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Sample records for elevated triglyceride levels

  1. Boysenberry Polyphenols Suppressed Elevation of Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Shigeru; Noguchi, Akane; Nagakura, Yuta; Kobori, Kinji; Ohta, Tatsuo; Sakaguchi, Ei; Ichiyanagi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Boysenberry, a hybrid Rubus berry, is mainly cultivated in New Zealand. We previously reported that consumption of boysenberry juice (BBJ) exhibited anti-obesity effects in high-fat feeding rats. In this study, we focused on the suppressive effect of BBJ and its fraction on triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. BBJ effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and was separated into four fractions (Fr1, Fr2, Fr3 and Fr4) by HP-20 column chromatography. Among all the fractions, Fr3, the ellagic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent inhibition against pancreatic lipase in vitro with Fr2, the anthocyanin-rich fraction, second. Authentic ellagic acid equivalent in Fr3 showed poor activity against pancreatic lipase. Then, each fraction was orally administered with corn oil to rats fitted with a jugular catheter to examine the effects of each fraction on plasma triglyceride levels. Both Fr2 and Fr3 effectively suppressed the plasma triglyceride level elevation at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. These findings demonstrated that BBJ contains chemical components which inhibit triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26440637

  2. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also cause swelling of your pancreas (called pancreatitis). The triglyceride level is usually included in a ... lower triglyceride levels may be used to prevent pancreatitis for levels above 500 mg/dL Low triglyceride ...

  3. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  4. Elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein level in carbon disulfide workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Chang, Shu-Ju; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2003-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a man-made product utilized primarily in the manufacture of viscose rayon. Overexposure to CS2 has been associated with an increase in coronary heart disease. The aims of this study were to examine the dose-response relationship of CS2 exposure and elevated lipid profile tests among CS2-exposed workers in Taiwan. A total of 132 workers were recruited from two viscose rayon plants. Air sampling was performed to determine the CS2 exposure of workers. Demographic data and work history were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Lipid profile tests were also performed by routine methods. The average CS2 exposure concentration was 50.6 +/- 25.6 ppm (range: 24-127 ppm) in the high-exposure group, 12.9 +/- 5 ppm (range: 5.2-22.3 ppm) in the mid-exposure group, and 3.5 +/- 1.2 ppm (range 0.97-5.2 ppm) in the low-exposure group. There were 21 out of 33 (63.7%) elevated triglyceride levels among high-CS2-exposure workers, 27 out of 64 (42.2%) among the middle-CS2-exposure, and 14 out of 35 (40%) among low-CS2-exposure workers, respectively. Compared to the low-CS2-exposure workers, the age- and weight-adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of the prevalence of elevated triglyceride value were 1.12 (0.5, 2.7) for middle-CS2-exposure workers, and 2.81 (1.02, 7.8) for high-CS2-exposure workers. There was a significant linear trend between CS2 exposure and the prevalence of elevated triglyceride value (P = 0.046) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a lower prevalence of elevated HDL level in high-CS2-exposure workers than low-CS2-exposure workers (15.2% versus 31.4%). Compared to the low-CS2-exposure workers, the age- and weight-adjusted odds ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of elevated HDL level were 0.34 (0.1, 1.18) for high-CS2-exposure workers, which was borderline significant. In conclusion, this study suggests that elevated triglyceride level and decreased HDL level are associated with CS2 exposure

  5. Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

  6. Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of fat may raise the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are below 150. Levels above ...

  7. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  8. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  9. Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P

    2011-06-01

    While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC₅₀. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation. PMID:21406246

  10. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-02-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  11. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  12. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of various factors on the serum triglyceride level in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, R; Miyoshi, T; Imaki, M; Nakamura, T

    1994-06-01

    The life style of young adults has been receiving attention with a view to its improvement to preventing coronary heart diseases (CHD) in later life. In this study, for determining the influence of different life styles on the serum triglyceride level, we carried out surveys and laboratory studies on the relationships of the nutritional intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption of young adults with their serum triglyceride levels. The nutritional survey indicated a significant correlation between the serum triglyceride level and carbohydrate intake (p < 0.01). In the survey of physical activity, a significant inverse correlation was found between the energy expenditure per kg body weight and the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found of smoking or drinking with the serum triglyceride level. The body mass index was found to have effects on both the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Of the factors examined, carbohydrate intake and energy expenditure per kg body weight had the greatest effects on the serum triglyceride level. Considering the trend for young people to consume large quantities of carbonated drinks, in which most of carbohydrate is sucrose, we tested the affect of a high carbohydrate diet on one group of subjects and found that it caused a significant increase in the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). Another group for whom a mild exercise regimen was prescribed showed slight, but not significant decrease in the serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that at least optimal nutrition and physical activity including weight control during adolescence are important for preventing CHD. PMID:7940529

  14. The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.

    PubMed

    Maimanee, Tahia A

    2010-04-01

    Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam. PMID:20503603

  15. Serum Triglyceride Level: A Predictor of Complications and Outcomes in Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Peralta, Richard; Abbas, Naeem; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Thet, Phyo; Zaw, Tin; Hui, Shirley; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study serum triglyceride level as a predictor of complications and outcomes in acute pancreatitis. Methods. In this retrospective observational study, 582 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, who had serum triglyceride levels measured within the first 24 hours, were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients with a triglyceride level ≥2.26 mmol/L (group 2) and the control group consisted of triglyceride level of <2.26 mmol/L (group 1). We collected data for baseline demographics, laboratory values, incidence of complications (local and systemic), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ICU length of stay, length of total hospital stay, and death in the two groups. Results. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L was found to be an independent predictor of developing altered mental status (p: 0.004), pancreatic necrosis (p: 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p: 0001), systemic Inflammatory response syndrome (p: 0.001), acute kidney injury (p: 0.001), hospital length of stay (LOS) (p: 0.002), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (p: 0.002), and ICU LOS (p: 0.003). Conclusion. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L on admission in acute pancreatitis is an independent predictor of developing local and systemic complications, hospital LOS, admission to ICU, and ICU LOS.

  16. Feeding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(omega)nitroarginine elevates serum very low density lipoprotein and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Ohnomi, S; Khedara, A; Kato, N; Ogawa, H; Yanagita, T

    1999-05-01

    This study was conducted to study the influence of dietary L-N(omega)nitroarginine (L-NNA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on serum lipids and lipoproteins and on the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in rats. Feeding rats a diet containing 0.2 g/kg L-NNA for 5 weeks elevated serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid and reduced serum nitrate (an oxidation product of NO). The elevation in serum triglyceride was mainly due to the elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. Contents of cholesterol and phospholipid in the VLDL fraction also were elevated by L-NNA. L-NNA treatment caused significantly higher activity of hepatic microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride synthesis) and lower activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation). Activities of hepatic enzymes responsible for fatty acid synthesis such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and fatty acid synthase were unaffected by L-NNA. The activity of hepatic microsomal phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was reduced significantly by L-NNA. Our results suggest that lower NO production caused the elevations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis by higher esterification of fatty acid and lower fatty acid oxidation, leading to an enrichment of VLDL triglyceride. PMID:15539300

  17. The Effect of Elevated Triglycerides on the Onset and Progression of Coronary Artery Disease: A Retrospective Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Deepu; Hardigan, Patrick; Jawaid, Asif; Bhandari, Rohit; Daniel, Mithun

    2015-01-01

    Background. The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association did not indicate a correlation between treating hypertriglyceridemia and reducing cardiovascular events. Objective. This study investigated whether patients with hypertriglyceridemia were more prone to worse outcomes during cardiac catheterization. Methods. Data collected over a one-year period analyzed lipid panels obtained at the time of cardiac catheterization. Triglyceride levels were categorized into three groups: <150 mg/dL, 150 mg/dL–300 mg/dL, and >300 mg/dL. Controlled variables included age, gender, the presence of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and history of coronary artery disease. Results. Subjects with a triglyceride level <150 mg/dL have a 54% likelihood of being treated medically compared to 38% and 41% in the 150 mg/dL–300 mg/dL and >300 mg/dL groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Subjects with a triglyceride level >300 mg/dL have a 20% percent chance of being treated with a coronary artery bypass graft compared to 12% and 15% in the <150 mg/dL and 150 mg/dL–300 mg/dL groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Subjects with a triglyceride level between 150 and 300 mg/dL have a 44% percent of being treated with a percutaneous coronary intervention compared to 34% and 43% in the <150 mg/dL and >300 mg/dL groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with worse outcomes in percutaneous coronary intervention or surgery. PMID:26617998

  18. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  19. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  20. Fasting plasma triglyceride levels and fat oxidation predict dietary obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I

    2003-04-01

    We investigated whether fuel metabolism prior to high-fat feeding differs in outbred Sprague-Dawley rats either prone or resistant to diet-induced obesity. Chow-fed rats were deprived of food, and blood was collected 12, 18, and 24 h later. Rats were then fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for up to 4 weeks to assess weight gain. Blood samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic fuels and hormones. Only fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations showed a positive correlation with the weight gain during the high-fat feeding period, with concentrations after 18 h of fasting showing the most consistent relationship to weight gain. Body weights and fat pad weights did not correlate with fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations before high-fat feeding. The amount of 14CO(2) recovered from gavaged [14C]palmitic acid in chow-fed rats negatively correlated with weight gain during the subsequent period of high-fat feeding. These results show that there are preexisting differences in fat catabolism that may underlie differential susceptibility to diet-induced obesity; in particular, fasting levels of plasma triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation may be early predictive markers for this susceptibility. PMID:12782234

  1. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  2. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2010-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity. PMID:20219526

  3. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  4. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  5. Genetic Variation in SULF2 Is Associated with Postprandial Clearance of Triglyceride-Rich Remnant Particles and Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefano; Hakkarainen, Antti; Adiels, Martin; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Lundbom, Nina; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Orho-Melander, Marju; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Borén, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Context Nonfasting (postprandial) triglyceride concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease risk factor that results from accumulation of remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in the circulation. The remnant TRLs are cleared from the circulation by hepatic uptake, but the specific mechanisms involved are unclear. The syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) pathway is important for the hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs in mice, but its relevance in humans is unclear. Objective We sought to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for HSPG assembly and disassembly contribute to atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias in humans. Patients And Design We performed an oral fat load in 68 healthy subjects. Lipoproteins (chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins 1 and 2) were isolated from blood, and the area under curve and incremental area under curve for postprandial variables were calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding syndecan-1 and enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of HSPG were genotyped in the study subjects. Results Our results indicate that the genetic variation rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with postprandial clearance of remnant TRLs and triglyceride levels in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the SNP rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels. Conclusions In humans, mild but clinically relevant postprandial hyperlipidemia due to reduced hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs may result from genetic polymorphisms that affect hepatic HSPG. PMID:24278138

  6. Chronic treatment with bark infusion from Croton cajucara lowers plasma triglyceride levels in genetic hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Bighetti, Eliete J B; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; de Faria, Eliana C; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2004-06-01

    Aqueous infusion and preparations containing dehydrocrotonin (DHC) and essential oil from Croton cajucara bark were tested for plasma lipid-lowering effects in genetically modified hyperlipidemic mice. Two mouse models were tested: 1) primary hypercholesterolemia resulting from the LDL-receptor gene knockout, and 2) combined hyperlipidemia resulting from crosses of LDL-receptor knockout mice with transgenic mice overexpressing apolipo protein (apo) CIII and cholesteryl ester-transfer protein. Mice treated with bark infusion, DHC, essential oil, or placebos for 25 days showed no signals of toxicity as judged by biochemical tests for liver and kidney functions. The bark infusion reduced triglyceride plasma levels by 40%, while essential oil and DHC had no significant effects on plasma lipid levels. The bark infusion treatment promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among the lipoprotein fractions in combined hyperlipidemic mice. There was a marked reduction in the VLDL fraction and an increase in the HDL fraction, in such a way that the (VLDL + LDL)/HDL ratio was reduced by half. The bark infusion treatment did not modify cholesterol distribution in hypercholesterolemic mice. In conclusion, C. cajucara bark infusion reduced plasma triglycerides levels and promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins in genetically combined hyperlipidemic mice. These changes modify risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:15381962

  7. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  8. Isoflavone supplementation influenced levels of triglyceride and luteunizing hormone in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, Okhwa; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Young, Kwon Dae; Jeong, Yang Hye; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of soy-derived isoflavone on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sex hormones related to cardiovascular disease in Korean postmenopausal women. One hundred thirteen postmenopausal women were recruited from the Seoul metropolitan area. To confirm postmenopausal and gynecologic status, the subjects were clinically examined by a gynecologist using ultra sound and X-ray. Finally, 85 postmenopausal women whose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were higher than 40 IU/ml were enrolled. Subjects received either 70 mg isoflavone or placebo capsules daily for 12 weeks. As a result, the values of fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as those of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and FFA, were not different between the groups after supplementation. However, triglyceride (TG) levels in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of the placebo group (p = 0.0215). The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.027); however, the levels of FSH, estrone and estradiol were not changed after intervention. In conclusion, isoflavone supplement of 70 mg/day for 12 weeks decreased blood levels of TG and LH in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:23475289

  9. Evidence for a gene influencing fasting LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels on chromosome 21q.

    PubMed

    North, Kari E; Miller, Michael B; Coon, Hilary; Martin, Lisa J; Peacock, James M; Arnett, Donna; Zhang, Binbin; Province, Michael; Oberman, Albert; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Ellison, R Curtis; Heiss, Gerardo

    2005-03-01

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high levels of triglycerides (TG) are strong predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Motivated by previous evidence for pleiotropy between cholesterol and TG levels, we conducted bivariate linkage analysis of LDL cholesterol and TG concentration among participants of the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiolgy Network (HyperGEN), one of four networks in the NHLBI sponsored Family Blood Pressure Program Project. All available hypertensive siblings and their first-degree relatives were recruited. Both phenotypes were similarly adjusted for ethnicity, study center, sex, age, age-by-sex interactions, smoking, alcohol consumption, hormone use, diabetes medication use, and waist circumference. Variance component linkage analysis was performed as implemented in SOLAR, using ethnicity-specific marker allele frequencies derived from founders and multipoint IBDs calculated in MERLIN. A maximum genome-wide empirical LOD score of 3.9 was detected on chromosome 21 at 54cM, between markers D21S2055 and D21S1446. This signal overlaps with suggestive and/or significant linkages for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B in three other studies and is suggestive of one or more genes on chromosome 21q jointly regulating LDL cholesterol and TG concentration. PMID:15721017

  10. Triglycerides Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Triglycerides Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: TG; TRIG Formal name: Triglycerides Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct ...

  11. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Timpson, Nicholas J.; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R. B.; Ring, Susan M.; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Al Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, Maria; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Davey Smith, George; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N. M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quail, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shihab, Hasheem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Tim; St Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; St Pourcian, Beate; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Timpson, Nicholas; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T. R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (−1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10−8)) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (−1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10−9). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l−1 dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

  12. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Timpson, Nicholas J; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R B; Ring, Susan M; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10(-8))) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (-1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10(-9)). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l(-1) dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

  13. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Pparα, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis. PMID:25879679

  14. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Lafaurie, Gloria Inés; Millán, Lina Viviana; Ardila, Carlos Martin; Duque, Andrés; Novoa, Camilo; López, Diego; Contreras, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: bogota, medellin and cali. Methods: in this study 192 (28.4%) advanced and 256 (37.8%) moderate periodontitis patients were investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, hdl, ldl and triglycerides (tg). Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8%) controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher hdl and tg levels were present in periodontitis. Bmi <30 and smoking were associated with increased hdl, hdl-35, ldl and tg, while glycemia >100 mg/dl associated with hdl, hdl-35 and tg. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with hdl-35 in bivariate analysis and serum igg1 against p. Gingivalis associated with hdl-35 and serum igg1 against t. Forsythia associated with tg and serum igg2 against a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of hdl y hdl-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from cali presented reduced hdl levels as compared to bogota and medellin patients. Presence of igg1 antibodies against p. Gingivalis and a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced hdl levels. Conclusion: this study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria could be the biological link. PMID:24892452

  15. Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

    2014-01-01

    phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

  16. Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. )

    1989-02-09

    Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

  17. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  18. Self-monitoring of plasma triglyceride levels to evaluate postprandial response to different nutrients.

    PubMed

    Iovine, C; Gentile, A; Hattemer, A; Pacioni, D; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2004-05-01

    Self-monitoring of plasma triglycerides (TG) may be a very useful tool to monitor, on a daily basis, the TG responses to different nutrients, particularly carbohydrates (CHO) and fat, whose influence on postprandial TG levels is not very well known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the TG response of hypertriglyceridemic patients to a similar amount of calories deriving from different sources of CHO and fat. Thirty-nine hypertriglyceridemic patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups. In 1 group (the fat group), patients were given a standard meal plus a fat supplement of 300 kcal derived from different types of fat (butter, sunflower margarine, olive oil) for dinner, once a week for 3 weeks. In the other group (the CHO group), patients consumed the same standard meal plus a supplement of 300 kcal derived from different types of CHO (bread, coke, fruit). In both groups, patients measured their plasma TG before and 3 hours after each meal by Accutrend GCT (ROCHE, Mannheim, Germany). A subgroup of patients (n = 18) also performed TG determinations 2 hours after the test meals. The 3-hour TG increments were not significantly different between the different test meals (f = 0.671; P =.52); instead, the TG increments induced by fat supplements were significantly higher than those induced by the CHO supplements (f = 14.31; P =.0001). Similar results were also obtained 2 hours after the test meals. In conclusion, this study shows that the 2- and 3-hour TG responses to fat are higher compared with that induced by carbohydrate. This point, especially if confirmed by experiments with more frequent after meal measurements and of longer duration, should be taken into account in defining the best dietary approach to lower plasma TG levels throughout the whole day. PMID:15131767

  19. Plasma ApoC-III Levels, Triglycerides, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Khera, Amit V.; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates TRL metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of TRL. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower TG and reduce CHD risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist regarding the relationship of ApoC-III, TG, and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, TG and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in T2DM patients. Approach & Results Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest CHD. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), TG (r=0.59), LDL-C (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16) and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12) (P < 0.0001 for all). In age, gender, and race-adjusted analysis, ApoC-III levels were positively associated with CAC (Tobit regression ratio (TRR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.27–2.50 per SD-increase in ApoC-III, P <0.001). As expected for an intermediate mediator, these findings were attenuated when adjusted for both TG (TRR 1.43, 95% CI 0.94–2.18, P=0.086) and separately for VLDL-C (TRR 1.14, 95% ci 0.75–1.71, P=0.53). Conclusions In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher TG, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher CAC, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma TRLs and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:26069232

  20. Low fasting serum triglyceride level as a precocious marker of autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Iannello, Silvia; Cavaleri, Antonina; Milazzo, Paolina; Cantarella, Santi; Belfiore, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The authors recently reported the occurrence of low fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and high free fatty acid (FFA) levels in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. TG estimation in diverse groups of patients with autoimmune disease or hyperactive immune response confirmed the occurrence of a similar decrease of TG. In some patients, serum FFA level was also evaluated. TG value in lean and obese patients was compared with that in lean (n = 108) and obese (n = 208) control subjects without autoimmune disease. In patients affected by autoimmune chronic thyroiditis with enhanced concentration of antithyroglobulin antibodies and without thyroidal failure (n = 24), lean and obese patients had reduced TG (-69/%, P < .01 and -52%, P < .0001, respectively). Both lean and obese patients affected by chronic active B or C hepatitis (n = 26), with autoantibodies and without signs of hepatic insufficiency or cirrhosis, presented reduced TG (-57%, P < .01 and -61%, P < .001, respectively). A marked TG decrease (-73%, P < .001) was observed in the lean patients affected by lupus-like syndrome (n = 7). The lean and obese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 11) showed TG decrease (-66%, P < .01 and -55%, P < .05, respectively). In patients affected by anamnestic allergy or atopic dermatitis/asthma (n = 66), both lean and obese, TGs were reduced (-67%, P < .0001 and -62%, P < .001, respectively). In isolated cases of diverse autoimmune diseases (scleroderma, APECED [autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy], urticaria or urticarial vasculitis, Reiter or Sjogren syndromes, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barré syndrome) (n = 14), decreased TG was also observed both in the lean and obese subjects (-59%, P < .01 and -57%, P < .01, respectively). Concerning FFA (n = 69), value in lean patients (n = 22) vs that in lean controls (n = 18) was increased (520 +/- 31 vs 299 +/- 30 mcEq/L, +74%, P

  1. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-bing; Huang, Rong-dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = —0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  2. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Wu, Yun-Li; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Huang, Rong-Dong; Lu, Qing-Qing; Lin, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1), is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182) from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032).Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05). The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003), while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014). Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans. PMID:26439934

  3. [Gastrointestinal disease with elevated plasma homocysteine level].

    PubMed

    Coll, P; Guttormsen, A B; Berstad, A

    1999-10-10

    Elevated plasma homocystein (tHcy) is a marker for functional deficiency of folate and/or cobalamin. Malabsorption of these vitamins occurs in various gastroenterologic diseases. A frequent mutation (C677T) in the gene coding for the enzyme methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is often associated with elevated values of tHcy. We have investigated 24 patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l for gastrointestinal disease that can contribute to such elevation. Of these, 19 were homozygous for mutated MTHFR, four were heterozygous and one was normal. We found two cases of probable celiac disease, one case of Crohn's disease and one case of ulcerative colitis. These four were homozygous for the C667T mutation. Furthermore, we found eight persons who were anacidic; four homozygous, three heterozygous and one normal. All had gastritis histologically, six had serum gastrin > 50 pmol/l, and four were already on treatment with cobalamin injections. Helicobacter pylori-infection was found in nine out of 22 persons. Gastrointestinal disease occurs frequently in patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l, but with the exception of conditions resulting in serious deficiency of cobalamin, these diseases alone do not seem sufficient to cause such high levels. We suggest that a reasonable approach to patients with homocystein values above 40 mumol/l is to exclude cobalamin deficiency, and that further investigations should be based upon thorough anamnesis and symptoms. PMID:10563175

  4. A cross-over study of the effect of a single oral feeding of medium chain triglyceride oil vs. canola oil on post-ingestion plasma triglyceride levels in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, C; Myer, S; Munson, S; Turet, P; Birdsall, T C

    1999-02-01

    Due to its unique absorption and metabolism characteristics, medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, consisting of fatty acids with 8-12 carbons, has been used therapeutically since the 1950s in the treatment of fat malabsorption, cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, weight control, and to increase exercise performance. Medium chain triglycerides are easily hydrolyzed in the intestines and the fatty acids are transported directly to the liver via the portal venous system, in contrast to long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are incorporated into chylomicrons for transport through the lymphatic system or peripheral circulation. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) do not require carnitine to cross the double mitochondrial membrane of the hepatocyte, thus they quickly enter the mitochondria and undergo rapid beta-oxidation, whereas most LCFAs are packaged into triglycerides in the hepatocyte. In this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 20 healthy men ingested a single dose of either 71 g of MCT oil or canola oil. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at hours one through five post-ingestion to compare the effect of a single oral dosing of MCT oil versus canola oil on post-ingestion plasma triglyceride levels. Mean triglyceride values after canola oil increased 47 percent above baseline (p <0.001), while mean triglyceride values after MCT oil decreased 15 percent from baseline (p <0.001), which is consistent with several other studies involving short- and longer-term feeding with MCT oil. The effect of long-term usage of MCT oil on triglycerides is yet to be established. PMID:9988780

  5. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35-69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  6. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking. PMID:26068452

  7. Zinc Finger 259 Gene Polymorphism rs964184 is Associated with Serum Triglyceride Levels and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Avan, Amir; Pasdar, Alireza; Khatamianfar, Sara; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Ganjali, Shiva; Movahedi, Ali; Pirhoushiaran, Maryam; Mellado, Valentina Gómez; Rosace, Domenico; van Krieken, Anne; Nohtani, Mahdi; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include: abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Recent genome wide association studies have identified several susceptibility regions involved in lipid metabolism that are also associated with MetS. We have explored the association of 9 genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid metabolism and hypertension, including: MTHFR C677T, SELE L554F, FGB - 455G>A, GNB3 C825T, ZNF259 C>G, PSRC-1 A>G, CETP I405V, LPL S447X and LPA C>T in 97 subjects with MetS and 96 individuals without MetS who were recruited randomly from Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) study using a stratified cluster random sampling technique. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical measurements were determined in all the subjects. Genotyping was carried out followed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The subjects with MetS had a higher triglyceride and lower HDL- C. CG+ GG genotypes of ZNF259 polymorphism (rs964184 C>G) and TT+CT genotypes of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) were associated with MetS, and individuals carrying the G allele for ZNF259 or the T allele for MTHFR polymorphisms were associated with MetS (e.g, odds ratio (OR) for CG+GG genotypes vs. CC wild type: 2.52, CI=1.33-4.77; P=0.005). However, after multiple comparison adjustment, this relationship remained significant only for CG+ GG genotypes of ZNF259 polymorphism. Moreover, the ZNF259 CG+ GG genotypes were associated with increased serum concentrations of triglycerides and LDL-C, compared to the wild type. These data support the necessity for further studies in larger multicenter settings. PMID:27386434

  8. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  9. Dietary effects in the early recovery phase of kwashiorkor. Plasma levels of triglycerides, FFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose and insulin.

    PubMed

    Persson, B; Habte, D; Sterky, G

    1976-05-01

    The fatty liver often found in untreated kwashiorkor has been associated with highly variable concentration of circulating lipids. The effect on lipid metabolism of two isocaloric diets--one synthetic monomolecular (Vivonex) and one standard (Casilan)--which both initiated satisfactory clinical improvement was studied in 21 Ethiopian children with kwashiorkor during the first weeks of rehabilitation. Before treatment mean fasting values of all biochemical parameters were within normal ranges except for moderately elevated triglycerides--an unexpected finding-and low insulin. Individual values varied greatly; triglyceride between 0.39 and 3.49 mmol/1. FFA correlated both to glycerol, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and triglyceride values. During treatment insulin, glucose and glycerol remained essentially unchanged and were similar in both dietary groups. In the Vivonex group only there was an initial marked, parallel fall of FFA and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate suggesting greater availability of carbohydrate and enhanced glucose utilization. This pattern of response seemed to occur without comparable inhibition of lipolysis. Triglycerides--like serum albumin--increased faster in the Casilan group. The highest mean triglyceride value was reached by day 8 in the Casilan group and by day 15 in the Vivonex group. Ten minutes following heparin injection triglycerides declined, FFA and glycerol increased indicating release of in vivo active lipase. LPL activity assayed in vitro was similar and unaffected by 2 weeks of dietary treatment in both groups. LPL activity was inversely correlated to triglycerides providing--beside the type of diet--another possible explanation for the wide variations seen in circulatory triglycerides. PMID:1274567

  10. Carotid Intima-media thickness in childhood and adolescent obesity relations to abdominal obesity, high triglyceride level and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Zhang, Jian Ping; Luo, Cai Xia; Yu, Xiao Mei; Lv, Lan Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate risk factors which impact on common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). Methods: A total of 86 obese children and adolescents and 22 healthy children and adolescents with normal weight were enrolled. Moreover, 23 of 86 obese children and adolescents were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The clinical, biochemical data and the IMT of the common carotid artery were measured in all subjects. Results: Obese and obese with MetS subjects demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.01) thicker intima media (0.69mm, 0.66mm) as compared to the control group (0.38mm), but there was no significant difference of IMT between obese and MetS group. IMT was correlated to body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and fatty liver. Waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, triglyceride and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were independent determinants of mean IMT level. Conclusion: Obesity especially abdominal obesity, high TG and insulin resistance may be the main risk predictors of increased IMT. PMID:20827427

  11. Genetic variants of adiponectin receptor 2 are associated with increased adiponectin levels and decreased triglyceride/VLDL levels in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Broedl, Uli C; Lehrke, Michael; Fleischer-Brielmaier, Elisabeth; Tietz, Anne B; Nagel, Jutta M; Göke, Burkhard; Lohse, Peter; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2006-01-01

    Background Adiponectin acts as an antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic adipokine. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the recently discovered adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine whether variations in the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 genes may contribute to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation. Methods We sequenced all seven coding exons of both genes in 20 unrelated German subjects with metabolic syndrome and tested genetic variants for association with glucose, lipid and inflammatory parameters. Results We identified three AdipoR2 variants (+795G/A, +870C/A and +963C/T) in perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1) with a minor allele frequency of 0.125. This haplotype was associated with higher plasma adiponectin levels and decreased fasting triglyceride, VLDL-triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol levels. No association, however, was observed between the AdipoR2 SNP cluster and glucose metabolism. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify an association between genetic variants of the adiponectin receptor genes and plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, our data suggest that AdipoR2 may play an important role in triglyceride/VLDL metabolism. PMID:16700915

  12. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  13. Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  14. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  15. Increased serum triglyceride clearance and elevated high-density lipoprotein 2 and 3 cholesterol during treatment of primary hypertriglyceridemia with bezafibrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Nagahiko; Ikeuchi, Reiko; Hibino, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Mukai, Seiji; Akita, Sachie; Yajima, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Hiromichi; Goto, Toshihiko; Takada, Norio; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Kunimatu, Mitoshi; Kimura, Genjiro

    2003-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia accompanied by low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) and 3 (HDL3) are believed to suppress the progress of atherosclerosis through reverse cholesterol transport. As a result, peripheral tissues can be protected against excessive accumulation of cholesterol. Although bezafibrate is known to accelerate the increase of HDL-C, results are not standardized regarding increases of HDL3 and HDL2 subfractions. Objective This study assessed the effects of bezafibrate on serum triglyceride (TG) fractional clearance rate (K2) and HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol (HDL2-C and HDL3-C, respectively) levels in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia (serum TG ≥150 mg/dL). Methods Outpatients with primary hypertriglyceridemia were enrolled in this 8-week study conducted at the Third Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya City University Hospital (Nagoya, Japan). Oral bezafibrate was administered at a dose of 400 mg/d (200-mg tablet BID, morning and evening) for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C were measured. A fat emulsion tolerance test to assess K2 and measurements of plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass, LPL activity, and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activity in postheparin plasma were performed before bezafibrate administration and after the course of treatment. Results Sixteen patients (10 men, 6 women; mean [SD] age, 54 [12] years [range, 30–69 years]; mean [SD] body mass index, 23 [2] kg/m2) entered the study. The following findings were observed in male and female patients after 8 weeks of treatment. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean serum TG level (P<0.01). Significant increases were seen in HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C (all P<0.01), K2 (P<0.01), and in plasma LPL mass (P<0.01) and LPL activity (P<0.05). TC level and HTGL activity did not change

  16. View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  18. The impact of fasting on the interpretation of triglyceride levels for predicting myocardial infarction risk in HIV-positive individuals: the D:A:D study.

    PubMed

    2011-08-15

    We assessed whether fasting modifies the prognostic value of these measurements for the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Analyses used mixed effect models and Poisson regression. After confounders were controlled for, fasting triglyceride levels were, on average, 0.122 mmol/L lower than nonfasting levels. Each 2-fold increase in the latest triglyceride level was associated with a 38% increase in MI risk (relative rate, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.51); fasting status did not modify this association. Our results suggest that it may not be necessary to restrict analyses to fasting measurements when considering MI risk. PMID:21791653

  19. Regulation of plasma lipoprotein levels by dietary triglycerides enriched with different fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, R J; Rogers, E J

    1997-11-01

    Saturated vegetable oils (coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil) containing predominantly saturated fatty acids, lauric (12:0) or myristic (14:0 and palmitic (16:0), raise plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in animals and humans, presumably by decreasing LDL receptor activity and/or increasing LDL-C production rate. Although stearic acid (18:0) is chemically a saturated fatty acid, both human and animal studies suggest it is biologically neutral (neither raising nor lowering) blood cholesterol levels. Although earlier studies indicated that medium chain fatty acids (8:0-10:0) were also thought to be neutral, more recent studies in animals and humans suggest otherwise. Unsaturated vegetable oils such as corn, soybean, olive, and canola oil, by virtue of their predominant levels of either linoleic acid (18:2) or oleic acid (18:1), are hypocholesterolemic, probably as a result of their ability to upregulate LDL receptor activity and/or decrease LDL-C production rate. Whether trans fatty acids such as trans oleate (t18:1), in hydrogenated products such as margarine, are hypercholesterolemic remains controversial. Studies in humans suggest that their cholesterol-raising potential falls between the native nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and the more saturated dairy products such as butter. Assessment of the magnitude of the cholesterolemic response of trans 18:1 is difficult because in most diet studies its addition is often at the expense of cholesterol-lowering unsaturated fatty acids, making an independent evaluation almost impossible. PMID:9372477

  20. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2). Results The serum triglyceride (TG) levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA. PMID:26616395

  1. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  2. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, P.L.; Evans, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Although goiter formation and hypothyroidism are not infrequent following lithium therapy, the association of exophthalmos and/or elevated thyroxine levels with lithium is uncommon. We describe a 62 year old man who rapidly developed exophthalmos, elevated circulating thyroxine, elevated TSH levels and elevated radioiodine uptake within six weeks of reexposure to lithium carbonate. When the medication was stopped, all indices of thyroid function returned to normal and the proptosis receded from 22 to 17mm. Lithium decreases secretion of preformed thyroid hormone and the secondary elevation of TSH levels usually restores euthyroid status. We propose that in our patient, because triiodothyronine levels remained normal, the pituitary was refractory to the normal inhibitory feedback effect of thyroxine and that continued hypersecretion of TSH resulted in hyperthyroidism

  3. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67–2.94] and 1.39 [0.99–1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28–0.49] and 0.51 [0.37–0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45–0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast

  4. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Associations between a common variant near the MC4R gene and serum triglyceride levels in an obese pediatric cohort.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ariana Ester; de Melo, Maria Edna; Fujiwara, Clarissa Tamie Hiwatashi; Pioltine, Marina Brosso; Matioli, Sergio Russo; Santos, Aritânia; Cercato, Cintia; Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C

    2015-08-01

    Polymorphisms near the MC4R gene may be related to an increased risk for obesity, but studies of variations in this gene and its relation to cardiometabolic profiles and food intake are scarce and controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the variants rs12970134 and rs17782313 near the MC4R gene in food intake, binge eating (BE) behavior, anthropometric parameters, body composition, metabolic profile, and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study that included obese children and adolescents. We evaluated anthropometric, metabolic parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors, including hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-cholesterol. BE was assessed through the BE scale, and a 24-h recall was used to evaluate total caloric intake and percentage of macronutrients and types of dietary fat. The MC4R variants rs12970134 and rs17782313 were genotyped using TaqMan assay. To assess the magnitude of risk, a logistic regression adjusted for Z-BMI, age, and gender was performed, adopting the significance level of 0.05. The study included 518 subjects (52.1 % girls, 12.7 ± 2.7 years old, Z-BMI = 3.24 ± 0.57). Carriers of the variant rs17782313 exhibit increased triglyceride levels (108 ± 48 vs. 119 ± 54, p = 0.034) and an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.985, 95 % CI 1.288-3.057, p = 0.002). There was no association of the SNP rs12970134 with clinical, metabolic, or nutritional parameters. The variant rs12970134 and rs17782313 did not influence food intake or the presence of BE. The variant rs17782313 is associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia in obese children and adolescents. PMID:25948074

  6. Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

  7. VIEW OF THE JACKING, ELEVATING, AND LEVELING SKID. Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE JACKING, ELEVATING, AND LEVELING SKID. - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. Reduced alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes as a modulator of fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels in men.

    PubMed

    Imbeault, P; Couillard, C; Tremblay, A; Després, J P; Mauriège, P

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the postprandial lipemia of two groups of men displaying similar age, body weight, and regional fat distribution, but characterized by either low (n = 11) or high (n = 15) alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes. In addition to fat cell lipolysis, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (AT-LPL) as well as postheparin plasma LPL activities were measured in the fasting state. Fasting AT-LPL and PH-LPL activities were similar in both groups. Maximal adipose cell lipolysis induced by isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) as well as the beta-adrenergic sensitivity did not differ between both groups of men. The selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK-14304 promoted a similar antilipolytic response in subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes from both groups. However, the alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity, defined as the dose of UK-14304 that produced half-maximal inhibition of lipolysis (IC(50)), was significantly different between groups (P < 0.0001). Men with low versus high subcutaneous abdominal fat cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher fasting TG levels. In the whole group, a positive relationship was observed between log-transformed IC(50) UK-14304 values of subcutaneous adipocytes and fasting TG levels (r = 0.39, P < 0.05), suggesting that a low abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity is associated with high TG levels. After the consumption of a high-fat meal, subjects with low subcutaneous abdominal adipose cell alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity showed higher TG levels in total, medium, and small triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions at 0- to 6-h time points than men with high adipocyte alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity (P values ranging from 0.01 to 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the fasting TG concentration was the only variable retained as a significant predictor of the area under the curve of TG levels in total TRL fractions (73% of variance) among independent variables

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are elevated in South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rajasree, S; Rajpal, K; Kartha, C C; Sarma, P S; Kutty, V R; Iyer, C S; Girija, G

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to a possible relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Animal experiments and observational studies in humans suggest vitamin D to be arteriotoxic and an association of high intake of vitamin D with increased incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The major source of vitamin D in adults is vitamin D synthesized in the skin through exposure to the sun. In tropical environment there is a possibility of high level of solar exposure and enhanced serum levels of vitamin D in the population. We explored the relation between serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and IHD in a case-control study involving 143 patients with either angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease or patients with acute myocardial infarction and 70 controls, all men in the age group of 45-65 years. Fasting blood samples were collected, serum separated and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured by protein binding radioligand assay. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate were also determined. Prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and smoking history were noted. Statistical comparisons of variables between cases and controls were done using chi2-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association of IHD with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 controlling for selected variables. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcium, inorganic phosphate, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides were elevated in a higher proportion of patients, compared to controls. Serum levels of 25-OH-D3 above 222.5 nmol/l (89 ng/ml) was observed in 59.4% of cases compared to 22.1% in controls (p < 0.001; unadjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-10.21). When controlled for age and selected variables using the multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR relating elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (> or = 222.5 nmol

  10. THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

  11. Increased IL18 mRNA levels in peripheral artery disease and its association with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deser, Serkan Burc; Bayoglu, Burcu; Besirli, Kazım; Cengiz, Mujgan; Arapi, Berk; Junusbekov, Yerik; Dirican, Ahmet; Arslan, Caner

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) typically refers to lower limb vessel ischemia caused by atherosclerotic stenosis of lower extremity arteries. IL18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine reported to function as an inflammatory biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. IL18 activity is balanced by high-affinity naturally occurring IL18-binding protein (IL18BP). This study aimed to determine whether IL18, IL18 BP mRNA levels and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism, which was previously associated with IL18 gene transcriptional activity, were associated with PAD etiology. IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RT-PCR, respectively, in 55 PAD patients (26 aorta-iliac, 29 femoro-popliteal) and 61 disease-free controls. IL18 mRNA levels were increased in PAD patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.09); however, did not reach a statistical significant level, also did not significantly differ between aorta-iliac and femoro-popliteal occlusive PAD subgroups (p = 0.285). However, IL18BP mRNA levels were significantly lower in PAD group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Genotype frequencies of rs187238 polymorphism did not significantly differ between PAD patients and controls (p = 0.385). IL18 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients (p = 0.003, p = 0.014, respectively). HDL cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with IL18 mRNA levels in controls (p = 0.05). This report is a preliminary study to show an association between IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels and PAD and suggests that the IL18 gene may have a significant relationship with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients. PMID:26438531

  12. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  13. Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease: FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle change with their patients. For improved metabolic health and protection to the heart and blood vessels, the American Heart Association now recommends an optimum fasting triglyceride level of 100 mg/dL. This puts ...

  14. Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

  15. Uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid in the urinary bladder increases serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, T

    2003-10-01

    In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs), can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:15241498

  16. 46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. An APOC3 3'UTR variant associated with plasma triglycerides levels and coronary heart disease by creating a functional miR-4271 binding site.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sen-Lin; Cui, Guang-Lin; Huang, Jin; Jiang, Jian-Gang; Wang, Dao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides levels. Increasing evidence has shown that loss-of-function mutations in APOC3 is associated with reduction in plasma triglycerides levels and will confer a benefit in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. However, these favorable mutations were extremely distribution discrepant among different ethnics. In this study, the APOC3 gene was resequenced and we identified a common variant which located in the microRNA-binding site in APOC3 and would affect its expression and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The molecular mechanism was explored. We found that the T allele of rs4225 suppressed APOC3 translation by facilitating miR-4271 binding, but not the G allele. Subjects carrying the GG genotype had higher plasma APOC3 levels (p for trend = 0.03) than those with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was significantly associated with decreased triglyceride levels [Beta (SE): -0.024 (0.020), P = 0.03]. Finally, the case-control study suggested that the TT genotype resulted in a significant reduction in overall CHD risk [OR, 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.98), P = 0.009]. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the rs4225 in the 3'-UTR of APOC3 might contribute to the risk of CHD by interfering with miR-4271 binding. PMID:27624799

  18. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  19. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  1. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  2. 56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  3. Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. A VOYAGER Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Statin Therapy on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, defined by the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel as a TG level of 177 to 885 mg/dl (2.0 to 10.0 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction remains the primary treatment goal. Using data from the indiVidual patient meta-analysis Of statin therapY in At risk Groups: Effects of Rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin (VOYAGER) meta-analysis, we analyzed LDL-C and TG reductions in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Least squares mean percentage change from baseline in LDL-C and TG was compared using 15,800 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 5 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 10 to 80 mg, and simvastatin 10 to 80 mg in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Comparisons were made using mixed-effects models with data only from studies directly comparing treatments by randomized design. Mean LDL-C reductions ranged from -26.9% to -55.5%. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater LDL-C reductions than equal or double doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (p <0.05). Mean TG reductions ranged from -15.1% to -31.3%. Rosuvastatin 10 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than atorvastatin 10 mg (p <0.05). Rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg resulted in TG reductions similar to those with equal doses of atorvastatin. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than equal or double doses of simvastatin (p <0.05). In conclusion, in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, LDL-C reduction was substantial and dependent on the choice and dose of statin. TG reduction was numerically less than for LDL-C, and additional TG-lowering therapy may be considered to further reduce residual cardiovascular risk. PMID:26969416

  5. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  6. Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Bersot, T P; Vega, G L; Grundy, S M; Palaoglu, K E; Atagündüz, P; Ozbayrakçi, S; Gökdemir, O; Mahley, R W

    1999-03-01

    Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. PMID:10064731

  7. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Shenghua; Shangguan, Mingjun; Xue, Lina; Zhang, Bianying; Ding, Fuxiang; Hui, Dequan; Liang, Aihua; He, Dongchang

    2015-01-01

    PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. PMID:26693219

  8. 48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. [Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol is a vital causal factor and focus of research into heart diseases, however the involvement of triglycerides remains unclear. We recently reported a patient suffering from severe congestive heart failure and needing cardiac transplantation. Massive accumulation of triglycerides was noted in coronary atherosclerotic lesions as well as in the myocardium. We named this phenotype"triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". The patient was identified as homozygous for a genetic mutation in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglycerides. In this paper, we describe clinical characteristics of ATGL deficiency and discuss what we can learn from this disorder. PMID:24205734

  10. 42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. 9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Treble, R.G.; Thompson, T.S.; Morton, D.N.

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 {micro}mol/L, respectively. The father`s blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level. The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L, both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children. The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  13. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  14. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  15. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention. PMID:8690811

  16. Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

  17. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality. PMID:20109519

  18. Disproportionately elevated proinsulinemia is observed at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Hanley, Anthony J; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate disproportional proinsulinemia in the pre-diabetic state by analyzing the cross-sectional differences between proinsulin (PI) ratios across the entire range of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose. The study sample was 1,016 participants in the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study, who had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) and acute insulin response (AIR) were measured by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting intact and split PI-to-insulin ratios (PI/I, SPI/I), intact and split PI-to-C-peptide ratios (PI/C-pep, SPI/C-pep), and SI-adjusted AIR were assessed as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose levels. SI-adjusted AIR was decreased (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 120-131 mg/dl) and SPI/C-pep increased at modestly elevated fasting glucose and 2-h glucose within the normal glucose tolerance range (fasting glucose 96-98 mg/dl; 2-h glucose 132-142 mg/dl). PI/I was not increased until plasma glucose values were in the diabetic range of fasting glucose (>126 mg/dl) or the impaired glucose tolerance range of 2-h glucose (143-156 mg/dl). SPI/I and PI/C-pep as a function of fasting and 2-h glucose were situated between the curves for SPI/C-pep and PI/I. In conclusion, inappropriate amounts of PI and conversion intermediaries are demonstrated at modestly elevated glucose levels within the normoglycemic range. Ratios that use SPI in the numerator or C-pep in the denominator (and especially SPI/C-pep) are more sensitive to early glycemic excursions than PI/I. Disordered processing of PI may accompany derangements in early insulin secretory response. PMID:24532116

  19. Elevated calprotectin levels reveal bowel inflammation in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cypers, H; Varkas, G; Beeckman, S; Debusschere, K; Vogl, T; Roth, J; Drennan, M B; Lavric, M; Foell, D; Cuvelier, C A; De Vos, M; Delanghe, J; Van den Bosch, F; Elewaut, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic bowel inflammation is present in up to 50% of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and is associated with more severe disease. Currently no reliable biomarkers exist to identify patients at risk. Calprotectin is a sensitive marker of neutrophilic inflammation, measurable in serum and stool. Objectives To assess whether serum and faecal calprotectin in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to identify patients with SpA at risk of microscopic bowel inflammation. Methods Serum calprotectin and CRP were measured in 125 patients with SpA. In 44 of these patients, faecal samples were available for calprotectin measurement. All 125 patients underwent an ileocolonoscopy to assess the presence of microscopic bowel inflammation. Results Microscopic bowel inflammation was present in 53 (42.4%) patients with SpA. Elevated serum calprotectin and CRP were independently associated with microscopic bowel inflammation. Faecal calprotectin was also significantly higher in patients with microscopic bowel inflammation. Patients with CRP and serum calprotectin elevated had a frequency of bowel inflammation of 64% vs 25% in patients with low levels of both. When either CRP or serum calprotectin was elevated, the risk was intermediate (40%) and measuring faecal calprotectin provided further differentiation. Hence we suggest a screening approach where initially serum calprotectin and CRP are assessed and, if necessary, faecal calprotectin. The model using this scenario provided an area under the ROC curve of 74.4% for detection of bowel inflammation. Conclusions Calprotectin measurements in stool and serum, in addition to CRP, may provide a promising strategy to identify patients with SpA at risk of bowel inflammation and could play a role in overall patient stratification. PMID:26698844

  20. Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kiraz, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m2/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (p<0.05). Significantly D × S was observed in LW, CP and PG. The weight of carcass and its some components were higher in male. S × D interaction had an effect on plasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m2/bird in turkey fattening. PMID:26877630

  1. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  2. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: -20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: -0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: -21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  3. Elevated hair cortisol levels in chronically stressed dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Tietze, Antje; Steudte, Susann; Alexander, Nina; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-09-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to reflect integrated long-term cortisol levels and have been proposed as a promising endocrine marker of chronic psychological stress. The current study examined HCC in relation to caregiving burden, a well-established naturalistic model of chronic stress in humans. HCC and relevant psychosocial data were examined in 20 caregivers of relatives with dementia and 20 non-caregiver controls matched for age and sex. Results revealed elevated HCC in dementia caregivers compared to non-caregiver controls (F(1,38)=4.4, p=.04, ηp2=.10). Further, within caregivers, a trend for a positive association of HCC with self-reported caregiving burden (r=.43, p=.058) and a positive association with depressiveness (r=.48, p=.045) were observed. No other associations between HCC and subjective measures were seen. These findings concur with the notion that HCC sensitively capture endocrine aberrations in stress-exposed groups. PMID:25001953

  4. Fenofibrate Effect on Triglyceride and Postprandial Response of Apolipoprotein A5 Variants: The GOLDN Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (hypertriglyceridemia), one of the characteristic features of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), have been recognized as an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Lowering TG concentration by dietary or drug intervention reduces CHD risk. Fenofibr...

  5. Triglyceride-increasing alleles associated with protection against type-2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2...

  6. Cholesterol, oxysterol, triglyceride, and coenzyme Q homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the hypothesis that elevated 27-hydroxycholesterol is a pathogenic factor.

    PubMed

    Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M; Björkhem, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

  7. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.

    PubMed Central

    Karpe, F; Steiner, G; Olivecrona, T; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:8450056

  8. Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Satoh, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoko; Hajika, Makita; Nishihira, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: −20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: −0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: −21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. PMID:27529274

  9. Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Win, Kyi Htut; Zaw, Than; Naing, Win; Mey, Jacob L; Mailloux, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults. PMID:24530581

  10. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  11. Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  12. Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)

    MedlinePlus

    Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides) A Patient’s Guide Having high levels of triglycerides, or hypertriglyceridemia , is a common problem. Triglycerides are fats in the blood (also called ...

  13. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

  14. Association of APOA5 Gene Promoter Region -1131T>C Polymorphism (rs662799) to Plasma Triglyceride Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Ansari, Vahid; Makhlough, Atieh; Hashemi-Sooteh, Mohammad-Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic Nephropathy (DN), a serious complication of Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus (T2DM), is progressive and susceptibility to DN varies among T2DM patients. ApoA5-1131T>C polymorphism revealed that is strongly associated with triglyceride levels and proposed as a predisposing factor for DN. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the association -1131T>C ApoA5 gene polymorphism with serum lipids levels in Type 2 diabetic (DM) patients with or without DN in north of Iran (Mazandaran province). Materials and Methods This study comprised patients with established T2DM (n=161) and controls (n=58). Genotyping of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphisms was performed by PCR–RFLP. Diabetic patients were divided into two groups: with nephropathy (DN+, n = 90) and without nephropathy (DN-, n = 71). Lipids and lipoproteins were assessed by enzymatic methods. Results The genotype frequencies were 63.8 % TT, 31 % TC, 5.2 % CC in controls, 33.8% TT, 52.1 % TC, 14.1 % CC in DN- and 44.4 % TT, 36.7 % TC, 18.9 % CC in DN+ patients. The TC genotype and the CC genotype were overexpressed among DN+ and DN-population in comparison to the control group. The highest and the lowest TG levels in both diabetic patients and controls belonged to CC+TC and TT genotypes, respectively. Furthermore in both patients TG increased with this order: TT< TCC polymorphisms influence lipid levels in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:27437205

  15. Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is suggested to be associated with metabolic and hormonal complications. No previous study has compared the effect of different dopamine agonists on plasma lipids, carbohydrate metabolism markers and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. The study included eight bromocriptine-resistant women with prolactinoma (group 1) and twelve matched women with hyperprolactinaemia unrelated to prolactinoma (group 2). Group 1 was then treated with cabergoline, while group 2 with bromocriptine. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed before and after 6 months of therapy. Both treatments normalized plasma prolactin levels. Cabergoline reduced triglycerides, 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and circulating levels of IGF-1, free fatty acids (FFA), uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. With the exception of a reduction in HOMA-IR, bromocriptine treatment produced no significant effect on the investigated biomarkers. Cabergoline was superior to bromocriptine in affecting 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, as well as circulating levels of IGF-1, FFA, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Our results may suggest that cabergoline is superior to bromocriptine when it comes to affecting atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of cardiovascular risk factors in hyperprolactinaemic patients. These findings seem to support previous observations that cabergoline may be a better treatment for patients with elevated prolactin levels than bromocriptine. PMID:25123447

  16. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  17. Lack of nitric oxide synthases increases lipoprotein immune complex deposition in the aorta and elevates plasma sphingolipid levels in lupus

    PubMed Central

    Al Gadban, Mohammed M.; German, Jashalynn; Truman, Jean-Philip; Soodavar, Farzan; Riemer, Ellen C; Twal, Waleed O; Smith, Kent J; Heller, Demarcus; Hofbauer, Ann F; Oates, Jim C.; Hammad, Samar M.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients display impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function required for normal vasodilatation. SLE patients express increased compensatory activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generating excess nitric oxide that may result in inflammation. We examined the effects of genetic deletion of NOS2 and NOS3, encoding iNOS and eNOS respectively, on accelerated vascular disease in MRL/lpr lupus mouse model. NOS2 and NOS3 knockout (KO) MRL/lpr mice had higher plasma levels of triglycerides (23% and 35%, respectively), ceramide (45% and 21%, respectively), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) (21%) compared to counterpart MRL/lpr controls. Plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) in NOS2 and NOS3 KO MRL/lpr mice were lower (53% and 80%, respectively) than counterpart controls. Nodule-like lesions in the adventitia were detected in aortas from both NOS2 and NOS3 KO MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the lesions revealed activated endothelial cells and lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells), elevated sphingosine kinase 1 expression, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein immune complexes (oxLDL-IC). The findings suggest that advanced vascular disease in NOS2 and NOS3 KO MRL/lpr mice maybe mediated by increased plasma triglycerides, ceramide and S1P; decreased plasma IL-10; and accumulation of oxLDL-IC in the vessel wall. The results expose possible new targets to mitigate lupus-associated complications. PMID:22560558

  18. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  19. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  20. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  1. DNA methylations of MC4R and HNF4α are associated with increased triglyceride levels in cord blood of preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Jin; Lee, Hye Ah; You, Young-Ah; Park, Hyesook; Cho, Su Jin; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association of preterm birth with obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life is well established. Although the biological mechanism for this association is poorly understood, epigenetic alterations of metabolic-related genes in early life may have important roles in metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the associations of DNA methylations of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) with metabolic profiles in cord blood of term and preterm infants. We measured metabolic profiles in cord blood samples of 85 term and 85 preterm infants. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels of MC4R and HNF4α in cord blood cells were quantified using pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Triglyceride (TG) levels were grouped by percentile as low (<10th percentile), mid (11th–89th percentiles), and high (>90th percentile). A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the differential effects of DNA methylation on metabolic indices in cord blood between term and preterm infants. The beta-coefficients for associations between TG levels and methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α-CpG2 in the P1 promoter differed significantly between term and preterm infants (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003, respectively). DNA methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α–CpG2 in the P1 promoter were significantly lower in preterm infants in the high-TG group compared with those in the mid- and low-TG groups (P = 0.01). Notably, preterm infants in the high-TG group had higher TG levels in cord blood than term infants in the high-TG group (60.49 vs 54.57 mg/dL). In addition, MC4R and HNF4α expression levels were higher in preterm infants than in term infants (P < 0.05). Epigenetic alterations of the newly identified genes MC4R and HNF4α in early life might contribute to metabolic profile changes, especially increased TG levels, in the cord blood of preterm infants. PMID:27583872

  2. DNA methylations of MC4R and HNF4α are associated with increased triglyceride levels in cord blood of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun Jin; Lee, Hye Ah; You, Young-Ah; Park, Hyesook; Cho, Su Jin; Ha, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-08-01

    The association of preterm birth with obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life is well established. Although the biological mechanism for this association is poorly understood, epigenetic alterations of metabolic-related genes in early life may have important roles in metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the associations of DNA methylations of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) with metabolic profiles in cord blood of term and preterm infants.We measured metabolic profiles in cord blood samples of 85 term and 85 preterm infants. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels of MC4R and HNF4α in cord blood cells were quantified using pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Triglyceride (TG) levels were grouped by percentile as low (<10th percentile), mid (11th-89th percentiles), and high (>90th percentile). A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the differential effects of DNA methylation on metabolic indices in cord blood between term and preterm infants.The beta-coefficients for associations between TG levels and methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α-CpG2 in the P1 promoter differed significantly between term and preterm infants (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003, respectively). DNA methylation statuses of MC4R-CpG3 and HNF4α-CpG2 in the P1 promoter were significantly lower in preterm infants in the high-TG group compared with those in the mid- and low-TG groups (P = 0.01). Notably, preterm infants in the high-TG group had higher TG levels in cord blood than term infants in the high-TG group (60.49 vs 54.57 mg/dL). In addition, MC4R and HNF4α expression levels were higher in preterm infants than in term infants (P < 0.05).Epigenetic alterations of the newly identified genes MC4R and HNF4α in early life might contribute to metabolic profile changes, especially increased TG levels, in the cord blood of preterm infants. PMID:27583872

  3. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnants: Targets for Therapy?

    PubMed

    Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Kroon, Jeffrey; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M John

    2016-07-01

    It is now evident that elevated circulating levels of triglycerides in the non-fasting state, a marker for triglyceride (TG)-rich remnant particles, are associated with increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings from basic and clinical studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute to the atherogenicity of these apoB-containing particles. Here, we review current knowledge of the formation, intravascular remodelling and catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and highlight (i) the pivotal players involved in this process, including lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol HDL binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, apoC-III, angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 3, 4 and 8, apoA-V and cholesteryl ester transfer protein; (ii) key determinants of triglyceride (TG) levels and notably rates of production of very-low-density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) particles; and (iii) the mechanisms which underlie the atherogenicity of remnant particles. Finally, we emphasise the polygenic nature of moderate hypertriglyceridemia and briefly discuss modalities for its clinical management. Several new therapeutic strategies to attenuate hypertriglyceridemia have appeared recently, among which those targeted to apoC-III appear to hold considerable promise. PMID:27216847

  4. Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxa–time relationships and distance–decay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification. PMID:25756110

  5. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Reza; Ghaffari, Samad; Salehi, Rezvanieh; Mazani, Sarvin; Aghavali, Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigating the clinical impact of serum uric acid (UA) and its lowering agents on the complications and mortality of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can open a new era in STEMI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on admission serum UA level on the mortality and morbidity of patients admitted with STEMI. Methods: A number of 608 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from December 21, 2012 until February 19, 2014. Patients were followed for 20 months. Male to female ratio was 2.53, and the mean age of patients was 62.6±13.4. The relationship between the level of UA and patients’ mortality and morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), atrial and ventricular arrhythmia was analyzed. Results: Patients with high serum UA level had higher Killip class after STEMI (P=0.001). Mean LVEF was measured to be 39.5±9.6 in normal UA group and 34.6±11.6 in high UA group (P=0.001). In comparison with normal UA group, high UA group had significantly higher cTnI (2.68±0.09 vs 4.09±0.42, respectively, P=0.001), increased blood pressure (P=0.009), and higher atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence (P=0.03), but no association was seen between ventricular tachycardia and serum UA level. Short term and midterm mortality were not different in two groups (P=0.44 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF. PMID:27489597

  6. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Lowers Blood Triglyceride Levels, Possibly Through a Pathway Involving SREBP-1c in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that peanut sprout extracts (PSE) could reduce fat accumulation through activating the transcription of SREBP-1c genes. Sprague-Dawley (SD) were randomly assigned into two groups and fed the following diet for 4 weeks; 10 normal fat (NF, 7 g of fat/100 g diet) and 30 high fat (HF, 20 g of fat/100 g diet). After 4 weeks, the HF group was divided into three groups; HF, HF with 15 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+low PSE, 0.025% resveratrol), and HF with 30 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+high PSE, 0.05% resveratrol) and fed for an additional 5 weeks. The HF+high PSE group had significantly lower weight gain than the HF group. Plasma triglyceride (TG) level and the hepatic total lipid level were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group compared to the HF group. Fecal excretions of total lipids, cholesterol, and TG in the HF+high PSE group tended to be higher than in the HF group, but these differences were not significant. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-c (SREBP-1c) were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group than in the HF group. The mRNA expressions of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE groups compared to the HF group. The mRNA expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase1 was significantly higher than the HF group in both the HF+low PSE and HF+high PSE groups, with much greater increase observed in the HF+high PSE group. In conclusion, consumption of PSE was effective for improving blood lipid levels, possibly by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1c, in rats fed a high-fat diet. PMID:25946626

  7. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

  8. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition. PMID:26985979

  9. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  10. Elevated tryptophan levels in post-withdrawal alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Farren, C K; Dinan, T G

    1996-12-01

    Changes in serotonin function and disturbances in tryptophan availability have been implicated in many psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. In the present study we took serum free tryptophan samples from 31 healthy volunteer controls and from 42 DSM-III-R alcohol-dependent subjects who had abstained from alcohol for at least 2.5 weeks (range 2.5-104 weeks). We also measured the basal serum cortisol level at 09.00 hours for the same subjects and controls. There was a significant increase in the serum tryptophan level of the alcoholic subjects, by 43.7 mumol l-1 (range 29-63 mumol l-1), regardless of age of onset of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism or sociopathic traits, compared to the controls (33.0 mumol l-1, range 19-60 mumol l-1). There was also an increase in the basal serum cortisol level in the alcoholic subjects compared to the controls, but this was not related to the increase in tryptophan levels. These findings indicate a disturbance in serotonin precursor availability in post-withdrawal alcoholics, and contribute to the evidence for involvement of the serotonin system in alcoholism. PMID:9021001

  11. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  12. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  13. Inhibition of hepatic triglyceride formation by clofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Larry L.; Webb, William W.; Fallon, Harold J.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of clofibrate (CPIB) on hepatic glycerolipid formation has been studied in vivo and in vitro in the rat. Feeding 0.25% CPIB in laboratory chow significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels by 6 hr and concomitantly decreased the rate of glycerol-14C incorporation into hepatic and serum glycerides, in vivo. These changes persisted for at least 14 days. A similar decrease in serum triglyceride and glycerol incorporation into hepatic glycerides was observed in rats fed high glucose diets containing 0.25% CPIB. Serum glycerol was reduced by feeding CPIB for 14 days. The formation of diglyceride and triglyceride from 14C-sn-glycerol-3-P by rat liver homogenates was inhibited by addition of 1-40 mM CPIB to the reaction mixture. These results suggest that CPIB reduces hepatic glycerolipid synthesis, possibly by inhibition of one or more reactions in the esterification of sn-glycerol-3-P. This change may account for the early fall in serum triglyceride. At later time periods, serum glycerol levels fall and in some experiments, hepatic triglyceride content increases. Therefore, it is likely that additional metabolic alterations may contribute to the sustained hypotriglyceridemic effects of CPIB. PMID:5096518

  14. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  15. Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

  16. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  17. Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. ||

    1995-06-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

  18. Summertime elevation of sup 222 Rn levels in Huntsville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Saultz, R.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Indoor Rn concentrations and Rn in adjacent karst terrains were studied at four houses with crawlspaces in Huntsville, AL. In warm summertime weather, Rn-rich air may vent through limestone solution cavities exposed as holes at the surface of the properties. A probable interrelated-finding is that the indoor levels of {sup 222}Rn are distinctly higher in the summer than winter. The karst underlying the homes is structurally faulted and, in all probability, facilitates Rn transport from the solution cavities to the crawlspaces. Abrupt day-to-day changes in indoor Rn concentrations were recorded in addition to large seasonal changes. If the owners or residents of these particular homes had attempted to make, and interpret, short-term screening measurements for Rn during the fall season, problems, including false negatives, could have arisen because of order-of-magnitude changes in Rn concentration occurring over a few days. The best time of year to make screening measurements would be during the summer when indoor Rn concentrations are more likely to reach their maximum values.

  19. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-09-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particular vulnerable for ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ∼180 to 1100 μatm) in the Kongsfjord off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. The most prominent finding of our study is the profound effect of OA on the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton prospered. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  20. Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ~ 180 to 1100 μatm) in Kongsfjorden off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. OA distinctly affected the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton thrived. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Besides being grazed, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

  1. The Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin-Resistance Locus Near IRS1 Is A Determinant of HDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides Levels Among Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajani; Prudente, Sabrina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Powers, Christine; Mannino, Gaia; Bacci, Simonetta; Gervino, Ernest V.; Hauser, Thomas H.; Succurro, Elena; Mercuri, Luana; Goheen, Elizabeth H.; Shah, Hetal; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Sesti, Giorgio; Doria, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE SNP rs2943641 near the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin-resistance in genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether this SNP is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic individuals. METHODS SNP rs2943641 was typed in 2,133 White T2D subjects and tested for association with BMI, serum HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension history, and CAD risk. RESULTS HDL cholesterol decreased by 1 mg/dl (p=0.0045) and serum triglycerides increased by 6 mg/dl (p=0.018) for each copy of the insulin-resistance allele. Despite these effects, no association was found with increased CAD risk (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.88–1.13). CONCLUSIONS The insulin-resistance and T2D locus near the IRS1 gene is a determinant of lower HDL cholesterol among T2D subjects. However, this effect is small and does not translate into a detectable increase in CAD risk in this population. PMID:21353221

  2. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  3. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity. PMID:11536820

  4. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  5. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk of Compensated Cirrhosis Patients with Elevated HBV DNA Levels according to Serum Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junggyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients with normal aminotransferase levels are closely followed-up for the elevation of aminotransferase levels instead of prompt antiviral therapy (AVT). We analyzed the long-term hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk according to the aminotransferase levels in a retrospective cohort of 1,468 treatment-naïve, HBV-related, compensated cirrhosis patients with elevated HBV DNA levels (≥2,000 IU/mL). Based on aminotransferase levels, patients were categorized into normal (< 40 U/L, n = 364) and elevated group (≥40 U/L, n = 1,104). During a median of 5.3 yr of follow-up (range: 1.0-8.2 yr), HCC developed in 296 (20%) patients. The 5-yr cumulative HCC incidence rate was higher in patients with elevated aminotransferase level, but was not low in normal aminotransferase level (17% vs. 14%, P = 0.004). During the follow-up, 270/364 (74%) patients with normal aminotransferase levels experienced elevation of aminotransferase levels, and AVT was initiated in 1,258 (86%) patients. Less patients with normal aminotransferase levels received AVT (70% vs. 91%, P < 0.001) and median time to start AVT was longer (17.9 vs. 2.4 months, P < 0.001). AVT duration was an independent factor associated with HCC, and median duration of AVT was shorter (4.0 vs. 2.6 yr, P < 0.001) in patients with normal aminotransferase levels. The HCC risk of compensated cirrhosis patients with normal aminotransferase level is not low, and AVT duration is associated with lowered HCC risk, indicating that prompt AVT should be strongly considered even for those with normal aminotransferase levels. PMID:26539006

  7. Methyl protodioscin increases ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux while inhibiting gene expressions for synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides by suppressing SREBP transcription and microRNA 33a/b levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weilie; Ding, Hang; Gong, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Yalin; Zhang, Zhizhen; Lin, Guorong

    2015-04-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate homeostasis of LDL, HDL and triglycerides. This study was aimed to determine if inhibition of SREBPs by methyl protodioscin (MPD) regulates downstream gene and protein expressions of lipid metabolisms. In THP-1 macrophages, MPD increases levels of ABCA1 mRNA and protein in dose- and time-dependent manners, and apoA-1-mediated cholesterol efflux. The underlying mechanisms for the effects is that MPD inhibits the transcription of SREBP1c and SREBP2, and decreases levels of microRNA 33a/b hosted in the introns of SREBPs, which leads to reciprocally increase ABCA1 levels. In HepG2 cells, MPD shows the same effects as these observed in THP-1 macrophages. MPD also decreases the gene expressions of HMGCR, FAS and ACC for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. MPD further promotes LDL receptor through reducing the PCSK9 level. Collectively, the study demonstrates that MPD potentially increase HDL cholesterol while reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:25733328

  8. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  9. Orthometric corrections from leveling, gravity, density and elevation data: a case study in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, C.; Hsiao, Y.-S.

    2003-08-01

    A new orthometric correction (OC) formula is presented and tested with various mean gravity reduction methods using leveling, gravity, elevation, and density data. For mean gravity computations, the Helmert method, a modified Helmert method with variable density and gravity anomaly gradient, and a modified Mader method were used. An improved method of terrain correction computation based on Gaussian quadrature is used in the modified Mader method. These methods produce different results and yield OCs that are greater than 10 cm between adjacent benchmarks (separated by sim2 km) at elevations over 3000 m. Applying OC reduces misclosures at closed leveling circuits and improves the results of leveling network adjustments. Variable density yields variation of OC at millimeter level everywhere, while gravity anomaly gradient introduces variation of OC of greater than 10 cm at higher elevations, suggesting that these quantities must be considered in OC. The modified Mader method is recommended for computing OC.

  10. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  11. Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: role of hepatic triglyceride utilization

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Rani J.; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D’mello, Anil P.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduced liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. The mechanism(s) mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The objective of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and sacrificed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low protein offspring both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity suggesting increased fatty acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, and plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring indicating a lack of change in fatty acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein were similar between low protein and control offspring. Since enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. PMID:25641378

  12. Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: role of hepatic triglyceride utilization.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez-Garcia, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D'Mello, Anil P

    2015-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduces liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. However, the mechanisms mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The aim of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty-acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and killed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low-protein offspring, both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity, suggesting increased fatty-acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, and plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring, indicating a lack of change in fatty-acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein, were similar between low protein and control offspring. Because enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low-protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty-acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. PMID:25641378

  13. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  14. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields. PMID:25750640

  15. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  16. Postprandial metabolism of meal triglyceride in humans*,**

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jennifer E.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of dietary fat above energy needs has contributed to the growing rates of obesity worldwide. The concept of disease development occurring in the fed state now has much support and dysregulation of substrate flux may occur due to poor handling of dietary fat in the immediate postprandial period. The present paper will review recent observations implicating cephalic phase events in the control of enterocyte lipid transport, the impact of varying the composition of meals on subsequent fat metabolism, and the means by which dietary lipid carried in chylomicrons can lead to elevated postprandial non-esterified fatty acid concentrations. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of the data on quantitative meal fat oxidation at the whole body level and an examination of dietary fat clearance to peripheral tissues — with particular attention paid to skeletal muscle and liver given the role of ectopic lipid deposition in insulin resistance. Estimates derived from data of dietary-TG clearance show good agreement with clearance to the liver equaling 8–12% of meal fat in lean subjects and this number appears higher (10–16%) in subjects with diabetes and fatty liver disease. Finally, we discuss new methods with which to study dietary fatty acid partitioning in vivo. Future research is needed to include a more comprehensive understanding of 1) the potential for differential oxidation of saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids which might lead to meaningful energy deficit and whether this parameter varies based on insulin sensitivity, 2) whether compartmentalization exists for diet-derived fatty acids within tissues vs. intracellular pools, and 3) the role of reduced peripheral fatty acid clearance in the development of fatty liver disease. Further advancements in the quantitation of dietary fat absorption and disposal will be central to the development of therapies designed to treat diet-induced obesity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled

  17. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  18. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease. PMID:6172043

  19. Persistent elevated bone marrow plasma levels of thrombopoietin in patients with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jizhou; Wu, Qingqing; Zheng, Yizhou

    2016-09-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome. Plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) levels are elevated in AA patients with reduced blood counts. However, whether elevated TPO can recover to normal level in AA patients in complete remission (CR) after efficient immunosuppressive therapy (IST) is unknown. We measured TPO levels of BM plasma in a large cohort of AA patients with focusing on patients in CR after IST. Our data showed that BM plasma TPO levels were still high in patients who had reached normal blood counts levels for a long time. We speculate that downregulated expression of MPL (TPO receptor) in HSPC (hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells) may be related to the upregulated TPO in AA. PMID:27269179

  20. Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F.; Ennis, Elizabeth A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC–CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [3H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC–CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC–CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC–CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC–CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC–CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative

  1. False in vitro and in vivo elevations of uric acid levels in mouse blood.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tamaki; Tomioka, Naoko H; Watanabe, Shigekazu; Tsuchiya, Masao; Hosoyamada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) levels in mouse blood have been reported to range widely from 0.1 μM to 760 μM. The aim of this study was to demonstrate false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA levels in mouse blood. Male ICR mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital (breathing mice) or sacrificed with overdose ether (non-breathing mice). Collected blood was dispensed into MiniCollect® tubes and incubated in vitro for 0 or 30 min at room temperature. After separation of plasma or serum, the levels of UA and hypoxanthine were determined using HPLC. From the non-incubated plasma of breathing mice, the true value of UA level in vivo was 13.5±1.4 μM. However, UA levels in mouse blood increased by a factor of 3.9 following incubation in vitro. This "false in vitro elevation" of UA levels in mouse blood after blood sampling was inhibited by allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Xanthine oxidase was converted to UA in mouse serum from hypoxanthine which was released from blood cells during incubation. Plasma UA levels from non-breathing mice were 19 times higher than those from breathing mice. This "false in vivo elevation" of UA levels before blood sampling was inhibited by pre-treatment with phentolamine, an α-antagonist. Over-anesthesia with ether might induce α-vasoconstriction and ischemia and thus degrade intracellular ATP to UA. For the accurate measurement of UA levels in mouse blood, the false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA level must be avoided by immediate separation of plasma after blood sampling from anesthetized breathing mice. PMID:24940669

  2. Triglyceride-Lowering Effects of Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Hong, Seong Soo; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-03-28

    The triglyceride-lowering effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 were investigated. Male SD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and probiotics (5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. plantarum KY1032 and 5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. curvatus HY7601), or normal diet for 6 weeks. Probiotic treatment significantly lowered the elevated plasma triglyceride and increased plasma free fatty acid, glycerol, and plasma apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) levels. The probiotic-treated group showed elevated hepatic mRNA expression of PPARα, bile acid receptor (FXR), and ApoA-V. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum KY1032 and L. curvatus HY7601 lower triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic rats by upregulating ApoA-V, PPARα, and FXR. PMID:26699746

  3. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Karin; Gustafson, Lars; Hultberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease) of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy. PMID:23569455

  4. SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200 kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

  6. Acute psychological stress reduces plasma triglyceride clearance.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Catherine M; West, Sheila G; Hughes, Joel W; Lentino, Lisa M; Finney, Montenique L; Falko, James; Bausserman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Acute stress elevates blood lipids, with the largest increases among men and postmenopausal women. The mechanisms for the effect are unknown, but may be due to altered lipid metabolism. This study investigated if acute stress induces transient reductions in triglyceride clearance in middle-aged men and women, and determined if gender and menopause affect triglyceride metabolism. Of the 35 women, half were premenopausal, and half were naturally postmenopausal; men (n = 35) were age matched. Clearance of an intravenously administered fat emulsion was assessed twice: once during a nonstress session, and again during a stress-testing session. During the stress session, a battery of behavioral stressors (serial subtraction, speech, mirror tracing, and Stroop) were performed for 40 min. The clearance rate of exogenous fat was significantly diminished during the stress, relative to the nonstress session. Women had more efficient clearance, relative to men, but there were no effects of menopausal status. The diminished ability to clear an intravenous fat emulsion during stress suggests one mechanism for stress-induced elevations in lipids. PMID:12206298

  7. Elevation of intracellular calcium levels in spiral ganglion cells by trimethyltin.

    PubMed

    Fechter, L D; Liu, Y

    1995-11-01

    The neurotoxicant, trimethyltin (TMT) produces cochlear impairment at far lower dose levels and far more rapidly than it does central nervous system effects. The initial effects of TMT in the cochlea, in vivo, are consistent with disruption of the inner hair cell type-1 spiral ganglion cell synapse although it is uncertain whether the effect is on presynaptic and/or postsynaptic units. This synapse is believed to be an excitatory glutamatergic one, providing the possibility that TMT could induce an excitotoxic process resulting in elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The objective of this study was to determine whether TMT had direct toxic effects on the postsynaptic spiral ganglion cells studied in primary culture and to identify the role of extracellular calcium in such an effect. The marker of interest was the effect of this agent on [Ca2+]i levels as determined using quantitation of the fluorescent calcium dye, Fura-2. TMT did induce a marked and sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i level in the spiral ganglion cells that appeared to have a rapid initial phase and a slower saturating phase. Studies performed using calcium-free medium showed that elevation of [Ca2+]i in spiral ganglion cells by TMT was attenuated but not entirely blocked. Further, the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, was able to inhibit the initial increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that at least this phase of the TMT effect was mediated by calcium channels, although nifedipine had no significant effect on the time to reach the maximal [Ca2+]i level. Parallel control experiments performed using application of exogenous glutamate and depolarizing K+ concentrations also produced elevation in [Ca2+]i levels. The data indicate that TMT elevates [Ca2+]i in isolated spiral ganglion cells both by increasing extracellular uptake via Ca2+ channels and also by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Thus TMT ototoxicity appears to include a direct postsynaptic toxic event. PMID:8647712

  8. Evidence-based medicine in obstetrics: can levels B and C recommendations be elevated to level A recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Chang, Eugene; Brost, Brian; Assel, Barbara; Baxter, Jason; Smith, James A; Grobman, Robert; Berghella, Vincenzo; Scardo, James A; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 65% (132/195) of level B/C obstetric recommendations are amenable to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and seven were identified as most needed. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate levels B and C recommendations in obstetric practice bulletins (PBs) regarding the feasibility of performing RCT to elevate each subject to level A evidence. Eleven geographically dispersed physicians with experience in research reviewed levels B and C recommendations for the ethical and logistical feasibility of performing an RCT. In the 35 obstetric PBs, 195 level B/C recommendations were reviewed. The majority considered 47 (24%) topics unethical for an RCT and thought 16 (11%) did not need an RCT, thus leaving 132 (67%) levels B and C recommendations available for an RCT. Two-thirds of levels B and C recommendations in obstetric PB are amenable to RCTs and potentially becoming level A evidence.

  9. Evidence-based medicine in obstetrics: can levels B and C recommendations be elevated to level A recommendations?

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Chang, Eugene; Brost, Brian; Assel, Barbara; Baxter, Jason; Smith, James A; Grobman, Robert; Berghella, Vincenzo; Scardo, James A; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2009-06-01

    In this study, 65% (132/195) of level B/C obstetric recommendations are amenable to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and seven were identified as most needed. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate levels B and C recommendations in obstetric practice bulletins (PBs) regarding the feasibility of performing RCT to elevate each subject to level A evidence. Eleven geographically dispersed physicians with experience in research reviewed levels B and C recommendations for the ethical and logistical feasibility of performing an RCT. In the 35 obstetric PBs, 195 level B/C recommendations were reviewed. The majority considered 47 (24%) topics unethical for an RCT and thought 16 (11%) did not need an RCT, thus leaving 132 (67%) levels B and C recommendations available for an RCT. Two-thirds of levels B and C recommendations in obstetric PB are amenable to RCTs and potentially becoming level A evidence. PMID:27582813

  10. Amyloid beta protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Shoji, M; Harigaya, Y; Watanabe, M; Hosoda, K; Cheung, T T; Shaffer, L M; Golde, T E; Younkin, L H; Younkin, S G

    1994-12-01

    The 4-kd amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposited as amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is produced and released by normal proteolytic processing of the amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP) and is readily detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we present the levels of A beta in CSF from a total of 95 subjects, including 38 patients with AD, 14 with early-onset AD and 24 with late-onset AD, 25 normal control subjects, and 32 patients with other neurological diseases. The level of A beta decreased with normal aging, and there was a significant elevation in the level of A beta in the CSF of early-onset AD patients (4.14 +/- 1.37 pmol/ml, p < 0.01). Neither Mini-Mental State nor Functional Assessment Staging were correlated with the amount of A beta in the CSF. The A beta/secreted form of beta APP ratio was elevated, but the level of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in the CSF did not correlate with the level of CSF A beta in early-onset AD patients. Thus, the level of A beta in the CSF is elevated in early-onset AD patients and is suggested to be correlated with the pathology in the brain that characterizes AD. PMID:7998778

  11. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  12. Particle Size Evidence of Intertidal Elevation: A Basis for Quantitative Sea-level Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plater, Andrew; Mills, Hayley; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame is controlled largely by hydroperiod and proximity to tidal ingress. Here, the upper part of the intertidal zone is characterised by poorly sorted, near symmetrical, platy- to mesokurtic, fine-grained particle size distributions due to particle settling from suspension as the tidal flow velocity decreases to high tide slack water. Indeed, an elevational or spatial gradient in particle size distribution can be observed whereby shorter hydroperiods (higher elevations) are accompanied by slower and more variable flow velocities. However, this gradient may become complicated by creek networks, whereby particle size can be observed to decrease away from creek margins, or extant vegetation that increases bed friction. Unvegetated, planar tidal flats in the Yangtze estuary offer an ideal test bed to explore evidence for a quantitative relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame. Such a relationship would then serve as an effective proxy for tidal level preserved within sediment cores, and thus a means for reconstructing past sea level. This principle is based largely on ecological transfer function-based reconstructions of Holocene sea level from foraminifera and diatoms. Surface sediment samples were collected along three transects extending eastwards from Chongming Island in South Branch channel of the Yangtze estuary. Sample positions relative to the high water mark were determined using RTK surveying, and particle size analysis was undertaken using laser granulometry. Unconstrained cluster analysis, based on unweighted Euclidean distance, was undertaken on the particle size classes at 0.25 phi intervals (up to 50 size bins) as well as Udden-Wentworth size classes (6-7 size bins). All three transects demonstrate a good clustering of particle size classes with distance and elevation, i.e. sites that are higher within the tidal frame

  13. New ceramics-related industry implicated in elevated blood lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, W.E.; Novotny, T.E.; Tucker, M.

    1987-05-01

    Elevated lead levels have been implicated as a cause of a variety of health problems in children. Blood lead, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and hemoglobin levels were measured for family members of workers exposed to lead borosilicate dust in a capacitor and resistor plant in Colorado. Previous studies in other lead-related industries have shown an increased risk of lead poisoning among workers' children through exposure to dust brought home on work clothes. Eighty-nine family members of 41 exposed workers were tested along with 62 family members of 30 unexposed comparison households. The mean blood lead level in the family members of exposed workers was significantly elevated compared with that of the unexposed group (10.2 vs. 6.2 micrograms/dl, p = .0001).

  14. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

  15. Chronic renovascular hypertension is associated with elevated levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Eirin, Alfonso; Gloviczki, Monika L.; Tang, Hui; Rule, Andrew D.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the stenotic kidney and progressive renal dysfunction. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an acute phase protein induced in inflammatory conditions and ischemia, is a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury. We hypothesized that chronic RVH would be associated with increased renal and circulating NGAL levels. Methods We prospectively measured renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) levels of NGAL and inflammatory cytokines in essential hypertensive (EH) and RVH patients, during constant sodium intake and anti-hypertensive regimens, and compared them with systemic levels in age-matched normotensive subjects (n = 22 each). In addition, we measured urinary NGAL and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 in all patients. Results Blood pressure, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), lipid panels and medications were similar in RVH and EH. Systemic, stenotic and contralateral renal vein levels of NGAL were all similarly elevated in RVH versus normal hypertension and EH (P < 0.05), as were renal vein levels of inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, renal vein NGAL levels inversely correlated with eGFR, and directly with renal vein (but not systemic) levels of inflammatory markers. Urinary levels of NGAL and KIM-1 were elevated in both EH and RVH, as were systemic levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusions Chronic RVH is associated with elevated NGAL levels, likely due to ongoing kidney and systemic inflammation and ischemia. These findings may also imply the occurrence of the inflammation process in chronic RVH, which might contribute to the poorer outcomes of RVH compared with EH patients. PMID:22923545

  16. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  17. Plasma TGF-β1 Levels Are Elevated in Down Syndrome Infants with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Go, Hayato; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition. In Patient 1, serum interleukin (IL)-8 and plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels were markedly elevated before ExT (1,518.2 pg/mL and 17,635 pg/mL, respectively). After ExT, serum IL-8 and plasma TGF-β1 levels decreased to 40.7 pg/mL and 6,847 pg/mL, respectively. However, Patient 1 died on day 56 due to cholestatic liver dysfunction; namely, this patient represents fatal TAM. The second patient, Patient 2, had hyperleukocytosis with increased counts of blasts without liver dysfunction and was treated with cytarabine. In Patient 2, plasma TGF-β1 levels, but not plasma IL-8, were elevated (9,068 pg/mL and 28 pg/mL, respectively). Patient 2 was discharged on day 47. In summary, plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated in the two DS infants with TAM, regardless of the presence or absence of hepatic fibrosis. Importantly, fatal TAM is assoicated with the elevated serum level of IL-8. We thus propose that IL-8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27546516

  18. Proteomic Insight Reveals Elevated Levels of Albumin in Circulating Immune Complexes in Diabetic Plasma.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Shweta; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G; Patil, Yugendra R; Shaikh, Mahemud L; Regin, Bhaskaran S; Mohan, Viswanathan; Giri, Ashok P; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy; Boppana, Ramanamurthy; Kulkarni, Mahesh J

    2016-06-01

    A Hyperglycemic condition in diabetes promotes formation of advanced glycation end products, which are known to elicit immune response and form complexes with immunoglobulins called circulating immune complexes. To investigate the involvement of advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified proteins in the elicitation of an immune response, circulating immune complexes were isolated and proteins associated were identified and characterized. Label-free-based mass spectrometric analysis of circulating immune complexes in clinical plasma of prediabetic, newly diagnosed diabetes, and diabetic microalbuminurea revealed elevated levels of serum albumin in the circulating immune complexes, which were also observed to be AGE modified. Further, to examine the role of glycation, circulating immune complexeswere analyzed in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice treated with or without aminoguanidine, a prototype glycation inhibitor. Mass spectrometric analysis of circulating immune complexes showed elevated levels of serum albumin in plasma from diabetic mice over that of control animals. Aminoguanidine-treated diabetic mice displayed decreased AGE modification of plasma albumin, accompanied by a reduced level of albumin in the circulating immune complexes. In addition, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-2, and TNF-alpha were observed in diabetes, which were reduced with aminoguanidine treatment, suggesting the involvement of glycation in the immune response. PMID:27056913

  19. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  20. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Results Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable

  1. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L). Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Conclusion Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the

  2. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  3. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-zheng; Wang, Gen-xuan; Shen, Zhu-xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-qing

    2006-04-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO(2) concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO(2) concentrations (350 micromol/mol and 500 micromol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO(2) on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO(2) concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO(2) enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO(2) enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO(2) concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO(2) enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO(2) depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO(2) enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  4. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  5. Elevated plasma levels of Th17-related cytokines are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Na; Xu, Bin; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Xinghua; Tang, He; Wu, Long; Xiang, Ying; Zhang, Mengxuan; Shu, Maoqing; Song, Zhiyuan; Li, Yafei; Zhong, Li

    2016-01-01

    We performed a matched case-control study using a propensity score matching, to assess the association of Th17-related cytokines, including interleukin (IL) 17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6, along with interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10, IL-9, and IL-4, with the risk of AF. A total of 336 patients with AF were matched 1:1 with patients without AF. Plasma levels of cytokines were measured using Luminex xMAP assays. The plasma levels of all examined cytokines were significantly higher in AF patients than controls (P < 0.05), and these cytokines were highly correlated with each other (P < 0.01). A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that elevated plasma levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-9 and IL-6 were significantly associated with AF risk independently of potential confounders. There were no significant differences in plasma levels of examined cytokines between paroxysmal and chronic AF patients. IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10 and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with left atrial diameter; IL-17F level was negatively correlated with left ventricle ejection fraction among AF patients (P < 0.05). Elevated plasma levels of Th17-related cytokines were independently associated with increased an risk of AF; hence, Th17-related cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of AF. PMID:27198976

  6. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  7. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  8. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    PubMed

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality. PMID:25518819

  9. Effects of Polymorphisms in APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 Gene Cluster on Plasma Levels of Triglycerides and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Long; Jing, Jinjin; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several loci influencing lipid levels. The present study focused on the triglycerides (TG)-associated locus, the APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 gene cluster on chromosome 11, to explore the role of genetic variants in this gene cluster in the development of increasing TG levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methodology/Principal Findings Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4417316, rs651821, rs6589566, rs7396835, rs964184 and rs17119975, in the APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 gene cluster were selected and genotyped in 5374 healthy Chinese subjects. There were strong significant associations between the six SNPs and TG levels (P<1.0×10−8). Moreover, a weighted genotype score was found to be associated with TG levels (P = 3.28×10−13). The frequencies of three common haplotypes were observed to be significantly different between the high TG group and the low TG group (P<0.05). However, no significant effects were found for the SNPs regarding susceptibility to CHD in the Chinese case-control populations. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the genotypes, genotype scores and haplotypes of the APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 gene cluster that were associated with TG levels in a Chinese population; however, the genetic variants in this gene cluster did not increase the risk of CHD in the Chinese population. PMID:26397108

  10. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  11. Triglyceride Metabolism and Hepatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mejia, Emptyyn Y

    2013-09-11

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplasticcells. One of the main medical concerns vis-à-vishepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24032513

  12. Elevated levels of antibodies against sulphatide are present in all chronic chagasic and dilated cardiomyopathy sera.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Carrasco, H

    1993-01-01

    A natural anti-sulphatide antibody was found to be present in the serum of every normal individual studied. The reactivity of the antibody was assessed by its interaction with galactosylceramide-I3-sulphate. Antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked by 1 mM heparin, dextran sulphate and chondroitin sulphate A, and by 5 mM chondroitin sulphate B. Antibodies avidly absorb to rabbit erythrocytes, but discretely to rat erythrocytes, suggesting that they are different from galactocerebroside antibodies. Elevated levels of sulphatide antibodies were present in all of 102 chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients studied, but not in other patients having cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, T. rangeli infection or several other protozoal, helminthic or mycotic infections. Interestingly, 100% of 40 dilated cardiomyopathy patients also have elevated levels of sulphatide antibodies. As T. cruzi is rich in galactocerebroside sulphate, it is proposed that in chagasic patients this glycolipid could act as an immunogen, inducing elevated titres of sulphatide antibodies, which could be important in the pathogenesis of cardiac or peripheral nerve symptoms. PMID:8513577

  13. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevation of intracellular Zn2+ level by nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban in rat thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Morita, Junpei; Teramachi, Aoi; Sanagawa, Yosuke; Toyson, Saramaiti; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Oyama, Yasuo

    2012-12-17

    It was recently reported that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent, were detected in human blood after the use of soap containing triclocarban. Due to the widespread use of triclocarban in adult and infant personal care products, the report prompted us to study its cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of triclocarban was examined in rat thymocytes by using a cytometric technique with propidium iodide for examining cell lethality, FluoZin-3-AM for monitoring the intracellular Zn(2+) level, and 5-chloromethylfluorescencein diacetate for estimating the cellular content of non-protein thiol. The incubation with triclocarban at nanomolar concentrations (50-500nM) for 1h did not affect cell lethality but significantly elevated the intracellular Zn(2+) level. The elevation of the intracellular Zn(2+) level by triclocarban was not significantly dependent on external Zn(2+) level. There was a negative correlation (r=-0.9225) between the effect on the intracellular Zn(2+) level and that on the cellular content of non-protein thiol. These results suggest that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban decrease the cellular content of non-protein thiol, leading to intracellular Zn(2+) release. Since zinc plays physiological roles in mammalian cells, the percutaneous absorption of triclocarban from soap may, therefore, affect some cellular functions. PMID:23099084

  15. The relevance of an elevation in the plasma vasopressin levels to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attack.

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Asai, M; Nishihori, T; Mizuta, K; Ito, Y; Ando, K

    2007-11-01

    An elevation of plasma vasopressin levels has been frequently observed in Meniere's disease patients. However, little is known regarding the mechanism behind this elevation. The plasma vasopressin levels and plasma osmolality were therefore determined in 18 diagnosed Meniere's disease patients and 20 patients with other types of vertigo, who required admission for severe vertigo attacks. All participants were given questionnaires regarding their clinical and psychological status, including their stress levels and depression status, to evaluate environmental stress events. The plasma vasopressin levels of Meniere's disease patients in the acute phase (4.1 +/- 1.37 pg/ml) were significantly higher compared with with those of other vertigo patients in the acute phase (2.1 +/- 0.41 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The average plasma osmolality of the Meniere's disease group was higher than that of the other vertigo patients group (P < 0.05). No significant difference in reported stress levels, depression status and prevalence of primary headache between the groups was observed. The plasma vasopressin showed no significant correlation with the patients' clinical data (occurrence of emesis or nausea, prevalence of primary headache, depression status and stress). No correlation between the plasma vasopressin and the plasma osmolarity was observed in the Meniere's disease group. These results suggest that the elevation of plasma vasopressin in the acute phase of Meniere's disease is therefore related to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attacks, and the results obtained may provide helpful information for distinguishing between Meniere's disease and other various inner ear diseases. PMID:17927668

  16. Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

  17. Elevated IL-6 and TNF-α Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Guan, Yi; Zhao, Gang; Fu, Xi-Jia; Guo, Tie-Zhu; Liu, Yue-Ting; Ren, Xin-Liang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Han-Rui; Li, Yun-Qian

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the correlation between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) progression. A meta-analysis was further conducted from pooled data to analyze the clinical value of IL-6 and TNF-α in SAH diagnosis. In our case-control study, a total of 57 SAH patients were assigned to two groups, CVS group (n = 27) and non-CVS group (n = 30), based on the presence of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). In addition, 65 healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in CSF were measured in all the study subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For meta-analysis, an exhaustive literature search was conducted to identify relevant published articles and strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select studies for the present meta-analysis. Data extracted from these studies was analyzed using STATA 12.0 software. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in CSF of SAH patients were markedly higher than those of healthy controls (all P < 0.001). Further, CVS patients showed elevated IL-6 and TNF-α levels in CSF compared to non-CVS patients (all P < 0.001). The increase in IL-6 and TNF-α levels in CSF correlated with the increasing disease severity, based on Hunt-Hess grade, in SAH patients (all P < 0.05). Our meta-analysis also confirmed that IL-6 and TNF-α CSF levels were markedly higher in SAH patients compared to healthy controls (all P < 0.001). Ethnicity-stratified analysis showed that both IL-6 and TNF-α CSF levels were elevated in Asian SAH patients, compared to their healthy counterparts (all P < 0.05). The TNF-α CSF levels were significantly higher in Caucasian SAH patients (P < 0.001), but the IL-6 CSF levels showed no such differences compared to the healthy controls (P = 0.219). Subgroup analysis based on the presence of CVS showed that both IL-6 and TNF-α CSF levels were markedly higher in CVS

  18. Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  19. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  20. Elevated high-mobility group box 1 levels in patients with cerebral and myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard S; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Yang, Lihong; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Huston, Jared M; Czura, Christopher J; Lee, David C; Ward, Mae F; Bruchfeld, Annette N; Wang, Haichao; Lesser, Martin L; Church, Adam L; Litroff, Adam H; Sama, Andrew E; Tracey, Kevin J

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral and myocardial ischemia, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, are associated with inflammation that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. High-mobility group box 1(HMGB1), a recently described mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, has been detected in individuals with severe sepsis and hemorrhagic shock, but its role during ischemic injury in humans is unknown. To determine whether systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated after ischemic injury, a prospective observational study was performed in subjects with a diagnosis of either Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) or cerebral vascular ischemia (transient ischemic attack or cerebral vascular accident). Subjects (n, 16; age [mean], 67+/-16.3 years) were enrolled in the North Shore-LIJ emergency department within 24 h of symptom onset. Blood samples were collected, and HMGB1 levels analyzed by Western blot analysis using previously described methods (Wang et al. Science. 1999). Control samples were obtained from healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers (n, 16; age [mean], 68+/-15.8 years). Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in both myocardial ischemia subjects (myocardial control serum HMGB1, 1.94+/-2.05 ng/mL, vs. myocardial ischemia serum HMGB1, 159+/-54.3 ng/mL; P<0.001); and in cerebral ischemia subjects (cerebral control serum HMGB1, 16.8+/-10.9 ng/mL, vs. cerebral ischemia serum HMGB1, 218+/-18.8 ng/mL; P<0.001). These results suggest that systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated in human ischemic disease. PMID:16721263

  1. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms. PMID:23043271

  2. Elevated levels of NR2A and PSD-95 in the lateral amygdala in depression

    PubMed Central

    Karolewicz, Beata; Szebeni, Katalin; Gilmore, Tempestt; Maciag, Dorota; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that major depression is associated with dysfunction of the brain glutamatergic transmission, and that the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a role in antidepressant activity. Recent postmortem studies demonstrate that depression is associated with altered concentrations of proteins associated with NMDA receptor signaling in the brain. The present study investigated glutamate signaling proteins in the amygdala from depressed subjects, given strong evidence for amygdala pathology in depression. Lateral amygdala samples were obtained from 13-14 pairs of age- sex-, and postmortem-interval matched depressed and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2A subunits of the NMDA receptor, as well as NMDA receptor-associated proteins such as postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Additionally, levels of enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism, including glutamine synthetase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), were measured in the same amygdala samples. NR2A protein levels were markedly and significantly elevated (+115%, p=0.03) in depressed subjects as compared to controls. Interestingly, PSD-95 levels were also highly elevated (+128%, p=0.01) in the same depressed subjects relative to controls. Amounts of NR1, nNOS, glutamine synthetase, and GAD-67 were unchanged. Increased levels of NR2A and PSD-95 suggest that glutamate signaling at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala is disrupted in depression. PMID:18570704

  3. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

  5. Elevated circulating levels of betatrophin are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ozgur; Kume, Tuncay; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Yesil Senses, Pinar; Senses, Yasar Mehmet; Temur, Muzaffer; Gursoy Calan, Ozlem

    2016-07-01

    Betatrophin is a newly identified hormone determined to be a potent inducer of pancreatic beta cell proliferation in response to insulin resistance in mice. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an inflammatory-based metabolic disease associated with insulin resistance. However, no evidence is available indicating whether betatrophin is involved in women with PCOS. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether betatrophin levels are altered in women with PCOS. This study was conducted in secondary referral center. This cross-sectional study included 164 women with PCOS and 164 age- and BMI-matched female controls. Circulating betatrophin levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic and hormonal parameters were also determined. Circulating betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared with controls (367.09 ± 55.78 vs. 295.65 ± 48.97 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Betatrophin levels were positively correlated with insulin resistance marker homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), free-testosterone, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), atherogenic lipid profiles, and BMI in PCOS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for PCOS was 2.51 for patients in the highest quartile of betatrophin compared with those in the lowest quartile (95 % CI 1.31-4.81, P = 0.006). Multivariate regression analyses showed that HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone were independent factors influencing serum betatrophin levels. Betatrophin levels were increased in women with PCOS and were associated with insulin resistance, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone in these patients. Elevated betatrophin levels were found to increase the odds of having PCOS. Further research is needed to elucidate the physiologic and pathologic significance of our findings. PMID:26832343

  6. The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

  7. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  8. Role of transport in elevated CO levels over Delhi during onset phase of monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Reka; Beig, Gufran; Peshin, Sunil K.

    2016-09-01

    While local anthropogenic emission sources contribute significantly to pollutant levels in a megacity Delhi, meteorology can significantly modulate carbon monoxide (CO) levels. We hereby demonstrate that the concentration of CO during the unusual onset of monsoon 2013 was dramatically elevated and crossed the permissible limit (1.7 ppmv) for about a month long-period as against normal onset of monsoon where CO concentration generally drops down significantly. We compare level of CO in 2013 with normal monsoon year 2012. We provide a hypothesis to interpret this long lasting high concentration CO episode and validate using interactive high resolution WRF-Chem model. The model indicates that the high CO episode was caused by an unusually active Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon which bounces off from the east and transports CO rich air from the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plains to Delhi.

  9. Predictors of Elevated Cardiac Enzyme Levels in Hospitalized Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and No Known Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vinales, Karyne L.; Najib, Mohammad Q.; Marella, Punnaiah C.; Katayama, Minako

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively studied the predictive capabilities of elevated cardiac enzyme levels in terms of the prognosis of patients who were hospitalized with atrial fibrillation and who had no known coronary artery disease. Among 321 patients with atrial fibrillation, 60 without known coronary artery disease had their cardiac enzyme concentrations measured during hospitalization and underwent stress testing or cardiac catheterization within 12 months before or after hospitalization. We then compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the 20 patients who had elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the 40 patients who had normal levels. Age, sex, and comorbidities did not differ between the groups. In the patients with elevated cardiac enzyme levels, the mean concentrations of troponin T and creatine kinase-MB isoenzymes were 0.08 ± 0.08 ng/mL and 6.49 ± 4.94 ng/mL, respectively. In univariate analyses, only peak heart rate during atrial tachyarrhythmia was predictive of elevated enzyme levels (P <0.0001). Mean heart rate was higher in the elevated-level patients (146 ± 22 vs 117 ± 29 beats/min; P=0.0007). Upon multivariate analysis, heart rate was the only independent predictor of elevated levels. Coronary artery disease was found in only 2 patients who had elevated levels and in one patient who had normal levels (P=0.26). Increased myocardial demand is probably why the presenting heart rate was predictive of elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Most patients with elevated enzyme levels did not have coronary artery disease, and none died of cardiac causes during the 6-month follow-up period. To validate our findings, larger studies are warranted. PMID:27047283

  10. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with subchorionic hematoma.

    PubMed

    Kumbak, Banu; Sahin, Levent

    2010-07-01

    Subchorionic hematoma might be associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Two intra cytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancies complicated with subchorionic hematoma were found to have elevated mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. One of them had miscarriage at 16 weeks' gestation and the other delivered a healthy baby by cesarean section. The valid interpretation of triple test result might be complicated by subchorionic hematoma. Therefore, it is better not to order triple test in such cases to avoid unnecessarily provoking the anxiety of the couple. PMID:19883262

  11. Occurrence of elevated protoporphyrin levels in relation to lead burden in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Leviton, A.; Needleman, H.L.

    1986-04-01

    Simultaneous blood lead (PbB), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), and hematocrit measurements were made semiannually in 232 normal infants from 6 to 24 months of age. The PbB averaged 7 (SD = 5) and ranged from 0 to 64 ..mu..g/dl. The incidence of elevated EP, a marker for deranged heme synthesis, was unrelated to PbB at levels below 15 ..mu..g/dl but was fourfold greater among the infants with PbB above 15 ..mu..g/dl. This relationship persisted even after eliminating the 31 (4%) anemic (hematocrit < 33%) samples. The confounding effects of iron deficiency are discussed.

  12. Elevated sputum BPIFB1 levels in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Ohlmeier, S; Nieminen, P; Toljamo, T; Tiitinen, S; Kanerva, T; Bingle, L; Araujo, B; Rönty, M; Höyhtyä, M; Bingle, C D; Mazur, W; Pulkkinen, V

    2015-07-01

    A previous study involving a proteomic screen of induced sputum from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrated elevated levels of bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing protein B1 (BPIFB1). The aim of the present study was to further evaluate the association of sputum BPIFB1 levels with smoking and longitudinal changes in lung function in smokers with COPD. Sputum BPIFB1 was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The expression of BPIFB1 in COPD was investigated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using sputum and lung tissue samples. BPIFB1 levels were also assessed in induced sputum from nonsmokers (n = 31), smokers (n = 169), and patients with COPD (n = 52) via an ELISA-based method. The longitudinal changes in lung function during the 4-year follow-up period were compared with the baseline sputum BPIFB1 levels. In lung tissue samples, BPIFB1 was localized to regions of goblet cell metaplasia. Secreted and glycosylated BPIFB1 was significantly elevated in the sputum of patients with COPD compared with that of smokers and nonsmokers. Sputum BPIFB1 levels correlated with pack-years and lung function as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) at baseline and after the 4-year follow-up in all participants. The changes in lung function over 4 years were significantly associated with BPIFB1 levels in current smokers with COPD. In conclusion, higher sputum concentrations of BPIFB1 were associated with changes of lung function over time, especially in current smokers with COPD. BPIFB1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of smoking-related lung diseases. PMID:25979078

  13. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  14. Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care. PMID:16527276

  15. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. |; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K.; Slavin, B.G.

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  16. Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neamţu, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Biţă, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2015-02-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1β was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )). PMID:25433580

  17. Monocyte subset distribution in patients with stable atherosclerosis and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a)

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Goliasch, Georg; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Maurer, Gerald; Huber, Kurt; Dostal, Elisabeth; Binder, Christoph J.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a proatherogenic plasma lipoprotein currently established as an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease and as a predictor for acute thrombotic complications. In addition, Lp(a) is the major carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). Today, atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are crucially involved. Circulating monocytes can be divided according to their surface expression pattern of CD14 and CD16 into at least 3 subsets with distinct inflammatory and atherogenic potential. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether elevated levels of Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100–containing lipoproteins (OxPL/apoB) are associated with changes in monocyte subset distribution. Methods We included 90 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Lp(a) and OxPL/apoB were measured, and monocyte subsets were identified as classical monocytes (CMs; CD14++CD16−), intermediate monocytes (IMs; CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical monocytes (NCMs; CD14+CD16++) by flow cytometry. Results In patients with elevated levels of Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL), monocyte subset distribution was skewed toward an increase in the proportion of IM (7.0 ± 3.8% vs 5.2 ± 3.0%; P = .026), whereas CM (82.6 ± 6.5% vs 82.0 ± 6.8%; P = .73) and NCM (10.5 ± 5.3 vs 12.8 ± 6.0; P = .10) were not significantly different. This association was independent of clinical risk factors, choice of statin treatment regime, and inflammatory markers. In addition, OxPL/apoB was higher in patients with elevated Lp(a) and correlated with IM but not CM and NCM. Conclusions In conclusion, we provide a potential link between elevated levels of Lp(a) and a proatherogenic distribution of monocyte subtypes in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26228671

  18. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26437875

  19. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region. PMID:26410824

  20. Cerebral Spinal Fluid levels of Cytokines are elevated in Patients with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Kathryn A.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Tolar, Jakub; Miller, Weston P.; Orchard, Paul J.; Lund, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase A causing an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate, a lipid normally abundant in myelin. Sulfatide accumulation is associated with progressive demyelination and a clinical presentation in severe disease forms that is dominated by motor manifestations. Cerebral inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of MLD. To date, cytokine levels in the cerebral spinal fluid of MLD patients have not previously been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the CSF of patients with MLD and to compare these levels to unaffected controls. Of 22 cytokines evaluated, we documented significant elevations of MCP-1, IL-1Ra, IL-8, MIP-1b and VEGF in the MLD patients compared to unaffected controls. The elevated cytokines identified in this study may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of MLD. Better understanding of the inflammatory and neurodegenerative process of MLD may lead to improved targeted therapies. PMID:27079147

  1. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide regulates glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in prediabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through the elevation of glycogen levels and reduction of inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Shui, Weizhi; Yang, Qiuxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), in prediabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. It was observed that fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in both models were reduced after a 4-week oral administration of ASP or metformin, and abnormal fasting serum insulin (FINS) concentrations were ameliorated as well. Moreover, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was decreased strikingly and body weight (BW) was reduced significantly in prediabetic mice after treatment with ASP. In addition, ASP also contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced after treatment with ASP in prediabetic mice or STZ-induced diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic glycogen (HG) and muscle glycogen (MG) concentrations were increased while insulin resistance (IR)-related inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological examination indicated that the impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues or adipose tissues were effectively restored in STZ-induced diabetic mice or prediabetic mice after the ASP treatment. Taken together, these results revealed that ASP efficiently exerted hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic benefits, and its potential effect was associated with the amelioration of IR. ASP can be applied in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. PMID:25630053

  2. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Hannerfors, A-K; Hellgren, C; Schijven, D; Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Skalkidou, A; Olivier, J D A; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-08-01

    Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but causality remains unclear. While placental CRH production is correlated with gestational length and preterm birth, it has been difficult to establish if psychological stress or mental health problems are associated with increased CRH levels. This study compared second trimester CRH serum concentrations in pregnant women on SSRI treatment (n=207) with untreated depressed women (n=56) and controls (n=609). A secondary aim was to investigate the combined effect of SSRI treatment and CRH levels on gestational length and risk for preterm birth. Women on SSRI treatment had significantly higher second trimester CRH levels than controls, and untreated depressed women. CRH levels and SSRI treatment were independently associated with shorter gestational length. The combined effect of SSRI treatment and high CRH levels yielded the highest risk estimate for preterm birth. SSRI treatment during pregnancy is associated with increased CRH levels. However, the elevated risk for preterm birth in SSRI users appear not to be mediated by increased placental CRH production, instead CRH appear as an independent risk factor for shorter gestational length and preterm birth. PMID:25978816

  3. Proteome Analyses of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm at Elevated Levels of NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nazrul; Ross, Julia M; Marten, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Our studies demonstrate that sodium chloride (NaCl) induces changes in biofilm, mediated by increased production of polysaccharides intercellular adhesion (PIA). We identified 12 proteins that showed higher abundance in increased level of NaCl. This includes one important protein (IsaA) known to be associated with biofilm stability. In addition, we also found higher abundance of a cold shock protein, CspA, at higher NaCl. We have also identified several other proteins that are differentially expressed to the elevated levels of NaCl and mapped them in the regulatory pathways of PIA. The majority of proteins are involved with various aspects bacterial metabolic function. Our results demonstrated that NaCl influences gene regulatory networks controlling exopolysaccharide expression. PMID:26973848

  4. Postoperative enteral hyperalimentation results in earlier elevation of serum branched-chain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Moss, G; Naylor, E D

    1994-07-01

    To objectively document the immediate maintenance and successful exploitation of postoperative gastrointestinal (GI) function, elemental diet was infused into the more distal duodenum of 30 cholecystectomy patients at 300 kcal per hour, beginning on arrival at the recovery room. Approximately 4,600 kcal and 190 grams of amino acids were absorbed during the initial 16 hours. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) had risen above basal levels at 4 hours, statistically significant only for leucine (+64%). The higher concentrations had reached statistical significance for all BCAAs by 6 hours, when leucine had risen by 83%, isoleucine by 54%, and valine by 47%. The elevated BCAA and glucose levels sustained throughout the hyperalimentation period objectively verify that postoperative GI function can be safely exploited, and may contribute to improved wound healing and sepsis resistance. PMID:8024096

  5. Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

  6. Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna V; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans O; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO(2) levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(CO2)) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric P(CO2) (∼400 μatm, normocapnia) or P(CO2) projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (∼700-800 μatm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated P(CO2) and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and P(CO2), suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high P(CO2). Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated P(CO2) and

  7. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  8. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

  9. Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron-sufficient microcytosis.

    PubMed

    Ronin, D; Strehl, F

    1998-05-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P < 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels. PMID:9604187

  10. Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

  11. Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise. PMID:23580449

  12. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or

  13. Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.

    PubMed

    Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

    2014-05-01

    Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ∼100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer. PMID:24624890

  14. Elevated level of nitric oxide mediates the anti-depressant effect of rubidium chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-09-01

    Rubidium has been used to treat psychiatric conditions including depression. We examined the antidepressant activity of rubidium chloride (RbCl) in male mice and the possible interference of nitric oxide (NO) in this effect. Mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of RbCl. These drugs were used in this study: N(G)-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-Nitroindazole and aminoguanidine, selective neuronal and inducible NOS inhibitors, respectively, and l-arginine, an NO precursor. We studied the changes of serum and hippocampus nitrite level after different treatments. RbCl (30mg/kg), when administered 60min before the tests, significantly reduced the immobility time. Non-effective doses of l-NAME (10mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (50mg/kg), co-administered with the effective dose of RbCl (30mg/kg), reversed the anti-immobility effect of RbCl, while 7-NI (25mg/kg) could not prevent the diminishing effect of RbCl on immobility time. Moreover, co-administration of non-effective doses of l-arginine (750mg/kg) and RbCl (10mg/kg) decreased the immobility time. None of the mentioned treatments altered the locomotor activity of mice in open-field test. Nitrite level was significantly increased in serum and hippocampus of animals after RbCl (30mg/kg) administration and this nitrite level elevation was reversed by non-effective dose of l-NAME and aminoguanidine, but not 7-NI. Our data for the first time reveal the role of NO pathway in the antidepressant-like activity of RbCl, concluding that this effect results from elevation of NO through involvement of iNOS in mice. PMID:26101064

  15. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  16. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  17. Serum levels of soluble CD44 variant isoforms are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Haberhauer, G; Ruckser, R; Selleny, S; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Hinterberger, W; Bauer, K

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble CD44 variant proteins including sequences encoded by exon v5 and exon v6 (sCD44v5, sCD44v6) were determined in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases: 56 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA+) and 31 with miscellaneous inflammatory rheumatic diseases (MIRD). There were very significantly higher serum levels of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 in patients with RA+ than in those with MIRD (RA+ to MIRD: sCD44v5: 81 +/- 54 ng/ml to 33 +/- 13 ng/ml; sCD44v6: 237 +/- 124 ng/ml to 166 +/- 53 ng/ml; both P < 0.001). In RA+ elevated serum levels of sCD44v5 were correlated with the inflammatory activity of disease. In 17 patients with RA+ three or four follow-up measurements of sCD44v5 were performed within 6 months. The development of sCD44v5 serum levels reflected the clinical course of disease in the patients investigated. PMID:9032816

  18. Elevated Levels of IFN-γ in CSF and Serum of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Gao, Lina; Zang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the levels of IFN-γ in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in ALS patients and to analyze the correlations between the IFN-γ levels and disease progression. Methods CSF and serum samples were obtained from 52 ALS patients and 31 non-ALS patients. The levels of IFN-γ in CSF and serum were assessed, and disease progression parameters, including the disease interval (months from onset, MFO), the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-r) score and the disease progression rate (DPR) were analyzed by registered neurologists. All samples were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using Prism software. Results Compared to the non-ALS patients, the ALS patients displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-γ in both CSF and serum, and these values consistently correlated with disease progression. Conclusions These results demonstrated that IFN-γ in CSF may serve as a biomarker of ALS differentiation and progression. CSF IFN-γ was a more reliable biomarker of disease diagnosis and progression than serum IFN-γ. PMID:26332465

  19. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  20. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures. PMID:26821331

  1. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SOLUBLE ST2 PROTEIN IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Aniuska; Warke, Rajas V.; de Bosch, Norma; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Levels of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (IL-1RL-1 / ST2) are elevated in the serum of patients with diseases characterized by an inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of soluble ST2 (sST2) in dengue infected patients during the course of the disease. Twenty four patients with confirmed dengue infection, classified as dengue fever, and eleven patients with other febrile illness (OFI) were evaluated. Levels of sST2 in serum and laboratory variables usually altered during dengue infections were measured. Dengue infected patients had higher serum sST2 levels than OFI at the end of the febrile stage and at defervescence (p=0.0088 and p=0.0004 respectively). Patients with secondary dengue infections had higher serum sST2 levels compared with patients with primary dengue infections (p=0.047 at last day of fever and p=0.030 at defervescence). Furthermore, in dengue infected patients, we found a significant negative correlation of sST2 with platelet and WBC counts, and positive correlation with thrombin time and transaminases activity. We suggest that sST2 could be a potential marker of dengue infection, could be associated with severity or could play a role in the immune response in secondary dengue virus infection. PMID:18226917

  2. Bilirubin Levels and Thrombus Burden in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Hamur, Hikmet; Duman, Hakan; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Kucuksu, Zafer; Demirelli, Selami; Kalkan, Kamuran; Degirmenci, Husnu

    2016-07-01

    We investigated whether serum bilirubin level (a marker of heme oxygenase activity) is a predictor of thrombus burden in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients (n = 229; male 72.9%; mean age 63 ± 13.4 years) who were admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was defined as low thrombus burden and group 2 was defined as high thrombus burden. Patients with high thrombus burden had higher total bilirubin levels (14.4 [4.3-22.9] vs 7.7 [2.4-20.3] µmol/L, P ≤ .001), (0.84 [0.25-1.34] vs 0.45 [0.14-1.19] mg/dL P ≤ .001) and direct bilirubin levels (3.1 [2.1-8.4] vs 1.7 [0.5-6.5] µmol/L, P ≤ .001), (0.18 [0.03-0.49] vs 0.10 [0.03-0.38] mg/dL, P ≤ .001). At multivariate analysis, total bilirubin (odds ratio: 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.08, P ≤ .001) was the independent predictor of high thrombus burden. In conclusion, total bilirubin level is independently associated with high thrombus burden in patients with STEMI. PMID:26339042

  3. Elevated Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, Edward; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shah, Rupal J.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. Methods We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40%) and 47 non-PGD subjects (59%) received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p = 0.03). The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p = 0.02); there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p = 0.9). Conclusions Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated. PMID:23284823

  4. Elevated Systemic Levels of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Cioffi, Raffaella; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Verde, Roberta; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoids and modulators of the endocannabinoid system affect specific mechanisms that are critical to the establishment and development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to measure the systemic levels of endocannabinoids and related mediators in women with and without endometriosis and to investigate whether such levels correlated with endometriosis-associated pain. Plasma and endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 27) and no endometrial pathology (n = 29). Plasma levels of endocannabinoids (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and related mediators (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA] and N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]), messenger RNA expression of some of their receptors (cannabinoid receptor type 1 [CB1], CB2, transient receptor potential vanilloid type [TRPV1]), and the enzymes involved in the synthesis (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D [NAPE-PLD]) and degradation (fatty acid amide hydrolase 1 [FAAH]) of AEA, OEA, and PEA were evaluated in endometrial stromal cells. The systemic levels of AEA, 2-AG, and OEA were elevated in endometriosis in the secretory phase compared to controls. The expression of CB1 was higher in secretory phase endometrial stromal cells of controls versus endometriosis. Similar expression levels of CB2, TRPV1, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH were detected in controls and endometriosis. Patients with moderate-to-severe dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia showed higher AEA and PEA levels than those with low-to-moderate pain symptoms, respectively. The association of increased circulating AEA and 2-AG with decreased local CB1 expression in endometriosis suggests a negative feedback loop regulation, which may impair the capability of these mediators to control pain. These preliminary data suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of the action or levels of these mediators may offer an alternative option for the management of endometriosis

  5. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  6. Graphene-Based Fluorescence-Quenching-Related Fermi Level Elevation and Electron-Concentration Surge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiyi; Tian, Bo; Zhuang, Pingping; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Cankun; Li, Qiongyu; Shih, Tien-Mo; Cai, Weiwei

    2016-09-14

    Intermolecular p-orbital overlaps in unsaturated π-conjugated systems, such as graphene and fluorescent molecules with aromatic structure, serve as the electron-exchanged path. Using Raman-mapping measurements, we observe that the fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is quenched by graphene, whereas it persists in graphene-absent substrates (SiO2). After identifying a mechanism related to photon-induced electron transfer (PET) that contributes to this fluorescence quenching phenomenon, we validate this mechanism by conducting analyses on Dirac point shifts of FITC-coated graphene. From these shifts, Fermi level elevation and the electron-concentration surge in graphene upon visible-light impingements are acquired. Finally, according to this mechanism, graphene-based biosensors are fabricated to show the sensing capability of measuring fluorescently labeled-biomolecule concentrations. PMID:27513317

  7. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation. PMID:26583915

  8. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  9. Elevated interleukin-8 levels in the urine of patients with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Y C; Mukaida, N; Ishiyama, S; Tokue, A; Kawai, T; Matsushima, K; Kasahara, T

    1993-01-01

    Pyuria is one of the main features of urinary tract infections (UTI). Nevertheless, the mechanism of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment into the urine remains to be investigated. We examined whether interleukin-8 (IL-8), a potent neutrophil chemoattractant and activator, was involved in pyuria seen in UTI. Of 113 patients, 112 had elevated levels of IL-8 in their urine (1,078.0 +/- 181.5 pg/ml), regardless of whether they had an upper or lower UTI; this was in contrast to undetectable levels (less than 16 pg/ml) in the urine of all of the 20 normal individuals and 74 control patients without UTI. A concomitant study revealed increases in urine IL-6, but not IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in patients with UTI. In addition to gram-negative bacteria, a wide spectrum of microorganisms was capable of inducing IL-8 production in urine. Local production of IL-8 in the urinary tract was suggested by a urine IL-8 level that was higher than the paired serum IL-8 level. The urine IL-8 level correlated with the number of PMN in the urine, and an average of half of the chemotactic activity in urine from patients with UTI could be abrogated by anti-IL-8 antibody treatment in vitro. Furthermore, urine IL-8 purified from patients was bioactive and showed multiple forms on immunoblotting analysis. This is the first documentation of IL-8 in the urine of patients with UTI, and these results imply that IL-8 is involved in inducing PMN migration into the urinary tract. Images PMID:8454332

  10. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306