients with Alzheimer disease. There were no marked differences in detection between controls and patients with PD concerning any of the other 15 organochlorine pesticides. Finally, we observed a significant odds ratio for the presence of ?-HCH in serum to predict a diagnosis of PD vs control (odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–11.6) and PD vs Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 5.20), which provides further evidence for the apparent association between serum ?-HCH and PD. Conclusions These data suggest that ?-HCH is associated with a diagnosis of PD. Further research is warranted regarding the potential role of ?-HCH as a etiologic agent for some cases of PD. PMID:19597089

  18. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention. PMID:8690811

  19. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides as therapeutic targets for preventing and treating coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio M. Gotto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical trials show that elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, adjustment for covariates frequently weakens or abolishes the predictive significance of triglycerides, whereas the evidence for HDL-C is more consistently strong. Data indicate that there is a 2% to 3% decrease in coronary risk

  20. [Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol is a vital causal factor and focus of research into heart diseases, however the involvement of triglycerides remains unclear. We recently reported a patient suffering from severe congestive heart failure and needing cardiac transplantation. Massive accumulation of triglycerides was noted in coronary atherosclerotic lesions as well as in the myocardium. We named this phenotype"triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". The patient was identified as homozygous for a genetic mutation in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglycerides. In this paper, we describe clinical characteristics of ATGL deficiency and discuss what we can learn from this disorder. PMID:24205734

  1. Effects of pyrazole partial agonists on HCA2-mediated flushing and VLDL-triglyceride levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaosha; Blad, Clara C; van der Sluis, Ronald J; de Vries, Henk; Van Berkel, Theo JC; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Hoekstra, Menno

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Niacin can effectively treat dyslipidaemic disorders. However, its clinical use is limited due to the cutaneous flushing mediated by the nicotinic acid receptor HCA2. In the current study, we evaluated two partial agonists for HCA2, LUF6281 and LUF6283, with respect to their anti-dyslipidaemic potential and cutaneous flushing effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In vitro potency and efficacy studies with niacin and the two HCA2 partial agonists were performed using HEK293T cells stably expressing human HCA2. Normolipidaemic C57BL/6 mice received either niacin or the HCA2 partial agonists (400 mg·kg?1·day?1) once a day for 4 weeks for evaluation of their effects in vivo. KEY RESULTS Radioligand competitive binding assay showed Ki values for LUF6281 and LUF6283 of 3 and 0.55 µM. [35S]-GTP?S binding revealed the rank order of their potency as niacin > LUF6283 > LUF6281. All three compounds reduced plasma VLDL-triglyceride concentrations similarly, while LUF6281 and LUF6283, in contrast to niacin, did not also exhibit the unwanted flushing side effect in C57BL/6 mice. Niacin reduced the expression of lipolytic genes HSL and ATGL in adipose tissue by 50%, whereas LUF6281 and LUF6283 unexpectedly did not. In contrast, the decrease in VLDL-triglyceride concentration induced by LUF6281 and LUF6283 was associated with a parallel >40% reduced expression of APOB within the liver. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The current study identifies LUF6281 and LUF6283, two HCA2 partial agonists of the pyrazole class, as promising drug candidates to achieve the beneficial lipid lowering effect of niacin without producing the unwanted flushing side effect. PMID:22616721

  2. Fenofibrate Effect on Triglyceride and Postprandial Response of Apolipoprotein A5 Variants: The GOLDN Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (hypertriglyceridemia), one of the characteristic features of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), have been recognized as an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Lowering TG concentration by dietary or drug intervention reduces CHD risk. Fenofibr...

  3. Elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Correlation with body mass index and serum triglyceride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsa Mészáros; Tamás Szombathy; Laura Raimondi; István Karádi; László Romics; Kálmán Magyar

    1999-01-01

    Previous clinical studies reported elevated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but there are not sufficient data about SSAO in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The present study was conducted to investigate serum SSAO activity in NIDDM patients compared with nondiabetic and IDDM patients. Serum SSAO activity in 61 patients with diabetes (n = 34 NIDDM and

  4. Effects of work overload and burnout on cholesterol and triglycerides levels: the moderating effects of emotional reactivity among male and female employees.

    PubMed

    Shirom, A; Westman, M; Shamai, O; Carel, R S

    1997-10-01

    The effects of objective and subjective overload, and of physical and emotional burnout, on cholesterol and triglycerides levels were studied in a quasiprospective design. The possible moderating effects of emotional reactivity on these relationships were also investigated. The study's hypotheses were tested separately for male and female employees. Time 1 (T1) data were collected from 665 healthy employees (30% women) while they were undergoing periodic health examinations in a health-screening center. Time 2 (T2) measures of cholesterol and triglycerides were collected 2 to 3 years after T1. The hypotheses were tested by regressing each T2 criterion on its T1 level; the control variables of age, obesity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking; and the other predictors. For female employees, the T2-T1 changes in the serum lipids were positively predicted by emotional burnout, as expected, but negatively predicted by physical fatigue. For male employees, both types of T1 burnout were positive predictors of the T2-T1 change in total cholesterol. PMID:9552297

  5. Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  6. Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogus?aw

    2015-03-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is suggested to be associated with metabolic and hormonal complications. No previous study has compared the effect of different dopamine agonists on plasma lipids, carbohydrate metabolism markers and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. The study included eight bromocriptine-resistant women with prolactinoma (group 1) and twelve matched women with hyperprolactinaemia unrelated to prolactinoma (group 2). Group 1 was then treated with cabergoline, while group 2 with bromocriptine. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed before and after 6 months of therapy. Both treatments normalized plasma prolactin levels. Cabergoline reduced triglycerides, 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and circulating levels of IGF-1, free fatty acids (FFA), uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. With the exception of a reduction in HOMA-IR, bromocriptine treatment produced no significant effect on the investigated biomarkers. Cabergoline was superior to bromocriptine in affecting 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, as well as circulating levels of IGF-1, FFA, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Our results may suggest that cabergoline is superior to bromocriptine when it comes to affecting atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of cardiovascular risk factors in hyperprolactinaemic patients. These findings seem to support previous observations that cabergoline may be a better treatment for patients with elevated prolactin levels than bromocriptine. PMID:25123447

  7. Insulin, glucose and triglyceride relationships in obese African subjects.

    PubMed

    Joffe, B I; Goldberg, R B; Seftel, H C; Distiller, L A

    1975-06-01

    Aspects of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were studied in 50 nondiabetic African subjects living in Johannesburg. Twenty-six of them were overweight, invariably associated with a high-carbohydrate intake. In general, the obese group demonstrated significantly raised serum insulin levels, normal glucose tolerance, normal fasting serum triglycerides, and significantly elevated serum cholesterol concentrations. However, the degree of obesity was not significantly correlated with any of these metabolic variables--notably basal or stimulated insulin levels. This suggests that the obese state, per se, was not the major cause of the hyperinsulinemia, and that other factors influenced individual insulin responses or sensitivity. Inconsistently excessive dietary carbohydrate ingestion and an unusual degree of physical activity may have been important. A striking correlation emerged between fasting serum triglycerides and insulin concentrations (both basal and stimulated); the possibility that this reflects acceleration of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by insulin is discussed. The concept of obesity invariably producing insulin resistance and progressive compensatory hyperinsulinism may not apply in all environmental conditions. PMID:1130321

  8. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91). In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard ? coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration. PMID:25915947

  9. Growth of Eastern Cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in elevated [CO2] stimulates stand-level respiration and

    E-print Network

    Barron-Gafford, Greg

    -level respiration and rhizodeposition of carbohydrates, accelerates soil nutrient depletion, yet stimulates above respiration was stimulated by elevated [CO2] whether measured at the system level in the undisturbed soil block, by soil collars in situ, or by substrate-induced respiration in vitro. Elevated [CO2] accelerated

  10. Elevated levels of Factor XI are associated with cardiovascular disease in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer I Berliner; Anne C Rybicki; Robert C Kaplan; E. Scott Monrad; Ruth Freeman; Henny H Billett

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be the most frequent cause of death among women in the United States. Although elevated levels of clotting factors have been associated with CAD, few of these studies have been performed in women. Elevated levels of Factor XI have previously been associated with venous thrombosis, but little is known about its effect on arterial

  11. Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol\\/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Arsenault; J. S. Rana; E. S. G. Stroes; J. P. Després; P. K. Shah; J. J. P. Kastelein; N. J. Wareham; S. M. Boekholdt; K. T. Khaw

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)\\/HDL-C are still associated with an increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. BACKGROUND: Although LDL-C is considered to be the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, other

  12. Species-level effects more important than functional group-level responses to elevated CO2: evidence from simulated turves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. HANLEY; S. TROFIMOV; G. TAYLOR

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. Using mixtures of 14 calcareous grassland plant species drawn from three func- tional groups, we looked at the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on contrasting levels of ecosystem performance (species, functional group and community). Experimental communities were subjected to ambient ( ? 350 µ mol mol ? 1 ) or elevated CO 2 ( ? 600 µ

  13. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise Christopher Nuth,1

    E-print Network

    Kääb, Andreas

    Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise Christopher Nuth,1 Geir contribution to global sea level rise of 0.026 mm yrÀ1 sea level equivalent. Citation: Nuth, C., G. Moholdt, J level rise, J. Geophys. Res., 115, F01008, doi:10.1029/2008JF001223. 1. Introduction [2] The most recent

  14. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  15. Riluzole elevates GLT-1 activity and levels in striatal astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Marica; Duty, Susan; Rattray, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Drugs which upregulate astrocyte glutamate transport may be useful neuroprotective compounds by preventing excitotoxicity. We set up a new system to identify potential neuroprotective drugs which act through GLT-1. Primary mouse striatal astrocytes grown in the presence of the growth-factor supplement G5 express high levels of the functional glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (also known as EAAT2) as assessed by Western blotting and 3H-glutamate uptake assay, and levels decline following growth factor withdrawal. The GLT-1 transcriptional enhancer dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 ?M) was able to prevent loss of GLT-1 levels and activity following growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, ceftriaxone, a compound previously reported to enhance GLT-1 expression, failed to regulate GLT-1 in this system. The neuroprotective compound riluzole (100 ?M) upregulated GLT-1 levels and activity, through a mechanism that was not dependent on blockade of voltage-sensitive ion channels, since zonasimide (1 mM) did not regulate GLT-1. Finally, CDP-choline (10 ?M – 1 mM), a compound which promotes association of GLT-1/EAAT2 with lipid rafts was unable to prevent GLT-1 loss under these conditions. This observation extends the known pharmacological actions of riluzole, and suggests that this compound may exert its neuroprotective effects through an astrocyte-dependent mechanism. PMID:22080156

  16. Changes in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglyceride\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios among patients randomized to aripiprazole versus olanzapine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Newcomer; Jonathan M. Meyer; Ross A. Baker; James M. Eudicone; Andrei Pikalov; Estelle Vester-Blokland; Robert D. McQuade; David T. Crandall; William H. Carson; Ronald N. Marcus; Gilbert L'Italien

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveNon-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C) are predictors of cardiovascular risk. This post-hoc analysis assessed changes in these parameters during treatment with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine or aripiprazole using pooled data from three randomized, long-term clinical studies in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  18. Relationship between Elevated Fibrinopeptide A Levels and Alpha2Antiplasmin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Marongiu; G. Mulas; A. M. Mamusa; G. Mameli; Giua Marassi; M. B. Tronci; A. B. Cambuli; M. R. Acca; A. Balestrieri

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate whether ?2-antiplasmin (?2-AP) levels may be related to thrombin activity, we measured ?2-AP and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) in 51 patients with clinical conditions frequently associated with increased thrombin activity. The diagnoses were: atherosclerotic disease, chronic inflammatory disease and hematological neoplastic disease. A significant negative correlation was found between ?2-AP and FPA (p < 0.01). When patients

  19. Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

  20. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  1. Elevated CSF histamine levels in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histamine is an ubiquitous inflammatory mediator of numerous physiological processes. Histamine and its receptors have been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We prospectively enrolled 36 MS patients and 19 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) histamine analysis. Findings CSF histamine levels in MS patient samples were significantly higher (median: 35.6 pg/ml) than in controls (median: 5.5 pg/ml; Beta?=?0.525, p?

  2. Male Morphs in Tree Lizards Have Different Testosterone Responses to Elevated Levels of Corticosterone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Knapp; Michael C. Moore

    1997-01-01

    Changes in circulating glucocorticoid and androgen levels mediate agonistic behaviors in many vertebrates. Individual variation in the magnitude of the glucocorticoid response to stressful stimuli, the negative effects of elevated glucocorticoid levels on androgen levels, or both could mediate individual differences in subsequent agonistic behavior. In a series of previous studies, we found that both alternative male reproductive morphs in

  3. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  4. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  5. Summertime elevation of sup 222 Rn levels in Huntsville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Saultz, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Indoor Rn concentrations and Rn in adjacent karst terrains were studied at four houses with crawlspaces in Huntsville, AL. In warm summertime weather, Rn-rich air may vent through limestone solution cavities exposed as holes at the surface of the properties. A probable interrelated-finding is that the indoor levels of {sup 222}Rn are distinctly higher in the summer than winter. The karst underlying the homes is structurally faulted and, in all probability, facilitates Rn transport from the solution cavities to the crawlspaces. Abrupt day-to-day changes in indoor Rn concentrations were recorded in addition to large seasonal changes. If the owners or residents of these particular homes had attempted to make, and interpret, short-term screening measurements for Rn during the fall season, problems, including false negatives, could have arisen because of order-of-magnitude changes in Rn concentration occurring over a few days. The best time of year to make screening measurements would be during the summer when indoor Rn concentrations are more likely to reach their maximum values.

  6. Elevated Troponin Serum Levels in Adult Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, Carlo Umberto; Brugioni, Lucio; Colaci, Michele; Tognetti, Maurizio; Spinella, Amelia; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2015-01-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory systemic disease that occasionally may affect myocardium. Diagnosis is based on typical AOSD symptoms after the exclusion of well-known infectious, neoplastic, or autoimmune/autoinflammatory disorders. In the case of abrupt, recent onset AOSD, it could be particularly difficult to make the differential diagnosis and in particular to early detect the possible heart involvement. This latter event is suggested by the clinical history of the four patients described here, incidentally observed at our emergency room. All cases were referred because of acute illness (high fever, malaise, polyarthralgias, skin rash, and sore throat), successively classified as AOSD, and they presented abnormally high levels of serum troponin without overt symptoms of cardiac involvement. The timely treatment with steroids (3 cases) or ibuprofen (1 case) leads to the remission of clinicoserological manifestations within few weeks. These observations suggest that early myocardial injury might be underestimated or entirely overlooked in patients with AOSD; routine cardiac assessment including troponin evaluation should be mandatory in all patients with suspected AOSD. PMID:25767733

  7. A common functional exon polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene is associated with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism and insulin levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Rubin; Ulf Helwig; Maria Pfeuffer; Stefan Schreiber; Heiner Boeing; Eva Fisher; Andreas Pfeiffer; Sandra Freitag-Wolf; Ulrich R. Foelsch; Frank Doering; Juergen Schrezenmeir

    2006-01-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Emerging evidence has indicated that the functional MTP exon polymorphism I128T is associated with dyslipidemia and other traits of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and the T128 variant seems to confer a reduced stability of MTP, resulting in reduced binding of LDL particles. The aim

  8. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  9. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  10. Plasma levels of myeloperoxidase are not elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lukas Kubala; Guijing Lu; Stephan Baldus; Lars Berglund; Jason P. Eiserich

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundPlasma and serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a redox-active hemoprotein released by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) upon activation, is now recognized as a powerful prognostic determinant of myocardial infarction in patients suffering acute coronary syndromes. However, there is limited information on whether systemic MPO levels are also elevated and of discriminating value in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) representing

  11. Elevated Levels of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Polycythaemia vera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatia Theodoridou; Timoleon Vyzantiadis; Sofia Vakalopoulou; Vassilios Perifanis; Konstantinos Tziomalos; Athanassios Vyzantiadis; Vassilia Garipidou

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis seems to be a prominent event of myeloproliferative diseases. There are few reported data on angiogenesis and the significance of its stimulator, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in polycythaemia vera (PV). We report our observation of elevated serum VEGF levels in patients suffering from PV. Twenty patients with PV and 20 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. VEGF levels

  12. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  13. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

  14. Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

    2014-05-01

    Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:23803162

  15. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Not Elevated in Children with Hypothalamic Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kanumakala; R. Greaves; C. C. Pedreira; S. Donath; G. L. Warne; M. R. Zacharin; M. Harris

    2009-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a common problem after damage to the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic dysfunction is also thought to underlie the obesity that is typical of Prader-Willi syndrome. Elevated fasting levels of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelinhavebeenreportedinPrader-Willisyndrome.Theaim of this study was to determine whether fasting ghrelin levels are increased in children with hypothalamic obesity. Fasting total ghrelin levels were compared in three groups:

  16. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

  17. Gut triglyceride production

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption. PMID:21989069

  18. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhang, Huayong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on rice-paddy methane (CH4) emissions is incomplete, partly because information is limited concerning the mechanism of the microbial response to elevated ground-level ozone (O3). A field experiment was conducted in the China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment facility in a rice–wheat rotation system to investigate the responses of methanogenic archaeal communities to elevated ground-level O3 by culture-independent and -reliant approaches. We found that elevated ground-level O3 inhibited methanogenic activity and influenced the composition of paddy methanogenic communities, reducing the abundance and diversity of paddy methanogens by adversely affecting dominant groups, such as aceticlastic Methanosaeta, especially at the rice tillering stage. Our results indicated that continuously elevated ground-level O3 would negatively influence paddy methanogenic archaeal communities and its critical ecological function. These findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the responses and feedbacks of paddy ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:24217205

  19. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. McKee; Donald R. Cahoon; Ilka C. Feller

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by man- groves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of

  20. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Kundiev, Yuri I. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Chislovska, Nataliya V. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Mucha, Amy [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Zvinchuk, Alexander V. [Data Management Center, Kyiv University of Illinois (United States); Oliynyk, Irene [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Hryhorczuk, Daniel [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  2. Particle Size Evidence of Intertidal Elevation: A Basis for Quantitative Sea-level Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plater, Andrew; Mills, Hayley; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame is controlled largely by hydroperiod and proximity to tidal ingress. Here, the upper part of the intertidal zone is characterised by poorly sorted, near symmetrical, platy- to mesokurtic, fine-grained particle size distributions due to particle settling from suspension as the tidal flow velocity decreases to high tide slack water. Indeed, an elevational or spatial gradient in particle size distribution can be observed whereby shorter hydroperiods (higher elevations) are accompanied by slower and more variable flow velocities. However, this gradient may become complicated by creek networks, whereby particle size can be observed to decrease away from creek margins, or extant vegetation that increases bed friction. Unvegetated, planar tidal flats in the Yangtze estuary offer an ideal test bed to explore evidence for a quantitative relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame. Such a relationship would then serve as an effective proxy for tidal level preserved within sediment cores, and thus a means for reconstructing past sea level. This principle is based largely on ecological transfer function-based reconstructions of Holocene sea level from foraminifera and diatoms. Surface sediment samples were collected along three transects extending eastwards from Chongming Island in South Branch channel of the Yangtze estuary. Sample positions relative to the high water mark were determined using RTK surveying, and particle size analysis was undertaken using laser granulometry. Unconstrained cluster analysis, based on unweighted Euclidean distance, was undertaken on the particle size classes at 0.25 phi intervals (up to 50 size bins) as well as Udden-Wentworth size classes (6-7 size bins). All three transects demonstrate a good clustering of particle size classes with distance and elevation, i.e. sites that are higher within the tidal frame and closer to the high water mark are characterised by higher percentages of clay and silt grades. Distance and elevation show a strong negative correlation for all transects (r2: -0.88 to -0.97), whilst cluster order is positively correlated with distance (r2: 0.41 to 0.80) and negatively correlated with elevation (r2: -0.68 to -0.75). A weighted average (WA) transfer function analysis of the relationship with elevation was then undertaken to examine how the predictability of elevation changes according to the number of data points and the number of size classes. For the largest dataset (middle transect), the WA elevation transfer function offers good predictability but limited precision (r2jack c.0.76, RMSEPjack c.0.60 m), both of which increase as the number of size classes is reduced. The smallest dataset (north transect) offers reduced predictability and precision (r2jack c.0.45, RMSEPjack c.0.60-0.90 m). Although the precision of these transfer functions is disappointing, due to the relatively widespread occurrence of size classes with elevation and distance, the r2jack values compare very well with ecological transfer functions used for reconstructing past tidal level. It is proposed that, in the absence or poor preservation of microfossils, particle size distributions offer a means for reconstructing trends in past sea level from dated sediment cores.

  3. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change. PMID:24198270

  4. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (?10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  5. An elevated plasma level of visfatin increases the risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Li, Z; Tao, H F; Qi, X Y; Wang, W L; Yang, L; Wang, H; Xu, P

    2014-01-01

    Visfatin, an adipocytokine involved in metabolic and immune disorders, plays an important role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence has shown that an elevated plasma level of visfatin may increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but individual published studies have shown inconclusive results. This study aimed to obtain a more precise estimate of the association between the plasma visfatin level and MI risk through a detailed meta-analysis of studies published in peer-reviewed journals. A literature search of articles published before May 1, 2013 was performed on the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China BioMedicine databases. Crude standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Eleven case-control studies comprising 362 MI patients and 322 healthy controls were included. The meta-analysis revealed that an elevated plasma level of visfatin was associated with an increased risk of MI (SMD = 3.82, 95%CI = 2.67-4.98, P < 0.001). Further stratification based on the source of the controls showed that an elevated plasma level of visfatin was significantly associated with increased risk of MI in both hospital-based and population-based studies (SMD = 4.12, 95%CI = 2.23-6.01, P < 0.001 and SMD = 3.65, 95%CI = 2.67- 4.98, P < 0.001, respectively). No publication bias was evident in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis indicates that an elevated plasma level of visfatin increases the risk of MI. Therefore, plasma visfatin may be a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of MI. PMID:24615088

  6. Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Dai, L C; Thuy, L T; Quynh, H T; Minh, D Q; Cau, H D; Phiet, P H; Nguyen, N T; Constable, J D; Baughman, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The largest known dioxin contamination occurred between 1962 and 1970, when 12 million gallons of Agent Orange, a defoliant mixture contaminated with a form of the most toxic dioxin, were sprayed over southern and central Vietnam. Studies were performed to determine if elevated dioxin levels persist in Vietnamese living in the south of Vietnam. METHODS. With gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, human milk, adipose tissue, and blood from Vietnamese living in sprayed and unsprayed areas were analyzed, some individually and some pooled, for dioxins and the closely related dibenzofurans. RESULTS. One hundred sixty dioxin analyses of tissue from 3243 persons were performed. Elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) levels as high as 1832 ppt were found in milk lipid collected from southern Vietnam in 1970, and levels up to 103 ppt were found in adipose tissue in the 1980s. Pooled blood collected from southern Vietnam in 1991/92 also showed elevated TCDD up to 33 ppt, whereas tissue from northern Vietnam (where Agent Orange was not used) revealed TCDD levels at or below 2.9 ppt. CONCLUSIONS. Although most Agent Orange studies have focused on American veterans, many Vietnamese had greater exposure. Because health consequences of dioxin contamination are more likely to be found in Vietnamese living in Vietnam than in any other populations, Vietnam provides a unique setting for dioxin studies. PMID:7702115

  7. Elevated Serum Levels of Visfatin in Patients with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Na; Chen, Tao; Li, Meng-Meng; Jiao, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an immune complex-mediated disease predominantly characterized by the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing immunoglobulin A (IgA) on the walls of small vessels. Although the pathogenesis of HSP is not yet fully understood, some researchers proposed that B-cell activation might play a critical role in the development of this disease. Objective To investigate the serum levels of visfatin (pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor), B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), and CXCL13, and to analyze their association with disease severity. Methods The serum levels of visfatin, BAFF, and CXCL13 were measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 patients with HSP and 45 controls. The serum levels of IgA anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) were detected by using a double-antigen sandwich ELISA. Results Levels of visfatin but not BAFF and CXCL13 were significantly elevated in the sera of patients with HSP in the acute stage, and restored to normal levels in the convalescent stage. Furthermore, serum levels of visfatin were significantly higher in patients with HSP having renal involvement than in those without renal involvement. Serum levels of visfatin were correlated with the severity of HSP and serum concentration of ACA-IgA. Conclusion We show for the first time that the serum levels of visfatin are abnormally elevated in patients with HSP. Visfatin may be associated with the pathogenesis of HSP. PMID:24966628

  8. ELEVATED INFLAMMATION LEVELS IN DEPRESSED ADULTS WITH A HISTORY OF CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Ambler, Antony; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The association between depression and inflammation is inconsistent across research samples. OBJECTIVE This study tested the hypothesis that a history of childhood maltreatment could identify a subgroup of depressed individuals with elevated inflammation levels, thus helping to explain previous inconsistencies. DESIGN Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS A representative birth cohort of 1,000 individuals was followed to age 32 years as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Study members were assessed for history of childhood maltreatment and current depression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Inflammation was assessed by a clinically-relevant categorical measure of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP >3mg/L), and a dimensional inflammation factor indexing the shared variance of continuous measures of hsCRP, fibrinogen, and white blood cells. RESULTS Although depression was associated with high hsCRP (RR=1.45; 95%CI=1.06;1.99), this association was significantly attenuated and no longer significant when the effect of childhood maltreatment was taken into account. Individuals with current depression and childhood maltreatment history were more likely to show high hsCRP levels than controls (N=27; RR=2.07; 95%CI=1.23;3.47). In contrast, individuals with current depression only showed a non-significant elevation in risk (N=109; RR=1.40; 95%CI=0.97;2.01). Results generalized to the inflammation factor. The elevated inflammation levels in depressed+maltreated individuals were not explained by correlated risk factors, such as depression recurrence, low socioeconomic status in childhood or adulthood, poor health, or smoking. CONCLUSIONS A history of childhood maltreatment contributes to the co-occurrence of depression and inflammation. Information about experiences of childhood maltreatment may help to identify depressed individuals with elevated inflammation levels and thus cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:18391129

  9. Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels and Early Arterial Changes in Healthy Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko J. Järvisalo; Aimo Harmoinen; Maarit Hakanen; Ulla Paakkunainen; Jorma Viikari; Jaakko Hartiala; Terho Lehtimäki; Olli Simell; Olli T. Raitakari

    Objective—Elevated serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) predicts cardiovascular events in adults. Because atherosclerosis begins in childhood, we undertook a study to determine whether changes in brachial artery endothelial function and the thickness of the carotid intima-media complex, 2 markers of early atherosclerosis, are related to CRP levels in healthy children. Methods and Results—Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid

  10. Elevated HGF Levels in Sera from Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using a Protein Microarray ELISA

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, Ronald L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Varnum, Susan M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Zangar, Richard C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-01-01

    We developed an ELISA in high-density microassay format to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in human serum. The microassay can detect HGF at sub-pg/mL concentrations in sample volumes of 100 uL or less. The microassay is also quantitative and was used to detect elevated HGF levels in sera from recurrent breast cancer patients. The microarray format provides the potential for high-throughput quantitation of multiple biomarkers in parallel.

  11. Photosynthetic inhibition after long-term exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan H. Delucia; Thomas W. Sasek; Boyd R. Strain

    1985-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure to elevated levels of CO2 on biomass partitioning, net photosynthesis and starch metabolism was examined in cotton. Plants were grown under controlled conditions at 350, 675 and 1000 ?l l-1 CO2. Plants grown at 675 and 1000 ?l l-1 had 72% and 115% more dry weight respectively than plants grown at 350 ?l l-1. Increases

  12. Baseline troponin level: key to understanding the importance of post-PCI troponin elevations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne L. Miller; Kirk N. Garratt; Mary F. Burritt; Ryan J. Lennon; Guy S. Reeder; Allan S. Jaffe

    2006-01-01

    Aims The adverse prognostic significance of biomarker elevations after percutaneous coronary interven- tion (PCI) is well established. However, often baseline troponin values are not included in the analysis or sensitive criteria are not employed. Accordingly, we assessed the timing and magnitude of post-PCI tro- ponin T (cTnT) levels and their relationships to outcomes in patients with and without pre-PCI baseline

  13. Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Mondadori; Thomas Ducret; Albert Hiiusler

    1992-01-01

    Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that

  14. Plasma Levels of Myeloperoxidase are not Elevated in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kubala, Lukas; Lu, Guijing; Baldus, Stephan; Berglund, Lars; Eiserich, Jason P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Plasma and serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a redox-active hemoprotein released by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) upon activation, is now recognized as a powerful prognostic determinant of myocardial infarction in patients suffering acute coronary syndromes. However, there is limited information on whether systemic MPO levels are also elevated and of discriminating value in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) representing different ethnic groups. Methods Plasma levels of MPO and traditional CAD risk factors were quantified in African American and Caucasian patients (n=557) undergoing elective coronary angiography. Results MPO levels did not differ significantly between patients with or without CAD [421 pM (321, 533) vs. 412 pM (326, 500), p>0.05]. MPO levels were similar across ethnicity and gender, and correlated positively with CRP and fibrinogen levels (r=0.132, p=0.002 and r=0.106, p=0.011, respectively). Conclusion In conclusion, plasma MPO levels were not elevated in patients with stable CAD, suggesting that systemic release of MPO is not a characteristic feature of asymptomatic CAD. PMID:18440308

  15. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    PubMed

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality. PMID:25518819

  16. A simple enzymatic quantitative analysis of triglycerides in tissues.

    PubMed

    Danno, H; Jincho, Y; Budiyanto, S; Furukawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1992-10-01

    We determined a method to measure the triglyceride levels in tissues by using a modified enzymatic kit. This enzymatic kit was originally designed to be used to measure the triglyceride levels in plasma. Our method of triglyceride level determination includes dissolving the tissue lipid extracts in an alcohol. Before using the enzymatic kit directly, the lipids were dissolved in tert-butyl alcohol, then a Triton X-100/methyl alcohol mixture was added (1/1 by volume). The presence of organic surfactants such as tert-butyl alcohol and methyl alcohol, and of a surfactant such as Triton X-100, did not interfere with the enzymatic activity. This method enabled us to determine triglyceride levels between 10 and 90 nmol, by using a spectrophotometer to measure the absorbances. PMID:1294711

  17. Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

  18. Isoprene synthase expression and protein levels are reduced under elevated O3 but not under elevated CO2

    E-print Network

    , Houghton, MI 49931, USA ABSTRACT Emission of hydrocarbons by trees has a crucial role in the oxidizing potential of the atmosphere.In particular,isoprene oxidation leads to the formation of tropospheric ozone under elevated O3. Key-words: Populus; forestry plantations; global change; VOC. INTRODUCTION Isoprene

  19. Triglyceride composition of coconut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bezard; M. Bugaut; G. Clement

    1971-01-01

    Triglycerides of coconut oil were fractionated by GLC into 13 groups based on their carbon numbers of 28 to 52. These groups\\u000a represent 99.8% of the total glycerides of coconut oil. With the fatty acid composition of each group, it was possible to\\u000a calculate the composition of 79 types of triglycerides. These types are defined by the nature of their

  20. A three-dimensional analysis of vergence movements at various levels of elevation.

    PubMed

    Minken, A W; Van Gisbergen, J A

    1994-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that eye positions, recorded in subjects scanning a distant visual scene with the head in a stable position, have only two degrees of freedom (Listing's law). Due to cyclovergence, this law is modified in near-vision. Two previous quantitative studies have documented that the sign of the torsional vergence component depends systematically on elevation: when fixating a nearby target, the eyes show intorsion in up gaze, extorsion in down gaze and no cyclotorsion at some intermediate elevation level (to be denoted as the null elevation). Both studies found a linear cyclovergence/elevation relation, but disagreed on the amount of cyclotorsion. A further uncertainty is how this phenomenon develops dynamically when the binocular fixation point shifts from a far to a near position. Therefore, we have investigated the dynamic coupling between the horizontal and torsional components of vergence in human subjects who were instructed to refixate a light target after it stepped in depth. The target steps were presented at various vertical and horizontal directions relative to the straight-ahead axis of the cyclopean eye. We found that the quantitative relations among horizontal vergence, torsional vergence and elevation were intermediate between those found in the two earlier near-vision studies and that they correspond reasonably to the predictions of a model by Mok and co-workers. The cyclotorsion vergence component had about the same latency and dynamics as the horizontal component. When refixations were studied at different elevations, the torsional vergence component changed from incyclotorsion in up gaze to excyclotorsion in down gaze. In agreement with expectations derived from two quantitative models, the null elevation of cyclovergence was near the binocular primary position. Furthermore, we found no consistent additional dependence on the horizontal direction of the refixation trajectory relative to the midsaggital plane. Other experiments showed that the cyclotorsional changes accompanying convergence were not critically dependent upon the visual conditions. Quantitatively similar similar cyclotorsional components were found even in convergent refixations executed in full darkness towards the location of a remembered (flashed) target. We conclude that visual feedback is unlikely to be very important in controlling cyclovergence in these various conditions. PMID:7843320

  1. Elevated levels of antibodies against sulphatide are present in all chronic chagasic and dilated cardiomyopathy sera.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Carrasco, H

    1993-01-01

    A natural anti-sulphatide antibody was found to be present in the serum of every normal individual studied. The reactivity of the antibody was assessed by its interaction with galactosylceramide-I3-sulphate. Antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked by 1 mM heparin, dextran sulphate and chondroitin sulphate A, and by 5 mM chondroitin sulphate B. Antibodies avidly absorb to rabbit erythrocytes, but discretely to rat erythrocytes, suggesting that they are different from galactocerebroside antibodies. Elevated levels of sulphatide antibodies were present in all of 102 chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients studied, but not in other patients having cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, T. rangeli infection or several other protozoal, helminthic or mycotic infections. Interestingly, 100% of 40 dilated cardiomyopathy patients also have elevated levels of sulphatide antibodies. As T. cruzi is rich in galactocerebroside sulphate, it is proposed that in chagasic patients this glycolipid could act as an immunogen, inducing elevated titres of sulphatide antibodies, which could be important in the pathogenesis of cardiac or peripheral nerve symptoms. PMID:8513577

  2. Elevation of intracellular Zn2+ level by nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban in rat thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Morita, Junpei; Teramachi, Aoi; Sanagawa, Yosuke; Toyson, Saramaiti; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Oyama, Yasuo

    2012-12-17

    It was recently reported that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent, were detected in human blood after the use of soap containing triclocarban. Due to the widespread use of triclocarban in adult and infant personal care products, the report prompted us to study its cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of triclocarban was examined in rat thymocytes by using a cytometric technique with propidium iodide for examining cell lethality, FluoZin-3-AM for monitoring the intracellular Zn(2+) level, and 5-chloromethylfluorescencein diacetate for estimating the cellular content of non-protein thiol. The incubation with triclocarban at nanomolar concentrations (50-500nM) for 1h did not affect cell lethality but significantly elevated the intracellular Zn(2+) level. The elevation of the intracellular Zn(2+) level by triclocarban was not significantly dependent on external Zn(2+) level. There was a negative correlation (r=-0.9225) between the effect on the intracellular Zn(2+) level and that on the cellular content of non-protein thiol. These results suggest that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban decrease the cellular content of non-protein thiol, leading to intracellular Zn(2+) release. Since zinc plays physiological roles in mammalian cells, the percutaneous absorption of triclocarban from soap may, therefore, affect some cellular functions. PMID:23099084

  3. Elevated levels of Factor XI are associated with cardiovascular disease in women.

    PubMed

    Berliner, Jennifer I; Rybicki, Anne C; Kaplan, Robert C; Monrad, E Scott; Freeman, Ruth; Billett, Henny H

    2002-07-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be the most frequent cause of death among women in the United States. Although elevated levels of clotting factors have been associated with CAD, few of these studies have been performed in women. Elevated levels of Factor XI have previously been associated with venous thrombosis, but little is known about its effect on arterial thrombosis. We selected women referred for cardiac catheterization who were found to have either normal coronaries or evidence of severe CAD and compared levels of homocysteine, anticardiolipin IgG/IgM antibodies, fibrinogen, platelet count, Factor VII, Factor VIII and Factor XI. Women with severe CAD had significantly higher levels of Factor XI than those without CAD (128% vs. 82%, p<0.04). Statistical adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, total cholesterol (TC), current smoking, or BMI had no effect on the independent association between CAD status and Factor XI. Factor XI was higher in women with total cholesterol levels >6.18 mmol/l (>239 mg/dl) compared with normocholesteremic women and was also higher in the upper tertile of age, but even when adjusted for these, the association remained significant. This initial study suggests that Factor XI may be an important parameter in arterial as well as venous thrombosis. PMID:12413590

  4. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

  6. Effects of elevated CO(2) levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO(2) levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO(2) levels (360 and 1 000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO(2) increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2), especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO(2) under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO(2). The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2). Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO(2) may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

  7. Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna V; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans O; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO(2) levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(CO2)) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric P(CO2) (?400 ?atm, normocapnia) or P(CO2) projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (?700-800 ?atm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated P(CO2) and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and P(CO2), suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high P(CO2). Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated P(CO2) and fluctuating salinity may jeopardize the survival of eastern oysters because of weakening of their shells and increased energy consumption. PMID:22162851

  8. Serum Nogo-A levels are not elevated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Noam Y.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Brown, Robert H.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Improved biomarkers would facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Muscle content of the neuritic outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A is increased in patients with ALS and other denervating conditions. Seeking a less invasive diagnostic method, we sought to determine whether or not Nogo increases in the serum of ALS patients. We developed a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) protocol to screen serum samples from 172 ALS patients and 172 healthy controls for Nogo-A immunoreactivity. Unexpectedly, there was a trend toward decreased levels of serum Nogo-A in ALS. Mean serum Nogo-A level in ALS patients was 0.71 nM (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42–1.00), as opposed to 1.15 nM (95% CI 0.72–1.59) in healthy controls. A significantly larger percentage of healthy control sera (11.0% vs 4.7%) displayed markedly elevated levels of Nogo-A. Additional study is required to determine the factors that lead to elevated Nogo-A levels in a subset of both ALS patients and healthy controls. PMID:19548774

  9. [Gallbladder cancer with elevated serum ?-fetoprotein, ?-fetoprotein-L3, and human chorionic gonadotropin levels].

    PubMed

    Goto, Akira; Ishimine, Yu; Hirata, Tsubasa; Naito, Takafumi; Yabana, Takashi; Adachi, Takeya; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with fever and was diagnosed with choledocholithiasis, which was removed endoscopically. Incidentally, a markedly elevated serum ?-fetoprotein(AFP)level was detected(1,951 ng/mL), but computed tomography( CT)showed only diffuse gallbladder wall thickening. Subsequently, markedly elevated serum AFP-L3 and human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)levels were detected(99.6%and 2,867mIU/mL, respectively). Fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)- positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated high FDG uptake only in the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer was suspected and the patient was scheduled for a cholecystectomy. However, CT just prior to surgery revealed multiple liver metastases. Percutaneous gallbladder biopsy revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma positive for AFP but not HCG. The patient underwent chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine and cisplatin. A CT scan obtained 12 weeks later showed disease progression and AFP and HCG levels were found to have increased to 4,021 ng/mL and 66,000mIU/mL, respectively. Although immunohistochemistry of biopsy specimen did not demonstrate HCG production, increased serum HCG level on disease progression definitely suggested HCG production of gallbladder cancer. We believe the biopsy specimen was very small and therefore did not prove HCG production. Gallbladder cancer with simultaneous production of AFP and HCG is rare, and we therefore report this case together with a review of the literature. PMID:25132038

  10. Elevated resistin levels induce central leptin resistance and increased atherosclerotic progression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Asterholm, Ingrid W.; Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Fujikawa, Teppei; Cho, You-Ree; Fukuda, Makoto; Tao, Caroline; Wang, Zhao V.; Gupta, Rana K.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Resistin was originally identified as an adipocyte-derived factor upregulated during obesity and as a contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Clinically, resistin has also been implicated in cardiovascular disease in a number of different patient populations. Our aim was to simultaneously address these phenomena. Methods We generated mice with modest adipocyte-specific resistin overexpression. These mice were crossed with mice deficient in the LDL receptor (Ldlr?/?) to probe the physiological role of resistin. Both metabolic and atherosclerotic assessments were performed. Results Resistin overexpression led to increased atherosclerotic progression in Ldlr?/? mice. This was in part related to elevated serum triacylglycerol levels and a reduced ability to clear triacylglycerol upon a challenge. Additional phenotypic changes, such as increased body weight and reduced glucose clearance, independent of the Ldlr?/? background, confirmed increased adiposity associated with a more pronounced insulin resistance. A hallmark of elevated resistin was the disproportionate increase in circulating leptin levels. These mice thus recapitulated both the proposed negative cardiovascular correlation and the insulin resistance. A unifying mechanism for this complex phenotype was a resistin-mediated central leptin resistance, which we demonstrate directly both in vivo and in organotypic brain slices. In line with reduced sympathetic nervous system outflow, we found decreased brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. The resulting elevated triacylglycerol levels provide a likely explanation for accelerated atherosclerosis. Conclusions/interpretation Resistin overexpression leads to a complex metabolic phenotype driven by resistin-mediated central leptin resistance and reduced BAT activity. Hypothalamic leptin resistance thus provides a unifying mechanism for both resistin-mediated insulin resistance and enhanced atherosclerosis. PMID:24623101

  11. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide regulates glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in prediabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through the elevation of glycogen levels and reduction of inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Shui, Weizhi; Yang, Qiuxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-11

    The present study was designed to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), in prediabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. It was observed that fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in both models were reduced after a 4-week oral administration of ASP or metformin, and abnormal fasting serum insulin (FINS) concentrations were ameliorated as well. Moreover, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was decreased strikingly and body weight (BW) was reduced significantly in prediabetic mice after treatment with ASP. In addition, ASP also contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced after treatment with ASP in prediabetic mice or STZ-induced diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic glycogen (HG) and muscle glycogen (MG) concentrations were increased while insulin resistance (IR)-related inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-? in serum were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological examination indicated that the impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues or adipose tissues were effectively restored in STZ-induced diabetic mice or prediabetic mice after the ASP treatment. Taken together, these results revealed that ASP efficiently exerted hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic benefits, and its potential effect was associated with the amelioration of IR. ASP can be applied in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. PMID:25630053

  12. COMMENT Elevated Free IGF-I Levels in Prepubertal Hispanic Girls with Premature Adrenarche: Relationship with Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIRIAM E. SILFEN; ALEXANDRA M. MANIBO; MICHEL FERIN; DONALD J. MCMAHON; LENORE S. LEVINE; SHARON E. OBERFIELD

    Girls with premature adrenarche (PA) (the onset of pubic hair before the age of 8 yr associated with elevated levels of adrenal androgens and no evidence of true puberty or adrenal dys- function) may be at increased risk for development of poly- cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Alterations in the IGF sys- tem, including elevated free IGF-I, have been demonstrated in

  13. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.; [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  14. Hepatic overexpression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) results in increased in vivo secretion of VLDL triglycerides and apolipoprotein B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe J. F. Tietge; Ahmed Bakillah; Cyrille Maugeais; Kazuhisa Tsukamoto; Mahmood Hussain; Daniel J. Rader

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the hepatic secretion of apolipopro- tein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. Previous studies have indicated that inhibition of MTP results in decreased apoB plasma levels and decreased hepatic triglyceride secretion. However, the metabolic effects of overexpression of MTP have not been investigated. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus expressing MTP (AdhMTP) and used it

  15. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in ?-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of ?-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol. PMID:21548801

  16. Elevated serum levels of neutrophil elastase in patients with influenza virus-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guilian; Ota, Chiharu; Kitaoka, Setsuko; Chiba, Yoko; Takayanagi, Masaru; Kitamura, Taro; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Fujie, Hiromi; Mikami, Hitoshi; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-15

    We examined serum levels of various cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules in patients with uncomplicated influenza (n=20) and influenza virus-associated encephalopathy (IE) (n=18) to understand the underlying mechanism of IE. We found that IL-1?, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-?, TIMP-1, MMP-9, sE-selectin, and neutrophil elastase were elevated significantly in sera from patients with uncomplicated influenza and those with IE, compared with normal controls (n=20). Of note, neutrophil elastase, sE-selectin, IL-8, and IL-13 were elevated significantly in IE as compared with uncomplicated influenza. In the present study, for the first time, we found that serum levels of neutrophil elastase were increased in patients with IE compared with uncomplicated influenza, which suggested that cerebral endothelial damage in the development of IE was mediated by neutrophil elastase. The present study implied that anti-elastase agents are possibly an effective therapeutic protocol for IE, but this needs further elucidation. PMID:25626769

  17. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Hannerfors, A-K; Hellgren, C; Schijven, D; Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Skalkidou, A; Olivier, J D A; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-08-01

    Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but causality remains unclear. While placental CRH production is correlated with gestational length and preterm birth, it has been difficult to establish if psychological stress or mental health problems are associated with increased CRH levels. This study compared second trimester CRH serum concentrations in pregnant women on SSRI treatment (n=207) with untreated depressed women (n=56) and controls (n=609). A secondary aim was to investigate the combined effect of SSRI treatment and CRH levels on gestational length and risk for preterm birth. Women on SSRI treatment had significantly higher second trimester CRH levels than controls, and untreated depressed women. CRH levels and SSRI treatment were independently associated with shorter gestational length. The combined effect of SSRI treatment and high CRH levels yielded the highest risk estimate for preterm birth. SSRI treatment during pregnancy is associated with increased CRH levels. However, the elevated risk for preterm birth in SSRI users appear not to be mediated by increased placental CRH production, instead CRH appear as an independent risk factor for shorter gestational length and preterm birth. PMID:25978816

  18. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26082650

  19. Histologic Abnormalities in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Normal or Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Molleston, Jean P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Yates, Katherine P; Murray, Karen F; Cummings, Oscar W; Lavine, Joel E.; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Scheimann, Ann O; Unalp-Arida, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the histological spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with normal, mildly elevated (26–50 U/L boys, 23–44 U/L girls), or elevated (> 50 boys, > 44 girls) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Study design The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) enrolls children 5–18 years with NAFLD. We analyzed baseline clinical and histological data from 91 children with suspected NAFLD and normal or mildly elevated ALT and liver biopsy within 180 days of ALT, and compared them with 392 children with elevated ALT. Results Of 91 children, 17 (19%) had normal and 74 (81%) had mildly elevated ALT levels. Overall, 45% of biopsies had ? 33% steatosis, lobular inflammation grade was ? 2 in 22%, 81% had portal inflammation, 29% had ballooned hepatocytes, 35% had “suspicious/borderline” steatohepatitis, and 8% had definite NASH, 34% had NAFLD activity score (NAS) ? 4. Overall, 46% had fibrosis (38% mild/moderate and 8% bridging/cirrhosis). Marked steatosis (50% vs 24%) and fibrosis (54% vs 12%) were significantly more common in mildly elevated vs normal, with no difference in ballooning, inflammation, or NAS ? 4. Fibrosis stage 3/4 was seen in none of the children with normal ALT, and in 9% of the mildly elevated and 15% of the elevated. Conclusions Liver biopsies of children with NAFLD with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels show significant histologic abnormalities, including advanced fibrosis in children with mildly elevated ALT. ALT thus may underestimate liver injury in NAFLD. Appropriate ALT cut-off levels can help identify children at risk for more severe disease. PMID:24360992

  20. Low-Level Lead Exposure and Elevations in Blood Pressure during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Ellen M.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Herbstman, Julie B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Halden, Rolf U.; Witter, Frank R.; Goldman, Lynn R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lead exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure during pregnancy; however, the magnitude of this relationship at low exposure levels is unclear. Objectives Our goal was to determine the association between low-level lead exposure and blood pressure during late pregnancy. Methods We collected admission and maximum (based on systolic) blood pressures during labor and delivery among 285 women in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord blood lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, median household income, parity, smoking during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index, and anemia. These models were used to calculate benchmark dose values. Results Geometric mean cord blood lead was 0.66 ?g/dL (95% confidence interval, 0.61–0.70). Comparing blood pressure measurements between those in the highest and those in the lowest quartile of lead exposure, we observed a 6.87-mmHg (1.51–12.21 mmHg) increase in admission systolic blood pressure and a 4.40-mmHg (0.21–8.59 mmHg) increase in admission diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for confounders. Corresponding values for maximum blood pressure increase were 7.72 (1.83–13.60) and 8.33 (1.14–15.53) mmHg. Benchmark dose lower limit values for a 1-SD increase in blood pressure were < 2 ?g/dL blood lead for all blood pressure end points. Conclusions A significant association between low-level lead exposures and elevations in maternal blood pressure during labor and delivery can be observed at umbilical blood lead levels < 2 ?g/dL. PMID:21292600

  1. Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

  2. Elevated Levels of C-Reactive Protein at Discharge in Patients With Unstable Angina Predict Recurrent Instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi M. Biasucci; Giovanna Liuzzo; Rita L. Grillo; Giuseppina Caligiuri; Antonio G. Rebuzzi; Antonino Buffon; Francesco Summaria; Francesca Ginnetti; Giovanni Fadda; Attilio Maseri

    2010-01-01

    Background—In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. Methods and Results—We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pyloriand Chlamydia pneumoniaeantibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary

  3. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  4. Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

  5. 049. Massive pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis associated with elevated plasma levels of factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Ampelidou, Varvara; Chloros, Diamantis; Tryfon, Stavros; Karritevli, Melina; Tsara, Venetia

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between elevated plasma coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) levels and Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) was first described in the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Until today the measurement of FVIII levels is not included in laboratory investigation of possible congenital thrombophilia in cases of unexplained VTE. Nevertheless, FVIII levels above 150% seemed to be correlated with high risk of VTE. Case report We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient who was admitted to the National Health System Pulmonary Department of “G. Papanicolaou” Hospital of Thessaloniki because of massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis was confirmed with a positive computed tomography angiography and the patient was started on low molecular weight heparin. An ultrasonography of deep leg veins showed extensive deep vein thrombosis. The patient had no identifiable secondary hypercoagulable conditions (among which no antiphospholipid syndrome or malignancy) so the search was extended towards hereditary thrombophilia. No one abnormality of antithrombin, protein C or S, factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, dysfibrinogenemia or hyperhomocysteinemia was uncovered. The only abnormality was the significant increase in the plasma levels of FVIII, which was measured at 383%. Conclusions Correlation of increased levels of FVIII to VTE risk, its role in recurrent thrombosis and its engagement in the pathophysiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease are discussed. Factor VIII assay should be considered in the work-up of idiopathic, recurrent VTE as well as the need of long-term anticoagulation therapy.

  6. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  7. Elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuichi; Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal in body. Impairment in skeletal muscle glucose handling capacity leads to the state of insulin resistance. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) cytokine has now emerged as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function. However, the role of TWEAK in skeletal muscle metabolic function remains less understood. Here, we demonstrate that with progressive age, skeletal muscle-specific TWEAK-transgenic (TWEAK-Tg) mice gain increased body weight (?16%) and fat mass (?64%) and show glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. TWEAK-Tg mice also exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy in the epididymal fat. Oxygen uptake, voluntary physical activity, and exercise capacity were significantly reduced in TWEAK-Tg mice compared with controls. Overexpression of TWEAK inhibited (?31%) 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced (?31%) the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) without affecting the Akt pathway. TWEAK also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (?32%) and repressed the levels of GLUT4 (?50%) in cultured myotubes from C57BL6 mice. TWEAK represses the levels of Krüppel-like factor 15; myocyte enhancer factor 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, which are required for the activation of the GLUT4 locus. Collectively our study demonstrates that elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle cause metabolic abnormalities. Inhibition of TWEAK could be a potential approach to prevent weight gain and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25466899

  8. Elevated salivary ?-amylase and cortisol levels in unremitted and remitted depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kohno, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Taiga; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Kawano, Aimi; Hanada, Hiroaki; Isogawa, Koichi; Kodama, Kensuke

    2010-11-01

    Abstract Objective. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis via chronic stress. Psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary ?-amylase (sAA) represents sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity, and sAA has become an emerging biomarker for sympathetic nervous system activity. In contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in depressed patients. The present study sought to address this problem by measuring sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with major depressive disorder. Methods. The authors recorded Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores along with, levels of sAA and salivary cortisol in 28 patients with unremitted major depressive disorder, 43 remitted patients and 103 healthy volunteers. Results. STAI (State or Trait) measurements in unremitted patients with MDD were significantly increased compared with healthy controls and remitted patients. SAA and cortisol levels in unremitted patients were also significantly elevated compared to controls and remitted patients. Finally, sAA levels were significantly correlated with HRSD in unremitted patients with MDD. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that sAA may be a state-dependent marker of major depressive disorder in addition to salivary cortisol. PMID:24917438

  9. The combined effect of pre-transplant triglyceride levels and the type of calcineurin inhibitor in predicting the risk of new onset diabetes after renal transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esteban Porrini; Patricia Delgado; Alejandra Alvarez; Marian Cobo; Lourdes P ´ erez; Luis Hortal; Roberto Gallego; Maria Checa; Adelaida Morales; Eduardo Salido; Domingo Hern ´ andez; Armando Torres

    Background. Insulin resistance precedes overt diabetes in the general population and hypertriglyceridemia is a reliable marker of the disorder. Thus, patients in the waiting list with hypertriglyceridemia may be at risk for new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Objectives. We investigate whether pre-transplant triglyc- eride (TG) levels are a risk factor for NODAT and whether they exert a combined effect with

  10. Elevated Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, Edward; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shah, Rupal J.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. Methods We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40%) and 47 non-PGD subjects (59%) received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p?=?0.03). The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p?=?0.02); there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p?=?0.9). Conclusions Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated. PMID:23284823

  11. Plasma Free H2S Levels are Elevated in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Elvis A.; Shen, Xinggui; Shah, Shivang H.; Pardue, Sibile; Glawe, John D.; Zhang, Wayne W.; Reddy, Pratap; Akkus, Nuri I.; Varma, Jai; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators. Methods and Results Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma?free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin?1 (TSP?1), Interleukin?6 (IL?6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (sICAM?1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n=66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n=13), or any vascular disease (n=140) had higher plasma?free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n=53). Plasma?free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL?6, ICAM?1, and TSP?1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition. Conclusions Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma?free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01407172. PMID:24152982

  12. Production of elevated levels of dextransucrase by a mutant of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Schachtele, C F; Germaine, G R; Harlander, S K

    1975-10-01

    A mutant (S19) of Sreptococcus mutans strain 6715 which produces elevated levels of dextransucrase (EC 2.4.1.5) was isolated. Soluble enzyme in culture supernatant solutions from S19 polymerized the glucosyl moiety of sucrose into alcohol-insoluble and water-insoluble glucans at a rate three to six times greater than that of the parent strain. Washed-cell suspensions of S19 also contained increased amounts of cell-associated enzyme. Adherence of S19 to glass in the presence of sucrose occurred at twice the rate of strain 6715. The Km values for sucrose and primer dextran were similar for the mutant and parent enzymes. Mutant S19 should facilitate studies on the mechanism of adherence of S. Mutans and the control of dextransucrase production by this bacterium. PMID:1193721

  13. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. PMID:25327935

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 ?g/dL with a mean of 15.3 ?g/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 ?g/dL with a mean of 9.94 ?g/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 ?g/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  15. If blocking potency of ivabradine is preserved under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scheruebel, Susanne; Koyani, Chintan N.; Hallström, Seth; Lang, Petra; Platzer, Dieter; Mächler, Heinrich; Lohner, Karl; Malle, Ernst; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Pelzmann, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Lower heart rate is associated with better survival in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a disease mostly caused by sepsis. The benefits of heart rate reduction by ivabradine during MODS are currently being investigated in the MODIfY clinical trial. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current If and since If is impaired by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), a trigger of sepsis, we aimed to explore If blocking potency of ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial cardiomyocytes. Treatment of myocytes with S-LPS (containing the lipid A moiety, a core oligosaccharide and an O-polysaccharide chain) but not R595 (an O-chain lacking LPS-form) caused If inhibition under acute and chronic septic conditions. The specific interaction of S-LPS but not R595 to pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4 proves the necessity of O-chain for S-LPS–HCN interaction. The efficacy of ivabradine to block If was reduced under septic conditions, an observation that correlated with lower intracellular ivabradine concentrations in S-LPS- but not R595-treated cardiomyocytes. Computational analysis using a sinoatrial pacemaker cell model revealed that despite a reduction of If under septic conditions, ivabradine further decelerated pacemaking activity. This novel finding, i.e. If inhibition by ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in vitro, may provide a molecular understanding for the efficacy of this drug on heart rate reduction under septic conditions in vivo, e.g. the MODIfY clinical trial. PMID:24583250

  16. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic conditions whereas the total annual sum is not climatically dependent. Nutrient cycles of Kilimanjaro forest ecosystems are significantly altered by land use and the associated changes of dominant tree species.

  17. Elevated glycated hemoglobin levels may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Fan; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Cheng, Kuan; Chen, Qing-Xing; Xu, Ye; Pang, Yang; Liu, Gui-Jian; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: As the most common cardiac arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) is always accompanied with various complications if without detection and treatment timely. Blood-based pleiotropic molecule biomarkers have now been popularly applied in clinical detection. We hence performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation of serum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with the risk of AF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Covering myriads of computerized databases, we identified potential relevant studies for statistical analysis. We used a standard reporting form to extract data from each included study. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) criteria was used for methodological quality assessment. Statistical analyses were conducted with the STATA statistical software. Results: Six cohort studies in full text fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and following overestimation indicated that serum levels of HbA1c in DM patients with AF was higher than that in DM patients without AF (SMD = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses by sample size and detection method implicated that elevated serum HbA1c levels exhibited significant correlations with an increased risk of AF in DM patients in the large-size subgroup (n ? 200), the small-size subgroup (n < 200), the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) subgroup and the non-HPLC subgroup (Large-size: SMD = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.38-1.03, P < 0.001; Small-size: SMD = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.09-1.19, P = 0.023; HPLC: SMD = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.49-1.12, P < 0.001; Non-HPLC: SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.04-0.68, P = 0.029; respectively). Conclusion: Elevated serum HbA1c levels may be associated with an increased risk of AF in DM patients, possibly reflecting that serum HbA1c level might be a potential biomarker in the prediction of AF in DM patients. PMID:26064216

  18. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  19. Complement monitoring of Pluronic 127 gel and micelles: suppression of copolymer-mediated complement activation by elevated serum levels of HDL, LDL, and apolipoproteins AI and B-100.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Islam; Hunter, A Christy; Moghimi, S Moein

    2013-09-10

    Poloxamer 407 is a non-ionic polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polypropylene oxide (PPO) block copolymer, which exhibits reversible thermogelation properties. Poloxamer gel has attracted many applications for controlled release of therapeutic agents as well as in surgical interventions such as controlled vascular occlusion. We show that poloxamer gel can trigger the complement system, which is an integral part of innate immunity and its inadvertent activation can induce clinically significant anaphylaxis. Complement activation by the poloxamer gel is through the alternative pathway, but material transformations from gel to the solution state further incite complement through calcium-sensitive pathways, where a role for C1q and antibodies has been eliminated. Poloxamer addition to plasma/serum (at levels above its critical micelle concentration, cmc) induced formation of large and diffused structures, which may have been responsible for triggering complement. Since poloxamer 407 administration has been reported to cause significant changes in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels we further examined the role of lipoproteins in poloxamer-mediated complement activation. Our results show a protective role for elevated serum HDL, LDL and their predominant apolipoproteins (apoAI and apoB-100, respectively) on poloxamer-mediated complement activation. Electron microscopy investigations indicated formation of two distinct populations of new structures on mixing of poloxamer (at concentrations above its cmc) with human LDL, which could have played a significant role in regulating complement activation. These observations are in line with the suggested modulatory role of lipoproteins in host defence and inflammatory processes. A better understanding of block copolymer interaction with lipoproteins/apolipoproteins could improve the immune safety of surgical and therapeutic interventions requiring PEO/PPO block copolymers and may provide new insights for combinatorial design of multifunctional copolymers. PMID:23747733

  20. Application of plastic polymers in remediating wine with elevated alkyl-methoxypyrazine levels.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J

    2015-07-01

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are odour-active compounds that elicit atypical green aromas and flavours in some wines, and are resilient to removal using traditional wine-making approaches. They originate either as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles inadvertently introduced during wine processing ("ladybug taint") or as grape-derived constituents that are undesirable at elevated levels. In this study we investigated the capacity of a selection of plastic polymers to reduce concentrations of three MPs: isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP). In Trial 1, red wine was spiked with IPMP (20 ng/l), SBMP (20 ng/l) and IBMP (20 ng/l), then separately treated with 13 plastic polymers (surface area 350 cm(2)/l). Three polymers were then identified for further testing based on the results from Trial 1: silicone, ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and a poly-lactic acid-based biodegradable polymer. In Trial 2, the efficacy of these selected polymers to reduce MP levels in red wine was tested as a function of contact time. Solid-phase micro-extraction multi-dimensional GC-MS was used to measure MP levels before and after treatment with the polymers. Results showed significant reductions in all target odorants after 24 h treatment: silicone reduced IPMP and IBMP by 96% and 100%, respectively, while the biodegradable polymer decreased IPMP and IBMP concentrations by 52% and 36%, respectively. EVA was less effective in lowering MP levels (7% IPMP and 23% IBMP after 24 h). Taken overall, the data suggest the potential for the use of poly-lactic acid and silicone in treating wines contaminated by ladybug taint, as well as in reducing high levels of grape-derived MPs. PMID:25895134

  1. Elevated Levels of Circulating DNA in Cardiovascular Disease Patients: Metagenomic Profiling of Microbiome in the Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n?=?80) than in healthy controls (n?=?40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/?-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n?=?3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n?=?3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further. PMID:25133738

  2. Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogo?anu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neam?u, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Bi??, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2015-02-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1? was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )). PMID:25433580

  3. Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

  4. Elevated citrate levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the potential of citrate to promote radical production.

    PubMed

    van de Wier, Bregje; Balk, Jiska M; Haenen, Guido R M M; Giamouridis, Dimosthenis; Bakker, Jaap A; Bast, Bertine C; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Koek, Ger H; Bast, Aalt

    2013-08-01

    Plasma citrate levels were found to be elevated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Cellular experiments indicated that increased citrate levels might originate from an excess of fatty acids. The impact of elevated citrate levels on oxidative stress was examined. It was found that citrate stimulated hydrogen peroxide induced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. This was related to the promotion of iron mediated hydroxyl radical formation from hydrogen peroxide by citrate. The stimulating effect of citrate on the reactivity of iron promotes oxidative stress, a crucial process in the progression of NAFLD. PMID:23792160

  5. Apolipoprotein E participates in the regulation of very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion by the liver.

    PubMed

    Mensenkamp, A R; Jong, M C; van Goor, H; van Luyn, M J; Bloks, V; Havinga, R; Voshol, P J; Hofker, M H; van Dijk, K W; Havekes, L M; Kuipers, F

    1999-12-10

    ApoE-deficient mice on low fat diet show hepatic triglyceride accumulation and a reduced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride production rate. To establish the role of apoE in the regulation of hepatic VLDL production, the human APOE3 gene was introduced into apoE-deficient mice by cross-breeding with APOE3 transgenics (APOE3/apoe-/- mice) or by adenoviral transduction. APOE3 was expressed in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in brain, spleen, and lung of transgenic APOE3/apoe-/- mice similar to endogenous apoe. Plasma cholesterol levels in APOE/apoe-/- mice (3.4 +/- 0.5 mM) were reduced when compared with apoe-/- mice (12.6 +/- 1.4 mM) but still elevated when compared with wild type control values (1.9 +/- 0.1 mM). Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in apoE-deficient mice was completely reversed by introduction of the APOE3 transgene. The in vivo hepatic VLDL-triglyceride production rate was reduced to 36% of control values in apoE-deficient mice but normalized in APOE3/apoe-/- mice. Hepatic secretion of apoB was not affected in either of the strains. Secretion of (3)H-labeled triglycerides synthesized from [(3)H]glycerol by cultured hepatocytes from apoE-deficient mice was four times lower than by APOE3/apoe-/- or control hepatocytes. The average size of secreted VLDL particles produced by cultured apoE-deficient hepatocytes was significantly reduced when compared with those of APOE3/apoe-/- and wild type mice. Hepatic expression of human APOE3 cDNA via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apoE-deficient mice resulted in a reduction of plasma cholesterol depending on plasma apoE3 levels. The in vivo VLDL-triglyceride production rate in these mice was increased up to 500% compared with LacZ-injected controls and correlated with the amount of apoE3 per particle. These findings indicate a regulatory role of apoE in hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion, independent from its role in lipoprotein clearance. PMID:10585451

  6. Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011.

    PubMed

    Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

  7. Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011

    PubMed Central

    Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients’ mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

  8. Iron deficiency hyperlipidemia in 18-day-old rat pups: effects of milk lipids, lipoprotein lipase, and triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sherman, A R; Guthrie, H A; Wolinsky, I; Zulak, I M

    1978-01-01

    Three levels of iron (5, 29, 307 ppm iron) were fed to rats from conception through the 18th day of lactation. Dams in the 5 ppm iron group and pups in the 5 and 29 ppm iron groups developed anemia characterized by lower hemoglobin and hematocrit values than control animals. Liver and spleen levels of iron in dams and pups in the 5 and 29 ppm iron groups were lower than in the 307 ppm iron groups. Milk iron was lower in the 5 ppm iron group than in the 29 and 307 ppm iron groups. Pups in the 5 ppm iron group had hyperlipidemia characterized by elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Milk lipids and post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase levels in pups did not differ among experimental groups. Triglyceride and CO2 production from [U-14C]glucose were significantly greater in the iron-deficient pups than in control pups. Hyperlipidemia in 18-day-old iron-deficient rat pups appears to be related to increased endogenous production of triglycerides. PMID:619036

  9. miR-886-3p Levels Are Elevated in Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Ronald P.; Lynch, David R.; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2012-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common inherited ataxia caused primarily by an intronic GAA.TTC triplet repeat expansion in the frataxin (FXN) gene. FXN RNA and protein levels are reduced in patients leading to progressive gait and limb ataxia, sensory loss, reduced tendon reflexes, dysarthria, absent lower limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Neurological manifestations ensue from primary loss of dorsal root ganglia neurons and their associated axons ascending centrally in the spinal cord and peripherally in large myelinated nerves. Small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs have been shown to be dysregulated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Here we report that hsa-miR-886-3p (miR-886-3p) was increased in patient cells as well as peripheral patient blood samples. Selective reduction in miR-886-3p by an anti-miR led to elevation of FXN message and protein levels without associated changes in histone marks at the FXN locus. Nevertheless, derepression of frataxin by a histone deacetylase inhibitor leads to a decrease in miR-886-3p. These results outline involvement of a small RNA, miR-886-3p in FRDA and a novel therapeutic approach to this disease using an anti-miR-886-3p. PMID:22764244

  10. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    PubMed

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G G; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  11. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  12. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

  13. Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating ?3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/?mol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r?=?0.287, P?=?0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/?mol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated with the urine of patients with FSGS at presentation, and the signal could be reduced by a blocking antibody specific to uPAR. Conclusions Urinary suPAR was specifically elevated in patients with primary FSGS and was associated with disease severity. The elevated urinary suPAR could activate ?3 integrin on human podocytes. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/82. PMID:24884842

  14. Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Forrest E.

    1994-01-01

    A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

  15. Elevated Ozone Levels in Denmark: Analysis Employing Trajectory and Chemical Transport Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gross, A.; Petrova, I.

    2009-09-01

    In our study, among 9 Danish measurement sites, 3 sites having long-term ozone measurement (with a time resolution of 1 hour and starting in early 1990s) records were selected - Ulborg (DK31; 56.28°N, 8.43°E) and Frederiksborg (DK32; 55.97°N, 12.33°E) and Lille Valby (DK41; 55.69°N, 12.13°E) located on Jutland Peninsula and Zealand Island of Denmark, respectively. After pre-screening of the time series (covering almost 15 year period and including almost 543 thousand valid observations), the measurements with high ozone level (using threshold as 150 µg/m3) were selected accounting in total for 508 cases for these 3 locations. Among these, 42 (for DK41) and 59 (for DK31 and DK32) cases showed very high ozone concentrations (i.e. above 180 µg/m3). For all these cases, at first, the trajectory modelling approach was applied in order to estimate atmospheric transport pathway of air mass arrival at the measurement sites and potential source regions from where the elevated ozone level can be associated. In our study the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model using REANALYSIS meteorological dataset (global, 1948-present) was run to calculate a set of backward trajectories (in total 508, with duration of 5 day backward in time and arriving at altitude of 100 m) and divide into groups with respect to potential source regions and dominating atmospheric transport pathways using cluster analysis technique. Several relatively long-term episodes with continuous elevated ozone were identified in the analyzed time series; in particular, for DK31 - 7 episodes (having longest duration and observed in Jun 1996 and Jun 2000), DK32 - 5 (Jul 1992 and Jun 2000), and DK41 - 4 (Jul 1992 and Jun 2000). For selected episodes the off-line Eulerian Chemistry-Aerosol-Cloud (CAC) model was run over the European domain. As meteorological driver, the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) generated output with 3D meteorological fields was used. The simulation was used to evaluate in details patterns of atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and transformation of ozone over Denmark and compare with results of trajectory modelling for source regions identification.

  16. RAPID COMMUNICATION Adrenoceptor-Mediated Elevation of Ambient GABA Levels Activates

    E-print Network

    Huguenard, John R.

    -aminobutyric The circumstances that normally lead to such elevations inacid (GABA) activates postsynaptic GABAA receptors but not pre- extracellular GABA and recruitment of presynaptic GABABor postsynaptic GABAB receptors. Elevation of synaptic GABA receptors in cortical circuits are unclear. One candidatelevels with pharmacological agents

  17. Electrical design and characterization of elevated antennas at PCB-level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Ohnimus; Andreas Podlasly; Jörg Bauer; Andreas Ostmann; Ivan Ndip; Stephan Guttowski; Herbert Reichl

    2009-01-01

    In this work, elevated microstrip patch antennas are designed and characterized at quasi millimeter-wave frequencies. Radiation efficiencies of up to 83% are reported at 24 GHz. The designed circular and rectangular patch antennas are fed through impedance controlled microstrip lines by means of proximity coupling. The elevated patches are supported by conventional vias. The proposed layer build-up comprises a low

  18. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F.; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN. Methods We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2). At the same time anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were measured psychometrically. Results No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70). The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3) and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p<0.001). Patients with high anxiety scores displayed 65% higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (p = 0.04). This was reflected by a positive correlation of GAD-7 and NUCB2/nesfatin-1-levels (r = 0.32, p = 0.04). Scores of PSQ-20 (73.3±14.3 vs. 48.6±17.2) and PHQ-9 (18.8±5.0 vs. 10.3±5.1) were higher in the high anxiety group (p<0.001) but did not correlate with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 (p>0.05). EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02), while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05). Conclusions Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN. PMID:26162003

  19. Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future. PMID:20077130

  20. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Elevates Brain Anandamide Levels and Produces Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Ralph, Brian P.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T.; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W.; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C.; Deutsch, Dale G.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:24705380

  1. Elevation of branched-chain amino acid levels in diabetes and NAFL and changes with antidiabetic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Motoh; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Fujita, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Kazuko; Kaito, Masahiko; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and obesity are associated with elevated branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, but the mechanism and significance of this has not been elucidated. Eighty-four subjects were enrolled including 43 with DM. Serum BCAA levels were positively correlated with waist-hip ratio and ALT. Serum BCAA levels in subjects with DM were higher than non-DM and those in subjects with NAFL were also higher than non-NAFL. Treatment with pioglitazone and alogliptin (19 of 43 DM subjects) improved serum haemoglobin A1c and decreased BCAA levels. The decrease in BCAAs with improved glucose metabolism suggests that abnormal glucose metabolism is also a factor in elevated BCAA levels. PMID:25649191

  2. The prevalence and etiology of elevated aminotransferase levels in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne M Clark; Frederick L Brancati; Anna Mae Diehl

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesChronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although often used to detect liver disease, the prevalence and etiology of elevated aminotransferases are unknown.

  3. Elevated serum levels of IL-1ra in children with P. falciparum malaria are associated with increased severity of disease

    PubMed Central

    John, Chandy C.; Park, Gregory S.; Sam-Agudu, Nadia; Opoka, Robert O.; Boivin, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Animal models suggest that cytokines and chemokines play a role in cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis, but levels of a number of cytokines and chemokines thought to be important in the pathogenesis of other infectious diseases are not well characterized in children with CM. Serum levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured in 77 children with CM, 70 children with uncomplicated malaria (UM) and 63 healthy community children (CC) in Uganda. Children with CM had elevated serum levels of IL-1ra and IL-8 as compared to children with UM (median levels in pg/ml, 11,891 vs. 6,510, P=0.05, and 63 vs. 41, P=0.01, respectively). Children with CM who died (n=4) had higher serum levels than survivors of IL-1ra (median levels in pg/ml, 65,757 v. 10,355, P=0.02), G-CSF (709 vs. 117, P=0.02), and MCP-1 (1,275 vs. 216, P=0.03) but not IL-8 (76 v. 62, P=NS). Elevated IL-1ra levels are associated with increased disease severity in children with malaria, and very elevated levels of IL-1ra, G-CSF and MCP-1 are seen in children who die of CM. PMID:18282763

  4. Characterization of Wafer-Level Au-In-Bonded Samples at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thi-Thuy; Hoivik, Nils; Wang, Kaiying; Aasmundtveit, Knut E.; Vardøy, Astrid-Sofie B.

    2015-06-01

    Wafer-level bonding using Au-In solid liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding is a promising approach to enable low-temperature assembly and MEMS packaging/encapsulation. Due to the low-melting point of In, wafer-level bonding can be performed at considerably lower temperatures than Sn-based bonding; this work treats bonds performed at 453 K (180 °C). Following bonding, the die shear strength at elevated temperatures was investigated from room temperature to 573 K (300 °C), revealing excellent mechanical integrity at these temperatures well above the bonding temperature. For shear test temperatures from room temperature to 473 K (200 °C), the measured shear strength was stable at 30 MPa, whereas it increased to 40 MPa at shear test temperature of 573 K (300 °C). The fracture surfaces of Au-In-bonded samples revealed brittle fracture modes (at the original bond interface and at the adhesion layers) for shear test temperatures up to 473 K (200 °C), but ductile fracture mode for shear test temperature of 573 K (300 °C). The as-bonded samples have a layered structure consisting of the two intermetallic phases AuIn and ?', as shown by cross section microscopy and predicted from the phase diagram. The change in behavior for the tests at 573 K (300 °C) is attributed to a solid-state phase transition occurring at 497 K (224 °C), where the phase diagram predicts a AuIn/? structure and a phase boundary moving across the initial bond interface. The associated interdiffusion of Au and In will strengthen the initial bond interface and, as a consequence, the measured shear strength. This work provides experimental evidence for the high-temperature stability of wafer-level, low-temperature bonded, Au-In SLID bonds. The high bond strength obtained is limited by the strength at the initial bond interface and at the adhesion layers, showing that the Au-In SLID system itself is capable of even higher bond strength.

  5. Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and Elevated CO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Thompson; Ellen Peffley; Cary Green; Paul Paré; David Tissue

    Nine onion cultivars of four Allium species (Allium cepa, A. fistulosum, A. schoenoprasum, and A. tuberosum) were evaluated for use in Advanced Life Support (ALS) applications by hydroponic propagation in environmental growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass, phytochemical and folate levels, and sensory characteristics of scallions harvested at

  6. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  7. Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer. PMID:24474564

  8. Maps of lands vulnerable to sea level rise: modeled elevations along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Titus; Charlie Richman

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the broad-scale ramifications of accelerated sea level rise requires maps of the land that could be inundated or eroded. Producing such maps requires a combination of elevation information and models of shoreline erosion, wetland accretion, and other coastal processes. Assessments of coastal areas in the United States that combine all of these factors have focused on relatively small areas,

  9. Elevated temperature annealing of the neutron induced reverse current and corresponding defect levels in low and high resistivity silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Eremin; A. Ivanov; E. Verbitskaya; Z. Li; H. W. Kraner

    1995-01-01

    A new aspect of degradation phenomena of neutron irradiated silicon detectors has been revealed which consists in the significant influence of carbon related defect transformation on the detector reverse current (Irev). The annealing of the reverse current at elevated temperatures and the corresponding changes of the deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra of defects for fast neutron irradiated silicon detectors,

  10. Assessment of Elevated Radionuclide Levels in Soils Associated with an Avian Colony in a High Arctic Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. DOWDALL; J. P. GWYNN; G. W. GABRIELSEN; B. LIND

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation into the occurrence of elevated levels of radionuclides in soils associated with a seabird colony in the Arctic. Soils and other materials were collected from a seabird colony (primarily composed of kittiwakes) in Kongsfjorden, located in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The samples were analyzed for a suite of gamma emitting

  11. Elevated levels of circulating cortisol in young normotensive adult men with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Matuszek, Maria A; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2008-03-01

    1. Differences in blood lipids, glucose, insulin, amylin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, angiotensin II, metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrate, nitrite), asymmetric dimethyl arginine, endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, homocysteine and oxidative status (urate, vitamin A, vitamin E, beta-carotene and total anti-oxidant capacity) were investigated in men (aged 18-25 years) with (+) or without (-) a family history (FH) of hypertension. 2. In the present study, FH+ was defined as having at least one parent or grandparent taking medication for hypertension. Blood (60 mL) was sampled (0800-1000 hours) from a cannulated forearm vein after an overnight fast and 24 h abstinence from caffeine-containing products and alcohol. 3. Comparing FH+ with FH-, systolic blood pressure (124 +/- 1 vs 117 + 3 mmHg, respectively; n = 50 and 14, respectively; P < 0.05) and plasma cortisol (377 +/- 23 vs 298 +/- 24 nmol/L, respectively; n = 43 and 12, respectively; P < 0.05) were found to be significantly higher in the former group. 4. No significant difference was found between the two groups for body mass index, resting heart rate, diastolic and mean blood pressures or any of the biochemical measures studied. 5. A significant correlation was found between cortisol and ACTH (r = 0.73). No correlation was found between cortisol and any other parameter measured. 6. These data indicate that elevated cortisol levels are characteristic of young lean normotensive FH+ men. The future impact of this on their vascular health and hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:18067596

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T.; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  14. Elevations in Troponin I After Percutaneous Coronary Interventions Are Associated With Abnormal Tissue-Level Perfusion in High-Risk Patients With Non-ST-Segment- Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Bolognese; Kenneth Ducci; Paolo Angioli; Giovanni Falsini; Francesco Liistro; Silvia Baldassarre; Antonio Burali

    2010-01-01

    Background—In the setting of non-ST-segment- elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the pathophysio- logical mechanisms underlying post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cardiac troponin I (cTnI) elevation remain unclear. Methods and Results—We evaluated the relationship between troponin elevation and tissue-level perfusion using the TIMI flow grade, corrected TIMI frame count, TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG), and myocardial contrast enhancement by intracoronary myocardial

  15. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

    2013-11-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

  16. Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  17. Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27?U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27?U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, ?-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27?U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC. PMID:23843733

  18. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ? 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. PMID:24691744

  19. Elevated Levels of G-Quadruplex Formation in Human Stomach and Liver Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; Miller, Jodi; Howat, William J.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, we show that BG4, a G-quadruplex-specific antibody, can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a significantly elevated number of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our results suggest that G-quadruplex formation can be detected and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers. PMID:25033211

  20. Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2014-07-25

    Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia. PMID:24984153

  1. Plasma levels of parathyroid hormone-related peptide are elevated in hyperprolactinemia and correlated to bone density status.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, C; Leb, G; Kleinert, R; Warnkross, H; Ramschak-Schwarzer, S; Lipp, R; Clarici, G; Krejs, G J; Dobnig, H

    1995-05-01

    Osteopenia is an important clinical manifestation of hyperprolactinemia. Bone loss in these patients has mainly been attributed to concomitant deficiency of gonadal hormones rather than to hyperprolactinemia per se. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is expressed in human mammary tissue, and elevated circulating PTHrP levels as well as concomitant hypercalcemia have been described during lactation. We sought to determine circulating PTHrP levels in patients with long-standing hyperprolactinemia and whether PTHrP may exert possible systemic effects on bone and mineral metabolism. We studied 45 patients (30 women and 15 men) with persisting hyperprolactinemia 6 +/- 4 years (mean +/- SD) after trans-sphenoidal surgery for prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas. PTHrP levels in 117 healthy controls were 10.6 +/- 7.3 pmol-eq/l (mean +/- SD). In hyperprolactinemic patients, plasma PTHrP was elevated to 30.3 +/- 13.4 pmol-eq/l (p < 0.001, n = 45), and in patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy PTHrP levels were 52.9 +/- 29.6 (p < 0.001 to controls and hyperprolactinemic patients). Fifty-three percent of hyperprolactinemic patients (n = 24) had clearly elevated PTHrP levels (> 2 SD). Retrospective immunocytochemical studies of the removed pituitary adenomas from 19 patients generally showed a higher degree of immunoreactivity for PTHrP (1-34) in all but one case when compared with normal pituitary tissue. Patients with elevated circulating PTHrP levels showed in most instances strong immunoreactivity to PTHrP in 70-100% of tumor cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7639111

  2. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts. PMID:21166283

  3. Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels correlate with immune recovery but not mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-retroviral treated HIV-infected patients are at risk of mitochondrial toxicity, but non-invasive markers are lacking. Serum FGF-21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) levels correlate strongly with muscle biopsy findings in inherited mitochondrial disorders. We therefore aimed to determine whether serum FGF-21 levels correlate with muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients. Findings We performed a cross-sectional study of anti-retroviral treated HIV-infected subjects (aged 29 – 71 years, n?=?32). Serum FGF-21 levels were determined by quantitative ELISA. Cellular mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed by COX (cytochrome c oxidase) histochemistry of lower limb skeletal muscle biopsy. Serum FGF-21 levels were elevated in 66% of subjects. Levels correlated significantly with current CD4 lymphocyte count (p?=?0.042) and with total CD4 count gain since initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (p?=?0.016), but not with the nature or duration of past or current anti-retroviral treatment. There was no correlation between serum FGF-21 levels and severity of the muscle mitochondrial (COX) defect. Conclusions Serum FGF-21 levels are a poor predictor of muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in contemporary anti-retroviral treated patients. Serum FGF-21 levels are nevertheless commonly elevated, in association with the degree of immune recovery, suggesting a non-mitochondrial metabolic disturbance with potential implications for future comorbidity. PMID:24252301

  4. Elevated serum CA72-4 levels predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma after intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is a human tumor-associated glycoprotein, commonly used as a tumor marker for diagnosing and predicting outcome in gastric and ovarian cancers. However, the relationship between serum CA72-4 levels and prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma has not been fully elucidated. A total of 113 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Serum CA72-4 levels were analyzed using immunoenzymometric assays. The association between serum CA72-4 levels and prognosis was evaluated. Serum CA72-4 levels was related with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). The median overall survival time was 14.0 months for patients with serum CA72-4 normal levels and 10.0 months for the elevated levels (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified that Serum CA72-4 concentration was a significant prognostic factor (P<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) of elevated serum CA72-4 levels compared with normal serum CA72-4 levels was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-3.73), after adjusted for gender and age. Based on this finding, Serum CA72-4 is a potential marker to predict lymph node metastasis and prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25860937

  5. Ca2+ oscillations in plant cells: initiation by rapid elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels.

    PubMed

    Calder, G M; Franklin-Tong, V E; Shaw, P J; Drøbak, B K

    1997-05-29

    Temporal increases in intracellular [Ca2+] are now recognized to be key triggers for a wide range of important physiological events in eukaryotic cells. In mammalian cells, signal-induced Ca2+-elevations have been found to be of a pulsatile nature and Ca2+ spikes display a high degree of spatiotemporal complexity. In plant cells a similar picture is beginning to emerge. To investigate the occurrence of pulsatile Ca2+ signals in plant cells we studied alterations of [Ca2+] in the tip region of pollen tubes from poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Time-Resolved Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of pollen tubes microinjected with the Dextran-linked Ca2+-indicator dyes Calcium Green or Indo-1 revealed that highly regular Ca2+ oscillations occur in these cells. We further demonstrate that artificial elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ by photolysis of caged-Ca2+ (Nitr-5) can trigger the onset of oscillations. PMID:9175777

  6. Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF).

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Aylward, Lesa; Kay, Margaret; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) was evaluated in 149 firefighters working at AFFF training facilities in Australia by analysis of PFOS and related compounds in serum. A questionnaire was designed to capture information about basic demographic factors, lifestyle factors and potential occupational exposure (such as work history and self-reported skin contact with foam). The results showed that a number of factors were associated with PFAA serum concentrations. Blood donation was found to be linked to low PFAA levels, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS were found to be positively associated with years of jobs with AFFF contact. The highest levels of PFOS and PFHxS were one order of magnitude higher compared to the general population in Australia and Canada. Study participants who had worked ten years or less had levels of PFOS that were similar to or only slightly above those of the general population. This coincides with the phase out of 3M AFFF from all training facilities in 2003, and suggests that the exposures to PFOS and PFHxS in AFFF have declined in recent years. Self-reporting of skin contact and frequency of contact were used as an index of exposure. Using this index, there was no relationship between PFOS levels and skin exposure. This index of exposure is limited as it relies on self-report and it only considers skin exposure to AFFF, and does not capture other routes of potential exposure. Possible associations between serum PFAA concentrations and five biochemical outcomes were assessed. The outcomes were serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, and uric acid. No statistical associations between any of these endpoints and serum PFAA concentrations were observed. PMID:26001497

  7. Elevated levels of kappa free light chains in CSF support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Presslauer; Dejan Milosavljevic; Thomas Brücke; Peter Bayer; Walter Hübl

    2008-01-01

    Background\\u000a   Numerous studies have demonstrated elevated kappa free light chains (KFLCs) in CSF of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However,\\u000a so far only small cohorts have been examined, and generally only through qualitative KFLCs analysis. Using a recently developed\\u000a free light chain (FLC) immunoassay, it is now possible to quantitatively measure KFLCs by automated nephelometry. Our objective\\u000a was to determine the

  8. Elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus reduce fertilisation success of gametes from scleractinian reef corals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Harrison; S. Ward

    2001-01-01

    Spawned gametes were collected from colonies of Acropora longicyathus at One Tree Island and Goniastrea aspera at Magnetic Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for use in fertilisation trials. Mean fertilisation rates were significantly reduced compared with controls (PA. longicyathus were exposed to elevated ammonium concentrations at 1 µM and above in one cross (60-64% reduction), and at 100 µM in

  9. Effects of elevated growth temperature and carbon dioxide levels on some physicochemical properties of wheat starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Tester; W. R. Morrison; R. H. Ellis; J. R. Piggo; G. R. Batts; T. R. Wheeler; J. I. L. Morison; P. Hadley; D. A. Ledward

    1995-01-01

    Crops of winter wheat (cv. Hereward) were grown in the field under double-skinned polyethylene tunnels in two consecutive seasons (1991–92 and 1992–93). Air containing ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) concentrations of carbon dioxide was circulated through the tunnels, and temperature gradients, typically from 1°C below ambient to 4–7°C above ambient, were maintained within each tunnel. Despite a shorter

  10. Intraspecific responses of six Indian clover cultivars under ambient and elevated levels of ozone.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nivedita; Agrawal, S B

    2013-08-01

    Intraspecific variation in six cultivars of clover Trifolium alexandrinum L., (Bundel, Wardan, JHB-146, Saidi, Fahli, and Mescavi) has been studied with ambient and elevated O3 (ambient?+?10 ppb O3) in open top chambers. Significant effect of elevated O3 was detected on different morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters depicting differential response among the test cultivars. Results showed that the magnitude of O3 induced foliar injury symptoms varied in all the cultivars. Ozone significantly depressed photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic efficiency, although variations were cultivar specific. Ozone treatment diminished total biomass of all the cultivars; reduction was highest in Wardan with least O3 resistance followed by Bundel, JHB-146, Saidi, Mescavi, and Fahli. According to the cumulative sensitive index, variations in the sensitivity showed that two cultivars (Wardan and Bundel) were sensitive to elevated O3, while other three cultivars (Fahli, Saidi, and Mescavi) were resistant, and JHB-146 showed intermediate sensitivity. Therefore, the present study supported the selection of sensitive cultivar of clover as a bioindicator for O3 under Indian conditions for the areas experiencing higher concentrations of O3. PMID:23389856

  11. Growth Response and Tissue Accumulation Trends of Herbaceous Wetland Plant Species Exposed to Elevated Aqueous Mercury Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Willis; Robert P. Gambrell; Mark W. Hester

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by

  12. Increased prevalence of combined MTR and MTHFR genotypes among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine plasma levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Feix; Robert Fritsche-Polanz; Josef Kletzmayr; Andreas Vychytil; Walter H. Hörl; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Manuela Födinger

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of the methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A?G polymorphism among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels is unknown. Therefore, 1,716 subjects, including 415 hemodialysis patients, 179 peritoneal dialysis patients, 733 kidney graft recipients, and 389 healthy subjects, were investigated. The distribution of MTR 2756A?G, as well as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T\\/1298A?C, genotypes among study participants with extremely

  13. Impact of Elevated Levels of Atmospheric CO 2 and Herbivory on Flavonoids of Soybean ( Glycine max Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridget F. O’Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Orla Dermody; Damla D. Bilgin; Clare L. Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability\\u000a as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf\\u000a palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid

  14. The impact of elevated CO 2 on plant-herbivore interactions: experimental evidence of moderating effects at the community level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Díaz; L. H. Fraser; J. P. Grime; V. Falczuk

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly little research has been published on the responses to elevated [CO2] at the community level, where herbivores can select their preferred food. We investigated the combined effects of atmospheric\\u000a [CO2] and herbivory on synthesised plant communities growing on soils of different fertility. Factorial combinations of two [CO2] (350 or 700 l l?1), two fertility (fertilised or non-fertilised), and two

  15. Landscape Scale Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Elevation Changes Along the Matagorda Fault in Matagorda, Texas

    E-print Network

    Cline, Marie

    2012-10-19

    . 2010). Accordingly, modeling has been an area of interest to quantify the potential impacts of RSLR on coastal ecosystems (Costanza et al. 1990, Titus and Richman 2001). These models often employ digital elevation models (DEMs) in conjunction... 21 2 1 from sea level modeling, IPCC predictions, and local tide gauges in conjunction with plausible accretion rates have also been used to project RSLR at broad scales (Titus & Richman 2001, Hartig et al. 2002). Fine-scaled GIS-based terrain...

  16. Elevated serum homocysteine level has a positive correlation with serum cardiac troponin I in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Alam, N; Khan, H I L R; Chowdhury, A W; Haque, M S; Ali, M S; Sabah, K M N; Amin, M G

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to find out whether the increased serum homocysteine level is associated with the increased serum troponin I as a surrogate marker of extent of myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction patients. Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with increased thrombosis. In patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), it is not known whether this association is reflected in the degree of myocardial injury. This was a cross sectional study conducted among the patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Department of Cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital during the period of October 2009 to September 2010 and which included 194 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. The mean (+/- SD) serum homocysteine level was 20.2 +/- 14.3 micromol/L with range from 7.4 to 129.1 micromol/L. Mean serum troponin-I level was classified according to normal (<15 micromol/L) and high (> or = 15 micromol/L) levels of serum homocysteine values. The mean serum troponin-I level was 8.9 +/- 8.6 ng/ml in the patients having normal serum homocysteine level and 18.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml in the patients having high serum homocysteine level. A significant positive correlation (r=0.273; p<0.001) was found between serum troponin-I level with homocysteine level. Patients with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (> or = 15 micromol/L) was found to be 7.09 times more likely to have increased serum troponin-I (a surrogate marker of extent of myocardial injury). The main observation of the present study was that elevated serum homocysteine level has a positive correlation with serum cardiac troponin-I in patients with acute myocardial infarction. So serum homocysteine is associated with increased extent of myocardial injury as measured by serum cardiac troponin-I level, a surrogate marker in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22545344

  17. PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the F...

  18. Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  19. Elevated Plasma Long Pentraxin-3 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Joshua M.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Ahya, Vivek N.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Deutschman, Clifford C.; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Ashish S.; Belperio, John A.; Wilkes, David; Reynolds, John M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pre-transplant, and 6 and 24 hours post reperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction<0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 hours were associated with PGD (OR=1.6, p=0.02 at 6hrs; OR=1.4, p=0.008 at 24hrs). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted. PMID:21883907

  20. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  1. Recognition of Facial Expressions in Individuals with Elevated Levels of Depressive Symptoms: An Eye-Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingdan; Pu, Jie; Allen, John J. B.; Pauli, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported abnormal recognition of facial expressions in depression. However, it is still not clear whether this abnormality is due to an enhanced or impaired ability to recognize facial expressions, and what underlying cognitive systems are involved. The present study aimed to examine how individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms differ from controls on facial expression recognition and to assess attention and information processing using eye tracking. Forty participants (18 with elevated depressive symptoms) were instructed to label facial expressions depicting one of seven emotions. Results showed that the high-depression group, in comparison with the low-depression group, recognized facial expressions faster and with comparable accuracy. Furthermore, the high-depression group demonstrated greater leftwards attention bias which has been argued to be an indicator of hyperactivation of right hemisphere during facial expression recognition. PMID:22288009

  2. Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-10-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was more in DHM117 than HQPM1. This suggests that DHM117 utilized more assimilates in maintaining the homeostasis against imposed oxidative stress, causing less translocation of assimilates to reproductive parts and thus affecting the final yield. In terms of yield it is suggested that performance of HQPM1 (quality protein maize) was better than the DHM117 (non quality protein maize). PMID:25023387

  3. Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high triglyceride level is one part of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that increase the ... Familial (inherited) disorders • Type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome • Pregnancy • Medications — Some “water” pills (thiazide diuretics) — Beta- ...

  4. Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Needleman; C. Gunnoe; A. Leviton; R. Reed; H. Peresie; C. Maher; P. Barrett

    1979-01-01

    To measure the neuropsychologic effects of unidentified childhood exposure to lead, the performance of 58 children with high and 100 with low dentine lead levels was compared. Children with high lead levels scored significantly less well on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) than those with low lead levels. This difference was also apparent on verbal subtests, on three

  5. INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ON CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIAL PROGENITOR CELL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Fasing, Kevin A; Nissan, Benjamin J.; Greiner, Jared J; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    In vitro, C-reactive protein (CRP) impairs endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function; however, the influence of CRP on EPCs in vivo is unclear. We determined whether EPC function is impaired in adults with elevated plasma CRP concentrations, independent of other risk factors. EPCs were harvested from 75 adults (43 males, 32 females): 25 with low CRP (< 1.0 mg/L); 25 with moderate CRP (1.0–3.0 mg/L); and 25 with high CRP (> 3.0 mg/L). The capacity of EPCs to form colonies (colony assay), migrate (Boyden chamber), release angiogenic growth factor (ELISA) and resist apoptosis (active caspase-3) was determined. There were no significant differences between the CRP groups in EPC colony formation (CFU), migration (AU) or the ability to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; pg/mL): low (13±3 CFU; 1255±100 AU; 126±24 pg/mL); moderate (11±3 CFU; 1137±85 AU; 97±14 pg/mL); and high (13±4 CFU; 1071±80 AU; 119±22 pg/mL) CRP. Staurosporine-stimulated activation of caspase-3 was also similar between the low (2.3±0.2 ng/mL), moderate (2.1±0.3 ng/mL), and high (2.2±0.2 ng/mL) CRP groups. These results indicate that elevations in plasma CRP are not associated with impaired EPC function. EPC dysfunction may not play a role in CRP-related cardiovascular risk. PMID:24422709

  6. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  7. Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

    2013-07-15

    Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 ?atm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 ?atm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 ?atm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 ?atm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and fracture toughness of the shells) were negatively affected by elevated CO2 alone or in combination with low salinity, which may have important implications for protection against predators or environmental stressors. Our data indicate that environmental salinity can strongly modulate responses to ocean acidification in hard-shell clams and thus should be taken into account when predicting the effects of ocean acidification on estuarine bivalves. PMID:23531824

  8. Triglyceride analysis with glass capillary gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Grob; H. P. Neukom; R. Battaglia

    1980-01-01

    The analyses of triglycerides on capillary columns is reported. Applications in which this technique can be used include:\\u000a rapid identification of fats and oils, measurement of butter fat or coconut oil content in margarine or chocolate, monitoring\\u000a of processes such as fractionation, transesterification or heat treatment. Although separation of all isomers within a group\\u000a of triglycerides with identical carbon numbers

  9. Fish oil — How does it reduce plasma triglycerides?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Shearer; Olga V. Savinova; William S. Harris

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are effective for reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. At the pharmaceutical dose, 3.4g\\/day, they reduce plasma TG by about 25–50% after one month of treatment, resulting primarily from the decline in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) production, and secondarily from the increase in VLDL clearance. Numerous mechanisms have been shown to contribute to

  10. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S.K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Stuart Grandy, A; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A.F; Neff, J.C; Martin, A.M

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of ‘new’ soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4–5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4–5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth. PMID:18755677

  11. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh)] [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)] [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ? Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ? Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ? Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ? Study subjects with arsenic-induced skin lesions show elevated plasma Big ET-1 levels. ? Arsenic-induced hypertension and skin lesions may be linked to plasma Big ET-1 levels.

  12. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  13. Triglycerides and coronary heart disease: implications of recent clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rubins, H B

    2000-10-01

    This paper reviews the clinical trial data that offer insight into the question of whether, and in what groups of people, triglycerides might be an appropriate therapeutic target for the primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Two angiographic trials (the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial and the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial) and three clinical endpoint trials (the Helsinki Heart Study, the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study, and the VA HDL Intervention Trial) are reviewed. Hypertriglyceridemia per se is probably not an appropriate therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease because it is a poor marker of atherogenic risk and because there have been no clinical trials that have directly addressed the question of whether lowering the triglyceride level reduces the number of clinical events. The studies reviewed here, however, suggest that patients with established coronary heart disease and a high triglyceride level, in association with either a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level or perhaps other features of the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension, may benefit from fibrate therapy. For patients without established coronary heart disease, it is reasonable to consider hypertriglyceridemia as a risk marker prompting the aggressive treatment of other risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and obesity. PMID:11143764

  14. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS. PMID:24710630

  15. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) levels are elevated in patients with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Iris J.; Hilliard, Brendan; Swami, Abhishek; Madara, John C.; Rao, Swati; Patel, Tapan; Gaughan, John P.; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Choi, Eric T.; Cohen, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The TAM receptors (tyro3, axl and mer) and their ligands (vitamin K-dependent proteins—Gas6 and Protein S) are crucial modulators of inflammation, which may be relevant in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gas6 and axl have multiple roles in mediating vascular atherosclerosis and injury, thrombosis and inflammation, yet nothing is known about the Gas6–axl pathway in humans with CKD. Given the prevalence of chronic inflammation and vascular disease in this population, we measured TAM ligands in patients with various levels of renal function. Methods Gas6 and protein S were quantified in the plasma by ELISA in three patient groups: end-stage renal disease on chronic hemodialysis (HD), CKD and normal controls. Results Significantly increased levels of Gas6 and protein S were found in CKD patients compared with normal controls (P < 0.01 and <0.001, respectively). In HD patients, Gas6 levels were elevated compared with controls (P < 0.001) and positively associated with low albumin (r= 0.33; P = 0.01), dialysis vintage (r= 0.36; P = 0.008) and IV iron administration (r= 0.33; P = 0.01). The levels of Gas6 rose with CKD stage and were inversely associated with estimated GFR (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Dysregulation of circulating Gas6 is associated with renal disease and inversely proportional to renal function. Low albumin and higher IV iron administration were associated with higher Gas6 levels, suggesting a possible connection between inflammation and oxidative stress mediated by iron. Protein S levels were also elevated in CKD patients, but the relevance of this finding needs to be further investigated. PMID:22907951

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of MMP-2, 7, and 9 are elevated in association with human immunodeficiency virus dementia.

    PubMed

    Conant, K; McArthur, J C; Griffin, D E; Sjulson, L; Wahl, L M; Irani, D N

    1999-09-01

    Pathological evidence suggests that alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may occur in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia (HIVD). Increased BBB permeability could contribute to the development of dementia by facilitating the entry of activated and infected monocytes, as well as potentially toxic serum proteins, into the central nervous system. One mechanism by which BBB permeability may be altered is through increased activity of select matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the present study, we examined the possibility that MMPs that target critical BBB proteins, including laminin, entactin, and collagen type IV, are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with HIVD. We also examined the possibility that such MMPs could be produced by brain-derived cells, and that MMP production by these cells might be increased by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an inflammatory cytokine that is produced by HIV-infected monocytes/microglia and is elevated in HIVD. By using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we observed that CSF levels of pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-7 were increased in association with HIVD. In addition, through the use of gelatin substrate zymography, a sensitive functional assay for MMP-2 and MMP-9, we observed that MMP-2 or pro-MMP-9 activity was more frequently detectable in the CSF of individuals with HIV dementia (9/16) than in the CSF from either nondemented seropositive (2/11) or seronegative (0/11) controls. Although the presence of MMPs in the serum could contribute to elevated levels in the CSF, we also show that brain-derived cells release MMP-2, 7, and 9, and that such release is increased after their stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Together, these results suggest that elevated CSF levels of select MMPs may reflect immune activation within the central nervous system. They also suggest that further studies may be warranted to determine whether these proteins may play a role in the development of symptomatic neurological disease. PMID:10482270

  17. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-10-01

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose-response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. PMID:25281834

  18. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03?±?10.41 ?g/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81?±?10.21 ?g/dL), p?=?0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04?±?4.11 ?g/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99?±?3.28 ?g/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 ?g/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention. PMID:24645964

  19. Maintenance of elevated fetal hemoglobin levels by decitabine during dose interval treatment of sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph DeSimone; Mabel Koshy; Louise Dorn; Donald Lavelle; Linda Bressler; Robert Molokie; Nasrin Talischy

    We have previously demonstrated that 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (decitabine) aug- ments fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels in patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) who did not respond to hydroxyurea (HU). The present study was designed to determine the effect of repeated decitabine dosing on HbF levels and hematologic toxicity over a 9-month treatment period. Seven patients (5 HU nonresponders) were en- tered. One

  20. Elevated levels of nitric oxide and low levels of haptoglobin are associated with severe malarial anaemia in African children.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Ben; Kurtzhals, Jorgen A L; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Ofori, Michael; Goka, Bamenla Q; Hviid, Lars; Behr, Charlotte

    2002-08-01

    Severe malarial anaemia (SA) is a major complication of malaria and an important cause of child mortality and morbidity. However, the pathogenesis behind SA is poorly understood. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a protective role against clinical malaria but is also suggested to have a pathogenic role in cerebral malaria (CM). Erythrophagocytosis by splenic macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SA. In this study, plasma levels of NO, neopterin, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in paediatric patients with CM, n=77, SA (n=28) and uncomplicated malaria (UM n=53). Haptoglobin levels were significantly lower in SA (median (interquartile range) 25 (17-59) mg/l) than in both CM and UM (40 (24-80) mg/l and 110 (60-160) mg/l, respectively, P<0.001). In contrast, NO levels were higher in SA (38 (28-51) micromol/l) than in CM and UM (21 (15-32) micromol/l and 10.3 (5.6-17) micromol/l, respectively, P<0.001). A significant negative correlation between haptoglobin and NO was seen in the SA group. No such correlation was observed within the UM or CM groups. No significant differences in neopterin levels were observed between any of the three groups, neither was there any correlation between parasitaemias and neopterin levels. The low haptoglobin and high levels of NO in this SA group may contribute to haemolysis. Taken together our results support the hypothesis that immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction is involved in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia. PMID:12088854

  1. Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Nicola; Raja, Amber; Beavis, James; Stanworth, Simon; Harrison, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Microvesicles (MV) have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a) to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b) to determine their cellular origin; and (c) to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL) was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation). Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55), median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27). Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18%) had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

  2. Elevated chromogranin A (CgA) serum levels in the patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Malaguarnera, Michele; Cristaldi, Erika; Cammalleri, Lisa; Colonna, Valentina; Lipari, Helga; Capici, Alessandra; Cavallaro, Andrea; Beretta, Massimiliano; Alessandria, Innocenza; Luca, Salvatore; Motta, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine differentiation in PC could potentially represent a new finding with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. This study aimed at evaluating the clinical usefulness of CgA as a neuroendocrine (NE) serum-marker. We investigated the role of the serum concentration of CgA in a study group of patients with PC. CgA was significantly higher in the patients affected by PC as compared with the group of healthy subjects (HS) and those with chronic pancreatitis (CHP) (p<0.001). Also the HS group differed significantly from the CHP control group in the serum CgA levels (p<0.001). The serum carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) level displayed a significant difference (p<0.001) between the PC and the HS group. The PC and CHP groups, as well as the HS and CHP groups showed also significant differences in the CA19-9 levels (p<0.001). One can conclude that the patients with higher CgA levels had poorer prognosis and survival, as compared to those with lower CgA levels. These results support the notion that the determination of serum CgA level before treatment may be a potential prognostic factor for PC. PMID:18329114

  3. Elevated Levels of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Interleukin-37 in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Zhao, Pingwei; Sun, Xiguang; Che, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yanfang

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-37 in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). Methods. The levels of plasma and CSF IL-37, IL-17A, IFN-?, and TNF-? in 25 GBS patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and flow cytometric bead array assay, respectively. The values of clinical parameters in the patients were also measured. Results. The concentrations of plasma IL-37, IL-17A, IFN-?, and TNF-? and CSF IL-37 and IL-17A in patients at the acute phase of GBS were significantly higher than those in the HC. The levels of plasma IL-37, IL-17A, IFN-?, and TNF-? were positively correlated in those patients, and the levels of CSF IL-37 and IL-17A as well as the levels of plasma TNF-? were correlated positively with the GBS disability scale scores (GDSs) in those patients. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin significantly reduced the levels of plasma IL-37, IL-17A, IFN-?, and TNF-? in the drug-responding patients. Conclusions. Our findings indicate higher levels of plasma and CSF IL-37 and IL-17A and other proinflammatory cytokines in patients with GBS. PMID:24174711

  4. Elevation of serum KL-6 levels in patients with hematological malignancies associated with cytomegalovirus or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Tanaka, K; Fukahori, S; Fujimatsu, Y; Jojima, H; Shiraishi, K; Honda, J; Oizumi, K

    2002-04-01

    The level of serum KL-6 antigen has been reported to be a sensitive indicator of various interstitial pneumonitis, but in patients with hematological malignancies who were accompanied by infective interstitial pneumonitis like Pneumocystis carinii or cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia, it is still unknown whether serum KL-6 level is useful as a good marker for the diagnosis or disease activity. In this study, the serum levels of KL-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) were evaluated in five patients with malignant lymphoma or adult T-cell leukemia. Serum KL-6 and sICAM-1 levels at the time of diagnosis of P. carinii or CMV pneumonia were 1220+/-323 U/ml (mean+/-SD) and 1246+/-485 ng/ml, respectively. These levels were apparently high, when compared with standard value of serum KL-6 (<520 U/ml) and that of sICAM-1 (115-306 ng/ml). In patients without P. carinii or CMV pneumonia, who had hematological malignancies or AIDS, serum level of KL-6 was not high (299+/-122 U/ml), but sICAM-1 was high (651+/-495 ng/ml) because of the elevation of sICAM-1 in four of five cases. These findings suggest that, in patients with hematological malignancies, serum level of KL-6 antigen rather than sICAM-1 may be useful in the evaluation of CMV or P. carinii pneumonia. PMID:12186700

  5. Relation of plasma adiponectin levels and aortic stiffness after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, SJ; Klug, G; Feistritzer, HJ; Mayr, A; Bader, K; Mair, J; Esterhammer, R; Schocke, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulse wave velocity is a measure of aortic stiffness and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is involved in atherosclerosis and inflammation. In the present study we aimed to explore the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and pulse wave velocity in the acute phase after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Forty-six consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 57±11 years) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma adiponectin was measured 2 days after index event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was calculated by the transit-time method with the use of a velocity-encoded, phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance protocol. Results: Median plasma adiponectin concentration was 2385 ng/ml (interquartile range 1735–5403). Males had lower plasma adiponectin values than females and current smokers had lower values than non-smokers (all p<0.02). Adiponectin was significantly associated with PWV (r=0.505, p<0.001), age (r=0.437, p=0.002), and total cholesterol (r=0.468, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin as a predictor of PWV independently of age, sex, smoking status, total cholesterol, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p=0.027). Conclusions: Plasma adiponectin concentrations are strongly associated with aortic stiffness in patients after acute STEMI treated with primary PCI. Our data support a possible role for adiponectin as an independent risk marker for increased aortic stiffness in STEMI patients. PMID:24337918

  6. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide levels after human gestation: relationship to changes in bone and mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dobnig, H; Kainer, F; Stepan, V; Winter, R; Lipp, R; Schaffer, M; Kahr, A; Nocnik, S; Patterer, G; Leb, G

    1995-12-01

    PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) can be found in high concentrations in human breast milk and has been implicated in material calcium regulation postpartum. We studied the relationship of plasma PTHrP levels of serum markers of bone turnover and selective cancellous bone density in 35 women (age, 25 +/- 3 yr) 2-3 days postpartum and after 3 and 6 months of lactation. The mean postpartum plasma PTHrP levels measured by immunoradiometric assay was 2.64 +/- 0.19 pmol/L (mean +/- SE) and were elevated compared to that in 35 age- and sex-matched controls (1.34 +/- 0.14; P < 0.0001). PTHrP remained significantly elevated, but decreased during the lactation period of 6 +/- 1 months. Immediately postpartum, serum protein levels were lowest, and serum ionized calcium levels highest. At that time, PTH was suppressed to 50% of control values (P < 0.001). Two or 3 days postpartum, serum ionized calcium was negatively correlated with total serum protein (r = -0.47; P < 0.0001) and positively correlated with plasma PTHrP (r = -0.32; P < 0.008). PTH was inversely correlated with ionized calcium (r = -0.24; P = 0.03) and PTHrP (r = -0.31; P < 0.01). Three and 6 months postpartum, serum protein and PTH levels had returned to normal, and ionized calcium concentrations decreased. There was no indication that PTHrP may have any significant systemic effect after 3 and 6 months of lactation. Long term lactation led to a significant decrease in radial cancellous bone density (-4.5%; P < 0.05) at 6 months and to elevations in serum markers of bone resorption (2- to 3-fold for serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and formation (1- to 2-fold for osteocalcin and serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen). Bone turnover balance was clearly negative after 3 months of lactation compared to the control value and indicated net bone loss at a time when estrogen levels were low. With ongoing lactation, estrogen levels increased, and bone turnover balance improved significantly and independently of PTHrP levels. We interpret these results as evidence that PTHrP is elevated during the postgestational period and has a weak and temporary effect on calcium metabolism when serum protein levels are reduced. PTHrP does not seem to participate significantly in the regulation of bone turnover during lactation. Normalization of bone turnover balance at 6 months of lactation suggests that further cancellous bone loss is most likely minimal when breast-feeding is extended beyond that time. PMID:8530622

  7. Dolphin foraging sounds suppress calling and elevate stress hormone levels in a prey species, the Gulf toadfish.

    PubMed

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Nowacek, Douglas P; Bass, Andrew H

    2006-11-01

    The passive listening hypothesis proposes that dolphins and whales detect acoustic signals emitted by prey, including sound-producing (soniferous) fishes. Previous work showed that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) behaviorally orient toward the sounds of prey, including the advertisement calls of male Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). In addition, soniferous fishes constitute over 80% of Tursiops diet, and toadfishes alone account for approximately 13% of the stomach contents of adult bottlenose dolphins. Here, we used both behavioral (vocalizations) and physiological (plasma cortisol levels) parameters to determine if male Gulf toadfish can, in turn, detect the acoustic signals of bottlenose dolphins. Using underwater playbacks to toadfish in their natural environment, we found that low-frequency dolphin sounds (;pops') within the toadfish's range of hearing dramatically reduce toadfish calling rates by 50%. High frequency dolphin sounds (whistles) and low-frequency snapping shrimp pops (ambient control sounds) each had no effect on toadfish calling rates. Predator sound playbacks also had consequences for circulating stress hormones, as cortisol levels were significantly elevated in male toadfish exposed to dolphin pops compared with snapping shrimp pops. These findings lend strong support to the hypothesis that individuals of a prey species modulate communication behavior in the presence of a predator, and also suggest that short-term glucocorticoid elevation is associated with anti-predator behavior. PMID:17079715

  8. Elevated Soluble Lectin-like Oxidized LDL Receptor 1 (LOX-1) Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Tina E.; Kume, Noriaki; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Phares, Dana A.; Hagberg, James. M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the association between soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (sLOX-1) levels and obesity in older women. Fifty-one (10 lean, 22 overweight, and 19 obese) postmenopausal women were included in this small retrospective analysis. Plasma sLOX-1 levels were measured using a chemiluminescent ELISA. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly higher in obese women (55.33±4.49 pg/mL) compared to lean (30.91±6.19 pg/mL, p=0.002) and overweight women (38.31±4.18 pg/mL, p=0.017). Plasma sLOX-1 levels were positively associated with body weight, BMI, total body fat, and trunk fat. The relationship between sLOX-1 and BMI was attenuated after adjustment for age, HRT, and body fat. In conclusion, obese women have higher sLOX-1 levels, which may reflect increased LOX-1 expression in adipose tissue. PMID:18388896

  9. Elevated plasma levels of TL1A in newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Dong; Chen, Dao-Jun; Li, Rui; Ren, Chun-Xia; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. Cytokine-mediated immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) belongs to the TNF superfamily of cytokines and has been found to perform significantly in autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. To date, no study has discussed the expression levels of TL1A in SLE. We found that plasma levels of TL1A were significantly higher in newly diagnosed SLE patients compared with controls. Correlation analysis showed that plasma levels of TL1A were positively associated with SLE disease activity index. These data indicated that TL1A may play a role in SLE and may reflect the disease activity for SLE. PMID:25929716

  10. Fructose Levels Are Markedly Elevated in Cerebrospinal Fluid Compared to Plasma in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Janice J.; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S.; Sherwin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose?sorbitol?fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. Methods In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. Results As expected, CSF glucose was ~60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001), and CSF sorbitol was ~9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (? 0.45, p = 0.02) and sorbitol levels (? 0.75, p < 0.001). Cord blood sorbitol was also ~7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. Conclusions These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption. PMID:26035307

  11. Elevated levels of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in patients with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Davide; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Byarugaba, Justus; Kironde, Fred; Wahlgren, Mats

    2013-04-01

    Severe malaria is characterized by a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines in the context of sequestration of parasitized and normal red cells (RBCs). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA- and heparin-binding protein that also acts as a cytokine when released from cells in the extracellular milieu after a proinflammatory stimulus. In this study, we have measured the circulating levels of HMGB1 in 76 children with severe or uncomplicated malaria. Sera from both severe (P = 0.0022) and uncomplicated (P = 0.0049) patients had significantly higher circulating HMGB1 levels compared with healthy controls. Elevated HMGB1 in patients with ongoing Plasmodium falciparum infections might prolong inflammation and the febrile state of malaria and could offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23400574

  12. Effect of skewness and kurtosis of sea-surface elevations on the accuracy of altimetry surface level measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapevalov, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    We assess the influence of changes in the skewness and kurtosis of the distribution of elevations on a rough sea surface that were observed in field conditions on the accuracy of the recovery of the sea-surface level along the satellite trace. For different values of a significant height of surface waves, we obtain numerical estimates for the bias in relief recovery due to the simultaneous variation in skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that, with a decrease in kurtosis, the effect of skewness changes on the accuracy of altimetry measurements of the level increases. We note the limitations of the Gram-Charlier model in simulating the radar waveforms return from the sea surface.

  13. Elevated levels of peripheral-blood, naturally occurring aliphatic polyamines in bronchial asthmatic patients with active symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, M; Shimizu, Y; Tsukagoshi, H; Ueki, M

    1992-12-01

    The levels of peripheral-blood, naturally occurring aliphatic polyamines, such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, from 21 bronchial asthmatic patients (11 atopics and 10 nonatopics) were measured by postcolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. None of the patients, except the 44-year-old woman in the case report below, were given prednisolone, and they were instructed to take only regular medication during the tests. Blood was drawn from the patients in a fasting state, and the polyamine levels were compared between the times when they were free of asthmatic symptoms and when they had mild spontaneous attacks. Nine (5 atopics and 4 nonatopics), 6 (3 atopics and 3 nonatopics), and 4 (3 atopics and 1 nonatopic) out of 20 patients, when they had relatively mild asthmatic attacks, showed higher putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels, respectively, than those of normal healthy control subjects. The levels of peripheral blood polyamines from a 44-year-old atopic bronchial asthmatic woman, who was admitted to the hospital with severe asthmatic attacks, were measured serially, and the putrescine and spermidine levels were found to be elevated during the asthmatic attacks, returning to normal levels in parallel with the clinical course. These data may suggest a role for naturally occurring aliphatic polyamines in bronchial asthma. PMID:1285570

  14. Serum lipid levels during oral contraceptive and glucocorticoid administration 1

    PubMed Central

    Doar, J. W. H.; Wynn, V.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of oral contraceptives on fasting serum lipid levels have been studied longitudinally in two groups of women. One hundred and twenty-eight subjects (group A) were tested before and during therapy; 52 subjects (group B) were tested initially during therapy and again after this had been discontinued. In both groups oral contraceptive therapy was associated with significantly raised mean serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. No relation was found between the magnitude of change of serum triglyceride levels and the nature of oestrogen-progestogen combination, age, parity, degree of obesity, family history of diabetes, or duration of therapy. A significant elevation of the mean fasting serum triglyceride level was also found in a group of 19 women receiving low-dose glucocorticoid therapy, though the percentage increase (16%) was less than that in the women receiving oral contraceptives (49%).

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance rosmarinic acid production in spearmint plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The C20 diterpene rosmarinic acid (RA) is synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway and is constitutively expressed in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantlets grown in vitro. RA levels within plantlet leaves were found to be readily manipulated by the nutritional and physical environments. Higher...

  16. Brief Communication High temperature pulses decrease indirect chilling injury and elevate ATP levels

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    levels in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis q Vanessa H. Dollo, Shu-Xia Yi, Richard E. Lee Jr rates of survival and reduced cold injury in flesh flies, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, that experienced of unseasonable cold [5]. In nondiapausing pharate adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, continuous

  17. resource surveys indicate a species has elevated levels ofan element, additional

    E-print Network

    been examined for mercury , lead, nick- el, manganese, silver, chromium, cop- per, zinc, cadmium below 0.1 ppm. Except for some species of mollusca, mean cadmium levels were below 0.3 ppm. Muscles recovery. Fishery catch statistics early in 1975 disclosed substantial reductions compared with 1974

  18. Association of Elevated Blood Levels of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) with Cellular and Humoral Immunodeficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Daniel; Wolfgang Huber; Klausdieter Bauer; Caner Suesal; Joannis Mytilineos; Anette Melk; Christian Conradt; Gerhard Opelz

    2001-01-01

    It has long been suspected that pentachlorophenol (PCP) exerts a damaging influence on the immune system. In this study, the possible relationship between blood levels of PCP and immune function was studied in 190 patients who had been exposed for more than 6 mo to PCP-containing pesticides. The patients suffered from frequent respiratory infections and general fatigue. Lymphocyte subpopulations, in-vitro

  19. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ELEVATED PTH LEVELS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS IN HOUSTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) have been reported in adolescents with low 25-hydroxyvitamins D status (25D). As part of a study evaluating longitudinal changes in calcium (Ca) metabolism, we gave Ca-fortified orange juice (Ca-OJ, Minute Maid) once daily with breakfast to 88 adolescents (...

  20. A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF AN ELEVATED GASEOUS RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the development of a screening technique to determine the maximum 1 hour ground level concentration of a gaseous emission from a stack located in flat terrain. The method does not require the use of a computer and eliminates the usual trial and error calculati...

  1. Increased Ndfip1 in the Substantia Nigra of Parkinsonian Brains Is Associated with Elevated Iron Levels

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Jason; Gysbers, Amanda M.; Ayton, Scott; Carew-Jones, Francine; Putz, Ulrich; Finkelstein, David I.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Iron misregulation is a central component in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease. The iron transport protein DMT1 is known to be increased in Parkinson's brains linking functional transport mechanisms with iron accumulation. The regulation of DMT1 is therefore critical to the management of iron uptake in the disease setting. We previously identified post-translational control of DMT1 levels through a ubiquitin-mediated pathway led by Ndfip1, an adaptor for Nedd4 family of E3 ligases. Here we show that loss of Ndfip1 from mouse dopaminergic neurons resulted in misregulation of DMT1 levels and increased susceptibility to iron induced death. We report that in human Parkinson's brains increased iron concentrations in the substantia nigra are associated with upregulated levels of Ndfip1 in dopaminergic neurons containing ?-synuclein deposits. Additionally, Ndfip1 was also found to be misexpressed in astrocytes, a cell type normally devoid of this protein. We suggest that in Parkinson's disease, increased iron levels are associated with increased Ndfip1 expression for the regulation of DMT1, including abnormal Ndfip1 activation in non-neuronal cell types such as astrocytes. PMID:24475238

  2. Elevated serum alpha fetoprotein levels promote pathological progression of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Liu, Hui; Li, Ning; McNutt, Michael A; Li, Gang; Ding, Hui-Guo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological role of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and its clinical significance in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Clinical analysis of HCC patients and immunohistochemical examination were conducted to evaluate the relationship between serum AFP level and patient mortality. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, dimethylthiahzolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to explore the possible mechanism. RESULTS: Among the 160 HCC patients enrolled in this study, 130 patients survived 2 years (81.25%), with a survival rate of 86.8% in AFP < 2 0 ?g/L group, 88.9% in AFP 20-250 ?g/L group, and 69.6% in AFP > 250 ?g/L group, demonstrating a higher mortality rate in HCC patients with higher AFP levels. Surgical treatment was beneficial only in patients with low AFP levels. The mortality rate of HCC patients with high AFP levels who were treated surgically was apparently higher than those treated with conservative management. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that AFP and AFP receptor were merely expressed in tissues of HCC patients with positive serum AFP. Consistently, in vitro analysis showed that AFP and AFPS were expressed in HepG2 but not in HLE cells. AFP showed a capability to promote cell growth, and this was more apparent in HepG2 cells, in which the proliferation was increased by 3.5 folds. Cell cycle analysis showed that the percentage of HepG2 cells in S phase after exposure to AFP was modestly increased. CONCLUSION: HCC patients with higher AFP levels show a higher mortality rate, which appears to be attributable to the growth promoting properties of AFP. PMID:22147961

  3. Clinical Values of Elevated Serum Cytokeratin-18 Levels in Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhao Hui; Yang, Su Xian; Qin, Cheng Zhi; Chen, Yun Xiu

    2015-01-01

    Background: As an important intermediate filament protein within liver cells, cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) has been confirmed as a potential indicator in various hepatitis progressions. Objectives: We sought to clarify the connection between serum CK-18 levels and hepatitis pathogenesis in the present meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: With the application of various computerized databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, China BioMedicine (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), published papers that assessed the relationship between serum CK-18 levels and hepatitis were obtained. The main key words used are “Hepatitis”, “hepatitides”, “Cytokeratin-18”, “Keratin-18” and “CK-18”. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA software (version 12.0). Results: Eight case-control studies published between 2010 and 2014 were confirmed eligible, according to our selection criteria. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of CK-18 in hepatitis patients were higher compared to healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 3.71, 95%CI: 2.27-5.14, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity and disease implicated that high serum CK-18 levels might be a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (all P < 0.05) among Asians (SMD = 2.89, 95%CI: 2.35-3.43, P < 0.001), Africans (SMD = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.12-1.26, P = 0.017), and Caucasians (SMD = 4.86, 95%CI: 1.82-7.89, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Serum CK-18 levels in hepatitis patients were higher, compared with healthy controls. Our results revealed the clinical values of CK-18, in combination with other apoptosis markers, in identifying the development of hepatitis. PMID:26045704

  4. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariel; Alberdi, Ernesto; Pejrup, Morten

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge plains are a common feature of prograding coastlines and they have in the past been widely used as geomorphological archives for the reconstruction of past coastal dynamics, event chronologies or late quaternary sea-level change. The most critical parameters for sea-level related research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time-consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60° N and 56° S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) with the SRTM elevation model along a cross-ridge transect. An average vertical deviation of 0,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM data acquisition and our GPS measurement. This interpretation is supported by a multi-decadal sequence of Landsat false-color composites. Vegetation cover and rounding errors are further possible factors in explaining vertical deviation. The consistency of data quality was confirmed by a comparison study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) to extract surface elevations on an extensive beach ridge plain on the island of Anholt, Denmark. The relatively high accuracy of the SRTM data in near-coastal environments is probably owed to the correction of the original dataset for a fixed value of 0 m along the coastlines of the world (SRTM Water Body Data). Our findings indicate that, at certain scales, a spatial integration of linear GPS data can be attempted using the SRTM dataset. However, the process must be aided by adequate surface information (e.g. Landsat images from close to the date of SRTM acquisition). The fixed reference datum allows a contextualization of distant field sites and thus can help to reduce bias measurement and interpretation. In our case, the SRTM data set has proven to be a valuable tool for the preparation of field work and facilitated a more accurate appraisal of the Holocene marine sedimentary record.

  5. Decreased Insulin Clearance in Individuals with Elevated 1-h Post-Load Plasma Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Frontoni, Simona; Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ?8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl) at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low). To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001) and insulin clearance (P?=?0.006) after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P?=?0.02) in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia. PMID:24194886

  6. Elevated serum levels of Dupan-2 in pancreatic cancer patients negative for Lewis blood group phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Kawa; H Oguchi; T Kobayashi; M Tokoo; S Furuta; M Kanai; T Homma

    1991-01-01

    CA19-9, a serum marker for pancreatic cancer, gives false-negative results in patients who are negative for the Lewis blood group phenotype. To determine whether other markers may compensate for this drawback, serum levels of CA50, Span-1, sialyl SSEA-1 and Dupan-2 were assayed and compared with those of CA19-9 in 207 normal subjects and in 200 patients with pancreatic carcinoma whose

  7. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  8. Elevated Serum Creatine Kinase BB Levels in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond N. Carney; Mark H. Zweig; Martin H. Cohen; Robert W. Makuch; Adi F. Gazdar

    1984-01-01

    Clinical tumor specimens and cultures of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) produce 10- to 100-fold higher quantities of the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-BB) (EC 2.7.3.2) than did other types of lung cancer. Serum CK-BB levels were evaluated in 105 newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with SCLC. All patients were thoroughly staged, including 42 patients with limited-stage and 63

  9. Elevated levels of somatic mutation of the glycophorin A locus in cancer patients: Relevance for incidence of secondary cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, S.G.; Bigbee, W.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The glycophorin A (GPA)-based human in vivo somatic mutation assay was used to survey a large number of newly diagnosed cancer patients presenting with a variety of solid tumors. This cancer patient population was sampled pre-therapy and frequencies of two types of variant cells determined: allele loss segregants arising by mutation, deletion, chromosome loss or gene inactivation, and allele loss and duplication segregants arising by chromosome missegregation, mitotic recombination and possibly gene conversion. When compared with matched controls, the cancer patient population exhibited significantly elevated frequencies of both types of segregants. Cancer patients undergoing genotoxic therapy with chemicals and/or ionizing radiation were then examined, yielding variable results depending on the particular agent. In patients receiving localized high dose radiotherapy there was no response with either endpoint. In most cases involving chemotherapy, a significant elevation in the frequency of allele loss variants was observed within one month of the initiation of therapy which persisted at least one erythrocyte lifetime ({approximately}4 months) post therapy. In a subset of these cases, specifically, involving the known stem cell mutagen cis-platinum, the allele loss variant cell frequency remained significantly elevated up to 7 years after treatment. These results indicate that individuals with cancer have inherently higher levels of somatic mutation and segregation, due to genetic predisposition or exposure to environmental genotoxicants, or both, and that certain types of cancer therapy add significantly to the burden of mutation. These data provide a molecular rationale for the increased frequency of secondary malignancy observed in primary cancer patients: they are at increased risk of already having or easily acquiring the necessary carcinogenic events implicated in the progression of multi-step oncogenesis.

  10. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100?, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25801379

  11. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100?, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174072

  12. No Elevated Plasma Catecholamine Levels during Sleep in Newly Diagnosed, Untreated Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Björn; Dodt, Christoph; Sayk, Friedhelm; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sympatho-adrenergic system is highly involved in regulating sleep, wake and arousal states, and abnormalities in this system are regarded as a key factor in the development and progression of arterial hypertension. While hypertension is associated with a hyperadrenergic state during wakefulness, the effect of hypertension on plasma-catecholamine levels during sleep is not yet known. Twelve young participants with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and twelve healthy controls slept for 7 hours in the sleep laboratory. Before and after sleep, subjects rested in a supine position for 3-h periods of wakefulness. We sampled blood at a fast rate (1/10 min) and monitored blood pressure and heart rate continuously. We show that plasma NE and E levels did not differ between hypertensives and normotensive during sleep as well as before and after sleep. Blood pressure was higher in hypertensives, reaching the largest group difference in the morning after sleep. Unlike in the normotensives, in the hypertensive participants the morning rise in blood pressure did not correlate with the rise in catecholamine levels at awakening. Our results suggest that hypertension in its early stages is not associated with a strong hyperadrenergic state during sleep. In showing a diminished control of blood pressure through sympatho-adrenergic signals in hypertensive participants, our data point towards a possible involvement of dysfunctional sleep-related blood pressure regulation in the development of hypertension. PMID:21695061

  13. Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Edward Hunter

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

  14. Predictors of thromboxane levels in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes on chronic aspirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Giubilato, Simona; Leo, Andrea; Cosentino, Nicola; Fracassi, Francesco; Cataneo, Leonardo; Porto, Italo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Biasucci, Luigi Marzio; Narducci, Maria Lucia; Pulcinelli, Fabio Maria; Crea, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    High levels of thromboxane A2 (TxA2), a key mediator of platelet activation and aggregation, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. We aimed at assessing the predictors of higher plasma levels of TxB2, the stable metabolite of TxA2, in consecutive patients presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) on previous aspirin (ASA) treatment undergoing coronary angiography. Ninety-eight consecutive patients (age 61 ± 11, 75% males) with NSTE-ACS, on previous chronic ASA treatment, were prospectively enrolled in this study. Coronary disease extent was assessed by angiography according to the Bogaty score. In all patients, admission plasma levels of TxB2 (pg/ml) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients showing TxB2 levels in the fourth quartile were compared to patients showing TxB2 levels in the lower quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that platelet count (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.63, p=0.04), multivessel coronary disease (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-3.67, p=0.03), and coronary atherosclerosis extent index (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.45-6.79, p=0.001) were independent predictors of TxB2 level upper quartile. Of note, C-reactive protein serum levels were similar in patients with TxB2 levels in the upper quartile as compared to those in the lower quartiles (p=0.49). In conclusion, NSTE-ACS patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis may have incomplete suppression of TxA2 production despite chronic ASA therapy. This finding suggests that additional efforts should be made to lower TxA2 levels in patients with widespread coronary artery disease. PMID:22535468

  15. Imipramine induced elevation of prolactin levels in patients with HIV/AIDS improved their immune status.

    PubMed

    Orlander, H; Peter, S; Jarvis, M; Ricketts-Hall, L

    2009-06-01

    Prolactin is known to have significant immunomodulatory properties. Imipramine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor stimulates prolactin production because it decreases dopamine which inhibits secretion of prolactin. The study objective was to determine if use of imipramine can result in immunological benefits for HIV-positive patients by restoration and preservation of immunological function. A cohort of 19 retroviral positive patients was identified for the prospective study which continued for a 28-week period. Three patients dropped out before the study began. Inclusion criteria accepted only patients on the same highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen for a nine-month period and who had reached a plateau with respect to the CD4 cell count and also had no prior history of antidepressant use for a 12-month period. This study had a "before and after" design, patients serving as their own control. The study drug imipramine was prescribed for a 12-week period up to visit 4, and then discontinued for 4-weeks (washout period) at which time blood investigations were done at visit 5. Finally, patients were prescribed the study drug for a further 12-week period to the end of the trial (visit 7). At the 95 per cent probability level, significant differences in average prolactin and CD4 levels from visit 4 to the end of the trial period were recorded. Results showed a trend of prolactin levels decreasing after washout (p = 0.015) and increasing by the end of the trial period once imipramine dispensation had recommenced (p = 0.006). With respect to the CD4 cell count, there was a significant increase after wash-out (p = 0.022). These results indicate a trend to immune boosting in HIV-positive patients who had obtained the maximum response from HAART. PMID:20043526

  16. Elevated serum epidermal growth factor receptor level is correlated with lymph node metastasis in lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidefumi Sasaki; Haruhiro Yukiue; Kotaro Mizuno; Atsushi Sekimura; Akimitsu Konishi; Motoki Yano; Masahiro Kaji; Masanobu Kiriyama; Ichiro Fukai; Yosuke Yamakawa; Yoshitaka Fujii

    2003-01-01

    .  \\u000a \\u000a Background: Using an enzyme immunoassay for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we investigated whether serum EGFR levels could\\u000a be used as predictors of the development and extent of lung cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The study included 106 lung cancer patients and 16 patients with nonmalignant thoracic disease. Serum samples were collected\\u000a before clinical treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: There was no difference between serum

  17. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Infection and Bd Lineage.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Fisher, Matthew C; Bosch, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT) regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian's vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress. PMID:25893675

  18. Periodontitis Predicts Elevated C-reactive Protein Levels in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, E.; Swede, H.; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the existing evidence supporting a state of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we hypothesized that periodontal infection may affect the systemic inflammatory status of a nationally representative CKD population as measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP). We examined this hypothesis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) dataset including 2303 individuals. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition for periodontitis. We used a cutoff point of 30% sites with (PD) ? 5 mm and (CAL) ? 4 mm to define generalized periodontitis cases. We estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C levels using the relevant equation. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was calculated in milligrams per gram with a cutoff point of 30 mg/g. CKD was defined based on eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and albuminuria ? 30 mg/g. Periodontitis was found in 427 (12.3%) individuals. Of individuals with periodontitis, 41.8% had serum CRP higher than 0.3 mg/dL compared with 27.1% of non-periodontitis and 53.1% of edentulous individuals (p = 0.001 for all comparisons). When the extent of periodontitis was used as one of the independent variables, the parsimonious model showed a strong independent association between extent of periodontitis and serum CRP levels (OR = 2.0, CI95% = 1.2-3.6). PMID:21940520

  19. Periodontitis predicts elevated C-reactive protein levels in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, E; Swede, H; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2011-12-01

    Based on the existing evidence supporting a state of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we hypothesized that periodontal infection may affect the systemic inflammatory status of a nationally representative CKD population as measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP). We examined this hypothesis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) dataset including 2303 individuals. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP)/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition for periodontitis. We used a cutoff point of 30% sites with (PD) ? 5 mm and (CAL) ? 4 mm to define generalized periodontitis cases. We estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C levels using the relevant equation. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was calculated in milligrams per gram with a cutoff point of 30 mg/g. CKD was defined based on eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and albuminuria ? 30 mg/g. Periodontitis was found in 427 (12.3%) individuals. Of individuals with periodontitis, 41.8% had serum CRP higher than 0.3 mg/dL compared with 27.1% of non-periodontitis and 53.1% of edentulous individuals (p = 0.001 for all comparisons). When the extent of periodontitis was used as one of the independent variables, the parsimonious model showed a strong independent association between extent of periodontitis and serum CRP levels (OR = 2.0, CI95% = 1.2-3.6). PMID:21940520

  20. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

  1. Elevated selenium levels in bluegills and their effect on reproduction. [Lepomis macrochirus

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A series of 18 artificial crosses of bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, from Hyco Reservoir, North Carolina (mean Se = 7.94 ppm) and Roxboro City Lake, North Carolina (mean Se = 0.38 ppm) were generated. Neither percent fertilization nor percent hatch differed significantly among the parent combinations. However, all crosses of females with high Se body burdens resulted in larvae with edema; larvae from all crosses of females with low Se body burdens were normal. No differences were found in morphology of the membranes from immature ova between females of the two reservoirs. Sections of heart and intestines appear similar between larvae from females of Hyco Reservoir and Roxboro City Lake suggesting that edema occurs from physiological impairment and not from developmental abnormalities. Mean Se levels in the gonads and carcass of adult bluegills were more than 20 times higher in fishes from Hyco Reservoir than in those from Roxboro City Lake. The high Se concentration in ovaries of Hyco Reservoir bluegills, coupled with high Se levels in larvae from artificial crosses indicated that Se was transferred from females to offspring and resulted in larval edema. /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine was fed to adult bluegills. After 12 weeks of feeding, liver and testis had the highest /sup 75/Se activities according to gamma activity assays while ovary, heart and skeletal muscle had the lowest activities.

  2. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu

    2009-01-01

    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed. PMID:19082509

  3. Elevated levels of GABA+ in migraine detected using (1) H-MRS.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Maria-Eliza R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Leaver, Andrew M; Rebbeck, Trudy; Hübscher, Markus; Brennan, Patrick C; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2015-07-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in several pain conditions, yet no study has systematically evaluated GABA levels in migraine using (1) H-MRS. The accurate detection, separation and quantification of GABA in individuals with migraine could elucidate the role of this neurotransmitter in migraine pathophysiology. Such information may eventually be useful in the diagnosis and development of more effective treatments for migraine. The aims of this study were therefore to compare the concentration of GABA+ in individuals with migraine with that in asymptomatic individuals, and to determine the diagnostic potential of GABA+ in the classification of those with or without migraine. In this case-control study, GABA+ levels in the brain were determined in 19 participants with migraine and 19 matched controls by (1) H-MRS using Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence. The diagnostic accuracy of GABA+ for the detection of migraine and the optimal cut-off value were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. GABA+ levels were significantly higher (p = 0.002) in those with migraine [median, 1.41 institutional units (IU); interquartile range, 1.31-1.50 IU] than in controls (median, 1.18 IU; interquartile range, 1.12-1.35 IU). The GABA+ concentration appears to have good accuracy for the classification of individuals with or without migraine [area under the curve (95% confidence interval), 0.837 (0.71-0.96); p < 0.001]. The optimal GABA+ cut-off value for migraine was 1.30 IU, with a sensitivity of 84.2%, specificity of 68.4% and positive likelihood ratio of +2.67. The outcomes of this study suggest altered GABA metabolism in migraine. These results add to the scarce evidence on the putative role of GABA in migraine and provide a basis to further explore the causal relationship between GABA+ and the pathophysiology of migraine. This study also demonstrates that GABA+ concentration has good diagnostic accuracy for migraine. These findings offer new research and practice directions for migraine diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25997981

  4. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  5. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.

    PubMed

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2011-08-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

  6. Elevation of Proteasomal Substrate Levels Sensitizes Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Inhibition of Proteasomal Deubiquitinases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chao; Roboti, Peristera; Puumalainen, Marjo-Riitta; Fryknäs, Mårten; Wang, Xin; D'Arcy, Padraig; Hult, Malin; High, Stephen; Linder, Stig; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the 20S proteasome are cytotoxic to tumor cells and are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma, whilst the deubiquitinase activity associated with the 19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome is also a valid target for anti-cancer drugs. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs and their selective toxicity towards cancer cells are not known. Here, we show that increasing the cellular levels of proteasome substrates using an inhibitor of Sec61-mediated protein translocation significantly increases the extent of apoptosis that is induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinase activity in both cancer derived and non-transformed cell lines. Our results suggest that increased generation of misfolded proteasome substrates may contribute to the mechanism(s) underlying the increased sensitivity of tumor cells to inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:25286379

  7. Elevated Levels of Coagulation Factor VIII in Patients With Venous Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-05-25

    Chronic venous disease affects millions of people around the world. Venous valvular incompetencies and venous reflux, often a result of outflow obstruction are important contributors to venous disease. The prevalence of thrombophilia is increased in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The recognition of underlying thrombophilia particularly in young patients opens new avenues in the management and prevention plan. We emphasize on the consideration of workup for coagulopathy, especially factor VIII deficiency in young patients with venous disease. We report 3 patients with chronic leg ulcers and high levels of FVIII:C activity in plasma and other associated thrombophilic factors. We highlight the need to get a workup done for thrombophilia in young patients with recurrent and chronic leg ulcers related to venous insufficiency or livedoid vasculopathy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to define the definite indications for the thrombophilia workups. PMID:24861090

  8. Elevated level of HSPA1L mRNA correlates with graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Sadaf; Turner, Brie; Pearce, Kim Frances; Ahmed, Shaheda S; Norden, Jean; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Collin, Matthew; Dickinson, Anne Mary

    2015-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be a fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). GVHD can be classified as acute (aGVHD: up to 100days) or chronic (cGVHD: after 100days) based on the time-point of disease occurrence. At present there are a limited number of biomarkers available for use in the clinic. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the biomarker potential of the extensively studied Heat Shock Protein 70 family members (HSPA1A/HSPA1B and HSPA1L) at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in acute and cGVHD patient cohorts. In the skin biopsies, HSPA1L mRNA expression was lower in patients with severe aGVHD (grades II-III) when compared to those with none or low grade aGVHD (grades 0-I) and normal controls. In whole blood, HSPA1L mRNA expression level was significantly (p=0.008) up-regulated at 28days post-transplant in cGVHD patients with a significant area under the curve (AUC=0.773). In addition, HSPA1B expression in whole blood was significantly higher at 3months post-transplant in both the aGVHD grade II-III (p=0.012) and cGVHD (p=0.027) patients. Our initial results in this small cohort show that quantifying HSPA1L mRNA expression in the whole blood of allo-HSCT patients at day 28 post-allo-HSCT may be a useful predictive biomarker for cGVHD. PMID:25680846

  9. Relation of ketosis to metabolic changes induced by acute medium-chain triglyceride feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Y Y; Zee, P

    1976-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) induce ketosis in several mammalian species including man. To clarify the regulation of this metabolic alteration, we fed rats either MCT or long-chain triglyceride (corn oil) and then attempted to correlate ketosis with changes in (i) concentrations of selected metabolites in plasma and (ii) the synthetic and oxidative capacities of the liver. By 1 hour after MCT feeding, plasma levels of total ketone bodies had increased 18-fold, with a maximum value reached 1 hour later. By contrast, total plasma ketones in rats fed corn oil were increased only about 2-fold at 2 hours after feeding and did not exceed this value at later intervals. Hepatic concentrations of ketone bodies also increased after MCT or corn oil feeding. Although plasma concentrations of glucose decreased and insulin increased in rats fed MCT, they were not affected by corn oil feeding. MCT-induced ketosis was depressed by glucose administration. Neither MCT nor corn oil feeding impaired utilization of glucose by the liver. Hepatic lipogenesis was suppressed 50% and 90% by MCT and corn oil feeding, respectively. A marked increase of long-chain fatty acids in plasma was observed in rats fed corn oil but not in rats fed MCT. The pronounced increase of ketones in MCT-fed rats was closely related to an elevation of octanoate. In liver slices of MCT-fed rats, ketogenesis from octanoate was 10-fold higher than from palmitate, and octanoate was oxidized 4 times more rapidly than palmitate. The ketosis of MCT-fed rats was depressed by administration of 4-pentenoic acid, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. These results support the concept that ketosis induced by MCT stems from rapid oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and depressed lipogenesis resulting from MCT feeding appear to potentiate but not initiate ketosis. PMID:1245892

  10. Emerging low-density lipoprotein therapies: Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Anne C

    2013-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of enterocytes and hepatocytes, is necessary for the formation of chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein particles. Lomitapide is a small molecule microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor that was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to a low-fat diet and other lipid-lowering therapies for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Results from clinical trials of lomitapide have demonstrated its ability to reduce atherogenic lipoprotein concentrations in this population. Most recently, in a phase 3 clinical trial of 29 men and women with homozygous FH (mean baseline LDL-C, 336 mg/dL) who were on stable doses of concomitant lipid therapies and a low-fat diet, lomitapide was gradually titrated over 26 weeks (from 5 to 60 mg/d), followed by 52 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. LDL-C decreased from baseline by 50% at 26 weeks, and reductions were maintained through the end of the study. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most frequent side effects and the most common reason for failure to tolerate lomitapide dose escalation. Few patients had elevated aspartate or alanine aminotransferases; bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels were unaffected; and hepatic fat increased by ? 10 g/100 g. In conclusion, recent data support the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of low-dose titrated lomitapide in patients with homozygous FH; however, concerns regarding increased hepatic fat will need to be addressed in long-term safety studies. PMID:23642324

  11. Dietary Polyphenols Suppress Elevated Levels of Proinflammatory Mediators and Aromatase in the Mammary Gland of Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sue, Erika; Bhardwaj, Priya; Du, Baoheng; Hudis, Clifford A.; Giri, Dilip; Kopelovich, Levy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-?B activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-?B resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-1?, COX-2) in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of aromatase. Several polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, EGCG) blocked these inductive effects of stearic acid. Zyflamend®, a widely used polyherbal preparation that contains numerous polyphenols, possessed similar suppressive effects. In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with Zyflamend® suppressed levels of phospho-Akt, NF-?B binding activity, proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that targeting the activation of NF-?B is a promising approach for reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in inflamed mouse mammary tissue. Further investigation in obese women is warranted. PMID:23880231

  12. A role for CFTR in the elevation of glutathione levels in the lung by oral glutathione administration

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Chirag; Leitner, Heather; Min, Elysia; van Heeckeren, Christiaan; van Heeckeren, Anna; Day, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is the only known apical glutathione (GSH) transporter in the lung. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether oral GSH or glutathione disulfide (GSSG) treatment could increase lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) GSH levels and whether CFTR plays a role in this process. The pharmacokinetic profile of an oral bolus dose of GSH (300 mg/kg) was determined in mice. Plasma, ELF, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and lung tissue were analyzed for GSH content. There was a rapid elevation in the GSH levels that peaked at 30 min in the plasma and 60 min in the lung, ELF, and BAL cells after oral GSH dosing. Oral GSH treatment produced a selective increase in the reduced and active form of GSH in all lung compartments examined. Oral GSSG treatment (300 mg/kg) resulted in a smaller increase of GSH levels. To evaluate the role of CFTR in this process, Cftr knockout (KO) mice and gut-corrected Cftr KO-transgenic (Tg) mice were given an oral bolus dose of GSH (300 mg/kg) and compared with wild-type mice for changes in GSH levels in plasma, lung, ELF, and BAL cells. There was a twofold increase in plasma, a twofold increase in lung, a fivefold increase in ELF, and a threefold increase in BAL cell GSH levels at 60 min in wild-type mice; however, GSH levels only increased by 40% in the plasma, 60% in the lung, 50% in the ELF, and twofold in the BAL cells within the gut-corrected Cftr KO-Tg mice. No change in GSH levels was observed in the uncorrected Cftr KO mice. These studies suggest that CFTR plays an important role in GSH uptake from the diet and transport processes in the lung. PMID:17369290

  13. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  14. Metabolomic assessment reveals an elevated level of glucosinolate content in CaCl? treated broccoli microgreens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Kou, Liping; Geng, Ping; Huang, Huilian; Yang, Tianbao; Luo, Yaguang; Chen, Pei

    2015-02-18

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The data collected were analyzed using principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis. Chemical composition comparison shows that glucosinolates, a very important group of phytochemicals, are the major compounds enhanced by preharvest treatment with 10 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2). Aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoerucin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin, glucoraphanin, pentyl glucosinolate, and hexyl glucosinolate) and indolic glucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) were increased significantly in the CaCl2 treated microgreens using metabolomic approaches. Targeted glucosinolate analysis using the ISO 9167-1 method was further employed to confirm the findings. Results indicate that glucosinolates can be considered as a class of compounds that are responsible for the difference between two groups and a higher glucosinolate level was found in CaCl2 treated groups at each time point after harvest in comparison with the control group. PMID:25594226

  15. Protective value of elevated levels of gamma interferon in serum against exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Deloron, P; Chougnet, C; Lepers, J P; Tallet, S; Coulanges, P

    1991-01-01

    In vitro experiments suggested that gamma interferon, CD8+ T cells, and anticircumsporozoite antibodies inhibited the exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites. To assess the role played in vivo by these factors, we conducted a prospective study in Madagascar. Forty individuals with a negative blood smear were followed for 8 weeks to detect the appearance of parasites in blood. Nineteen subjects remained negative for malaria, whereas 21 individuals became positive during follow-up. Among these, seven presented with blood parasites within the first 2 weeks and were excluded, as they probably were infected by sporozoites at enrollment. When measured at enrollment, antibodies to the synthetic peptide (NANP)5, lymphocyte proliferation with (NANP)5, and various lymphocytes subsets were similar among individuals that later presented with a Plasmodium falciparum blood infection or were not infected. Conversely, the level of gamma interferon in serum was higher in individuals that did not present with a P. falciparum infection during follow-up. These data suggest that gamma interferon may inhibit the malaria exoerythrocytic stages of development under in vivo conditions, as it does in vitro. PMID:1774292

  16. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels

    PubMed Central

    Koehestanie, Parweez; Dogan, Kemal; Berends, Frits; Janssen, Ignace; Wahab, Peter; Groenen, Marcel; Müller, Michael; de Wit, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this observational study, we evaluated improvement of glycemic control and weight loss in the course of the treatment (0?–?24 weeks after DJBL implantation) and analyzed accompanying gut hormone responses. Patients and methods: 12 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were selected for DJBL implantation. Body weight, fat mass, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), were analyzed at 0, 1, 4 and 24 weeks post-implant. Fasting ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) were determined at 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-implant. Results: Besides significant weight loss, fat mass, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also significantly decreased after DJBL implantation and a 42?% reduction was found in diabetes medication (P?elevated, in contrast to the decrease in ghrelin that is found after RYGB surgery. Conclusions: DJBL implantation provoked significant weight loss, a decrease in fat mass, and an early remission of type 2 diabetes, comparable to results seen after RYGB surgery. Gut hormone analyses revealed a potential role of fasting GLP-1 in early remission of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, the DJBL-induced elevation of ghrelin contradicts the suggested role of reduced ghrelin levels after RYGB in improvement of glycemic control.

  17. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Jin Taiyi [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China) and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Nordberg, Gunnar [Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Nordberg, Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  18. Elevated levels of serum sCXCL16 in systemic lupus erythematosus; potential involvement in cutaneous and renal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Muting; Guo, Yun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xiaofei

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels and clinical significance of serum soluble chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (sCXCL16) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as the sCXCL16 molecule's associations with disease activity and organ damage. Thirty-five patients with SLE, 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. The demographic and clinical features of the patients were recorded. The serum levels of sCXCL16 were determined. Disease activity was assessed using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and organ damage was evaluated with the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index (SDI). The serum levels of sCXCL16 in the patients with SLE were higher than those in the patients with RA (P?=?0.002) or healthy controls (P?levels in the patients with active SLE were higher than those in the disease inactive patients (P?=?0.008). Positive correlations were identified between serum sCXCL16 concentrations and both SLEDAI (r?=?0.564; P?levels of CXCL16 (P?=?0.023) decreased after conventional treatment in 12 initial onset cases of SLE patients. Elevated serum sCXCL16 levels were discovered in the SLE patients with cutaneous (P?=?0.006) and renal involvement (P?=?0.032). Soluble CXCL16 may become a useful serological marker of disease activity and skin and renal involvement in SLE patients; thus, it may be used for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25015061

  19. Can elevated CO2 modify regeneration from seed banks of floating freshwater marshes subjected to rising sea-level?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2 can offset the negative effects of flooding or salinity on plant species, but previous studies have focused on mature, rather than regenerating vegetation. This study examined how interacting environments of CO2, water regime, and salinity affect seed germination and seedling biomass of floating freshwater marshes in the Mississippi River Delta, which are dominated by C3 grasses, sedges, and forbs. Germination density and seedling growth of the dominant species depended on multifactor interactions of CO2 (385 and 720 ?l l-1) with flooding (drained, +8-cm depth, +8-cm depth-gradual) and salinity (0, 6% seawater) levels. Of the three factors tested, salinity was the most important determinant of seedling response patterns. Species richness (total = 19) was insensitive to CO2. Our findings suggest that for freshwater marsh communities, seedling response to CO2 is species-specific and secondary to salinity and flooding effects. Elevated CO2 did not ameliorate flooding or salinity stress. Consequently, climate-related changes in sea level or human-caused alterations in hydrology may override atmospheric CO2 concentrations in driving shifts in this plant community. The results of this study suggest caution in making extrapolations from species-specific responses to community-level predictions without detailed attention to the nuances of multifactor responses.

  20. USGS Elevation Monument

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

  1. A possible association between elevated serum levels of brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan A; El-Khashab, Heba Y; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2015-03-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not only essential for energy production, but they also exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events. Autoimmunity may have a pathogenic role in a subgroup of autistic children. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of PUFAs in autistic children. Plasma levels of PUFAs (including linoleic, alphalinolenic, arachidonic "AA" and docosahexaenoic "DHA" acids) and serum anti-MBP were measured in 80 autistic children, aged between 4 and 12 years, and 80 healthy-matched children. Autistic patients had significantly lower plasma levels of PUFAs than healthy children. On the other hand, ?6/?3 ratio (AA/DHA) was significantly higher in autistic patients than healthy children. Low plasma DHA, AA, linolenic and linoleic acids were found in 67.5%, 50%, 40% and 35%, respectively of autistic children. On the other hand, 70% of autistic patients had elevated ?6/?3 ratio. Autistic patients with increased serum levels of anti-MBP auto-antibodies (75%) had significantly lower plasma DHA (P<0.5) and significantly higher ?6/?3 ratio (P<0.5) than patients who were seronegative for these antibodies. In conclusions, some autistic children have a significant positive association between reduced levels of plasma DHA and increased serum levels of anti-MBP brain-specific auto-antibodies. However, replication studies of larger samples are recommended to validate whether reduced levels of plasma PUFAs are a mere association or have a role in the induction of the production of anti-MBP in some autistic children. PMID:25773150

  2. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24059726

  3. Verification of association of elevated serum IDO enzyme activity with acute rejection and low CD4 ATP levels with infection

    PubMed Central

    Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Al Khasawneh, Eihab; Gupta, Sushil; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Both acute rejection (AR) and major infection events (MIE) can reduce long-term allograft survival. We assessed the simultaneous efficacy of serum and urine biomarker indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity and peripheral blood CD4-ATP levels for AR and MIE association, respectively. Methods We prospectively tested 217 blood and 167 urine serial samples, collected monthly for twelve months post-transplant from 29 consecutive children receiving a kidney transplant. The IDO activity was assessed by mass spectrometry assays using the ratio of product L-kynurenine (kyn) to substrate tryptophan (trp). Kyn/trp ratios and blood CD4 T-cell ATP levels were correlated with AR or MIE or stable group (no events) in the next 30 days. Results Using absolute cutoffs and allocating to samples to AR, MIE or stable group, mean serum kyn/trp ratios were significantly elevated in the group that experienced AR (p = 0.0007). Similarly, peripheral blood CD4-ATP levels were significantly lower in the group experiencing MIE (p = 0.0351). Urine kyn/trp ratios and blood tacrolimus levels were not different between AR and stable groups. Within-subject analyses, accounting for repeated measures in subjects, also showed that over time, serum kyn/trp ratios were higher prior to acute rejection (p = 0.031) and blood CD4-ATP levels were lower prior to MIE (p = 0.008). Conclusions These results from our pilot discovery group suggest that a panel of biomarkers together can predict over- or under-immunosuppression. Further independent validation in a multi-center cohort is suggested. PMID:23823655

  4. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P < 0.0001). Other elements were unchanged between conditions. Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P < 0.0001), indicative of increased B12 activity. Conclusions: Long-term intermittent hypoxia increases brain cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  5. An evaluation of LIDAR-and IFSAR-derived digital elevation models in leaf-on conditions with USGS Level 1 and Level 2 DEMs

    E-print Network

    Hodgson, Michael E.

    An evaluation of LIDAR- and IFSAR-derived digital elevation models in leaf-on conditions with USGS points. One unique aspect of this study was the LIDAR and IFSAR data were collected during leaf is the absolute elevation accuracy of the digital elevation information that can be extracted from the DEM using

  6. Elevated CO? levels do not affect the shell structure of the bivalve Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, Kristina; Nehrke, Gernot; Brey, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Shells of the bivalve Arctica islandica are used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions (e.g. temperature) via biogeochemical proxies, i.e. biogenic components that are related closely to environmental parameters at the time of shell formation. Several studies have shown that proxies like element and isotope-ratios can be affected by shell growth and microstructure. Thus it is essential to evaluate the impact of changing environmental parameters such as high pCO2 and consequent changes in carbonate chemistry on shell properties to validate these biogeochemical proxies for a wider range of environmental conditions. Growth experiments with Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic Sea kept under different pCO2 levels (from 380 to 1120 µatm) indicate no affect of elevated pCO2 on shell growth or crystal microstructure, indicating that A. islandica shows an adaptation to a wider range of pCO2 levels than reported for other species. Accordingly, proxy information derived from A. islandica shells of this region contains no pCO2 related bias. PMID:23922922

  7. Elevated Levels of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein during In Vitro Cartilage Matrix Generation Decrease Collagen Fibril Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; de Bart, A.C.W.; Koevoet, W.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; van Osch, G.J.V.M.; DeGroot, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a protein present in the cartilage matrix and is expressed more abundantly in osteoarthritis cartilage than in healthy cartilage. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) on COMP deposition and the influence of COMP on collagen biochemistry in a long-term 3-dimensional culture. Bovine chondrocytes in alginate beads were cultured with or without 25 ng/mL TGF?2 for 21 or 35 days. COMP was overexpressed in bovine chondrocytes using lentiviral transfection. COMP gene expression, COMP protein production, collagen and proteoglycan deposition, and collagen fibril thickness were determined. Addition of TGF?2 resulted in more COMP mRNA and protein than the control condition without growth factors. Lentiviral transduction with COMP resulted in elevated gene expression of COMP and increased COMP levels in the alginate bead and culture medium compared to untransfected cells. Overexpression of COMP did not affect the deposition of collagen, collagen cross-linking, proteoglycan deposition, or the mechanical properties. Stimulating COMP production by either TGF?2 or lentivirus resulted in collagen fibrils with a smaller diameter. Taken together, COMP deposition can be modulated in cartilage matrix production by the addition of growth factors or by overexpression of COMP. Inducing COMP protein expression resulted in collagen fibrils with a smaller diameter. Because it has been demonstrated that the collagen fibril diameter is associated with mechanical functioning of the matrix, modulating COMP levels should be taken into account in cartilage regeneration strategies.

  8. A Src family kinase inhibitor improves survival in experimental acute liver failure associated with elevated cerebral and circulating VEGF levels

    PubMed Central

    Aspinall, Richard J.; Weis, Sara M.; Barnes, Leo; Lutu-Fuga, Kimberly; Bylund, David J.; Pockros, Paul J.; Cheresh, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Acute liver failure (ALF) is frequently complicated by cerebral edema, systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may stimulate liver regeneration but can also be pro-inflammatory, activating endothelial cells and increasing permeability, actions mediated through Src kinase signalling. We therefore examined whether a Src inhibitor could have therapeutic potential in ALF. Methods Murine ALF was induced with azoxymethane. Liver pathology was graded by a blinded examiner and apoptosis quantified by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral VEGF expression was imaged using VEGF-GFP transgenic mice. Circulating and macrophage-secreted VEGF levels were measured. Experimental animals received a Src inhibitor or vehicle controls. Results VEGF was undetectable in normal plasma but reached a mean of 835pg/ml at grade III encephalopathy (p<0.001). Ammonia, lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma acted synergistically to enhance VEGF secretion by macrophages. Production of VEGF by cerebral cortical astrocytes increased with disease progression. Late treatment with inhibitors of Src or VEGF did not improve liver histology, encephalopathy or survival. However, early use of a Src kinase inhibitor significantly reduced hepatic injury, delayed encephalopathy and allowed 25% of mice to survive an otherwise lethal insult. Conclusion Systemic and cerebral VEGF levels are significantly elevated during experimental ALF and may be exacerbated by hyperammonemia and macrophage activation. Early use of a Src inhibitor reduced hepatocellular injury and enabled survival, indicating such agents may have some promise in the treatment of ALF. PMID:21745297

  9. Elevated CO2 Levels do not Affect the Shell Structure of the Bivalve Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic

    PubMed Central

    Stemmer, Kristina; Nehrke, Gernot; Brey, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Shells of the bivalve Arctica islandica are used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions (e.g. temperature) via biogeochemical proxies, i.e. biogenic components that are related closely to environmental parameters at the time of shell formation. Several studies have shown that proxies like element and isotope-ratios can be affected by shell growth and microstructure. Thus it is essential to evaluate the impact of changing environmental parameters such as high pCO2 and consequent changes in carbonate chemistry on shell properties to validate these biogeochemical proxies for a wider range of environmental conditions. Growth experiments with Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic Sea kept under different pCO2 levels (from 380 to 1120 µatm) indicate no affect of elevated pCO2 on shell growth or crystal microstructure, indicating that A. islandica shows an adaptation to a wider range of pCO2 levels than reported for other species. Accordingly, proxy information derived from A. islandica shells of this region contains no pCO2 related bias. PMID:23922922

  10. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  11. Potential risk effect from elevated levels of soil heavy metals on human health in the Niger delta.

    PubMed

    Olawoyin, Richard; Oyewole, Samuel A; Grayson, Robert L

    2012-11-01

    An analysis of the soil quality in the Niger Delta Area (NDA) was carried out to determine the severity of soil contamination. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) risk assessment model was used in determining the potential health risk due to lifetime exposure (by means of ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation) of the population to heavy metal contents in the soil. Substantial levels of contamination were found indicating elevated levels of heavy metals above background concentrations from controlled samples in the areas. Median topsoil metal concentrations (0-15cm) in the NDA measured in mg/kg were: Zn 58.3±37.0, Cd 1.3±1.0, Cr(VI) 13.2±5.5, Cu 28.3±31.5, Pb 895.1±423.9, Ni 42.7±20.3, Mn 201.8±77.5 and Fe 1303.5±2028.6. Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr(VI), Fe and Mn exceeded some guideline and standard values; while the comprehensive levels of total metals contamination exceeded the environmental action level for soils, which could potentially affect human health. The collective total risk (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for minors and adults were established from the model using the slope factors and reference dose of the compounds respectively. The study has shown that soil contamination in the industrial and residential regions are similarly significant; while the risk assessment proved that based on the pollutants concentration in the soil, metals with the highest cancer risk values (Pb=2.62E-02 and Cr(VI)=1.52E-02) have the potential of affecting the health status of the residents, especially for children in the region. The chronic daily intake of the metals are of major concern as their cumulative effect could result to several health complications of children and adults in the region. PMID:22921257

  12. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-07-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with CO, ozone, aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m-3 (GEM), 20 pg m-3 (RGM) and 9 pg m-3 (HgP). We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 135 pg m-3. RGM enhancement events were unrelated to daytime/nighttime patterns and lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~ -0.1), but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM, but the mechanism remain unclear. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, we propose that in situ production of RGM may have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of some RGM prior to reaching the laboratory, and that GEM oxidation is an important tropospheric Hg sink. Our observations provide evidence that the tropospheric pool of mercury is frequently enriched in divalent mercury and that high RGM levels are not limited to the upper troposphere.

  13. Thyrotropin and obesity: increased adipose triglyceride content through glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Dongqing; Gao, Ling; Li, Yujie; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyrotropin (TSH) is positively correlated with the severity of obesity. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that TSH promoted triglyceride (TG) synthesis in differentiated adipocytes in a thyroid hormone-independent manner. Mice with subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a 35% increase in the total white adipose mass compared with their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, which had normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, resisted high-fat diet-induced obesity. TSH could directly induce the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 3 (GPAT3), the rate-limiting enzyme in TG synthesis, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, following either the knockdown of Tshr and PPAR? or the constitutive activation of AMPK, the changes to TSH-triggered GPAT3 activity and adipogenesis disappeared. The over-expression of PPAR? or the expression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant reversed the TSH-induced changes. Thus, TSH acted as a previously unrecognized master regulator of adipogenesis, indicating that modification of the AMPK/PPAR?/GPAT3 axis via the TSH receptor might serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:25559747

  14. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  15. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  20. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-10-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m-3 (GEM), 20 pg m-3 (RGM) and 9 pg m-3 (HgP). We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 137 pg m-3. RGM enhancement events lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days showing both enriched level during daytime and nighttime when other tracers (e.g., aerosols) showed different representations of boundary layer air and free tropospheric air. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~-0.1), but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM. High RGM levels were not limited to upper tropospheric or stratospherically influenced air masses, indicating that entrainment processes and deep vertical mixing of free tropospheric air enriched in RGM may lead to high RGM levels throughout the troposphere and into the boundary layer over the Western United States. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, atmospheric production of RGM may also have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of RGM prior to reaching the laboratory. Our observations provide evidence that the tropospheric pool of mercury is frequently enriched in divalent mercury, that high RGM levels are not limited to upper tropospheric air masses, but that the build-up of high RGM in the troposphere is limited to the presence of dry air.

  1. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia) [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia) [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ?15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI ?0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=?0.003, 95% CI ?0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ?15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood and paint. • Regressions gave significance for isotopic measures of blood/dust and dust/soil.

  2. Increased synthesis rate of fibrinogen as a basis for its elevated plasma levels in obese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Balagopal, Prabhakaran; Sweeten, Shawn; Mauras, Nelly

    2002-04-01

    Increased concentrations of plasma fibrinogen, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), in obese children have been reported. The underlying mechanism for this, however, remains to be defined. In the current study, we measured the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of plasma fibrinogen in six healthy postpubertal obese girls [body mass index (BMI) 36.6 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2); age 16.6 +/- 0.5 yr] and six age-matched lean normal control girls (BMI 20.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2); age 16.4 +/- 0.4 yr) during a primed, continuous infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine in the postabsorptive state. The method involved purification of plasma fibrinogen by use of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by measurement of [(13)C]leucine enrichment using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The FSR of fibrinogen in obese girls (35.06 +/- 2.61%/day) was almost double that in lean girls (17.02 +/- 1.43%/day), and this increase was associated with a relative increase in plasma concentration of fibrinogen as well as BMI in the subjects studied. Obese subjects had high fasting insulin levels (138 +/- 47 pmol/l) compared with lean subjects (54 +/- 11 pmol/l), whereas their glucose concentrations were similar (4.5 +/- 0.3 mmol/l in obese and 4.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/l in lean subjects), suggesting insulin resistance. The doubling of the FSR of fibrinogen provides novel insight into the mechanism of elevated levels of plasma fibrinogen and suggests a primary role for increased synthesis in producing the hyperfibrinogenemia associated with obesity. This finding may have important implications in the design of therapies for modulating plasma fibrinogen levels in obesity and/or CVD in childhood. PMID:11882510

  3. Elevated temperature annealing of the neutron induced reverse current and corresponding defect levels in low and high resistivity silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, V.; Ivanov, A.; Verbitskaya, E. [Academy of Sciences of Russia, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute] [Academy of Sciences of Russia, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute; Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A new aspect of degradation phenomena of neutron irradiated silicon detectors has been revealed which consists in the significant influence of carbon related defect transformation on the detector reverse current (I{sub rev}). The annealing of the reverse current at elevated temperatures and the corresponding changes of the deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra of defects for fast neutron irradiated silicon detectors, fabricated on high (4--6) k{Omega}-cm, moderate (0.5--1.0 k{Omega}-cm) and low (<100 {Omega}-cm) resistivity silicon material have been investigated. For all resistivity silicon detectors studied in this work, three annealing stages of the defects with deep levels in the energy band gap have been observed: (1) the transformation of carbon related defects in the temperature range of 20--72 C; (2) decrease of the peak E{sub c}{minus}0.4 eV at 150 C, and (3) complete annealing of the peak e{sub c}{minus}0.4 eV at 350 C. The transformations of carbon related defects consisted in the annealing of interstitial carbon (C{sub i}) and simultaneous generation of C{sub i}-O{sub i} complex and was accompanied by a significant reduction of the reverse current. The decrease of the peak E{sub c} {minus} 0.4 eV was observed in the temperature range of 72--350 C and was affected by both the annealing of the E-center (V-P complex) and single minus charge state of divacancy (VV) and by the changes in the filling of the deep levels in high or moderate resistivity Si. The results show the comparable role of the V-P complex and VV-center in formation of E{sub c} {minus} 0.4 eV defect in high and moderate resistivity silicon.

  4. Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Yield and Fruit Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) at Two Levels of Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Mantri, Nitin; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Sun, Dan; Zhu, Yueqing; Dong, Tingting; Lu, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if elevated CO2 could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on fruit yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Toyonoka) at different levels of nitrogen and also tested the combined effects of CO2, temperature and nitrogen on fruit quality of plants cultivated in controlled growth chambers. Results show that elevated CO2 and high temperature caused a further 12% and 35% decrease in fruit yield at low and high nitrogen, respectively. The fewer inflorescences and smaller umbel size during flower induction caused the reduction of fruit yield at elevated CO2 and high temperature. Interestingly, nitrogen application has no beneficial effect on fruit yield, and this may be because of decreased sucrose export to the shoot apical meristem at floral transition. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the levels of dry matter-content, fructose, glucose, total sugar and sweetness index per dry matter, but decreased fruit nitrogen content, total antioxidant capacity and all antioxidant compounds per dry matter in strawberry fruit. The reduction of fruit nitrogen content and antioxidant activity was mainly caused by the dilution effect of accumulated non-structural carbohydrates sourced from the increased net photosynthetic rate at elevated CO2. Thus, the quality of strawberry fruit would increase because of the increased sweetness and the similar amount of fruit nitrogen content, antioxidant activity per fresh matter at elevated CO2. Overall, we found that elevated CO2 improved the production of strawberry (including yield and quality) at low temperature, but decreased it at high temperature. The dramatic fluctuation in strawberry yield between low and high temperature at elevated CO2 implies that more attention should be paid to the process of flower induction under climate change, especially in fruits that require winter chilling for reproductive growth. PMID:22911728

  5. Elevated serum levels of T3 without metabolic effect in nutritionally deficient rats, attributable to reduced cellular uptake of T3

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; DiStefano, J.J.

    1981-08-01

    Rats receiving a nutritionally deficient diet displayed markedly elevated serum free T3 levels but showed no increase in oxygen consumption. This was associated with greatly reduced ratios of hepatic cellular and nuclear /sub 125/I-T3 to serum /sub 125/I-T3. Kinetic data supported the conclusion that cellular uptake of T3 was decreased in the nutritionally deficient rats. The lack of metabolic effect, despite the elevated serum T3 levels, is attributable to reduced availability of serum T3 to tissue nuclear receptor sites.

  6. Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Relates to Increased Cerebral Myoinositol Levels in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eagan, Danielle E.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Stautberg, Sandra; Haley, Andreana P.

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a systemic marker of inflammation, is a risk factor for late life cognitive impairment and dementia, yet the mechanisms that link elevated CRP to cognitive decline are not fully understood. In this study we examined the relationship between CRP and markers of neuronal integrity and cerebral metabolism in middle-aged adults with intact cognitive function, using proton magnetic resonance spectrocospy. We hypothesized that increased levels of circulating CRP would correlate with changes in brain metabolites indicative of early brain vulnerability. Thirty-six individuals, aged 40 to 60, underwent neuropsychological assessment, a blood draw for CRP quantification, and 1H MRS examining N-acetyl-aspartate, myo-inositol, creatine, choline, and glutamate concentrations in occipito-parietal grey matter. Independent of age, sex and education, serum CRP was significantly related to higher cerebral myo-inositol/creatine ratio (F(4,31) = 4.74, P = 0.004), a relationship which remained unchanged after adjustment for cardiovascular risk (F(5,30) = 4.356, CRP ? = 0.322, P = 0.045). Because these biomarkers are detectable in midlife they may serve as useful indicators of brain vulnerability during the preclinical period when mitigating intervention is still possible. PMID:22461977

  7. The 11C Project:Measurement of Root Exudation at Elevated CO2 Levels in Low and High Nutrient Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leandre, Verida; Howell, Calvin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the plant kingdom's mechanisms of resource management in variable environments is integral to predicting how plants will respond to an increase in atmospheric CO2 . The goal of this study is to determine the effects of changing nutrient conditions on the root exudation of barley plants at elevated CO2 levels. The 11 C group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) tags various species of plants with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes in order to analyze metabolite transport in response to changes in the environment. 11 C is produced at TUNL using a tandem Van de Graaff particle accelerator, then transported from TUNL to the Duke Univ. Phytotron (100m) where plants are labeled with 11 C in a growth chamber. The chamber allows researchers to control the light intensity, air temperature, humidity and concentration of CO2 in the air. The plant absorbs 11 CO2 in a leaf that is placed inside a cuvette through which radioactive 11 CO2 gas flows. The sugars in the labeling leaf are tagged with 11 C and translocated throughout the plant similar to 12 C. Scintillation detectors are used to track the tagged sugars as they are translocated through the plant and exudated from the root into the nutrient solution or 11 CO2 gas is respired by the root. The labeling system, detector arrangement, electronics and data analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  8. Pomegranate Juice Protects Macrophages from Triglyceride Accumulation: Inhibitory Effect on DGAT1 Activity and on Triglyceride Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Rosenblat; Michael Aviram

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: To analyze the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) and punicalagin on macrophage triglyceride metabolism. Methods: Triglyceride metabolism was analyzed in PJ- or punicalagin-treated J774A.1 macrophages or in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) harvested from C57BL\\/6 mice or from paraoxonase 2 (PON2)-deficient mice. Results: PJ (0–50 ?M) significantly and dose-dependently decreased the triglyceride content and triglyceride biosynthesis rate in J774A.1 macrophages

  9. Rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation impact plant and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 on a Chesapeake Bay wetland: review of a 28-year study.

    PubMed

    Drake, Bert G

    2014-11-01

    An ongoing field study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on a brackish wetland on Chesapeake Bay, started in 1987, is unique as the longest continually running investigation of the effects of elevated CO2 on an ecosystem. Since the beginning of the study, atmospheric CO2 increased 18%, sea level rose 20 cm, and growing season temperature varied with approximately the same range as predicted for global warming in the 21st century. This review looks back at this study for clues about how the effects of rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation interact with high atmospheric CO2 to alter the physiology of C3 and C4 photosynthetic species, carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration, plant and ecosystem nitrogen, and distribution of plant communities in this brackish wetland. Rising sea level caused a shift to higher elevations in the Scirpus olneyi C3 populations on the wetland, displacing the Spartina patens C4 populations. Elevated CO2 stimulated carbon assimilation in the Scirpus C3 species measured by increased shoot and root density and biomass, net ecosystem production, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, and methane production. But elevated CO2 also decreased biomass of the grass, S. patens C4. The elevated CO2 treatment reduced tissue nitrogen concentration in shoots, roots, and total canopy nitrogen, which was associated with reduced ecosystem respiration. Net ecosystem production was mediated by precipitation through soil salinity: high salinity reduced the CO2 effect on net ecosystem production, which was zero in years of severe drought. The elevated CO2 stimulation of shoot density in the Scirpus C3 species was sustained throughout the 28 years of the study. Results from this study suggest that rising CO2 can add substantial amounts of carbon to ecosystems through stimulation of carbon assimilation, increased root exudates to supply nitrogen fixation, reduced dark respiration, and improved water and nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24820033

  10. Somatic mutations throughout the entire mitochondrial genome are associated with elevated PSA levels in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Schäfer, Georg; Erhart, Gertraud; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Coassin, Stefan; Seifarth, Christof; Summerer, Monika; Bektic, Jasmin; Klocker, Helmut; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-12-10

    The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:21129724

  11. Elevation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 level in Pallister-Killian syndrome: Implications for the postnatal growth retardation phenotype.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kosuke; Kellogg, Emily; Fujiki, Katsunori; Kaur, Maninder; Tilton, Richard K; Noon, Sarah; Wilkens, Alisha; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a multi-system developmental disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. Probands with PKS often demonstrate a unique growth profile consisting of macrosomia at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. We have previously demonstrated that cultured skin fibroblasts from PKS probands have significantly elevated expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2). To further evaluate the role of IGFBP2 in PKS, the amount of IGFBP2 secreted from cultured skin fibroblast cell lines and serum IGFBP2 levels were measured in probands with PKS. Approximately 60% of PKS fibroblast cell lines secreted higher levels of IGFBP2 compared to control fibroblasts, although the remaining 40% of PKS samples produced comparable level of IGFBP2 to that of control fibroblasts. Serum IGFBP2 levels were also measured in PKS probands and were elevated in 40% of PKS probands. PKS probands with elevated IGFBP2 manifested with severe postnatal growth retardation. IGFBPs are the family of related proteins that bind IGFs with high affinity and are typically thought to attenuate IGF action. We suggest that elevated IGFBP2 levels might play a role in the growth retardation phenotype of PKS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25900123

  12. Prognostic effect of amenorrhoea and elevated serum gonadotropin levels induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal node-positive breast cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Poikonen; T Saarto; I Elomaa; H Joensuu; C Blomqvist

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation between prognosis and chemotherapy induced amenorrhoea or elevated gonadotropin levels in node-positive breast cancer patients. Since we have previously found a better prognosis in patients with more profound leucopenia induced by adjuvant chemotherapy, we examined whether this effect was mediated through more efficient induction of amenorrhoea. The study population consisted

  13. Elevated levels of ferrimagnetic metals in foodchains supporting the Guam cluster of neurodegeneration: Do metal nucleated crystal contaminents evoke magnetic fields that initiate theprogressivepathogenesisofneurodegeneration?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Purdey

    Summary Elevated levels of aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) cations - combined with deficiencies of magnesium (Mg)\\/calcium (Ca) - have been observed in the foodchains that traditionally support the Chamorro populations affected by high incidence clusters of Alzheimer (AD), Parkinson-like (PD), motor neurone diseases and multiple sclerosis on the island of Guam. Soils drawn from

  14. Elevated Levels of Circulating DNA and Chromatin Are Independently Associated with Severe Coronary Atherosclerosis and a Prothrombotic State

    PubMed Central

    Versteylen, Mathijs O.; Brill, Alexander; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Savchenko, Alexander S.; Gallant, Maureen; Martinod, Kimberly; ten Cate, Hugo; Hofstra, Leonard; Crijns, Harry J.; Wagner, Denisa D.; Kietselaer, Bas L.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Aberrant neutrophil activation occurs during the advanced stages of atherosclerosis. Once primed, neutrophils can undergo apoptosis or release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). This extracellular DNA exerts potent pro-inflammatory, prothrombotic and cytotoxic properties. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between extracellular DNA formation, coronary atherosclerosis and the presence of a prothrombotic state. APPROACH AND RESULTS In a prospective, observational, cross-sectional cohort of 282 individuals with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), we examined the severity, extent, and phenotype of coronary atherosclerosis by using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Double-stranded DNA, nucleosomes, citrullinated histone H4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes, considered in vivo markers of cell death and NETosis, respectively, were established. We further measured various plasma markers of coagulation activation and inflammation. Plasma double-stranded DNA, nucleosomes and MPO-DNA complexes were positively associated with thrombin generation and significantly elevated in patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis or extremely calcified coronary arteries. Multinomial regression analysis, adjusted for confounding factors, identified high plasma nucleosome levels as an independent risk factor of severe coronary stenosis (OR: 2.14, 95% CI 1.26-3.63; p=0.005). Markers of NETs, such as MPO-DNA complexes, predicted the number of atherosclerotic coronary vessels and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. CONCLUSIONS Our report provides evidence demonstrating that markers of cell death and NET formation are independently associated with CAD, prothrombotic state and occurrence of adverse cardiac events. These biomarkers could potentially aid in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with chest discomfort. PMID:23818485

  15. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoou; Wang, Tao; Yang, Ting; Shen, Yongchun; An, Jing; Liu, Lian; Dong, Jiajia; Guo, Lingli; Li, Diandian; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a 50 kD small secreting glycoprotein that participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have reported that PEDF plays an important role in inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, the role of PEDF in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. Objective The aim of the present study is to explore the potential relationship between PEDF and COPD. Methods We used differential proteomics – stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture – to investigate protein expression profile changes in cigarette smoke extract-treated pulmonary cells and found that the neurotrophic and antiangiogenic protein PEDF was abnormally expressed. Furthermore, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PEDF in the lung tissue of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighty subjects between the ages of 40–90 years, including 20 healthy nonsmokers, ten smoking volunteers, and 50 COPD patients, were recruited from September 2012 until August 2013 in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We measured the plasma PEDF concentration and classic proinflammatory cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we performed a spirometry examination to diagnose COPD patients and we also analyzed the correlation between PEDF and lung function. Results First, we found that the expression of PEDF in cigarette smoke extract-treated cells increased 16.2-fold when compared with the control group. Next, we confirmed that 4 weeks’ exposure to cigarette smoke can upregulate PEDF levels in rat lung tissues. We also discovered that plasma PEDF in COPD patients was significantly increased when compared with either healthy nonsmoking or smoking subjects. Furthermore, circulating PEDF was correlated with inflammatory cytokine and blood neutrophil numbers, but it was reversely associated with a decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted. Conclusion Our findings provide a novel link between PEDF and COPD. Elevated PEDF levels may be involved in promoting the development of COPD by performing proinflamma-tory functions. PMID:25844034

  16. Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D.R. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment; Pregitzer, K.S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-05-15

    Our ability to interpret ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} is contingent on understanding and integrating a complex of physiological and ecological processes. However, we have a limited understanding of the combined effects of changes in plant carbon (C) allocation, microbial activity, and nitrogen (N) dynamics on the long-term response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2}. Individually, these factors are potent modifiers of C and N dynamics, and an in depth understanding of their interactions should provide insight into ecosystem-level responses to global climate change. Our research is aimed at quantifying the physiological mechanisms leading to increased fine root production, microbial biomass and rates of N cycling at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. More specifically, we will experimentally manipulate soil nitrogen availability and atmospheric CO{sub 2} to understand how changes in plant resource availability influence the cycling of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms.

  17. Genotype-specific responses of Bromus erectus to elevated CO{sub 2} at different levels of biodiversity and endophyte infection - a field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steinger, T.; Groppe, K.; Schmid, B. [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)]|[Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-06-01

    In 1994 we initiated a long-term field experiment in a calcareous grassland to study the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on individuals, populations, and communities. Clonal replicates of 54 genotypes of the dominant grass Bromus erectus were grown in communities planted at three levels of biodiversity (5-, 12-, 31-species plots) and exposed to ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. The same genotypes were also individually grown in tubes within the field plots. Some genotypes were infected by the endophytic fungus Epichloee typhina. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no significant effects on plant growth, however, there was large variation among genotypes in all measured characters. A significant CO{sub 2}-by-genotype interaction was found for leaf length in the competition-free tubes. Infection by the endophyte led to the abortion of all inflorescences but increased vegetative growth, especially under competitive conditions.

  18. Relationship of Left Atrial Global Peak Systolic Strain with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level in Patients Presenting with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    De?irmenci, Hüsnü; Bak?rc?, Eftal Murat; Demirta?, Levent; Duman, Hakan; Hamur, Hikmet; Ceyhun, Gökhan; Topal, Ergün

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, we investigated the relationship of left atrial deformational parameters evaluated by 2-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) with conventional echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction parameters and brain natriuretic peptide level. Material/Methods We enrolled 74 non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients who were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and 58 healthy control subjects. Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients had echocardiographic examination 48 h after the percutaneous coronary intervention procedure and venous blood samples were drawn simultaneously. In addition to conventional echocardiographic parameters, left atrial strain curves were obtained for each patient. Average peak left atrial strain values during left ventricular systole were measured. Results BNP values were higher in non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients compared to controls. Mean left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain in Group 2 (the control group) was higher than in the non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction group. Left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain was significantly correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. There was a significant inverse correlation between left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain and brain natriuretic peptide level, left atrium volume maximum, and left atrium volume minimum. Conclusions Our study shows that Left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain values decreased consistently with deteriorating systolic and diastolic function in non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain measurements may be helpful as a complimentary method to evaluate diastolic function in this patient population. PMID:25338184

  19. Comparative gene identification-58/?/? hydrolase domain 5: more than just an adipose triglyceride lipase activator?

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, Kathrin A.; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that controls intracellular triglyceride levels by its ability to activate adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Additionally, CGI-58 was described to exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase (LPAAT) activity. This review focuses on the significance of CGI-58 in energy metabolism in adipose and nonadipose tissue. Recent findings Recent studies with transgenic and CGI-58-deficient mouse strains underscored the importance of CGI-58 as a regulator of intracellular energy homeostasis by modulating ATGL-driven triglyceride hydrolysis. In accordance with this function, mice and humans that lack CGI-58 accumulate triglyceride in multiple tissues. Additionally, CGI-58-deficient mice develop an ATGL-independent severe skin barrier defect and die soon after birth. Although the premature death prevented a phenotypical characterization of adult global CGI-58 knockout mice, the characterization of mice with tissue-specific CGI-58 deficiency revealed new insights into its role in neutral lipid and energy metabolism. Concerning the ATGL-independent function of CGI-58, a recently identified LPAAT activity for CGI-58 was shown to be involved in the generation of signaling molecules regulating inflammatory processes and insulin action. Summary Although the function of CGI-58 in the catabolism of cellular triglyceride depots via ATGL is well established, further studies are required to consolidate the function of CGI-58 as LPAAT and to clarify the involvement of CGI-58 in the metabolism of skin lipids. PMID:24565921

  20. Combination therapy of an intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in combination of JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, and pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, JTT-130 treatment group, pioglitazone treatment group, and combination group. The Zucker diabetic fatty rats were fed a regular powdered diet with JTT-130 and/or pioglitazone as a food admixture for 6 weeks. Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were compared mainly between JTT-130 treatment group and combination group. JTT-130 treatment showed good glycemic control, while the plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in combination group were significantly decreased as compared with those JTT-130 treatment group. The reduction in the plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in combination group was higher than that in JTT-130 treatment group, and glucose utilization was significantly elevated in adipose tissues. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, combination treatment of JTT-130 and pioglitazone showed better glycemic control and a strong hypolipidemic action with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy of MTP inhibitor and PPAR ? agonist might be more useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes accompanied with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:24772450

  1. Multiple functions of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) was first identified as a major cellular protein capable of transferring neutral lipids between membrane vesicles. Its role as an essential chaperone for the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was established after the realization that abetalipoproteinemia patients carry mutations in the MTTP gene resulting in the loss of its lipid transfer activity. Now it is known that it also plays a role in the biosynthesis of CD1, glycolipid presenting molecules, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol ester biosynthesis. In this review, we will provide a historical perspective about the identification, purification and characterization of MTP, describe methods used to measure its lipid transfer activity, and discuss tissue expression and function. Finally, we will review the role MTP plays in the assembly of apoB-lipoprotein, the regulation of cholesterol ester synthesis, biosynthesis of CD1 proteins and propagation of hepatitis C virus. We will also provide a brief overview about the clinical potentials of MTP inhibition. PMID:22353470

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~ 50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPAR? agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

  3. Adipose triglyceride lipase is involved in the mobilization of triglyceride and retinoid stores of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Taschler, Ulrike; Schreiber, Renate; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Grabner, Gernot F; Romauch, Matthias; Wolinski, Heimo; Haemmerle, Guenter; Breinbauer, Rolf; Zechner, Rudolf; Lass, Achim; Zimmermann, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) store triglycerides (TGs) and retinyl ester (RE) in cytosolic lipid droplets. RE stores are degraded following retinoid starvation or in response to pathogenic stimuli resulting in HSC activation. At present, the major enzymes catalyzing lipid degradation in HSCs are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is involved in RE catabolism of HSCs. Additionally, we compared the effects of ATGL deficiency and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiency, a known RE hydrolase (REH), on RE stores in liver and adipose tissue. We show that ATGL degrades RE even in the presence of TGs, implicating that these substrates compete for ATGL binding. REH activity was stimulated and inhibited by comparative gene identification-58 and G0/G1 switch gene-2, respectively, the physiological regulators of ATGL activity. In cultured primary murine HSCs, pharmacological inhibition of ATGL, but not HSL, increased RE accumulation. In mice globally lacking ATGL or HSL, RE contents in white adipose tissue were decreased or increased, respectively, while plasma retinol and liver RE levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our study shows that ATGL acts as REH in HSCs promoting the degradation of RE stores in addition to its established function as TG lipase. HSL is the predominant REH in adipocytes but does not affect lipid mobilization in HSCs. PMID:25732851

  4. Increased circulating Th17 cells and elevated serum levels of TGF-beta and IL-21 are correlated with human non-segmental vitiligo development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Shi, Yu-Ling; Li, Kai; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Gao, Tian-Wen; Huggins, Richard H; Lim, Henry W; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Although non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) results from the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, the detailed immune mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been identified to be implicated in human autoimmune diseases. In this study, the frequencies of peripheral blood Th17 cells and serum levels of IL-17A and Th17 cell-related cytokines were examined in 45 patients with active NSV compared to 45 race-, gender-, and age-matched healthy controls. Our results showed increased circulating Th17 cell frequencies and elevated serum IL-17A, TGF-?1, and IL-21 levels in patients with NSV. Meanwhile, the increased Th17 cell frequencies are positively correlated with serum TGF-?1 level, and the body surface area of lesions is positively correlated with elevated TGF-?1 and IL-21 levels and Th17 cell frequencies. Furthermore, positive correlation was identified between Th17 and Th1 cell frequencies in patients with NSV. These results further indicate the potential involvement of Th17 cells and the collaborative contribution of Th17 and Th1 in NSV development, and suggest that the elevated serum TGF-?1 and IL-21 levels could contribute to enhanced Th17 cell differentiation in NSV. PMID:25604047

  5. ELEVATED LEVELS OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN (HSP70-1) PROTECT MCF-7 CELLS FROM ARSENITE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) belong to the highly conserved family of stress proteins and are induced following exposure to arsenic. Elevated HSPs protect against cellular damage from heat but it is unclear whether HSP induction alters the damaging effects of environmental chemical...

  6. Effects of aphid herbivory on biomass and leaf-level physiology of Solanum dulcamara under elevated temperature and CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan F. B. Flynn; Erika A. Sudderth; F. A. Bazzaz

    2006-01-01

    Forecasted increases in atmospheric CO2 and global mean temperature are likely to influence insect–plant interactions. Plant traits important to insect herbivores, such as nitrogen content, may be directly affected by elevated CO2 and temperature, while insect herbivores are likely to be directly affected only by temperature. This study investigates changes in the effects of herbivory by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae

  7. Effects of isotretinoin on the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and on the lipid profile in patients with acne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Ângelo De Marchi; Raul C. Maranhão; Laura Inês V. Brandizzi; Dorotéia R. S. Souza

    2006-01-01

    Isotretinoin treatment alters the plasma lipid levels but the mechanisms and the effects on the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins remain unclear. We investigated the effect of isotretinoin on the plasma kinetics of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and the lipid profile. Ten patients with acne were treated with 0.8 mg\\/kg of isotretinoin over 4 weeks for

  8. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

    1964-01-01

    Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

  9. Triglyceride composition of native and rearranged butter and coconut oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kuksis; M. J. Mccarthy; J. M. R. Beveridge

    1964-01-01

    Triglyceride gas chromatography was used for quantitative fractionation by carbon number of native and rearranged butter and\\u000a coconut oils. Significant differences in the triglyceride type distributions between the corresponding native and chemically\\u000a modified fats were found. Increased proportions of both short and long chain triglycerides occurred in the rearranged butterfat.\\u000a In reconstituted coconut oil there was a shift towards the

  10. Increased Accumulation of Carbohydrates and Decreased Photosynthetic Gene Transcript Levels in Wheat Grown at an Elevated CO2 Concentration in the Field.

    PubMed Central

    Nie, G.; Hendrix, D. L.; Webber, A. N.; Kimball, B. A.; Long, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    Repression of photosynthetic genes by increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations may explain acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 concentration. This hypothesis was examined in a field crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown at both ambient (approximately 360 [mu]mol mol-1) and elevated (550 [mu]mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentrations using free-air CO2 enrichment at Maricopa, Arizona. The correspondence of steady-state levels of mRNA transcripts (coding for the 83-kD photosystem I apoprotein, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, phosphoribulokinase, phosphoglycerokinase, and the large and small subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) with leaf carbohydrate concentrations (glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, fructose, sucrose, fructans, and starch) was examined at different stages of crop and leaf development and through the diurnal cycle. Overall only a weak correspondence between increased soluble carbohydrate concentrations and decreased levels for nuclear gene transcripts was found. The difference in soluble carbohydrate concentration between leaves grown at elevated and current ambient CO2 concentrations diminished with crop development, whereas the difference in transcript levels increased. In the flag leaf, soluble carbohydrate concentrations declined markedly with the onset of grain filling; yet transcript levels also declined. The results suggest that, whereas the hypothesis may hold well in model laboratory systems, many other factors modified its significance in this field wheat crop. PMID:12228521

  11. Bioconversion of Xylan to Triglycerides by Oil-Rich Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Ray; Phelps, Patricia; Spindler, Diane

    1984-01-01

    A series of lipid-accumulating yeasts was examined for their potential to saccharify xylan and accumulate triglyceride. Of the genera tested, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Trichosporon, only Cryptococcus and Trichosporon isolates saccharified xylan. All of the strains could assimilate xylose and accumuate triglyceride under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were found to be especially useful for a one-step saccharification of xylan coupled to triglyceride synthesis. Cryptococcus terricolus, a strain constitutive for lipid accumulation, lacked extracellular xylanase, but did assimilate xylose and xylobiose and was able to continuously convert xylan to triglyceride if the culture medium was supplemented with xylanase. PMID:16346541

  12. Elevated Plasma Levels of C3a Complement Compound in the Exudative Form of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violetta Dziedziejko; Katarzyna Mozolewska-Piotrowska; Danuta Karczewicz; Barbara Wiszniewska

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Recent findings suggest that chronic inflammatory processes play a role in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here we asked whether the development of different forms of AMD is connected with the elevation of plasma C3a-desArg concentration. Methods: We recruited 30 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of exudative AMD with newly diagnosed choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 30 subjects with

  13. Elevated Levels of Acute-Phase Proteins and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor1 Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Festa; Ralph D'Agostino; Russell P. Tracy; Steven M. Haffner

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of acute-phase proteins, indicat- ing chronic subclinical inflammation, have been associ- ated with cardiovascular disease as well as the insulin resistance syndrome. Chronic inflammation may also be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. We studied the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrin- ogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 1,047 nondiabetic subjects in relation to

  14. Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified. PMID:25300978

  15. Triglyceride-Increasing Alleles Associated with Protection against Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Chougule, Akshay; Arora, Amit; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2D, and the interaction of baseline TG with TG genetic risk on incident T2D in 13,247 European-Americans (EA) and 3,238 African-Americans (AA) from three prospective cohort studies. A TG genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 31 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We considered several baseline covariates, including body- mass index (BMI) and lipid traits. Among EA and AA, we find, as expected, that baseline levels of TG are strongly positively associated with incident T2D (p<2 x 10-10). However, the TG GRS is negatively associated with T2D (p=0.013), upon adjusting for only race, in the full dataset. Upon additionally adjusting for age, sex, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and TG, the TG GRS is significantly and negatively associated with T2D incidence (p=7.0 x 10-8), with similar trends among both EA and AA. No single SNP appears to be driving this association. We also find a significant statistical interaction of the TG GRS with TG (pinteraction=3.3 x 10-4), whereby the association of TG with incident T2D is strongest among those with low genetic risk for TG. Further research is needed to understand the likely pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these findings, and to clarify the causal relationship between T2D and TG. PMID:26020539

  16. Enhanced acetyl-CoA production is associated with increased triglyceride accumulation in the green alga Chlorella desiccata.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Omri; Brandis, Alexander; Rogachev, Ilana; Pick, Uri

    2015-07-01

    Triglycerides (TAGs) from microalgae can be utilized as food supplements and for biodiesel production, but little is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis. This work aimed to test the relationship between acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) levels and TAG biosynthesis in green algae under nitrogen deprivation. A novel, highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique enabled us to determine the levels of Ac-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and unacetylated (free) CoA in green microalgae. A comparative study of three algal species that differ in TAG accumulation levels shows that during N starvation, Ac-CoA levels rapidly rise, preceding TAG accumulation in all tested species. The levels of Ac-CoA in the high TAG accumulator Chlorella desiccata exceed the levels in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Similarly, malonyl-CoA and free CoA levels also increase, but to lower extents. Calculated cellular concentrations of Ac-CoA are far lower than reported K mAc-CoA values of plastidic Ac-CoA carboxylase (ptACCase) in plants. Transcript level analysis of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH), the major chloroplastic Ac-CoA producer, revealed rapid induction in parallel with Ac-CoA accumulation in C. desiccata, but not in D. tertiolecta or C. reinhardtii. It is proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG levels in green algae critically depends on their ability to divert carbon flow towards Ac-CoA. This requires elevation of the chloroplastic CoA pool level and enhancement of Ac-CoA biosynthesis. These conclusions may have important implications for future genetic manipulation to enhance TAG biosynthesis in green algae. PMID:25922486

  17. Enhanced acetyl-CoA production is associated with increased triglyceride accumulation in the green alga Chlorella desiccata

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Omri; Brandis, Alexander; Rogachev, Ilana; Pick, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Triglycerides (TAGs) from microalgae can be utilized as food supplements and for biodiesel production, but little is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis. This work aimed to test the relationship between acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) levels and TAG biosynthesis in green algae under nitrogen deprivation. A novel, highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique enabled us to determine the levels of Ac-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and unacetylated (free) CoA in green microalgae. A comparative study of three algal species that differ in TAG accumulation levels shows that during N starvation, Ac-CoA levels rapidly rise, preceding TAG accumulation in all tested species. The levels of Ac-CoA in the high TAG accumulator Chlorella desiccata exceed the levels in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Similarly, malonyl-CoA and free CoA levels also increase, but to lower extents. Calculated cellular concentrations of Ac-CoA are far lower than reported K mAc-CoA values of plastidic Ac-CoA carboxylase (ptACCase) in plants. Transcript level analysis of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH), the major chloroplastic Ac-CoA producer, revealed rapid induction in parallel with Ac-CoA accumulation in C. desiccata, but not in D. tertiolecta or C. reinhardtii. It is proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG levels in green algae critically depends on their ability to divert carbon flow towards Ac-CoA. This requires elevation of the chloroplastic CoA pool level and enhancement of Ac-CoA biosynthesis. These conclusions may have important implications for future genetic manipulation to enhance TAG biosynthesis in green algae. PMID:25922486

  18. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is essential for hepatic secretion of apoB-100 and apoB-48 but not triglyceride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    To Yuen Hui; Lisa M. Olivier; Sohye Kang; Roger A. Davis

    Despite a complete lack of microsomal triglycer- ide transfer protein (MTP), L35 rat hepatoma cells secrete triglyceride-containing lipoproteins, albeit at a rate 25% of that of parental FAO hepatoma cells, which express high levels of MTP. The inability to express MTP was associated with a complete block in the secretion of both apolipopro- tein (apo)B-100 and apoB-48. Stable expression of

  19. Effects of Sustained Low-Level Elevations of Carbon Dioxide on Cerebral Blood Flow and Autoregulation of the Intracerebral Arteries in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwka, U.; Krasney, J. A.; Simon, S. G.; Schmidt, P.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) was measured by insonating the middle cerebral arteries of 4 subjects using a 2 Mhz transcranial Doppler. Ambient CO2 was elevated to 0.7% for 23 days in the first study and to 1.2% for 23 days in the same subjects in the second study. By non-parametric testing CBFv was elevated significantly by +35% above pre-exposure levels during the first 1-3 days at both exposure levels after which CBFv progressively readjusted to pre-exposure levels. Despite similar CBFv responses, headache was only reported during the initial phase of exposure to 1.2% CO2. Vascular reactivity to CO2 assessed by rebreathing showed a similar pattern with the CBFv increases early in the exposures being greater than those elicited later. An increase in metabolic rate of the visual cortex was evoked by having the subjects open and close their eyes during a visual stimulus. Evoked CBFv responses measured in the posterior cerebral artery were also elevated in the first 1-3 days of both studies returning to pre-exposure levels as hypercapnia continued. Cerebral vascular autoregulation assessed by raising head pressure during 10 deg head-down tilt both during the low-level exposures and during rebreathing was unaltered. There were no changes in the retinal microcirculation during serial fundoscopy studies. The time-dependent changes in CO2 vascular reactivity might be due either to retention of bicarbonate in brain extracellular fluid or to progressive increases in ventilation, or both. Cerebral vascular autoregulation appears preserved during chronic exposure to these levels of ambient CO2.

  20. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed. PMID:23314813

  1. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

  2. A Rare Cause of Fatty Liver and Elevated Aminotransferase Levels: Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Özdal; Alk?m, Canan; Onuk, Mehmet Derya; Demirsoy, Hüseyin; Argon, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder of neutral lipid storage characterized by ichthyosis, lipid vacuoles in leukocytes, and involvement of several internal organs, mostly the liver. Since the initial case was reported by Dorfman in 1974, nearly 50 cases have been reported, and the majority were from Middle East countries. Here, we report a 20-year-old patient with ichthyosis from Turkey, diagnosed as Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome presented with asypmtomatic elevated transaminases and hepatosteatosis, and also briefly review the updated clinical implications and management of this rarely seen syndrome. Prompt diagnosis of this syndrome avoids further unnecessary investigations in patients with ichthyosis PMID:21994851

  3. Stressful Dieting: Nutritional Conditions but Not Compensatory Growth Elevate Corticosterone Levels in Zebra Finch Nestlings and Fledglings

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Mariam; Goymann, Wolfgang; Naguib, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model species. As nestlings (day 0–17) or fledglings (day 17–35), subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding. PMID:20927394

  4. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels and Enhanced High Frequency Vasomotion in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease during Brachial Flow-Mediated Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shogo; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Takata, Munenori; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Nakao, Tomoko; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nagata, Kohzo; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The physiological role of vasomotion, rhythmic oscillations in vascular tone or diameter, and its underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the characteristics of brachial artery vasomotion in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods We performed a retrospective study of 37 patients with IHD. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and power spectral analysis of brachial artery diameter oscillations during FMD was performed. Frequency-domain components were calculated by integrating the power spectrums in three frequency bands (in ms2) using the MemCalc (GMS, Tokyo, Japan): very-low frequency (VLF), 0.003–0.04 Hz; low frequency (LF), 0.04–0.15 Hz; and high frequency (HF), 0.15–0.4 Hz. Total spectral power (TP) was calculated as the sum of all frequency bands, and each spectral component was normalized against TP. Results Data revealed that HF/TP closely correlated with FMD (r?=??0.33, p?=?0.04), whereas VLF/TP and LF/TP did not. We also explored the relationship between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and vasomotion. HF/TP was significantly increased in subjects with high CRP levels (CRP;>0.08 mg/dL) compared with subjects with low CRP levels (0.052±0.026 versus 0.035±0.022, p<0.05). The HF/TP value closely correlated with CRP (r?=?0.24, p?=?0.04), whereas the value of FMD did not (r?=?0.023, p?=?0.84). In addition, elevated CRP levels significantly increased the value of HF/TP after adjustment for FMD and blood pressure (??=?0.33, p<0.05). Conclusion The HF component of brachial artery diameter oscillation during FMD measurement correlated well with FMD and increased in the presence of elevated CRP levels in subjects with IHD. PMID:25299643

  5. Elevated Homocysteine Level and Folate Deficiency Associated with Increased Overall Risk of Carcinogenesis: Meta-Analysis of 83 Case-Control Studies Involving 35,758 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Results of the association of folate metabolism and carcinogenesis are conflicting. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the effect of the interaction of serum concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, and vitamin B12 and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism on risk of cancer overall. Method Two reviewers independently searched for all published studies of Hcy and cancer in PubMed, EMBASE-MEDLINE and Chinese databases. Pooled results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and 2-sided probability values. Results We identified 83 eligible studies of 15,046 cases and 20,712 controls. High level of Hcy but low level of folate was associated with risk of cancer overall, with little effect by type of cancer or ethnicity. Vitamin B12 level was inversely associated with only urinary-system and gastrointestinal carcinomas and for Asian and Middle Eastern patients. As well, MTHFR C677T, A1298C and G1793A polymorphisms were related to elevated serum level of Hcy, and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. However, only MTHFR C677T homogeneity/wild-type (TT/CC) polymorphism was positively associated with overall risk of cancer. Conclusion Elevated serum Hcy level and folate deficiency are associated with increased overall risk of cancer. PMID:25985325

  6. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Progress report, May 1991, DOE Grant DE-FG09-84ER60255

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of carbon dioxide on plants and on the insects feeding on these plants. Current progress is reported for the following experiments: Response of a Specialist-Feeding Insect Herbivore to Carbon Dioxide Induced Changes in Its Hostplant; Growth and Reproduction of Grasshoppers Feeding on a C{sub 4} Grass Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide; Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature Effects on Growth and Defense of Big Sagebrush; Sagebrush and Grasshopper Responses to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration; Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide; and Sagebrush Carbon Allocation Patterns and Grasshopper Nutrition: The Influence of Carbon Dioxide Enrichment and Soil Mineral Limitation.

  7. Source identification and budget analysis on elevated levels of formaldehyde within the ship plumes: a ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; von Glasow, R.; Brimblecombe, P.; Kim, J.; Park, R. J.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) along the ship corridors have been observed by satellite sensors, such as ESA/ERS-2 GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), and were also simulated by global 3-D chemistry-transport models. In this study, three likely sources of the elevated HCHO levels in the ship plumes as well as their contributions to the elevated HCHO levels (budget) were investigated using a newly-developed ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model: (1) primary HCHO emission from ships; (2) secondary HCHO production via the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted from ships; and (3) atmospheric oxidation of CH4 within the ship plumes. For this ship-plume modelling study, the ITCT 2K2 (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002) ship-plume experiment, which was carried out about 100 km off the coast of California on 8 May 2002 (11:00 local standard time), was chosen as a base study case because it is the best defined in terms of (1) meteorological data, (2) in-plume chemical composition, and (3) background chemical composition. From multiple ship-plume model simulations for the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume experiment case, CH4 oxidation by elevated levels of in-plume OH radicals was found to be the main factor responsible for the elevated levels of HCHO in the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume. More than ~88% of the HCHO for the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume is produced by this atmospheric chemical process, except in the areas close to the ship stacks where the main source of the elevated HCHO levels would be primary HCHO from the ships (due to the deactivation of CH4 oxidation from the depletion of in-plume OH radicals). Because of active CH4 oxidation by OH radicals, the instantaneous chemical lifetime of CH4 (?CH4) decreased to ~0.45 yr inside the ship plume, which is in contrast to ?CH4 of ~1.1 yr in the background (up to ~41% decrease) for the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume case. A variety of likely ship-plume situations at three different latitudinal locations within the global ship corridors was also studied to determine the enhancements in the HCHO levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) influenced by ship emissions. It was found that the ship-plume HCHO levels could be 19.9-424.9 pptv higher than the background HCHO levels depending on the latitudinal locations of the ship plumes (i.e., intensity of solar radiation and temperature), MBL stability and NOx emission rates. On the other hand, NMVOC emissions from ships were not found to be a primary source of photochemical HCHO production inside ship plumes due to their rapid and individual dilution. However, the diluted NMVOCs would contribute to the HCHO productions in the background air.

  8. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the effects of sub-ambient atmospheric oxygen and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Suhas; Behpouri, Ali; McElwain, Jennifer C; Ng, Carl K-Y

    2015-07-01

    It is widely accepted that atmospheric O2 has played a key role in the development of life on Earth, as evident from the coincidence between the rise of atmospheric O2 concentrations in the Precambrian and biological evolution. Additionally, it has also been suggested that low atmospheric O2 is one of the major drivers for at least two of the five mass-extinction events in the Phanerozoic. At the molecular level, our understanding of the responses of plants to sub-ambient O2 concentrations is largely confined to studies of the responses of underground organs, e.g. roots to hypoxic conditions. Oxygen deprivation often results in elevated CO2 levels, particularly under waterlogged conditions, due to slower gas diffusion in water compared to air. In this study, changes in the transcriptome of gametophytes of the moss Physcomitrella patens arising from exposure to sub-ambient O2 of 13% (oxygen deprivation) and elevated CO2 (1500 ppmV) were examined to further our understanding of the responses of lower plants to changes in atmospheric gaseous composition. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of a large number of genes was affected under elevated CO2 (814 genes) and sub-ambient O2 conditions (576 genes). Intriguingly, the expression of comparatively fewer numbers of genes (411 genes) was affected under a combination of both sub-ambient O2 and elevated CO2 condition (low O2-high CO2). Overall, the results point towards the effects of atmospheric changes in CO2 and O2 on transcriptional reprogramming, photosynthetic regulation, carbon metabolism, and stress responses. PMID:25948702

  9. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the effects of sub-ambient atmospheric oxygen and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Suhas; Behpouri, Ali; McElwain, Jennifer C.; Ng, Carl K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that atmospheric O2 has played a key role in the development of life on Earth, as evident from the coincidence between the rise of atmospheric O2 concentrations in the Precambrian and biological evolution. Additionally, it has also been suggested that low atmospheric O2 is one of the major drivers for at least two of the five mass-extinction events in the Phanerozoic. At the molecular level, our understanding of the responses of plants to sub-ambient O2 concentrations is largely confined to studies of the responses of underground organs, e.g. roots to hypoxic conditions. Oxygen deprivation often results in elevated CO2 levels, particularly under waterlogged conditions, due to slower gas diffusion in water compared to air. In this study, changes in the transcriptome of gametophytes of the moss Physcomitrella patens arising from exposure to sub-ambient O2 of 13% (oxygen deprivation) and elevated CO2 (1500 ppmV) were examined to further our understanding of the responses of lower plants to changes in atmospheric gaseous composition. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of a large number of genes was affected under elevated CO2 (814 genes) and sub-ambient O2 conditions (576 genes). Intriguingly, the expression of comparatively fewer numbers of genes (411 genes) was affected under a combination of both sub-ambient O2 and elevated CO2 condition (low O2–high CO2). Overall, the results point towards the effects of atmospheric changes in CO2 and O2 on transcriptional reprogramming, photosynthetic regulation, carbon metabolism, and stress responses. PMID:25948702

  10. Growth, Yield, and Nutritional Responses of Chamber-Grown Sweet Potato to Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels Expected Across the Next 200 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeck, B. C.; Jahren, H.; Deenik, J. L.; Crow, S. E.; Schubert, B.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on crops will be critical to assuring that sufficient food is available to the world's growing population. Previous work has shown that slightly elevated CO2 levels (CO2 = 550-700 ppm) increase the economic yield of most crops by ~33%, on average. The majority of these studies have focused on rice, wheat, and soybean; however, climate change is expected to have greatest impact on regions of the world that rely heavily on root crops, such as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Sweet potato is cultivated in more than 100 developing countries; it is ranked seventh in world crop statistics and can produce more edible energy per hectare and per day than wheat, rice or cassava. In order to quantify the effect that rising CO2 levels will have on sweet potato, we grew a total of 64 sweet potato plants to maturity in large controlled growth chambers at ambient, 760, 1,140, and 1,520-ppm CO2 levels. At planting, initial measurements (of mass, length, and number of nodes) for each plant were recorded. Throughout the duration of the experiment (90 days) measurements (of stem length, and number of leaves) were recorded every 7 to 14 days. To ensure optimum growing conditions moisture content was monitored using soil tensiometers; temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentrations were recorded every ten minutes. Half the plants were supplemented with an inorganic fertilizer and the other half with an organic fertilizer to test the effect of nutrient availability on biomass production under elevated CO2 levels. After 3 months of growth, we measured fresh and dry biomass of all above- and below-ground tissues. Results showed a substantial increase in both above- and below-ground biomass at elevated levels of CO2. For the organic treatment, a 43% increase in aboveground dry biomass at the highest CO2 concentration (1520ppm) was found; the inorganic treatment showed a 31% increase. The belowground response was appreciably greater, with a 61% increase in the organic treatment and 101% increase in the inorganic treatment. We conclude that the belowground response of root crops under elevated CO2 could have a significant impact on the food supply of developing countries as CO2 levels continue to rise. Ongoing work to quantify the nutritional status of both the leaves for animal feed and the tubers for human consumption will add insight into the quality of the enhanced biomass.

  11. A novel mutation in PNLIP causes pancreatic triglyceride lipase deficiency through protein misfolding.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Xiao, Xunjun; Haughney, Margaret; Spector, Alyssa; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Lowe, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    Congenital pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PNLIP) deficiency is a rare disorder with uncertain genetic background as most cases were described before gene sequencing was readily available. Recently, two brothers with PNLIP deficiency were found to carry a homozygous missense mutation, c.662C>T (p.T221M) in the PNLIP gene (J. Lipid Res. 2014. 55:307-312). Molecular modeling suggested the substitution would change the orientation of residues in the catalytic site and disrupt the function of p.T221M PNLIP. To test the effect of the p.T221M mutation on PNLIP function, we expressed wild-type and p.T221M PNLIP in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293A cells and dexamethasone-differentiated AR42J rat acinar cells. In both cellular models, wild-type PNLIP was secreted into the conditioned medium where it was readily detectable by protein staining, immunoblot or lipase activity assays. In contrast, mutant p.T221M was not secreted into the medium, but it was present in cell lysates where it accumulated in the insoluble fraction. Intracellular retention of mutant p.T221M resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as measured by elevated XBP1 splicing and increased levels of ER chaperones. Our results demonstrate that the presence of methionine at position 221 in the PNLIP protein sequence causes misfolding and aggregation of the p.T221M mutant inside the cell. The consequent loss of enzyme secretion adequately explains the clinical phenotype of PNLIP deficiency reported for homozygous carriers of p.T221M. Furthermore, the ability of mutant p.T221M to induce ER stress suggests that this form of PNLIP deficiency might cause acinar cell damage as well. PMID:25862608

  12. Elevated Levels of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors 1 and 2 Correlate with Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Pregnant Women: Potential Markers for Malaria-Associated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thévenon, Audrey Davidson; Zhou, James A.; Megnekou, Rosette; Ako, Simon; Leke, Rose G.F.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) sequester in the intervillous space (IVS) of the placenta causing placental malaria (PM), a condition that increases a woman’s chances of having a low birth weight (LBW) baby. Because IE sequester, they frequently are not observed in peripheral blood smears, resulting in women with PM being misdiagnosed and thus not treated. Since sequestered IE induce inflammation in the IVS, detection of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral blood may provide an approach for diagnosing PM. Two counter-regulatory molecules, TNF-? receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNF-R2, modulate the pathological effects of TNF-?. Levels of these soluble TNFR (sTNFR) are reported to be elevated in children with severe malaria, but it is unclear if they are increased in the peripheral blood of PM-positive women with asymptomatic infections. In this study, sTNFR levels were measured throughout the course of pregnancy, as well as at delivery, in women with asymptomatic infections and those who remained uninfected. Results showed that both sTNFR were significantly increased in the peripheral blood of women with asymptomatic malaria (p<0.0001) and were positively correlated with parasitemia (p<0.0001 for sTNF-R1 and p=0.0046 for sTNF-R2). Importantly, levels of sTNF-R2 were elevated in the peripheral blood of women who were PM-positive but peripheral blood-smear negative (p=0.0017). Additionally, sTNF-R2 levels were elevated in the blood of malaria-positive women who delivered LBW babies. In vitro studies demonstrated that syncytiotrophoblasts were not a major source of sTNFR. These data suggest that sTNF-R2 may be a valuable biomarker for detection of malaria-associated inflammation. PMID:20980627

  13. Inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein alone or with ezetimibe in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McKenney; LeAnne T Bloedon; William J Sasiela; Daniel J Rader; Frederick F Samaha

    2008-01-01

    Background Many patients with coronary heart disease do not achieve recommended LDL-cholesterol levels, due to either intolerance or inadequate response to available lipid-lowering therapy. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors might provide an alternative way to lower LDL-cholesterol levels. We tested the safety and LDL-cholesterol-lowering efficacy of an MTP inhibitor, AEGR-733 (Aegerion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Bridgewater, NJ), alone and in combination

  14. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Levels of Primary Metabolites and Transcripts of Genes Encoding Respiratory Enzymes and Their Diurnal Patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana: Possible Relationships with Respiratory Rates

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Chihiro K.; Sato, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Uesono, Yukifumi; Terashima, Ichiro; Noguchi, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 affects plant growth and photosynthesis, which results in changes in plant respiration. However, the mechanisms underlying the responses of plant respiration to elevated CO2 are poorly understood. In this study, we measured diurnal changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding respiratory enzymes, the maximal activities of the enzymes and primary metabolite levels in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under moderate or elevated CO2 conditions (390 or 780 parts per million by volume CO2, respectively). We examined the relationships between these changes and respiratory rates. Under elevated CO2, the transcript levels of several genes encoding respiratory enzymes increased at the end of the light period, but these increases did not result in changes in the maximal activities of the corresponding enzymes. The levels of some primary metabolites such as starch and sugar phosphates increased under elevated CO2, particularly at the end of the light period. The O2 uptake rate at the end of the dark period was higher under elevated CO2 than under moderate CO2, but higher under moderate CO2 than under elevated CO2 at the end of the light period. These results indicate that the changes in O2 uptake rates are not directly related to changes in maximal enzyme activities and primary metabolite levels. Instead, elevated CO2 may affect anabolic processes that consume respiratory ATP, thereby affecting O2 uptake rates. PMID:24319073

  15. Interrelationship of plasma triglycerides and HDL size and composition in rats fed different dietary saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Lai, H C; Lasekan, J B; Lefevre, M

    1991-09-01

    We investigated the relative effects of different dietary saturated fats on the size distribution, apolipoprotein (apo) and chemical composition of HDL in fasted rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (174 +/- 2 g) were fed diets containing 0.035% cholesterol and 16% fat (wt/wt) from corn oil (CO diet) or from 2% CO plus 14% butterfat (BF diet), beef tallow (BT diet), palm oil (PO diet) or coconut oil (CN diet) for 6 wk. Apparent lipid digestibility was significantly lower with the PO and BT diets vs. the CO, BF and CN diets. Plasma total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in rats fed the PO and BT diets than in rats fed the BF and CN diets but were not different among the PO-, BT- and CO-fed groups. Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis immunoblot analysis indicated that HDL apo A-I and E resided on particles with significantly smaller modal diameters in rats fed all saturated fats compared with those fed the CO diet. Chemical analyses indicated that HDL generally contained proportionately less protein and more triglyceride, free cholesterol and apo E with saturated fat feeding than with CO diet feeding. Significantly higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels were noted with ingestion of the BT, PO or CN diet than with the CO diet. Butterfat feeding resulted in lower plasma triglycerides and HDL-esterified cholesterol than did feeding the other saturated fats. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride concentrations were inversely correlated with HDL modal diameter of apo E containing lipoproteins (P less than 0.005). These data provide further evidence of the interrelationship of triglyceride and HDL metabolism and suggest that mechanisms independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein may mediate this response in rats. PMID:1880609

  16. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 levels and differential day/night atmospheric warming on nitrogen cycling through a Phalaris sward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volder, A.; Gifford, R. M.; Evans, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    In order to fully understand the combined effect of elevated CO2 and climate warming on nitrogen (N) cycling it is important to document how total N acquisition of the plant is affected. This requires an accounting of N used for production of both aboveground and belowground organs. Data on interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on root N concentrations are rare. In addition, most root studies use one time observations of standing N in the root system rather than measuring the amount of N invested in root production, making it difficult to fully account for potential effects of climate change on N cycling through an ecosystem. The objective was to document the effect of both elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and warming on tissue N concentration of the pasture grass Phalaris aquatica and on total annual N acquired by P. aquatica swards including the amount of N used for annual root production. Phalaris aquatica swards were grown in six temperature gradient tunnels where three tunnels were exposed to ambient CO2 concentrations while three tunnels were maintained at 750 ppm atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Within each tunnel there were three warming treatments; no warming (ambient control), +2.2 / +4.0 oC above ambient day/night warming, and +3.0 oC continuous warming. Within each temperature section there were two management treatments, regular defoliation and frequent defoliation. Treatments were maintained from September 2001 until May 2003. We used a combination of sequential harvests and minirhizotron observations to measure tissue concentrations and estimate total above and belowground biomass production. Elevated atmospheric CO2 reduced leaf N concentrations in both defoliation regimes, however the effect was stronger for frequently defoliated swards. Warming enhanced leaf tissue N concentrations under ambient atmospheric CO2 conditions, but reduced leaf N concentrations under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. Root nitrogen concentrations were affected by warming at shallow depth (0-20 cm) where warming increased root N concentrations in the frequently defoliated swards. We found that elevated atmospheric CO2 levels decreased the amount of nitrogen needed to support herbage production, while increasing the amount of nitrogen needed for root production in the frequently defoliated swards only. Overall, there was no effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration or warming on total sward nitrogen acquisition. The effect of defoliation frequency on total sward N demand was much greater than effects of the climate change treatments. These results highlight the importance of including root system production metrics when attempting to account for N cycling.

  17. Elevated 1?h postload plasma glucose levels identify adults with normal glucose tolerance but increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sesti, Giorgio; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of the proposed diagnostic value of a 1-h OGTT glucose ?155mg/dL to identify individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cohort of adult white individuals. Design The study group comprised 710 white individuals participating to the CATAnzaro MEtabolic RIsk factors (CATAMERI) Study, a cross-sectional study assessing cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals carrying at least one risk factor including dysglycemia, overweight/obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. a 75 g oral Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed with 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min sampling for plasma glucose and insulin measurements. Cardio-metabolic risk factors including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were assessed in the whole cohort. Results Of the 710 participants examined, 295 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dL (NGT 1h-low), 109 individuals had NGT 1h-high, 104 had isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and 202 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). As compared with NGT 1h-low, NGT 1h-high and IGT subjects exhibited significantly higher body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ALT, GGT, and hepatic insulin resistance (IR), assessed by the liver IR index, as well as lower high density lipoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, NGT 1h-high participants had a 1.5-fold increased risk of having NAFLD and an even increased risk was observed in subjects with IGT (1.8-fold), but not in the isolated IFG group (1.01-fold). Conclusions These data suggest that the value of a 1-hour OGTT glucose ?155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of NGT individuals at risk for NAFLD. PMID:25452862

  18. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-11-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Although they are the most common virilizing tumor of the ovary, about 60% are endocrine-inactive tumors. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors, as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker. PMID:25926909

  19. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-10-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise.

  20. Stress and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Kirschbaum; O. T Wolf; M May; W Wippich; D. H Hellhammer

    1996-01-01

    Two studies investigated the association between cortisol levels and memory performance in healthy adults. In a first study, 13 subjects were exposed to a brief psychosocial laboratory stress (“Trier Social Stress Test”) with a subsequent test of declarative memory performance. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between stress-induced cortisol levels and performance in the memory Task, I.e. subjects with high

  1. Elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with prednisone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B.; Fong, L.; Steinbach, L.; Shellito, J.

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration is a well established cause of osteopenia. Mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of glucocorticoids on bone may include direct inhibition of bone formation as well as indirect effects through changes in intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium excretion, and/or levels of the calciotropic hormones. To further examine the potential role of the calciotropic hormones we measured serum levels of PTH and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], as well as serum and urine levels of calcium and vertebral bone density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being managed with or without prednisone. Patients treated with prednisone had lower spinal bone density (53 vs. 106 mg/cm3) and higher serum calcium (2.40 vs. 2.33 mmol/l), urine calcium (6.9 vs. 2.7 mmol/24h), and 1,25(OH)2D levels (147 vs. 95 pmol/L). Compared to the patients not treated with glucocorticoids. PTH levels also tended to be higher (33 vs. 26 microliters-eq/ml), but the difference was not significant. Serum and urine calcium levels correlated positively with 1,25(OH)2D levels, but none of these measurements correlated with PTH levels. Our results suggest that prednisone treatment alters the regulation of 1,25(OH)2D production, and this may contribute to the loss of bone mineral induced by prednisone.

  2. Sensitivity of the Mediterranean sea level to atmospheric pressure and free surface elevation numerical formulation in NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaduce, Antonio; Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Guarnieri, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of the dynamics of the Mediterranean Sea to atmospheric pressure and free surface elevation formulation using NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) was evaluated. Four different experiments were carried out in the Mediterranean Sea using filtered or explicit free surface numerical schemes and accounting for the effect of atmospheric pressure in addition to wind and buoyancy fluxes. Model results were evaluated by coherency and power spectrum analysis with tide gauge data. We found that atmospheric pressure plays an important role for periods shorter than 100 days. The free surface formulation is important to obtain the correct ocean response for periods shorter than 30 days. At frequencies higher than 15 days?1 the Mediterranean basin's response to atmospheric pressure was not coherent and the performance of the model strongly depended on the specific area considered. A large-amplitude seasonal oscillation observed in the experiments using a filtered free surface was not evident in the corresponding explicit free surface formulation case, which was due to a phase shift between mass fluxes in the Gibraltar Strait and at the surface. The configuration with time splitting and atmospheric pressure always performed best; the differences were enhanced at very high frequencies.

  3. Elevated Levels of High-Melting-Point Phosphatidylglycerols Do Not Induce Chilling Sensitivity in an Arabidopsis Mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.; Browse, J.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol that contain only 16:0, 18:0, and 16:1-trans fatty acids undergo the transition from liquid crystalline phase to gel phase at temperatures well above 20[deg]C. Several lines of evidence have been used to implicate elevated proportions of these high-melting-point molecular species as a major cause of plant chilling sensitivity. In the fatty acid biosynthesis 1 (fab1) mutant of Arabidopsis, leaf phosphatidylglycerol contained 43% high-melting-point molecular species[mdash]a higher percentage than is found in many chilling-sensitive plants. Nevertheless, the mutant was completely unaffected (when compared with wild-type controls) by a range of low-temperature treatments that quickly led to the death of cucumber and other chilling-sensitive plants. Our results clearly demonstrate that high-melting-point phosphatidylglycerols do not mediate classic chilling damage. However, growth of fab1 plants was compromised by long-term (>2 weeks) exposure to 2[deg]C. This finding and other observations are consistent with a proposition that plants native to tropical and subtropical regions have evolved many traits that are incompatible with long-term growth or development in cooler climates but that may confer selective advantages at high temperatures. PMID:12242349

  4. Elevated Serum Levels of NSE and S-100? Correlate with Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction in Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Jia, JianJun; Wang, ZhenFu; Zhang, ShanChun

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the clinical value of serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and human soluble protein-100? (S-100?) in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients. Material/Methods A literature search of electronic databases identified relevant case-control studies that examined the correlations between NSE and S-100? serum levels, and ACI. The retrieved studies were screened based on our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and high-quality studies were subsequently selected for meta-analysis. STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 13 case-control studies, containing 911 ACI patients and 686 healthy controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of NSE and S-100? in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the serum levels of NSE and S-100? in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group in Asian population. In Caucasian population, the serum levels of NSE in case group was significantly higher than the control group, but no significant differences in serum levels of S-100? were observed between ACI patients and the control group. Conclusions Based on our results, we conclude that serum levels of NSE and S-100? strongly correlate with ACI in Asian population, and may be important clinical markers for diagnosis and treatment of ACI. PMID:26124190

  5. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose-response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. PMID:22245594

  6. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. PMID:25583378

  7. Downregulation of adipose triglyceride lipase promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by triggering the accumulation of ceramides.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Feng, Xiao-jun; Li, Zhuo-ming; Li, Min; Gao, Si; He, Yan-hong; Wang, Jiao-jiao; Zeng, Si-yu; Liu, Xue-ping; Huang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Shao-rui; Liu, Pei-qing

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme of triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis, plays an important role in TG metabolism. ATGL knockout mice suffer from TG accumulation and die from heart failure. However, the mechanisms underlying cardiac hypertrophy caused by ATGL dysfunction remain unknown. In this study, we found that ATGL expression declined in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. ATGL knockdown led to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, while ATGL overexpression prevented PE-induced hypertrophy. In addition, ATGL downregulation increased but ATGL overexpression reduced the contents of ceramide, which has been proved to be closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, the accumulation of ceramide was due to elevation of free fatty acids in ATGL-knockdown cardiomyocytes, which could be explained by the reduced activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? leading to imbalance of fatty acid uptake and oxidation. These observations suggest that downregulation of ATGL causes the decreased PPAR? activity which results in the imbalance of FA uptake and oxidation, elevating intracellular FFA contents to promote the accumulation of ceramides, and finally inducing cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of ATGL could be a strategy for ameliorating lipotoxic damage in cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25436917

  8. Combined PCSK9 and APOE Polymorphisms are Genetic Risk Factors Associated with Elevated Plasma Lipid Levels in a Thai Population.

    PubMed

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Porntadavity, Sureerut; Wanmasae, Smith

    2015-06-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) play a key role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of PCSK9 (R46L, I474V, and E670G) and APOE polymorphisms on lipid levels in a Southern Thai population. A total of 495 participants (307 urban, 188 rural) were recruited for the study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were evaluated. PCSK9 and APOE polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR-RFLP. The 46L urban male carriers had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting blood sugar compared with non-carriers. In contrast, the 46L urban female carriers had significantly lower total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels compared with non-carriers. The 474V rural female carriers had significantly lower HDL-C levels than non-carriers. The 670G urban female carriers showed significantly higher TC and LDL-C levels compared with non-carriers. APOE4 carriers had increased TC and LDL-C levels relative to APOE3 carriers in the urban males. APOE2 carriers had decreased TC and/or LDL-C levels compared with APOE3 carriers in urban males and females. A significant trend of increased TC and LDL-C levels was observed in non-APOE4-PCSK9 670EE carriers to APOE4-PCSK9 670EG carriers in urban subjects. In summary, R46L, I474V, and E670G may be genetic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in urban males, rural females, and urban females, respectively. In contrast, R46L had a favorable lipid profiles that may protect against CVD in urban females. The combination of PCSK9 E670G and APOE polymorphisms may represent an independent factor for the determination of lipid levels. PMID:25899039

  9. Effects of light and elevated atmospheric COâ on the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity and ribulose bisphosphate level of soybean leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. V. Vu; L. H. Jr. Allen; G. Bowes

    1983-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Bragg) was grown throughout its life cycle at 330, 450, and 800 microliters COâ per liter in outdoor controlled-environment chambers under solar irradiance. leaf ribulose-controlled-environment chambers under solar irradiance. Leaf ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activities and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) levels were measured at selected times after planting. Growth under the high COâ levels reduced the extractable

  10. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay L. Glaser; Joel L. Brind; Joseph H. Vogelman; Michael J. Eisner; Michael C. Dillbeck; R. Keith Wallace; Deepak Chopra; Norman Orentreich

    1992-01-01

    Serum dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were measured in 270 men and 153 women who were experienced practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs, mental techniques practiced twice daily, sitting quietly with the eyes closed. These were compared according to sex and 5-year age grouping to 799 male and 453 female nonmeditators. The mean DHEA-S levels in the TM

  11. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 levels on energy metabolism and biomineralization of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Bagwe, Rita; Dickinson, Ashley; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-01

    The continuing increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere leads to increases in global temperatures and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in surface waters, causing ocean acidification. These changes are especially pronounced in shallow coastal and estuarine waters and are expected to significantly affect marine calcifiers including bivalves that are ecosystem engineers in estuarine and coastal communities. To elucidate potential effects of higher temperatures and PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of marine bivalves, we exposed two bivalve species, the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica and the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria to different combinations of PCO2 (~400 and 800?atm) and temperatures (22 and 27°C) for 15weeks. Survival, bioenergetic traits (tissue levels of lipids, glycogen, glucose and high energy phosphates) and biomineralization parameters (mechanical properties of the shells and activity of carbonic anhydrase, CA) were determined in clams and oysters under different temperature and PCO2 regimes. Our analysis showed major inter-species differences in shell mechanical traits and bioenergetics parameters. Elevated temperature led to the depletion of tissue energy reserves indicating energy deficiency in both species and resulted in higher mortality in oysters. Interestingly, while elevated PCO2 had a small effect on the physiology and metabolism of both species, it improved survival in oysters. At the same time, a combination of high temperature and elevated PCO2 lead to a significant decrease in shell hardness in both species, suggesting major changes in their biomineralization processes. Overall, these studies show that global climate change and ocean acidification might have complex interactive effects on physiology, metabolism and biomineralization in coastal and estuarine marine bivalves. PMID:23707887

  12. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    PubMed

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO?(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO?(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO? on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO? did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO? supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO? has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output. PMID:23203385

  13. Elevated serum IL-21 levels in hantavirus-infected patients correlate with the severity of the disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Hongli; Wang, Yuefei; Yang, Yucong; Zhao, Yingren

    2014-08-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral infection caused by Hantavirus (HTV). Capillary leakage is one of the hallmarks of HTV infection. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HFRS are not completely understood. However, it has been suggested that immune mechanisms, including cytokines, might have an important role in HFRS pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of interleukin-21 (IL-21) which is a newly discovered cytokine that stimulates T-cell and B-cell responses in the pathogenesis of HFRS. Serum samples were collected from 58 patients hospitalized with laboratory-verified HTV infection and 20 healthy controls. Serum IL-21 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum IL-21 levels began to increase in the fever phase when renal damage appeared. The highest serum IL-21 level was detected in oliguric phase along with the peak degree of urinary renal impairment. When entering the polyuric phase, with gradual increase in urine and recovered renal function, the serum IL-21 level was observed to fall, returning to normal level after the renal function recovered in the convalescent phase. The serum IL-21 level was positively correlated with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), suggesting that the serum IL-21 level is associated with the disease severity of HFRS. This study indicated that IL-21 may act as an important inflammatory mediator in the immunopathogenesis of HFRS. The strategy to control IL-21 may hamper the immune response in patients with HFRS. PMID:24510007

  14. Elevated temperature annealing of the neutron induced leakage current and corresponding defect levels in low and high resistivity silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, V.; Ivanov, A.; Verbitskaya, E. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Russia, St. Petersburg, (Russian Federation); Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The leakage current (I{sub L}) annealing at the elevated temperatures and the corresponding changes of the DLTS spectra of defects for fast neutron irradiated Silicon detectors, fabricated on high (4--6 k{Omega}-cm), moderate (0.5--1.0 k{Omega}-cm), and low(<100 {Omega}-cm) resistivity silicon material, have been investigated. For all the resistivities, three annealing stages have been observed: (1) The transformation of carbon related defects at 72{degree}C; (2) slight decrease of the peak E{sub c} {minus} 0.4 eV at 150{degree}C; and (3) significant decrease of the peak E{sub c} {minus} 0.4 eV at 350{degree}C. The leakage current has been found to decrease monotonously in the temperature range of 20--150{degree}C. A sharp decrease of I{sub L} was observed at 350 {degree}C due to the annealing of the V-V{sup {minus}} center for heavily irradiated detectors, whereas I{sub L} showed a slight saturation tendency for detectors irradiated to low neutron fluence. The V-V{sup {minus}} center has been found to be dominant in the formation of the E{sub c} {minus} 0.4 eV peak and in the annealing of the leakage current. For low resistivity detectors, an anneal at 72{degree}C was needed to stimulate the decrease of the effective impurity concentration (N{sub eff}) of the detectors irradiated by high neutron fluence (1--2) {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. In addition, low resistivity detectors have been found to be tolerant in terms of N{sub eff} stability to the 350{degree}C anneal, favorable to the recovery of I{sub L} after irradiation with high neutron fluence.

  15. Elevated levels of adaption in Helicobacter pylori genomes from Japan; a link to higher incidences of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Soto-Girón, Maria Juliana; Ospina, Oscar E; Massey, Steven Edward

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that lives in the human stomach and is a major risk factor for gastric cancer and ulcers. H.pylori is host dependent and has been carried with human populations around the world after their departure from Africa. We wished to investigate how H.pylori has coevolved with its host during that time, focusing on strains from Japanese and European populations, given that gastric cancer incidence is high in Japanese populations, while low in European. A positive selection analysis of eight H.pylori genomes was conducted, using maximum likelihood based pairwise comparisons in order to maximize the number of strain-specific genes included in the study. Using the genic Ka/Ks ratio, comparisons of four Japanese H.pylori genomes suggests 25-34 genes under positive selection, while four European H.pylori genomes suggests 16-21 genes; few of the genes identified were in common between lineages. Of the identified genes which were annotated, 38% possessed homologs associated with pathogenicity and / or host adaptation, consistent with their involvement in a coevolutionary 'arms race' with the host. Given the efficacy of identifying host interaction factors de novo, in the absence of functionally annotated homologs our evolutionary approach may have value in identifying novel genes which H.pylori employs to interact with the human gut environment. In addition, the larger number of genes inferred as being under positive selection in Japanese strains compared to European implies a stronger overall adaptive pressure, potentially resulting from an elevated immune response which may be linked to increased inflammation, an initial stage in the development of gastric cancer. PMID:25788149

  16. Allostatic load amplifies the effect of blood lead levels on elevated blood pressure among middle-aged U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Scientists and regulators have sought to understand whether and how physiologic dysregulation due to chronic stress exposure may enhance vulnerability to the adverse health effects of toxicant exposures. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether allostatic load (AL), a composite measure of physiologic response to chronic exposure to stress, amplifies the effect of lead exposure on blood pressure among middle-aged adults. Methods We analyzed associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample of 8,194 U.S. adults (aged 40-65 years) participating in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999--2008. Outcomes were elevated systolic (? 140 mm Hg) and diastolic (? 90 mm Hg) blood pressure. AL was defined as the aggregate score of seven components, reflecting dysregulation of the cardiovascular, inflammatory, and endocrine systems. Results Logistic regression models showed a linear dose-response relationship for quintiles of blood lead and elevated systolic blood pressure in the high AL group (p?=?0.03) but not the low AL group (p?=?0.24). Similarly, the relationship between lead exposure and elevated diastolic blood pressure was stronger among the high AL group than the low AL group. Within the high AL group, the fourth and fifth quintiles had significantly elevated odds of elevated blood pressure compared to lowest quintile [OR?=?1.92, (95% CI, 1.07, 3.47) and OR =2.28 (95% CI, 1.33, 3.91), respectively]. In the low AL group, none of the quintile effects were significantly different than the referent group although there was evidence of a linear trend (p =0.03). The lead by AL interaction term was not statistically significant for either systolic or diastolic blood pressure models. Conclusions Results suggest that higher AL may amplify the adverse effects of lead on blood pressure. Future research should assess the implications of cumulative exposures to environmental and social stressors for regulatory decision-making. PMID:23953669

  17. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P?levels (??=?0.551; 95%CI, 0.394–0.708), and eGFR (??=??0.481; 95%CI, ?0.731–?0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.20; 95%CI, 1.11–1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P?elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  18. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P?levels (??=?0.551; 95%CI, 0.394-0.708), and eGFR (??=?-0.481; 95%CI, -0.731--0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.20; 95%CI, 1.11-1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P?elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  19. Elevated Soluble CD163 Plasma Levels Are Associated with Disease Severity in Patients with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junning; Guo, Weijuan; Du, Hong; Yu, Haitao; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Ting; Bai, Xuefan; Wang, Pingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Hantaan virus is a major zoonotic pathogen that causesing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Although HFRS pathogenesis has not been entirely elucidated, the importance of host-related immune responses in HFRS pathogenesis has been widely recognized. CD163, a monocyte and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor that plays a vital function in the hosts can reduce inflammation, is shed during activation as soluble CD163 (sCD163). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological significance of sCD163 in patients with HFRS. Methods Blood samples were collected from 81 hospitalized patients in Tangdu Hospital from October 2011 to January 2014 and from 15 healthy controls. The sCD163 plasma levels were measured using a sandwich ELISA, and the relationship between sCD163 and disease severity was analyzed. Furthermore, CD163 expression in 3 monocytes subset was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results The results demonstrated that sCD163 plasma levels during the HFRS acute phase were significantly higher in patients than during the convalescent stage and the levels in the healthy controls (P<0.0001). The sCD163 plasma levels in the severe/critical group were higher than those in the mild/moderate group during the acute (P<0.0001). A Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the sCD163 levels were positively correlated with white blood cell, serum creatine, blood urea nitrogen levels, while they were negatively correlated with blood platelet levels in the HFRS patients. The monocyte subsets were significantly altered during the acute stage. Though the CD163 expression levels within the monocyte subsets were increased during the acute stage, the highest CD163 expression level was observed in the CD14++CD16+ monocytes when compared with the other monocyte subsets. Conclusion sCD163 may be correlated with disease severity and the disease progression in HFRS patients; however, the underlying mechanisms should be explored further. PMID:25392926

  20. Elevated Serum Level of IL-35 Associated with the Maintenance of Maternal-Fetal Immune Tolerance in Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Chao-yan; Zhang, Bin; Ying, Chun-mei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives IL-35 is a novel inhibitory cytokine. In this study, we investigate the serum levels of inhibitory cytokines IL-35, IL-10 and TGF-? in both normal pregnancies and non-pregnant females, and whether IL-35 is associated with the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion. We also try to elucidate the relationships of IL-35 with estrogen and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Methods The levels of IL-35, IL-10, TGF-?, estradiol (E2), unconjugated estriol (uE3) and AFP were analyzed in 120 normal pregnancies, 40 women suffering recurrent spontaneous abortion, 40 postpartum healthy women and 40 non-pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlations between inhibitory cytokines, estrogen and AFP were assessed with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Data are expressed as median and percentiles (Q1, Q3).The level of serum IL-35 in normal pregnancies was significantly higher than that in non-pregnant women [333.6 (59.32, 1391) pg/mL vs. 123.9 (8.763, 471.7) pg/mL; P < 0.001]. A significantly higher level of TGF-? was observed in the first trimester only as compared to non-pregnant women [473.4 (398.0, 580.5) pg/mL vs. 379.7 (311.0, 441.3) pg/mL, P < 0.01]. The difference in serum IL-10 level between pregnant women and non-pregnant women was not significant [8.602 (5.854, 12.89) pg/mL vs. 9.339 (5.691, 12.07) pg/mL; P > 0.05]. The level of serum IL-35 in recurrent spontaneous abortion was significantly lower than that in normal early pregnancy [220.4 (4.951, 702.0) pg/mL vs. 386.5 (64.37, 1355) pg/mL; P < 0.05]. The higher IL-35 level in first trimester pregnant women correlated with E2 (r = 0.3062, P < 0.01) and AFP (r = 0.3179, P < 0.01). Conclusion Serum levels of IL-35 increased in normal pregnancy and decreased in recurrent spontaneous abortion. Increased IL-35 correlated with estrogen and AFP levels in early pregnancy. IL-35 is becoming recognized as an active player in the maintenance of a successful pregnancy, but this is not the case for IL-10 or TGF-?. PMID:26042836

  1. Elevated soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (sLOX-1) levels in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Tina E; Kume, Noriaki; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Phares, Dana A; Hagberg, James M

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the association between soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) levels and obesity in older women. Fifty-one postmenopausal women (10 lean, 22 overweight, and 19 obese) were included in this small retrospective analysis. Plasma sLOX-1 levels were measured using a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunoassay. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly higher in obese women (55.33 +/- 4.49 pg/ml) compared to lean (30.91 +/- 6.19 pg/ml, P = 0.002) and overweight women (38.31 +/- 4.18 pg/ml, P = 0.017). Plasma sLOX-1 levels were positively associated with body weight, BMI, total body fat, and trunk fat. The relationship between sLOX-1 and BMI was attenuated after adjustment for age, hormone replacement therapy, and body fat. In conclusion, obese women have higher sLOX-1 levels, which may reflect increased LOX-1 expression in adipose tissue. PMID:18388896

  2. Hypertriglyceridaemia and abnormalities of triglyceride catabolism persisting after pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Durrington; O. P. Twentyman; J. M. Braganza; J. P. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients referred consecutively following an attack of pancreatitis at least six weeks earlier (acute pancreatitis\\u000a in 10 patients and chronic pancreatitis in 23 patients) had an intravenous fat tolerance test to determine their capacity\\u000a to catabolise circulating triglycerides. Hypertriglyceridaemia was present in 14 patients (42%), including 5 with acute pancreatitis\\u000a and 9 with chronic pancreatitis. the highest serum triglyceride

  3. Carbon distributions in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes in Galveston, Texas: The role of elevation, relative sea level history, and land cover conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawardhana, R. W.; Feagin, R. A.; Popescu, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands, including salt marshes, are considered to be large carbon sinks. Yet, there is little knowledge about how the terrain and land cover of these environments are related to carbon distribution. An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon held in both the biomass and soil, and the factors that influence its distribution, will be necessary to allow coastal managers to initiate and verify "Blue Carbon" projects. In this study, we attempt to understand: 1) the temporal changes in salt marsh distributions as affected by marsh submergence, vertical accretion and land cover conversions; 2) patterns of soil carbon across different depths of the soil profile; and 3) to evaluate how changes in relative water level governs the spatial and temporal variability of salt marsh carbon storage ability. Our results indicate that over the study period (1954 to present) a considerable portion of salt marsh extents were submerged, while at the higher terrains these salt marshes indicated a landward shift in response to the sea level rise. Soil carbon measured in the soil profile, revealed a gradual depletion of soil carbon with depth. However, both the soil bulk density and the percent carbon indicated an abrupt and significant change at a depth of 15cm (p=0.05), which we interpreted as distinct of two different environments. As evidenced by historical aerial imagery (1954, 1969), the first (15-30 cm depth) coincided with an unvegetated salt flat at the sample locations, which were then overlain by lower bulk density and higher carbon Spartina alterniflora low marsh (0-15 cm depth) that migrated upslope in response to rapid relative sea level rise. However, within each of these two environments separately, carbon distribution followed a unique pattern with respect to elevation. Our results further point to two different processes, each acting at a different time scale (daily tides versus relative sea level rise), and each results in distinct spatial patterns of carbon deposition with respect to elevation. Thus, local and regional Blue Carbon projects or management actions, and global scale accounting of soil carbon, will need to consider both elevation and sea level history to predict carbon distribution.

  4. The role of elevation, relative sea-level history and vegetation transition in determining carbon distribution in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawardhana, Ranjani W.; Feagin, Rusty A.; Popescu, Sorin C.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Yeager, Kevin M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2015-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems on earth, and represent a substantial global carbon sink. Understanding the spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of both above- and below-ground carbon in these wetland ecosystems is especially important considering their potential in carbon sequestration projects, as well as for conservation efforts in the context of a changing climate and rising sea-level. Through the use of extensive field sampling and remote sensing data (Light Detection and Ranging - LiDAR, and aerial images), we sought to map and explain how vegetation biomass and soil carbon are related to elevation and relative sea-level change in a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh on Galveston Island, Texas. The specific objectives of this study were to: 1) understand the relationship between elevation and the distribution of salt marsh vegetation percent cover, plant height, plant density, above-and below-ground biomass, and carbon, and 2) evaluate the temporal changes in relative sea-level history, vegetation transitions, and resulting changes in the patterns of soil carbon distribution. Our results indicated a clear zonation of terrain and vegetation characteristics (i.e., height, cover and biomass). In the soil profile, carbon concentrations and bulk densities showed significant and abrupt change at a depth of ?10-15 cm. This apparent transition in the soil characteristics coincided temporally with a transformation of the land cover, as driven by a rapid increase in relative sea-level around this time at the sample locations. The amounts of soil carbon stored in recently established S. alterniflora intertidal marshes were significantly lower than those that have remained in situ for a longer period of time. Thus, in order to quantify and predict carbon in coastal wetlands, and also to understand the heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, it is essential to understand not only the elevation, the relative sea-level rise rate, and the vertical accretion rate - but also the history of land cover change and vegetation transition.

  5. Elevated LRP6 levels correlate with vascular endothelial growth factor in the vitreous of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xinxiao; Ma, Kai; Lu, Ning; Xu, Yongsheng; Hong, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure intravitreal low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the eyes of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to observe their correlation with PDR activity. Methods Fifty-five eyes of 55 patients were enrolled consecutively. Vitreous samples from 30 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes with nondiabetic macular disease were collected. Active PDR was present in 16 patients and quiescent PDR in 14 patients according to retinal neovascularization. LRP6 and VEGF concentrations in samples were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results ELISA revealed significant increases in the vitreous levels of VEGF in eyes affected with PDR compared to the controls (p<0.001). The mean concentrations of LRP6 were also higher in the vitreous samples from patients with PDR compared to the nondiabetic controls: 39.85 ng/ml and 15.48 ng/ml, respectively (p=0.002). In addition, the vitreous levels of LRP6 and VEGF were significantly higher in active PDR than in quiescent PDR (p=0.022 and p=0.015, respectively). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between intravitreal levels of LRP6 and VEGF in patients with PDR (r=0.567, p=0.001). However, comparison of patients with PDR with controls revealed that the plasma levels of LRP6 were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.636). Conclusions LRP6 and VEGF levels in the vitreous body from patients with PDR were increased and correlated mutually. LRP6 may be a good diagnostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for PDR.

  6. Elevated serum levels of TNF-alpha, sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII in murine schistosomiasis correlate with schistosome oviposition and circumoval granuloma formation.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, M A; Shirazian, D J; Preis, J

    2001-09-01

    Levels of circulating tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and its soluble receptors are elevated in chronic human schistosomiasis. However, the kinetics of TNF-alpha production and release of its soluble receptors have not been studied in humans or animals. Here we report on increased levels of TNF-alpha and its soluble receptors in murine schistosomiasis, beginning with schistosome oviposition and circumoval granuloma formation. TNF-alpha, sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII were measured in sera of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni each week for 10 weeks postinfection. TNF-alpha levels increased gradually in all mice during the first 3 weeks. From 6th week postinfection, TNF-alpha levels in infected mice increased steadily, whereas those of uninfected mice remained essentially unchanged. sTNF-RI levels fluctuated in all mice during the first 3 weeks, and increased in infected mice during the following 5 weeks. sTNF-RII levels were similar in all mice for the first 4 weeks but increased in infected mice throughout the remainder of the experimental period. These data may be helpful in understanding pathogenesis in schistosomiasis as TNF-alpha plays a crucial role in circumoval granuloma formation and adversely affects schistosome fecundity. PMID:11594791

  7. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides attenuate hepatic lipid deposition in growing rats with protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Amano, Saki; Yokoyama, Meiko; Shimamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on hepatic lipid accumulation in growing rats with protein malnutrition. Weaning rats were fed either a low-protein diet (3%, LP) or control protein diet (20%, CP), in combination with or without MCT. The four groups were as follows: CP-MCT, CP+MCT, LP-MCT, and LP+MCT. Rats in the CP-MCT, CP+MCT and LP+MCT groups were pair-fed their respective diets based on the amount of diet consumed by the LP-MCT group. Rats were fed each experimental diet for 30 d. Four weeks later, the respiratory quotient was higher in the LP-MCT group than those in the other groups during the fasting period. Hepatic triglyceride content increased in the LP groups compared with the CP groups. Hepatic triglyceride content in the LP+MCT group, however, was significantly decreased compared with that in the LP-MCT group. Levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1a mRNA and CPT2 mRNA were significantly decreased in the livers of the LP-MCT group, as compared with corresponding mRNA levels of the other groups. These results suggest that ingestion of a low-protein diet caused fatty liver in growing rats. However, when rats were fed the low-protein diet with MCT, hepatic triglyceride deposition was attenuated, and mRNA levels encoding CPT1a and CPT2 were preserved at the levels of rats fed control protein diets. PMID:21697632

  8. Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lemhadri; L. Hajji; J.-B. Michel; M. Eddouks

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. fruits at a dose of (20mg\\/kg) on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). After a single oral administration, Carum carvi extract produced a significant decrease on triglycerides levels in normal rats (p<0.05). In

  9. Resorufin Butyrate as a Soluble and Monomeric High-Throughput Substrate for a Triglyceride Lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Lam; Martin Henault; Karine Khougaz; Louis-Jacques Fortin; Marc Ouellet; Roman Melnyk; Anthony Partridge

    2012-01-01

    Triglyceride lipases such as lipoprotein lipase, endothelial lipase, and hepatic lipase play key roles in controlling the levels of plasma lipoprotein. Accordingly, small-molecule modulation of these species could alter patient lipid profiles with corresponding health effects. Screening of these enzymes for small-molecule therapeutics has historically involved the use of lipid-based particles to mimic native substrates. However, particle-based artifacts can complicate

  10. Nutritional properties of the triglycerides of saturated fatty acids of medium chain-length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Kaunitz; Charles A. Slanetz; Ruth Ellen Johnson; Vigen K. Babayan; George Barsky

    1958-01-01

    Summary  The influence of a purified rat diet containing 20 or 33% of the saturated medium chain-length triglycerides (MCT) with and\\u000a without linoleic acid supplements on growth, caloric requirements for weight maintenance and weight increase, fertility, lactation\\u000a performance, and serum cholesterol levels was compared with that of similar diets containing lard, coconut oil, or no fat.\\u000a \\u000a Among male rats maintained on

  11. Differential scanning calorimetric studies on structured lipids from coconut oil triglycerides containing stearic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reena Rao; Kadimi Udaya Sankar; Kari Sambaiah; B. R. Lokesh

    2001-01-01

    Triglycerides from coconut oil contain high levels of lauric acid. They were replaced by incremental amounts of stearic acid by interesterification reactions catalyzed by immobilized lipase (IM 60 from Rhizomucor miehei). The reactions were carried out in organic solvents such as hexane. Maximum incorporation of stearic acid was observed by 4 h at 37vv°C or by 2 h at 60vv°C

  12. High temperature pulses decrease indirect chilling injury and elevate ATP levels in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa H. Dollo; Shu-Xia Yi; Richard E. Lee Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Indirect chilling injury commonly occurs during long-term exposure to low temperature in many organisms including insects. A previous study revealed increased rates of survival and reduced cold injury in flesh flies, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, that experienced an intermittent pulse of high temperature during a low-temperature regiment. We extended these studies by determining survival rates and ATP levels for flies that had

  13. An Arabidopsis Mutant Tolerant to Lethal Ultraviolet-B Levels Shows Constitutively Elevated Accumulation of Flavonoids and Other Phenolics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Bieza; Rodrigo Lois

    2001-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants hypersensitive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a powerful tool to learn about the mechanisms that protect plants against UV-induced damage. To increase our understanding of the various mechanisms of defense against UVB radiation, we searched for mutations that would increase the level of tolerance of Arabidopsis plants to UV radiation. We describe a

  14. Elevation of osteopontin levels in brain tumor cells reduces burden and promotes survival through the inhibition of cell dispersal.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, Stephen M; Morrow, Jay; Barone, Tara A; Hoffer, Alan; Lock, Jeffrey; DeChant, Anne; Mangla, Saisho; Plunkett, Robert J; Miller, Robert H

    2008-02-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a pleotrophic molecule that has been associated with multiple disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Its roles in CNS malignancy are unclear but suggest that higher levels of OPN expression correlate with increased tumor grade and increased migratory capacity of tumor cells. In this study OPN cDNA was cloned into a retroviral vector and used to infect F98 Fischer rat-derived glioma cells and U87 human-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells in vitro. Cells expressing high levels of OPN migrated less distance than control cells in vitro. This effect was not RGD mediated, but was reversed in the presence of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor suggesting that JNK1 is an essential component of a negative feedback loop affecting OPN activated signaling cascades. Implantation of tumor cells expressing high levels of OPN into adult Fischer rats and nude rats resulted in morphologically distinct tumors and prolonged host survival relative to controls. We propose that local produced, high level OPN expression limits the malignant character of glioma cells and that the downstream mechanisms involved represent pathways that may have therapeutic value in the treatment of human CNS malignancy. PMID:17928956

  15. Elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Gonzalez; Kuldip Thusu; Ehad Abdel-Rahman; Anu Prabhala; Madonna Tomani; Paresh Dandona

    1999-01-01

    Since an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) expression has been associated with insulin resistance, this study was undertaken to determine the status of circulating TNF? and the relationship of TNF? with insulin levels, body weight, or both in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Fasting serum samples were analyzed in 34 subjects with PCOS, of whom 22 were

  16. Elevated Nasal Mucosal G Protein Levels and Histamine Receptor Affinity in a Guinea Pig Model of Nasal Hyperresponsiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiko Chiba; Nobuyuki Saitoh; Kensuke Matsuo; Miwa Misawa

    2002-01-01

    Background: Nasal hyperresponsiveness is a common feature of allergic rhinitis, but the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. The effects of repeated antigen inhalation on the characteristics of histamine H1 receptors and expression levels of heterotrimeric guanosine 5?-triphosphate-binding proteins in nasal mucosa were investigated to understand the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of nasal hyperresponsiveness in allergic rhinitis. Methods: Male

  17. Elevated p53 expression levels correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients exhibiting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, KATE; CHEN, LIN; ZHANG, JILIANG; WU, ZHI; LAN, LINHUA; WANG, LU; LU, BIN; LIU, YONGZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histological subtype of esophageal cancer and one of the most aggressive types of malignancy, with a high rate of mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve the prognosis of ESCC and, thus, survival rates. As a significant tumor suppressor, p53 is closely associated with apoptosis and the differentiation of cancer cells. The present study evaluated the expression levels of the p53 protein and the clinical significance in patients presenting with ESCC. The p53 protein expression level of 64 paired ESCC and tumor-adjacent normal tissues was evaluated using western blot analysis. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the p53 expression level in specimens from 118 paraffin-embedded cancerous tissues. The correlation of the p53 expression level with the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of the ESCC patients was also analyzed. The p53 protein was identified to be highly expressed in the ESCC tissue, with western blot analysis demonstrating that the expression level of p53 in the cancerous tissue was 1.89 times that of the tumor-adjacent normal tissue (P<0.001); furthermore, IHC indicated that there was a marked positive expression of p53 in the ESCC tissue (49.15%). The expression level of p53 protein was identified to be significantly correlated with the tumor grade (P<0.001), N stage (P=0.010). Additionally, the higher level of p53 expression was found to be associated with a poor survival rate in the ESCC patients (P=0.0404). The univariate analysis showed that the survival time of patients was significantly correlated with the T stage (RR=3.886, P<0.001), N stage (lymph node metastasis; RR=3.620, P<0.001) and TNM stage (RR=3.576, P<0.001). Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that the T stage (RR=3.988, P<0.001) and N stage (RR=4.240, P=0.004) significantly influenced the overall survival of the ESCC patients. PMID:25202347

  18. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ?2.5 ?m [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and ?-glutamyltranspeptidase [?-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and ?-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with ?-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  19. How Does the Morphology of Shelf-Margin Deltas Relate to Sea-Level Elevation? Clues From the Modern Mississippi River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, S.; Bart, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Scientists have attempted to precisely determine eustatic changes using various techniques. One of these is the sequence stratigraphic technique which relies on vertical changes in the position of coastal onlap (Vail et al, 1977). In subsequent years, several authors have recognized many limitations in this approach (Christie-Blick et al., 1990). Our ongoing study focuses on the possibility of using the morphology of modern and ancient shelf-margin deltas as sea-level indicators to determine past sea-level elevations. The Mississippi River Delta provides an excellent opportunity to study the precise relationship between shelf-edge delta morphology and sea-level elevation. A morphological analysis of the modern Mississippi River Delta suggests that there may be a direct relationship between the sea-level and the offlap break features of the delta. The offlap break is defined at the intersection of topset and foreset at the location of a marked increase in slope. At this point, the bathymetric curvature (i.e. second derivative of sea-floor) is highest. This is analogous to O'Grady and Syvitski (2002) definition of shelf break offshore Greenland. More than a hundred bathymetric cross sections were made across the modern Balize lobe of the Mississippi River Delta using Rivertools software. The geomorphic analysis showed that there were two distinct morphologic types of the delta. In one type, there is a sharp transition from the topset to the foreset, whereas in a second type, the topset-foreset transition is gradual. It was observed that sharp offlap breaks characterize the eastern part of the delta at water depths of 1 ± 0.3 m. The southern and southwestern parts of the delta are characterized by gradual offlap breaks at water depths of 4 ± 2 m.

  20. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, soil nutrient levels, and foliage age on the performance of two generations of Neodiprion lecontei (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) feeding on loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)]|[Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC (United States); Thomas, R.B.; Strain, B.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We investigated how changes in loblolly pine needle phytochemistry caused by elevated CO{sub 2}, leaf age, and soil nutrient levels affected the performance of 2 individual generations of the multivoltine folivorous insect pest Neodiprion lecontei. In 2 feeding trials, mature needles produced in the previous (spring) and current (fall) year from seedlings grown in open-topped chambers under 4 CO{sub 2} and 2 soil nutrient levels were fed to 2 separate generations of red beaded pine sawfly larvae. Strong seasonal differences (i.e., spring versus fall) in leaf nutritional and defensive constituents resulted in significant between-generation differences in the growth, consumption, and growth efficiency of sawfly larvae. Enriched CO{sub 2}-grown needles bad higher levels of starch and starch/nitrogen ratios in older, overwintering spring needles, which were lower in leaf nitrogen and monoterpenes than younger, current year needles (fall). Overall, larval growth was higher and consumption lower on the fall needles, presumably because of higher levels of leaf nitrogen compared with the spring needles. The plant CO{sub 2} concentration significantly contributed to the larval consumption responses between seasons (significant CO{sub 2} X season interaction), demonstrating that the 2 sawfly generations were affected differently by CO{sub 2}-induced phytochemical alterations in spring versus fall needles. The data presented here suggests that when investigating multivoltine folivorous insect responses to elevated CO{sub 2}-grown tree seedlings in which multiple leaf flushes within a growing season expose insects to an array of leaf phytochemical changes, >1 insect generation should be investigated. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 'Evaluating B-type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients with Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction' (ST Elevasyonu Olmayan Miyokard Enfarktüslü Hastalarin B-Tipi Natriüretik Peptid Düzeylerinin De?erlendirilmesi) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Ucar; Yuksel Koca; Gonul Erden; Turan Turhan; Mustafa Metin Yildirimkaya; Serpil Erdogan; Zeynep Ginis

    Background: We compared the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, with the levels in the healthy con- trol group. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the emergency department. Thirty patients with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 29 healthy con- trol subjects were included in the data analysis. We sampled B-type natriuretic pep-

  2. High temperature pulses decrease indirect chilling injury and elevate ATP levels in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis.

    PubMed

    Dollo, Vanessa H; Yi, Shu-Xia; Lee, Richard E

    2010-06-01

    Indirect chilling injury commonly occurs during long-term exposure to low temperature in many organisms including insects. A previous study revealed increased rates of survival and reduced cold injury in flesh flies, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, that experienced an intermittent pulse of high temperature during a low-temperature regiment. We extended these studies by determining survival rates and ATP levels for flies that had undergone continuous long-term exposure at 0 degrees C versus those experiencing a 24-h warming pulse of either 15 or 20 degrees C. Survival among flies that had undergone a warming pulse was significantly greater than for flies that were maintained continuously at 0 degrees C. Furthermore, ATP levels of flies that had experienced a warming pulse were significantly higher than those of flies maintained at 0 degrees C. These data suggest that brief warming pulses during long-term cold storage allow regeneration of energy reserves that promote survival and reduce indirect chilling injury. PMID:20233586

  3. High-Resolution Coastal Elevation Data: The Key to Planning for Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Monmonier

    The coastline is a long, narrow hazard zone vulnerable to storm surge or tsunami as well as to the much slower rise in relative\\u000a sea level associated with climate change and crustal subsidence. Effective planning for coastal hazards depends upon reliable\\u000a climatological and tidal data, monitoring networks able to detect large rotating storms or distant undersea earthquakes, and\\u000a refinement of

  4. Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-02-22

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

  5. Elevated urinary transforming growth factor-beta1 level as a tumour marker and predictor of poor survival in cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, J. F.; Jeng, J. E.; Chuang, L. Y.; Yang, M. L.; Ho, M. S.; Chang, W. Y.; Hsieh, M. Y.; Lin, Z. Y.; Tsai, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), urinary TGF-beta1 and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were determined in 94 patients with cirrhotic HCC, 94 age- and sex-matched patients with cirrhosis alone and 50 healthy adults. TGF-beta1 level in HCC was higher than in cirrhosis alone or in healthy controls (each P = 0.0001). There is an inverse correlation between TGF-beta1 and AFP levels (r = -0.292, P = 0.004). Significantly higher TGF-beta1 level was found in HCC patients with worsening Child-Pugh stages, diffuse HCC, tumour size > 3 cm, multilobular tumour and AFP < or = 20 ng ml(-1). TGF-beta1 level decreased after complete treatment with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (P = 0.0001). The median survival in HCC patients with raised TGF-beta1 was shorter than those with normal TGF-beta1 (P = 0.018). Multivariate analysis indicated that TGF-beta1 and AFP were significantly correlated with the presence of HCC. In addition, TGF-beta1 could be used as a diagnostic marker for HCC, particularly in tumours with low AFP production. In conclusion, elevated urinary TGF-beta1 level is a tumour marker and predictor of poor survival for cirrhotic HCC. PMID:9231926

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of material-induced platelet activation in a canine model: elevated microparticle levels and reduced platelet life span.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, C H; Yeo, E L; Sefton, M V

    1997-11-01

    Assessment of material-induced platelet activation is important given that it is thought to be a major mechanism of biomaterials thrombogenicity. We monitored, by flow cytometry, platelet microparticle (MP) levels in the circulation during the connection of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and polyethylene (PE) test segments (3.18 mm ID, 20 and 50 cm L) to our chronically shunted beagle dogs. We report that circulating microparticle levels were dependent on test segment material, length, and time. The connection of 50-cm lengths of PVA hydrogel test segments led to MP levels two to three times greater than background at 48 h, while the connection of polyethylene test segments did not lead to elevated microparticle levels. MP levels were near background 24 h after removal of the PVA test segment. To determine platelet life span during the connection of test segments, platelets were labeled in vivo with biotin and their disappearance monitored flow cytometrically. While platelet life span for shunted dogs (no test segment) was 4.7 +/- 0.2 days, the connection of PVA hydrogel test segments led to a platelet life span of < 2 days. PMID:9358309

  7. Alleviation of seipinopathy-related ER stress by triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Salo, Veijo T; Ohsaki, Yuki; Suster, Maximiliano L; Ikonen, Elina

    2013-03-15

    Mutations affecting the N-glycosylation site in Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (BSCL)-associated gene BSCL2/seipin lead to a dominantly inherited spastic paraplegia termed seipinopathy. While the loss of function of seipin leads to severe congenital lipodystrophy, the effects of seipin N-glycosylation mutations on lipid balance in the nervous system are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of seipin N-glycosylation mutant N88S led to decreased triglyceride (TG) content in astrocytoma and motor neuron cell lines. This was corrected by supplementation with exogenous oleic acid. Upon oleic acid loading, seipin N88S protein was relocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the surface of lipid droplets and this was paralleled by alleviation of ER stress induced by the mutant protein. This effect was not limited to seipin N88S, as oleic acid loading also reduced tunicamycin-induced ER stress in motor neuron cells. Furthermore, both seipin N88S and tunicamycin-induced ER stress were decreased by inhibiting lipolysis, suggesting that lipid droplets protected neuronal cells from ER stress. In developing zebrafish larvae, seipin N88S expression led to TG imbalance and reduced spontaneous free swimming. Importantly, supplementation with exogenous oleic acid reduced ER stress in the zebrafish head and increased fish motility. We propose that the decreased TG content contributes to the pathology induced by seipin N88S, and that rescuing TG levels may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in seipinopathy. PMID:23250914

  8. Adipose triglyceride lipase affects triacylglycerol metabolism at brain barriers.

    PubMed

    Etschmaier, Karoline; Becker, Tatjana; Eichmann, Thomas O; Schweinzer, Cornelia; Scholler, Monika; Tam-Amersdorfer, Carmen; Poeckl, Michael; Schuligoi, Rufina; Kober, Alexandra; Chirackal Manavalan, Anil Paul; Rechberger, Gerald N; Streith, Ingo E; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Panzenboeck, Ute

    2011-12-01

    Currently, little is known about the role of intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases in the brain. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATGL deficiency on brain lipid metabolism in vivo using an established knock-out mouse model (ATGL-ko). A moderate decrease in TAG hydrolase activity detected in ATGL-ko versus wild-type brain tissue was accompanied by a 14-fold increase in TAG levels and an altered composition of TAG-associated fatty acids in ATGL-ko brains. Oil Red O staining revealed a severe accumulation of neutral lipids associated to cerebrovascular cells and in distinct brain regions namely the ependymal cell layer and the choroid plexus along the ventricular system. In situ hybridization histochemistry identified ATGL mRNA expression in ependymal cells, the choroid plexus, pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, and the dentate gyrus. Our findings imply that ATGL is involved in brain fatty acid metabolism, particularly in regions mediating transport and exchange processes: the brain-CSF interface, the blood-CSF barrier, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:21951135

  9. The G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 Is an Important Regulator of Hepatic Triglyceride Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hang; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Zhifeng; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Yang, Handong; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2) potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/Very-Low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:23951308

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid of newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients exhibits abnormal levels of selenium species including elevated selenite

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Marco; Solovyev, Nikolay; Mandrioli, Jessica; Crespi, Catherine M.; Bonvicini, Francesca; Arcolin, Elisa; Georgoulopoulou, Eleni; Michalke, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to selenium, and particularly to its inorganic forms, has been hypothesized as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fast progressing motor neuron disease with poorly understood etiology. However, no information is known about levels of inorganic and some organic selenium species in the central nervous system of ALS patients, and recent observations suggest that peripheral biomarkers of exposure are unable to predict these levels for several Se species including the inorganic forms. Using a hospital-referred cases-control series and advanced selenium speciation methods, we compared the chemical species of selenium in cerebrospinal fluid from thirty-eight ALS patients to those of thirty-eight reference neurological patients matched on age and gender. We found that higher concentrations of inorganic selenium in the form of selenite and of human serum albumin-bound selenium were associated with increased ALS risk (relative risks 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2–11.0) and 1.7 (1.0–2.9) for 0.1µg/l increase). Conversely, lower concentrations of selenoprotein P-bound selenium were associated with increased risk (relative risk 0.2 for 1µg/l increase, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.8). The associations were stronger among cases age 50 years or older, who are postulated to have lower rates of genetic disease origin. These results suggest that excess selenite and human serum albumin bound-selenium and low levels of selenoprotein P-bound selenium in the central nervous system, which may be related, may play a role in ALS etiology. PMID:23732511

  11. Elevated levels of metals and organic pollutants in fish and clams in the Cape Fear River watershed.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; McIver, Matthew R; Fulton, Michael; Wirth, Ed

    2011-10-01

    A study was performed in 2003 to 2004 to assess metal and organic contaminant concentrations at three areas in the lower Cape Fear River system, North Carolina, United States. Sites examined were Livingston Creek along the mainstem of the Cape Fear River near Riegelwood, Six Runs Creek in the Black River Basin, and Rockfish Creek in the Northeast Cape Fear River basin. The results of the investigation showed that levels of metals and organic pollutants in the sediments were lower than limits considered harmful to aquatic life. However, results of fish (adult bowfin) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), and now-banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide dieldrin were higher than levels considered safe for human consumption by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the North Carolina Health Director's Office. Fish tissue concentrations of Hg, Se, and PCBs were also higher than concentrations determined by researchers to be detrimental either to the health of the fish themselves or their avian and mammalian predators. Due to the rural nature of two of the sites, increased concentrations of As, Cd, Se, and PCBs in fish tissue were unexpected. The likely reason the levels are increased in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain. These pollutants will also biomagnify in humans. In these rural areas there is subsistence fishing by low-income families; thus, increased fish tissue metals and toxicant concentrations may present a direct threat to human health. PMID:21221963

  12. Elevated homocysteine levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Silva, Talita Capoani Vieira; de Oliveira, Vitor Hugo Fernando

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between the levels of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, vitamin B12 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not treated with ART. METHODS: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched. Eligible studies regarding plasma Hcy level in HIV-infected patients were firstly identified. After careful analysis by two independent researches, the identified articles were included in the review according to two outcomes (1) Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 blood concentration in HIV-infected subjects vs health controls and; (2) Hcy blood concentration in HIV-infected subjects under ART vs not treated with ART. RevMan (version 5.2) was employed for data synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included in outcome 1 (1649 participants, 932 cases and 717 controls). Outcome 1 meta-analysis demonstrated higher plasma Hcy (2.05 µmol/L; 95%CI: 0.10 to 4.00, P < 0.01) and decreased plasma folate concentrations (-2.74 ng/mL; 95%CI: -5.18 to -0.29, P < 0.01) in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. No changes in vitamin B12 plasma concentration were observed between groups. All studies included in the outcome 2 meta-analysis (1167 participants; 404 HIV-infected exposed to ART and 757 HIV-infected non-ART patients) demonstrated higher mean Hcy concentration in subjects HIV-infected under ART compared to non-ART HIV subjects (4.13 µmol/L; 95%CI: 1.34 to 6.92, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the levels of Hcy and folate, but not vitamin B12, were associated with HIV infection. In addition, Hcy levels were higher in HIV-infected patients who were under ART compared to HIV-infected patients who were not exposed to ART. Our results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia should be included among the several important metabolic disturbances that are associated with ART in patients with HIV infection. PMID:25964880

  13. Elevated levels of SREBP-2 and cholesterol synthesis in livers of mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the SREBP-1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Shimano, H; Shimomura, I; Hammer, R E; Herz, J; Goldstein, J L; Brown, M S; Horton, J D

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of cholesterol and its uptake from plasma LDL are regulated by two membrane-bound transcription factors, designated sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and SREBP-2). Here, we used the technique of homologous recombination to generate mice with disruptions in the gene encoding the two isoforms of SREBP-1, termed SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c. Heterozygous gene-disrupted mice were phenotypically normal, but 50- 85% of the homozygous (-/-) mice died in utero at embryonic day 11. The surviving -/- mice appeared normal at birth and throughout life. Their livers expressed no functional SREBP-1. There was a 1.5-fold upregulation of SREBP-2 at the level of mRNA and a two- to threefold increase in the amount of mature SREBP-2 in liver nuclei. Previous studies showed that SREBP-2 is much more potent than SREBP-1c, the predominant hepatic isoform of SREBP-1, in activating transcription of genes encoding enzymes of cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with this observation, the SREBP-1 -/- animals manifested elevated levels of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and squalene synthase. Cholesterol synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of [3H]water, was elevated threefold in livers of the -/- mice, and hepatic cholesterol content was increased by 50%. Fatty acid synthesis was decreased in livers of the -/- mice. The amount of white adipose tissue was not significantly decreased, and the levels of mRNAs for lipogenic enzymes, adipocyte lipid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and leptin were normal in the -/- mice. We conclude from these studies that SREBP-2 can replace SREBP-1 in regulating cholesterol synthesis in livers of mice and that the higher potency of SREBP-2 relative to SREBP-1c leads to excessive hepatic cholesterol synthesis in these animals. PMID:9329978

  14. Elevated plasma endothelin-1 level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and responsiveness of the mesenteric arterial bed to endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Ayako; Kamata, Katsuo

    1998-01-01

    Both the plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and the plasma glucose levels were markedly elevated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.The maximum contractile response of the mesenteric arterial bed to ET-1 was significantly reduced, and the vasodilatation induced by the ETB-receptor agonist IRL-1620 in the mesenteric arterial bed was significantly reduced in STZ-induced diabetic rats.ET-1 (10?8?M) caused a transient vasodilatation followed by a marked vasoconstriction in methoxamine-preconstricted mesenteric arterial beds. The ET-1-induced vasodilatation was significantly larger in beds from diabetic rats than in those from age-matched controls. By contrast, the ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was significantly smaller in STZ-induced diabetic rats than in the controls.Both removal of the endothelium with Triton X-100 and preincubation with BQ-788 (10?6?M) (ETB-receptor antagonist) abolished the ET-1-induced vasodilatation. Preincubation with BQ-485 (10?6?M) or BQ-123 (3×10?6) (ETA-receptor antagonist) significantly augmented the ET-1-induced vasodilatation in control mesenteric arterial beds, but not that in beds from diabetic rats.These results demonstrate that marked increases not only in plasma glucose, but also in plasma ET-1 occur in STZ-induced diabetic rats. We suggest that the decreased contractile response and the increased vasodilator response of the mesenteric arterial bed to ET-1 may both be due to desensitization of ETA receptors, though ETB receptors may also be desensitized. This desensitization may result from the elevation of the plasma ET-1 levels seen in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:9559887

  15. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimple Aggarwal; Kristy L West; Tosca L Zern; Sudeep Shrestha; Marcela Vergara-Jimenez; Maria Luz Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi) have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG). However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce

  16. Regulation of S-like ribonuclease levels in Arabidopsis. Antisense inhibition of RNS1 or RNS2 elevates anthocyanin accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bariola, P.A.; MacIntosh, G.C.; Green, P.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Plant Research Lab.] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Plant Research Lab.

    1999-01-01

    The S-like ribonucleases (RNases) RNS1 and RNS2 of Arabidopsis are members of the widespread T{sub 2} ribonuclease family, whose members also include the S-RNases, involved in gametophytic self-incompatibility in plants. Both RNS1 and RNS2 mRNAs have been shown previously to be induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. In this study the authors examined this regulation at the protein level and determined the effects of diminishing RNS1 and RNS2 expression using antisense techniques. The Pi-starvation control of RNS1 and RNS2 was confirmed using antibodies specific for each protein. These specific antibodies also demonstrated that RNS1 is secreted, whereas RNS2 is intracellular. By introducing antisense constructs, mRNA accumulation was inhibited by up to 90% for RNS1 and up to 65% for NS2. These plants contained abnormally high levels of anthocyanins, the production of which is often associated with several forms of stress, including Pi starvation. This effect demonstrates that diminishing the amounts of either RNS1 or RNS2 leads to effects that cannot be compensated for by the actions of other RNases, even though Arabidopsis contains a large number of different RNase activities. These results, together with the differential localization of the proteins, imply that RNS1 and RNS2 have distinct functions in the plant.

  17. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  18. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jurdana, Mihaela; Biolo, Gianni; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala

    2015-01-01

    As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR). Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances. PMID:25821801

  19. The possible link between the elevated serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neurogenic inflammation is orchestrated by a large number of neuropeptides. Tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B) are pro-inflammatory neuropeptides that may play an important role in some autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases. Autoimmunity may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism in some patients. We are the first to measure serum neurokinin A levels in autistic children. The relationship between serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies was also studied. Methods Serum neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies were measured in 70 autistic children in comparison to 48 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly higher serum neurokinin A levels than healthy controls (P < 0.001). Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum neurokinin A levels than patients with mild to moderate autism (P < 0.001). Increased serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies were found in 57.1% and 44.3%, respectively of autistic children. There was significant positive correlations between serum levels of neurokinin A and anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies (P = 0.004). Conclusions Serum neurokinin A levels were elevated in some autistic children and they were significantly correlated to the severity of autism and to serum levels of anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies. However, this is an initial report that warrants further research to determine the pathogenic role of neurokinin A and its possible link to autoimmunity in autism. The therapeutic role of tachykinin receptor antagonists, a potential new class of anti-inflammatory medications, should also be studied in autism. PMID:22189180

  20. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure.

    PubMed

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. CONCLUSIONS In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  1. Effects of metformin and insulin on h9c2 rat cardiomyocytes in cell culture with elevated glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lishia; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus require adequate blood glucose control with insulin, metformin or other anti-hyperglycemic agents to prevent significant co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Studies have determined that metformin increases the activity of AMP activated protein kinase and reduces hepatic glucose production and increases tissue sensitivity to insulin. Insulin has some vascular protective qualities; however insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes may be harmful to vascular endothelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of metformin and insulin on H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes in high glucose culture media. Results of this study indicate that clinical doses both insulin and metformin are capable of reducing supernatant glucose levels in high glucose media. Metformin may offer some protection to cardiomyoctyes. Morphologically, cellular changes occurred after exposure to both insulin and metformin at both 24 and 48 hours although at 72 hours, both groups exhibit evidence of cellular damage. PMID:25405446

  2. Elevated levels of PtdIns5P in NPM-ALK transformed cells: implication of PIKfyve.

    PubMed

    Coronas, S; Lagarrigue, F; Ramel, D; Chicanne, G; Delsol, G; Payrastre, B; Tronchère, H

    2008-07-25

    Phosphatidylinositol 5-monophosphate (PtdIns5P), one of the latest phosphoinositides discovered, has been suggested to play important cellular functions. Here, we report the presence of higher levels of this lipid in cells expressing the oncogenic tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), a chimeric protein found in the large majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). In addition, we describe that a pool of PtdIns5P is located in the membrane extensions characteristic of NPM-ALK-transformed cells. Finally, we show that the increase of PtdIns5P is controlled by the kinase PIKfyve, which is known for its role in vesicular trafficking. These data suggest for the first time a role of PtdIns5P and PIKfyve in oncogenesis, potentially linking intracellular trafficking to cancer. PMID:18501703

  3. Elevated levels of mitochondrial mortalin and cytosolic HSP70 in blood as risk factors in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Perri; Kocsis, Judit; Saar, Moran; Prohászka, Zoltán; Füst, George; Fishelson, Zvi

    2013-07-15

    Mortalin/GRP75 is a ubiquitous mitochondrial chaperone related to the cytosolic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It protects cells from senescence and apoptosis and is overexpressed in cancer cells. Cell resistance to complement-dependent cytotoxicity depends on mortalin and during complement attack mortalin is released from cells. Our goal was to determine whether cancer patients have circulating mortalin in blood. The significance of mortalin in blood to survival prospects of colorectal cancer patients was evaluated. Occurrence of extracellular soluble HSP70 (sHSP70) is documented. We developed a sensitive ELISA for mortalin. The association between mortalin level and survival was subjected to the Cox proportional hazards analysis (univariate and multivariate analyses). Mortalin concentration in serum of colorectal cancer patients was 10-214 ng/ml. Survival data of the patients were known from an earlier study of sHSP70 in these samples. Cox regression analysis indicated that high mortalin (>60 ng/ml) is a risk factor for shorter survival. Serum levels of sHSP70 and mortalin in patients were independent variables. Concurrence of high sHSP70 and mortalin was associated with rapid disease progression (HR = 4, 2.04-8.45, p < 0.001). Addition of high sHSP70 and mortalin to a baseline model of age, sex and TNM stage, significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced the risk score to 8 (3.26-20.46). This is the first demonstration of circulating mortalin in cancer patients. Analysis of mortalin in blood, and even more so of mortalin and sHSP70, adds a high prognostic value to the TNM stage and will identify colorectal cancer patients at high risk of poor survival. PMID:23319326

  4. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Fujita, Misuzu; Yamato, Takako; Oumi, Masayo; Holst, Jens Juul; Seino, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion. To clarify the effect of ingested fatty acid composition on glucose levels, we conducted an intervention study to investigate the insulin and plasma GIP responses in 11 healthy women, including a dietary control. Subjects were provided daily control meals (F-20; saturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids [S/M/P] ratio, 3:4:3) with 20 energy (E) % fat, followed by 2 isoenergetic experimental meals for 7 days each. These meals comprised 60 E% carbohydrate, 15 E% protein, and 30 E% fat (FB-30; high saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 5:4:1; F-30: reduced saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 3:4:3). On the second day of the F-20 and the last day of F-30 and FB-30, blood samples were taken before and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose responses did not differ between F-20 and FB-30 or F-30. However, insulin levels were higher after the FB-30 than after the F-20 (P < .01). The GIP response after the FB-30 was higher than that after the F-30 (P < .05). In addition, the difference in the incremental GIP between FB-30 and F-30 correlated significantly and positively with that of the insulin. These results suggest that a high saturated fatty acid content stimulates postprandial insulin release via increased GIP secretion. PMID:25172378

  5. Serum N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NTproBNP) Levels Are Elevated During the Acute Phase of Acute Encephalopathy-Associated Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Miho; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nomura, Shohei; Ohba, Chizu; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Miyamoto, Ryohei; Tanabe, Takuya; Azumagawa, Kohji; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Acute virus-associated encephalopathy induces seizures. Serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels are elevated following febrile and afebrile seizures. However, the role of NTproBNP in acute virus-associated encephalopathy pathology is unknown. We enrolled 10 patients with acute virus-associated encephalopathy and convulsions (E group: 7 boys, 3 girls; median age, 3.10 ± 1.92 years) and 130 patients with febrile seizure (FS group: 80 boys, 50 girls; median age, 3.23 ± 2.44 years). The E group had significantly higher NTproBNP levels (345 ± 141 pg/mL) compared with the FS group (166 ± 228 pg/mL) (P < .0005). Furthermore, subjects with prolonged seizure within the E group had significantly higher NTproBNP levels (303 ± 107 pg/mL) compared with subjects with prolonged seizure within the FS group (134 ± 100 pg/mL) (P < .005). Our findings suggest that serum NTproBNP levels are increased during the acute phase of acute virus-associated encephalopathy associated with convulsion. PMID:25117415

  6. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 ?g/L (mean ?1,422 ?g/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ?0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ?4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation. PMID:26042988

  7. Elevated dentine-lead levels in deciduous teeth collected from remote first nation communities located in the western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J; Karagatzides, J D; Katapatuk, B; Young, J; Kozlovic, D R; Hannin, R M; Nieboer, E

    2001-12-01

    Teeth were collected from First Nation schoolchildren inhabiting the remote western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada. Lead levels in dentine chips were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, for naturally exfoliated deciduous teeth. Within exfoliated teeth (one tooth supplied per person), no significant differences in lead concentrations between tooth type were found (P = 0.36). The mean lead concentration of exfoliated teeth of 9.2 microg g(-1) dry weight (N = 61) from this remote region was comparable to levels reported by others for children inhabiting urban centers or residing near smelters. Further, 24.6% (N = 15) had elevated dentine-lead levels ( > 10 microg g(-1)). Lead levels in soil, water, and air have been reported as being low and unimportant sources of exposure for people of the western James Bay area. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that lead contaminated game meat was one source of environmental lead exposure. Consumption data indicate that wildlife is still an important food source for First Nation people of the western James Bay region; 98% (46/47) of the children surveyed consumed some type of wild meat. PMID:11785648

  8. Inhibiting proteasomal degradation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein prevents CCl4-induced steatosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, Farah N; Iqbal, Jahangir; Feuerman, Miriam H; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2007-06-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) interferes with triglyceride secretion and causes steatosis, fibrosis, and necrosis. In mice, CCl(4) decreased plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, increased cellular lipids, and reduced microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) without diminishing mRNA levels. Similarly, CCl(4) decreased apoB-lipoprotein production and MTP activity but had no effect on mRNA levels in primary enterocytes and colon carcinoma and hepatoma cells. CCl(4) did not affect MTP synthesis but induced post-translational degradation involving ubiquitinylation and proteasomes in McA-RH7777 cells. By contrast, MTP inhibitor increased cellular lipids without affecting MTP protein. MTP was covalently modified when cells were incubated with (14)CCl(4). This modification was prevented by the inhibition of P450 oxygenases, indicating that CCl(3)(.) generated by these enzymes targets MTP for degradation. To determine whether inhibition of proteolysis could prevent CCl(4) toxicity, mice were fed with CCl(4) with or without lactacystin. Lactacystin increased ubiquitinylated MTP and prevented lipid accumulation in tissues. Thus, CCl(4) induces post-translational degradation without affecting lipid transfer activity, whereas MTP antagonist inhibits lipid transfer activity without causing its destruction. These studies identify MTP as a major target of CCl(4) and its degradation as a novel mechanism involved in the onset of steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of proteolysis may prevent some forms of steatosis. PMID:17405876

  9. Thalassemia major patients using iron chelators showed a reduced plasma thioredoxin level and reduced thioredoxin reductase activity, despite elevated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Z; Genc, G E; Kupesiz, A; Kurtoglu, E; Gumuslu, S

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate plasma levels of peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), in thalassemia major (TM) patients living in the Antalya region, Turkey. The patients were divided into three groups, according to chelators - the deferoxamine group (DFO, n = 20), the deferasirox group (DFX, n = 20), and the deferiprone group (DFP, n = 20), to compare any possible effect of chelators on antioxidative and oxidative stress parameters. A control group (n = 20) was selected from healthy volunteers. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and TrxR, as well as the concentrations of Prx2, Trx1, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the plasma samples of TM patients and the controls. The activity of CAT and the levels of H2O2 and MDA in the TM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls, while the levels of GPx, Trx1, TrxR, and GSH were lower. The concentrations of ferritin, GSH, H2O2, and MDA, as well as the activities of GR, CAT and TrxR, showed significant differences among the chelator groups. Although TrxR activity showed an increase in TM patients due to an elevated iron overload, both TrxR activity and Trx1 level were lower in the patient groups compared with the cases in the control group. As a result, because Trx1 level and TrxR activity were measured at a low level in the patients, increasing the levels of Trx1 and TrxR in TM patients will be a target of future treatment. PMID:25564095

  10. Endogenous ?-glucocerebrosidase activity in Abca12?/?epidermis elevates ceramide levels after topical lipid application but does not restore barrier function.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jorge F; Cavallaro, Paul; Hernandez, Nicholas J; Dolat, Lee; Soscia, Stephanie J; Welti, Ruth; Grabowski, Gregory A; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Freeman, Mason W

    2014-03-01

    ABCA12 mutations disrupt the skin barrier and cause harlequin ichthyosis. We previously showed Abca12(-/-) skin has increased glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and correspondingly lower amounts of ceramide (Cer). To examine why loss of ABCA12 leads to accumulation of GlcCer, de novo sphingolipid synthesis was assayed using [(14)C]serine labeling in ex vivo skin cultures. A defect was found in ?-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) processing of newly synthesized GlcCer species. This was not due to a decline in GCase function. Abca12(-/-) epidermis had 5-fold more GCase protein (n = 4, P < 0.01), and a 5-fold increase in GCase activity (n = 3, P < 0.05). As with Abca12(+/+) epidermis, immunostaining in null skin showed a typical interstitial distribution of the GCase protein in the Abca12(-/-) stratum corneum. Hence, we tested whether the block in GlcCer conversion could be circumvented by topically providing GlcCer. This approach restored up to 15% of the lost Cer products of GCase activity in the Abca12(-/-) epidermis. However, this level of barrier ceramide replacement did not significantly reduce trans-epidermal water loss function. Our results indicate loss of ABCA12 function results in a failure of precursor GlcCer substrate to productively interact with an intact GCase enzyme, and they support a model of ABCA12 function that is critical for transporting GlcCer into lamellar bodies. PMID:24293640

  11. Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R.; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  12. Elevated in vivo levels of a single transcription factor directly convert satellite glia into oligodendrocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  13. Discovery of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors with potential for decreased active metabolite load compared to dirlotapide.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ralph P; Bartlett, Jeremy A; Bertinato, Peter; Bessire, Andrew J; Cosgrove, Judith; Foley, Patrick M; Manion, Tara B; Minich, Martha L; Ramos, Brenda; Reese, Matthew R; Schmahai, Theodore J; Swick, Andrew G; Tess, David A; Vaz, Alfin; Wolford, Angela

    2011-07-15

    Analogues related to dirlotapide (1), a gut-selective inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) were prepared with the goal of further reducing the potential for unwanted liver MTP inhibition and associated side-effects. Compounds were designed to decrease active metabolite load: reducing MTP activity of likely human metabolites and increasing metabolite clearance to reduce exposure. Introduction of 4'-alkyl and 4'-alkoxy substituents afforded compounds exhibiting improved therapeutic index in rats with respect to liver triglyceride accumulation and enzyme elevation. Likely human metabolites of select compounds were prepared and characterized for their potential to inhibit MTP in vivo. Based on preclinical efficacy and safety data and its potential for producing short-lived, weakly active metabolites, compound 13 (PF-02575799) advanced into phase 1 clinical studies. PMID:21684740

  14. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-05-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a (13)C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial (13)C-triglyceride and (13)C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma (13)C-triglyceride and (13)C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in (13)C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower (13)C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT (3)H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic (3)H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower (3)H-TRL hydrolysis and (3)H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased (3)H-TRL hydrolysis and (3)H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated (3)H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  15. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-01-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in 13C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower 13C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT 3H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic 3H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated 3H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  16. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR ? mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400?mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR ?) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR ? and ACO mRNA expression. Expression