Note: This page contains sample records for the topic elevated triglyceride levels from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Triglyceride level  

MedlinePLUS

The triglyceride level is a laboratory test to measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are a type of ... more calories than your body needs, your triglyceride level may be high. See also: High blood cholesterol ...

2

Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China.

2013-01-01

3

An elevation of triglycerides reflecting decreased triglyceride clearance may not be pathogenic -- relevance to high-carbohydrate diets.  

PubMed

The fact that carbohydrate-rich diets often increase plasma triglycerides has led some to question the wisdom of such diets. This increase is primarily attributable to a decrease in the efficiency of triglyceride clearance -- whereas the elevation of triglycerides observed in insulin-resistant subjects stems mainly from increased hepatic production of VLDL particles. There is growing reason to suspect that the increased coronary risk associated with elevated triglycerides in Western epidemiology reflects the fact that high triglycerides are a marker for insulin resistance syndrome, rather than any inherent pathogenic role of triglycerides per se. Thus, endothelial dysfunction is seen only in those hypertriglyceridemic subjects who are insulin resistant, and is absent in patients whose markedly elevated triglycerides reflect genetically defective lipoprotein lipase activity. Triglyceride levels are relatively high in certain Third World societies which are virtually immune to coronary disease so long as they persist in their traditional very-low-fat diets; in Ornish's celebrated study, a moderate rise in triglycerides coincided with a marked reduction in coronary events. Although the particle size of both LDL and HDL tends to decrease when triglyceride levels are high, it is questionable whether this effect has a major pathogenic impact. The one clear drawback of high-carbohydrate diets is a decrease in HDL particle number, resulting from decreased hepatic production of apoA-I; this effect is seen whether or not triglycerides increase. The very favorable effects of very-low-fat, whole food, quasi-vegan diets on LDL cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and body weight appear to more than compensate for this decrease in HDL; it is notable that HDL levels tend to be quite low in Third World cultures at minimal risk for coronary disease. On the other hand, this decrease in HDL may be of more significance in the context of omnivore diets only moderately low in fat, as suggested by the fact that diets higher in unsaturated fats emerge as more protective in Western prospective epidemiology. The tendency of high-carbohydrate diets to boost triglycerides can be minimized by exercise training, supplemental fish oil, an emphasis on fiber-rich, low-glycemic-index whole foods, and the "spontaneous" weight loss often seen with ad libitum consumption of such diets -- measures which are highly recommendable whether or not triglycerides are a concern. PMID:15504577

McCarty, Mark F

2004-01-01

4

Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Promoter Region1131T\\/C Polymorphism Is Associated with Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Elevated Triglyceride Levels: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The association between polymorphism -1131T\\/C in the promoter region of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and ischemic stroke and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels remains controversial. To better clarify the association between APOA5-1131T\\/C and risk of ischemic stroke and plasma TG levels, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the allele and genotype of APOA5-1131T\\/C polymorphism in ischemic stroke cases and controls. Methods:

Yan Pi; Lili Zhang; Qingwu Yang; Binghu Li; Lu Guo; Chuanqin Fang; Changyue Gao; Jingzhou Wang; Jing Xiang; Jingcheng Li

2012-01-01

5

Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2?/? mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Ostlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

2012-01-01

6

Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob\\/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma

Thomas Lundåsen; Eva-Marie Andersson; Michael Snaith; Helena Lindmark; Johanna Lundberg; Ann-Margret Östlund-Lindqvist; Bo Angelin; Mats Rudling

2012-01-01

7

Cholesterol Intake Modulates Plasma Triglyceride Levels in GPIHBP1-deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Adult GPIHBP1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1?/?) have severe hypertriglyceridemia; however, the plasma triglyceride levels are only mildly elevated during the suckling phase when lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) is expressed at high levels in the liver. Lpl expression in the liver can be induced in adult mice with dietary cholesterol. We therefore hypothesized that plasma triglyceride levels in adult Gpihbp1?/? mice would be sensitive to cholesterol intake. Methods and Results After 4–8 weeks on a western diet containing 0.15% cholesterol, plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1?/? mice were 10,000–12,000 mg/dl. When 0.005% ezetimibe was added to the diet to block cholesterol absorption, Lpl expression in the liver was reduced significantly, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher (>15,000 mg/dl). We also assessed plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1?/? mice fed western diets containing either high (1.3%) or low (0.05%) amounts of cholesterol. The high-cholesterol diet significantly increased Lpl expression in the liver and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Conclusions Treatment of Gpihbp1?/? mice with ezetimibe lowers Lpl expression in the liver and increases plasma triglyceride levels. A high-cholesterol diet had the opposite effects. Thus, cholesterol intake modulates plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1?/? mice.

Weinstein, Michael M.; Tu, Yiping; Beigneux, Anne P.; Davies, Brandon S. J.; Gin, Peter; Voss, Constance; Walzem, Rosemary L.; Reue, Karen; Tontonoz, Peter; Bensadoun, Andre; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

2010-01-01

8

BILE ACIDS LOWER TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS VIA A PATHWAY INVOLVING FXR, SHP, AND SREBP-1C  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases...

9

Association of ADRB2 polymorphism with triglyceride levels in Tongans  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous study demonstrated that the A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs34623097 located in the upstream region of the ?2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is significantly associated with risk for obesity in Oceanic populations. Methods To investigate whether the ADRB2 polymorphisms explain part of the individual differences in lipid mobilization, energy expenditure and glycogen breakdown, the associations of 10 ADRB2 SNPs with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were examined in 128 adults in Tonga. Results A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index revealed that rs34623097 was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (P-value?=?0.037). A copy of the rs34623097-A allele increased serum triglyceride levels by 70.1 mg/dL (0.791 mmol/L). None of the ADRB2 SNPs showed a significant association with total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions In a Tongan population, a SNP located in the upstream region of ADRB2 is associated with triglyceride levels independent of body mass index.

2013-01-01

10

High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.  

PubMed

Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

2013-05-14

11

Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.  

PubMed

Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

Mattes, Richard D

2008-12-12

12

Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC??. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation. PMID:21406246

Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P

2011-03-23

13

Impaired brachial artery endothelial function is not predicted by elevated triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to determine if patients with modest hyperlipidemia, and no other risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), have impaired endothelium-dependent (ED) vasoactivity.BACKGROUNDHypercholesterolemia impairs ED vasodilation, but the impact of elevated triglycerides on endothelial function is not as well established.METHODSHigh-resolution ultrasound was used to determine flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (BA) after a

Greg B. Schnell; Annette Robertson; Deborah Houston; Linda Malley; Todd J. Anderson

1999-01-01

14

Regulation of hamster hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA levels by dietary fats.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary fat on hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein(MTP) large subunit mRNA levels in the hamster was examined. Increasing the dietary fat concentration from 11.7 energy % to 46.8 energy % caused a 60% increase in hepatic MTP mRNA; this increase was shown to be dose-dependent (r = 0.688 p = 0.0023). MTP mRNA levels correlated significantly with several plasma lipoprotein cholesterol parameters. No significant relationship was observed between MTP mRNA and either plasma or VLDL triglyceride. The nature of the dietary fatty acids also influenced MTP mRNA levels, with trimyristin and tripalmitin enriched diets significantly elevating MTP mRNA relative to diets enriched in triolein and trilinolein. PMID:7626061

Bennett, A J; Billett, M A; Salter, A M; White, D A

1995-07-17

15

A Report of High Triglyceride Level in Cord Blood of Iranian Newborns  

PubMed Central

Background: Since cord blood triglyceride level have been reported very different in recent articles, the purpose of this study is determination of triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns and compare it with other reports. Methods: In this study, cord blood of 174 healthy term newborn infants (97 girls, 77 boys) born from healthy mothers have been used. Triglyceride level has been measured by calorie metric method Statistical analysis was performed by independent t test, Mann-Whitney regression test and Spearman correlation coefficient method using SPSS 16 .0 software (SPSS, USA). Results: The mean of cord blood triglyceride was 1.37 ± 4.81 mg /dl and there was no statistical difference between two sexes. There was not exist linear relationship between triglyceride and weight, height, head circumference, body mass index and sex of the babies. In 8.6% of our new born infants, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in Iranian population. In 33.9% of our cases, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in the Nelson text book of Pediatrics. In this study, the 95th percentile of triglyceride level in cord blood was 132.5 mg /dl. Conclusion: The mean and 95th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome.

Kazemi, Seyed Ali Naghi; Mousavinasab, Nooreddin; Mellati, Ali Awsat; Sadeghzadeh, Mansour

2013-01-01

16

Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1988-01-01

17

Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Norwegian adolescent school children.  

PubMed

The frequency distribution of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in 172 boys and 232 girls, 13--16 years, from four elementary schools in Oslo has been determined. The cholesterol values were significantly higher for girls 15--16 years than for boys of the same age group. In the case of triglycerides boys 15--16 years had significantly higher values than boys 13--14 years. Otherwise no statistically significant differences with regard to sex and age were observed. The 85th percentiles have been suggested as appropriate upper normal limits. In all groups the 85th percentile for plasma cholesterol was slightly below 6 mmol/l. The corresponding plasma triglyceride value was below 2 mmol/l. PMID:626074

Askevold, R; Høstmark, A T; Vellar, O D; Von Kraemer Bryn, M; Glattre, E

1978-03-01

18

Severely elevated serum triglycerides in a case of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with the 317 cysteine to serine mutation in the LDL receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a 43-year-old Japanese man with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) with severely elevated serum triglycerides (TG). He drank large quantities of alcohol but had no endocrinological disorder or diabetes mellitus. He had a recurrent, acute pancreatitis. His fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C levels and an apolipoprotein E genotype of E3\\/E3 suggested a diagnosis

Junji Kobayashi; Hiroshi Mabuchi

2005-01-01

19

Enlarged Waist Combined With Elevated Triglycerides Is a Strong Predictor of Accelerated Atherogenesis and Related Cardiovascular Mortality in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Upward trends of obesity urge more effective identification of those at cardiovascular risk. A simple dichotomous indicator, enlarged waist (88 cm) combined with elevated triglycerides (1.45 mmol\\/L) (EWET), was shown to offer advantages in identifying individuals with atherogenic \\

László B. Tankó; Yu Z. Bagger; Gerong Qin; Peter Alexandersen; Philip J. Larsen; Claus Christiansen

2010-01-01

20

Space elevator systems level analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing

Laubscher

2004-01-01

21

Ethnic differences in the ability of triglyceride levels to identify insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metabolic Syndrome is used to predict the onset of coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes. As the predictive value of the Metabolic Syndrome has been challenged, alternative syndromes have been developed. All of these syndromes were developed in populations that were predominantly non-Hispanic white (NHW). They include the Enlarged Waist Elevated Triglyceride Syndrome, the Overweight-Lipid Syndrome and the

Anne E. Sumner; Catherine C. Cowie

2008-01-01

22

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

SciTech Connect

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

2002-09-16

23

Feeding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(omega)nitroarginine elevates serum very low density lipoprotein and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to study the influence of dietary L-N(omega)nitroarginine (L-NNA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on serum lipids and lipoproteins and on the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in rats. Feeding rats a diet containing 0.2 g/kg L-NNA for 5 weeks elevated serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid and reduced serum nitrate (an oxidation product of NO). The elevation in serum triglyceride was mainly due to the elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. Contents of cholesterol and phospholipid in the VLDL fraction also were elevated by L-NNA. L-NNA treatment caused significantly higher activity of hepatic microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride synthesis) and lower activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation). Activities of hepatic enzymes responsible for fatty acid synthesis such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and fatty acid synthase were unaffected by L-NNA. The activity of hepatic microsomal phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was reduced significantly by L-NNA. Our results suggest that lower NO production caused the elevations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis by higher esterification of fatty acid and lower fatty acid oxidation, leading to an enrichment of VLDL triglyceride. PMID:15539300

Goto, T; Ohnomi, S; Khedara, A; Kato, N; Ogawa, H; Yanagita, T

1999-05-01

24

Triglycerides Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Necessity of Fasting Before Cholesterol and Other Lipid Tests (2013), Unhealthy Lipid Levels in Young Adults (2010) Elsewhere On The Web American Heart Association: Triglycerides American Heart Association: What ...

25

High levels of dietary arachidonic acid triglyceride exhibit no subchronic toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (AA), an n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA), serves an important role in the body as a structural fatty acid of many tissues including neurological tissues. It is also a precursor of the n-6 class of eicosanoids and is the most abundant n-6 LC-PUFA found in human breast milk. We have optimized the production of a microfungal source of a triglyceride oil (ARASCO) which is enriched in AA to about 40% by weight. To establish the safety of this oil as a food, we evaluated the effect of ARASCO in Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) gavaged at dose levels of 1.0 and 2.5 g/kg/d for a period of 90 d, paying special attention to any potential neurotoxicity of the oil. Two groups of control animals received either untreated standard laboratory diet (untreated control) or the same diet and vehicle oil at the same dose volume administered to the treated animals (vehicle control). Physical observations, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology parameters, neurobehavioral assessments, and macroscopic as well as microscopic postmortem evaluations were performed. Tissue fatty acid analyses indicated that the AA levels in the brain, heart, and liver of the high-dose ARASCO-fed animals increased by 8, 59, and 76%, respectively, indicating that the AA in the oil was readily incorporated into tissue lipids. In spite of this high elevation in tissue AA levels, no developmental, histopathological, or neuropathological differences were seen in the animals administered ARASCO compared with the vehicle control animals. Being highly enriched in AA, ARASCO offers the means to study the effect of this fatty acid in experimental settings and in human metabolic studies. PMID:9113628

Koskelo, E K; Boswell, K; Carl, L; Lanoue, S; Kelly, C; Kyle, D

1997-04-01

26

Atypical Antipsychotic Medications Increase Postprandial Triglyceride and Glucose Levels in Male Rats: Relationship with Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Activity  

PubMed Central

Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, 3 mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40 d. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, ‘deaturation index’) were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects.

McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W.

2011-01-01

27

Triglyceride characteristics of cocoa butter from cacao fruit matured in a microclimate of elevated temperature 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the melting characteristic of cocoa butter is relatively constant. However, softer than normal butter is sometimes\\u000a encountered. In Brazil the occurrence of soft butter has been correlated with mean daily temperature during the cropping season.\\u000a The temperature effect was, therefore, studied more fully by positioning heat lamps near fruit of cacao to create a microclimate\\u000a of elevated temperature during

D. W. Lehrian; P. G. Keeney; D. R. Butler

1980-01-01

28

Regulation of Hamster Hepatic Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein mRNA Levels by Dietary Fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary fat on hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein(MTP) large subunit mRNA levels in the hamster was examined. Increasing the dietary fat concentration from 11.7 energy % to 46.8 energy % caused a 60% increase in hepatic MTP mRNA; this increase was shown to be dose-dependent (r=0.688 p=0.0023). MTP mRNA levels correlated significantly with several plasma lipoprotein cholesterol

A. J. Bennett; M. A. Billett; A. M. Salter; D. A. White

1995-01-01

29

Elevator Reboarding Level Plan & Observation Level Plan Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevator Reboarding Level Plan & Observation Level Plan - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

30

Acute high-intensity endurance exercise is more effective than moderate-intensity exercise for attenuation of postprandial triglyceride elevation.  

PubMed

Acute exercise has been shown to attenuate postprandial plasma triglyceride elevation (PPTG). However, the direct contribution of exercise intensity is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on PPTG and postprandial fat oxidation. One of three experimental treatments was performed in healthy young men (n = 6): nonexercise control (CON), moderate-intensity exercise (MIE; 50% Vo2peak for 60 min), or isoenergetic high-intensity exercise (HIE; alternating 2 min at 25% and 2 min at 90% Vo2peak). The morning after the exercise, a standardized meal was provided (16 kcal/kg BM, 1.02 g fat/kg, 1.36 g CHO/kg, 0.31 g PRO/kg), and measurements of plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and ?-hydroxybutyrate were made in the fasted condition and hourly for 6 h postprandial. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation in the fasted condition and 2, 4, and 6 h postprandial. Compared with CON, both MIE and HIE significantly attenuated PPTG [incremental AUC; 75.2 (15.5%), P = 0.033, and 54.9 (13.5%), P = 0.001], with HIE also significantly lower than MIE (P = 0.03). Postprandial fat oxidation was significantly higher in MIE [83.3 (10.6%) of total energy expenditure] and HIE [89.1 (9.8) %total] compared with CON [69.0 (16.1) %total, P = 0.039, and P = 0.018, respectively], with HIE significantly greater than MIE (P = 0.012). We conclude that, despite similar energy expenditure, HIE was more effective than MIE for lowering PPTG and increasing postprandial fat oxidation. PMID:23372145

Trombold, Justin R; Christmas, Kevin M; Machin, Daniel R; Kim, Il-Young; Coyle, Edward F

2013-01-31

31

Relationship between apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with triglyceride level in patients with renal diseases.  

PubMed

Abstract Apolipoprotein E (apoE), one of the major plasma lipoproteins, plays a major role in the transport and metabolism of lipids by acting as a ligand. apoE gene contains three potential alleles: ?2, ?3 and ?4, forming six genotypes: E2E2, E2E3, E2E4, E3E3, E3E3 and E4E4. Association between apoE gene polymorphism and triglyceride (TG) is still controversial. There was no any meta-analysis to explore the association of apoE gene polymorphism with triglyceride level, and this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between apoE gene polymorphism and triglyceride in patients with renal diseases. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic databases. Twenty-four articles were identified for the analysis of association between apoE gene polymorphism and triglyceride level. Subjects with E2E3 or E3E4 had a higher TG than those with E3E3. Subjects with ?4 had a higher TG than those with ?3. Subjects with ?2 had a slightly higher TG than those with ?3, although there was no statistical difference. Interestingly, subjects with ?4 had a much higher TG than those with ?2. In conclusion, E2E3, E3E4 or ?4 was associated with higher level of TG. However, more studies should be performed in the future. PMID:24001346

Dong, Chun-Qiang; Luo, Yi-Ge; Dong, Kun; Chen, Chao; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Ti-Quan

2013-09-04

32

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

2010-01-01

33

Atypical antipsychotic medications increase postprandial triglyceride and glucose levels in male rats: relationship with stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity.  

PubMed

Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects. PMID:21474290

McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W

2011-04-07

34

Two subpopulations of intermediate density lipoprotein and their relationship to plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the appearance of two intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) subfractions on gradient gel electrophoresis of lipoproteins in the density range 1.006–1.030 g\\/ml and estimated their approximate concentrations in plasma in subjects with a wide range of lipid levels, from 0.55 to 28.0 mmol\\/l plasma triglyceride and 3.75–10.0 mmol\\/l cholesterol. The larger species, IDL-I (31.7±0.7 nm, mean±SD), showed little variation

Barbara J. Meyer; Muriel J. Caslake; Michael M. McConnell; Chris J. Packard

2000-01-01

35

Remnant-like particle cholesterol and triglyceride levels of hypertriglyceridemic patients in the fed and fasted state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentially atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipopro- tein (TRL) remnants can be isolated and quantitated as remnant-like particles (RLP), using an immunoaffinity gel containing specific anti-human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoB-100 monoclonal antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between postprandial changes in RLP levels and changes in total serum triglyceride (TG) in patients with different forms of

Caroline Marcoux; Paul N. Hopkins; Tao Wang; Elizabeth Teng Leary; Katsuyuki Nakajima; Jean Davignon; Jeffrey S. Cohn

36

Low triglyceride levels are associated with a better metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Although it is well known in the literature that high triglyceride serum (TG) levels can jeopardize the metabolic control, little is known about the influence of low TG on type 1 diabetes patients (T1D). The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of TG serum levels in individuals with T1D and its relationship with metabolic control. Findings We reviewed the medical charts of 180 patients with T1D, who were classified in groups according to TG levels: 1) low (below 50 mg/dL); 2) normal (50-150 mg/dL); 3) high (above 150 mg/dL). TG were low in 21.1% (n = 38; group 1), normal in 68.6% (n = 123; group 2) and high in 10.6% (n = 19; group 3). High TG was associated with a poor metabolic control (p < 0.001). Patients with TG lower than 50 mg/dL had a lower HbA1c than those with TG between 50 and 150 mg/dL (7.41+/-1.50% vs 8.56%+/-1.94%; p = 0.002). Conclusion TG lower than 50 mg/dL was common and might be associated with a better metabolic control in patients with T1D, although it is not clear whether the former is the cause or consequence for the latter.

2011-01-01

37

Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Associations of Physical Activity with Triglyceride and HDLc Levels in Young Male Adults.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity and triglyceride and HDLc levels in young male adults. METHODS: We used information about males belonging 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Physical activity in four domains (leisure-time, transportation, household and occupation) was assessed by self-report in participants of the cohort at ages of 18 and 23 years. Subjects were active if reached the recommendation of 150min/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. At 23 years of age, blood sample was collected, and triglycerides and HDLc levels estimated. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression were used to adjust the estimates for confounders. RESULTS: Males who were inactive at 18 and active at 23 years had 41% lower risk (?=0.59; 95%confidence interval: 0.40;0.89) for borderline-high triglycerides (?150mg/dL) as compared to those who were inactive at both follow ups. No association was found between changes of physical activity and HDLc level. In cross-sectional analyses, greater HDLc levels were found in active subjects in four domains, whereas there was no difference in HDL levels according physical activity during leisure-time. CONCLUSION: Becoming active from adolescence to early adulthood reduced the risk for high triglycerides. Current physical activity was associated with greater HDLc levels. PMID:23574796

Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

2013-04-01

38

Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Rao, K. N.; Harrison, James; Tamama, Kenichi

2008-12-11

39

Male Gender, Increased Blood Viscosity, Body Mass Index and Triglyceride Levels Are Independently Associated with Systemic Relative Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia  

PubMed Central

Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events.

Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressieres, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

2013-01-01

40

Male gender, increased blood viscosity, body mass index and triglyceride levels are independently associated with systemic relative hypertension in sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

Lamarre, Yann; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

2013-06-13

41

Elevator/Hatch Controller Platform Leveling Logic with Safety Features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an elevator levelling/hatch control circuit including a motor controller, an elevator dispatching unit, an elevator location sensing unit, and a control unit. The control unit receives hatch position signals, monitors the speed and d...

G. Thomas

1983-01-01

42

Development, food intake, and ethinylestradiol influence hepatic triglyceride lipase and LDL receptor mRNA levels in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of development and ethinylestradiol on low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor mRNA and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activity and mRNA levels was stu- died in rat liver and intestine. Intestinal LDL-receptor mRNA levels are maximal in the perinatal period, whereas liver LDL- receptor and HTGL mRNA levels are highest after weaning in adult life. All mRNA levels reach a maximum

Bart Staels; Hans Jansen; Arie van Tol; Gisela Stahnke; Hans Will; Guido Verhoeven; Johan Auwerx

43

Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10(-6)) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10(-4)), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

2013-09-10

44

Dipyridamole reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels in plasma and lipoproteins from young chicks fed a saturated fat-enriched diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the value of dipyridamole for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia caused by saturated fat. This study shows that supplementation of 10–20% coconut oil to the diet induced a significant hypercholesterolemia under postprandial conditions. Simultaneous administration of dipyridamole and 10% coconut oil for 2 weeks maintained plasma cholesterol and triglycerides at levels similar to control, counteracting the increase induced

Eduardo Garc??a-Fuentes; Almudena Gil-Villarino; Mar??a F Zafra; Eduardo Garc??a-Peregr??n

2002-01-01

45

Multiscale characterization of the organization of triglycerides and phospholipids in emmental cheese: from the microscopic to the molecular level.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and properties of lipids, both triglycerides and phospholipids, play a major role in the functional and nutritional properties of food products. In this study, the suprastructure of fat, solid fat content, and crystallographic properties of triglycerides were investigated in hard-type cheeses from the microscopic scale to the molecular level using the combination of relevant techniques. Two industrial cheeses with different oiling off properties were compared with experimental cheeses manufactured in the laboratory. Microstructural analysis performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that milk processing led to the disruption of fat globules with the formation of nonglobular fat. For a similar fatty acid composition, oiling off was mainly related to the fat in dry matter content and to the suprastructure of fat in cheese. An exogenous fluorescent phospholipid permitted the localization of milk phospholipids in the cheese matrix, which mainly remain around fat inclusions after disruption of the milk fat globule membrane, and to show heterogeneities. We also showed using differential scanning calorimetry that the suprastructure of fat did not affect the solid fat content in cheese at 4 degrees C: 71.6 +/- 4.9%. The organization of triglyceride molecules in fat crystals, elucidated at a molecular level using X-ray diffraction, corresponded to the coexistence of 2 lamellar structures (2L 40.5 angstroms and 3L 54.6 angstroms) with four polymorphic forms: alpha, two beta' and beta. A schematic representation of the multiscale organization of triglycerides and phospholipids in cheese is proposed. PMID:18338865

Lopez, Christelle; Briard-Bion, Valerie; Beaucher, Eric; Ollivon, Michel

2008-03-14

46

Ethnic differences in maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during pregnancy: the contribution of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Lipid disturbances during pregnancy may lead to early onset of metabolic diseases in the offspring. However, there is little knowledge on ethnic differences in lipid levels during pregnancy. We evaluated ethnic differences in non-fasting total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels during early gestation and the role of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics.Subjects\\/Methods:Non-diabetic pregnant women (N=3025) from the Amsterdam

Y J Schreuder; B A Hutten; M van Eijsden; E H Jansen; M N Vissers; M T Twickler; T G M Vrijkotte; TGM Vrijkotte

2011-01-01

47

Long-term fructose feeding changes the expression of leptin receptors and autophagy genes in the adipose tissue and liver of male rats: a possible link to elevated triglycerides.  

PubMed

Long-term fructose consumption has been shown to evoke leptin resistance, to elevate triglyceride levels and to induce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Autophagy has been suggested to function in processes such as lipid storage in adipose tissue and inflammation in liver. Autophagy and the leptin system have also been suggested to regulate each other. This study aimed to identify the changes caused by fetal undernourishment and postnatal fructose diet in the gene expression of leptin, its receptors (LEPR-a, LEPR-b, LEPR-c, LEPR-e and LEPR-f) and autophagy genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of adult male rats in order to clarify the mechanism behind the metabolic alterations. The data clearly revealed that the long-term postnatal fructose diet decreased leptin levels (p < 0.001), LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.011) and LEPR-f (p = 0.005), as well as SOCS3 (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.006), ATG7 (p < 0.001), MAP1LC3? (p < 0.001) and LAMP2 (p = 0.004) mRNA expression in WAT. Furthermore, LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.001) and LEPR-f (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.010), ATG7 (p = 0.024), MAP1LC3? (p = 0.003) and LAMP2 (p < 0.001) mRNA expression in the liver was increased in fructose-fed rats. In addition, the LEPR expression in liver and MAP1LC3? expression in WAT together explained 55.7 % of the variation in the plasma triglyceride levels of the rats (R adj. (2)  = 0.557, p < 0.001). These results, together with increased p62 levels in WAT (p < 0.001), could indicate decreased adipose tissue lipid storing capacity as well as alterations in liver metabolism which may represent a plausible mechanism through which fructose consumption could disturb lipid metabolism and result in elevated triglyceride levels. PMID:24085619

Aijälä, Meiju; Malo, Elina; Ukkola, Olavi; Bloigu, Risto; Lehenkari, Petri; Autio-Harmainen, Helena; Santaniemi, Merja; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

2013-10-02

48

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

49

Apolipoprotein C-I genotype and serum levels of triglycerides, C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein C-I (apoCI) is implicated in lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, both important risk factors for human heart disease. However, most findings come from in vitro or animal studies, whereas data on human apoCI are sparse. To elucidate the role of apoCI in human disease, we analyzed a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the apoCI gene in relation to blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), coronary artery disease (CAD), and myocardial infarction (MI). Rs11568822 is a 4-base pair insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism, and the Ins allele leads to a higher transcription in vitro compared with the Del allele. This polymorphism was analyzed in the Intergene study, a case-control study for CAD (N = 1236), and the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a case-control study for MI (N = 2774). Subjects homozygous for the Ins genotype had significantly higher serum levels of triglycerides (P = .01 and P = .006) and lower serum levels of CRP (P = .02 and P < .0001) compared with all other subjects in both studies. Similar results were obtained when analyzing only the controls of both studies (P = .002 and P = .0002, triglycerides; P = .002 and P < .0001, CRP). However, apoCI was not associated with CAD or MI. In conclusion, our data show that apoCI genotype is associated with serum levels of triglycerides and CRP, confirming the role of apoCI in lipid metabolism and suggesting that it also influences inflammation. PMID:20580041

Olsson, Bob; Gigante, Bruna; Mehlig, Kirsten; Bergsten, Alicia; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Lissner, Lauren; Thelle, Dag S; Carlsson, Lena M S

2010-07-02

50

Low-serum, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration is an important coronary risk factor in chinese patients with low serum levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed low serum high-density lipoproteins concentrations with respect to coronary atherogenesis in Chinese patients with low levels of total serum cholesterol and triglyceride. Patients with this lipid profile pattern still have a high coronary risk factor.

Wen-Pin Lien; Ling-Ping Lai; Kou-Gi Shyu; Juey-Jen Hwang; Jin-Jer Chen; Meng-Huan Lei; Jun-Jack Cheng; Por-Jau Huang; Keh-Sung Tsai

1996-01-01

51

Effects of Red ginseng-crude saponin on plasma lipid levels in rats fed on a diet high in cholesterol and triglyceride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Red ginseng saponin on plasma lipid levels in Wistar rats fed on a diet high in cholesterol and triglyceride\\u000a was determined. A dose of Red ginseng-crude saponin (150 mg\\/kg\\/day) was administered orally for 4 weeks to Wistar rats fed\\u000a on a diet containing 2% cholesterol and 10% olive oil. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride

Chang Kiu Moon; Nae Young Kang; Yeo Pyo Yun; Soo Hwan Lee; Hyun Ah Lee; Tak Lirn Kang

1984-01-01

52

Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.

2012-01-01

53

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level.  

PubMed

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16537411

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C Ronald

2006-03-14

54

Reduced Serum Levels of Triglyceride, Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown a lower incidence of stroke in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The role of the lipids and lipoproteins as risk factors for stroke is uncertain in the lower prevalence of stroke in PD patients. Objectives To explore the lipids and lipoproteins serum levels in PD patients. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 110 PD patients (PD group), 130 controls with non-cerebrovascular neurological diseases (OD group), 140 acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients (ICH group) and 140 acute cerebral infarction patients (CI group). The records about serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed. Results There were significant differences for the serum level of triglyceride (F = 5.031, p=0.002), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (F = 5.313, p=0.001), apolipoprotein B (F = 16.038, p<0.0001) in the four groups. PD group had a significantly lower serum level of triglyceride (TG) than the OD (p=0.032), ICH (p=0.00047) and CI (p=0.001) groups. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) serum level was significantly lower in PD group than in OD (p=0.039), ICH (p=0.00021) and CI (p=0.001) groups. There was a significantly lower serum level of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in PD group than in OD (p=0.002), ICH (p<0.0001) and CI (p<0.0001) groups. Conclusions There are reduced serum levels of TG, VLDL-C and apo B in PD patients, which may be related to the decreased prevalence of stroke in PD patients.

Tian, Yanghua; Xu, Fangcheng; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai

2013-01-01

55

1914G variant of BCHE gene associated with enzyme activity, obesity and triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have been reported to be associated to weight, BMI variance and hypertriglyceridemia in adults and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of -116A (SNP: G/A; rs1126680) and 1914G (SNP: A/G; rs3495) variants of BCHE gene with anthropometric and biochemical variables associated with obesity in population sample of 115 individuals, from Southern Brazil. Participants were grouped in two categories: obese (BMI?30) and non-obese (BMI<30). The 1914G allele showed significantly higher frequency in the obese group, and carriers of 1914G allele showed lower mean BChE activity when compared to 1914A carriers (p=0.006). Higher means of BMI (p=0.02) and triglyceride (TG; p=0.01) were found in 1914G carriers (BMI=27.57kg/m(2); TG=150.8mg/dL) when compared to 1914A homozygotes (BMI=25.55kg/m(2); TG=107.9mg/dL). Carriers of the -116A allele showed lower mean BChE activity than usual homozygotes, and the -116A variant was found in cis with 1914G (p<0.0001; D'=1). The region of BCHE gene that contains the 1914G mutation site is target of microRNAs (miRs) and the response of BChE to glucocorticoids is especially influenced by these miRs. Therefore, it is possible that the 1914G allele can be interfering in gluconeogenesis, hyperglycemia, lipolysis and body fat distribution. This lower activity may cause an imbalance in lipid metabolism, which may lead to an increased predisposition to obesity and to a lower ability to maintain metabolic homeostasis. PMID:24001779

Lima, Jovana Karoline; Leite, Neiva; Turek, Luciane Viater; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

2013-08-31

56

Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5?g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1?g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46?g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

57

3Hydroxy3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors reduce serum triglyceride levels through modulation of apolipoprotein C-III and lipoprotein lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statins are hypolipidemic drugs which not only improve cholesterol but also triglyceride levels. Whereas their cholesterol-reducing effect involves inhibition of de novo biosynthesis of cellular cholesterol through competitive inhibition of its rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, the mechanism by which they lower triglycerides remains unknown and forms the subject of the current study. Treatment of normal rats for 4 days

Kristina Schoonjans; Julia Peinado-Onsurbe; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Anne Tailleux; Catherine Fiévet; Johan Auwerx

1999-01-01

58

Gender-related association between the -93T -> G\\/D9N haplotype of the lipoprotein lipase gene and elevated lipid levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a frequent cause of premature coronary artery disease. Affected family members are characterized by different combinations of elevated cholesterol and:or triglyceride levels. A reduction in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity has been observed in a subgroup of FCHL patients. Recently, we have demonstrated an increased frequency of mutations in the LPL gene in Dutch FCHL patients

Mariette J. V. Hoffer; Sebastian J. H. Bredie; Harold Snieder; P. W. A. Reijmer; Pierre N. M. Demacker; Louis M. Havekes; Dorret I. Boomsma; Anton F. H. Stalenhoef; Rune R. Frants; Johannes J. P. Kastelein

1998-01-01

59

6. ELEVATOR AT JUNCTION OF BUILDINGS 148 AND 162. LEVEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. ELEVATOR AT JUNCTION OF BUILDINGS 148 AND 162. LEVEL 1; OVERHEAD RAILS INSIDE ELEVATOR ALLOWED WORKERS TO TRANSFER CARCASSES BETWEEN FLOORS IN THE COOLER BUILDING - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

60

7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

61

Elevated vascular ?-butyrobetaine levels attenuate the development of high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of vascular tissue levels of l-carnitine and its precursor, ?-butyrobetaine (GBB), on the development of endothelial dysfunction induced by 5 ?mol/L lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 10 mmol/L triglycerides (TG) or a high glucose concentration (44 mmol/L). Changes in vascular tissue levels of l-carnitine and GBB were induced by administration of l-carnitine (100 mg/kg), mildronate (100 mg/kg; an inhibitor of l-carnitine synthesis) or their combination to male Wistar rats for 2 weeks. Treatment with l-carnitine elevated vascular tissue levels of l-carnitine, whereas administration of mildronate reduced l-carnitine levels and increased GBB levels. Experimental animals that received the combination of both drugs showed elevated tissue levels of GBB. The results from organ bath experiments demonstrated that increased GBB levels with preserved l-carnitine content in vascular tissues attenuated the development of endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose. However, changes in vascular tissue l-carnitine and GBB levels had no impact on endothelial dysfunction induced by TG or LPC. The results demonstrate that increased levels of GBB with preserved l-carnitine content in vascular tissue attenuate the development of endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose concentrations. PMID:23710938

Vilskersts, Reinis; Zharkova-Malkova, Olga; Mezhapuke, Rudolfs; Grinberga, Solveiga; Cirule, Helena; Dambrova, Maija

2013-08-01

62

Elevated serum CA19-9 levels in poorly controlled diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Serum CA19-9 levels were measured in 60 diabetic patients and 40 healthy volunteers. Serum CA19-9 concentration was correlated with hemoglobin A1 (HbA1) (r = 0.4368 P less than 0.005) and fasting plasma glucose levels (r = 0.3410 P less than 0.01). None of the 40 healthy subjects showed elevated CA19-9 concentrations over 37 units/ml as the upper normal value. The percentage of positive serum CA19-9 levels in poorly controlled patients (fasting plasma glucose greater than 200 mg/dl or HbA1 greater than 13%) and moderately to well controlled patients was 50% and 10%, respectively. No correlation was found between the level of CA19-9 and those total cholesterol, and triglycerides, or the duration of diabetes. In patients who had diabetic retinopathy or persistent proteinuria, the CA19-9 concentration was significantly elevated when compared with those without these complications. It has been shown that patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract have high plasma CA19-9 levels and those who have benign disease have normal CA19-9 levels. Even though diabetes mellitus is not a malignant disease, serum CA19-9 levels were increased in diabetic patients. These results indicate that HbA1 and fasting plasma glucose should be examined in patients with high CA19-9 levels. PMID:3464790

Nakamura, N; Aoji, O; Yoshikawa, T; Mori, K; Kajiyama, S; Kitagawa, Y; Kanatsuna, T; Kondo, M

1986-08-01

63

6. Ground level elevation of emplacement no. 1, showing doors ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Ground level elevation of emplacement no. 1, showing doors to shot gallery and crane hoists for projectiles - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

64

A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD) is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players. METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml) for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001), whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl). Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl) between before and after the match. CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid profiles, the lower rate of LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride as well as the higher level of HDL in players suggest a beneficial effect of regular soccer training on arthrosclerosis and perhaps on CHD risk as well.

Rahnama, Nader; Younesian, Ali; Mohammadion, Morteza; Bambaeichi, Effat

2009-01-01

65

Influence of plasma triglyceride and plasma cholesterol levels on the clearance rate of fibrinogen.  

PubMed

Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that lipid levels may influence the fibrinogen levels by a mechanism other than the synthesis rate, for example a decreased clearance rate. We performed a pilot study to explore this possibility. Twelve male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks with a control low fat/low cholesterol diet, a high fat/high cholesterol diet, and a high fat/high cholesterol diet with an additional 0.5% cholic acid. Labeled 125I fibrinogen was injected, and blood was sampled repeatedly. From the plasma radioactivity of the samples, fibrinogen halflife time was calculated for each animal. Our results suggest that plasma lipids lengthen the fibrinogen halflife times, although the differences were not statistically significant in this small study. Our final conclusion from this study is that lipids may have an effect on the turnover rate of fibrinogen and possibly affect fibrinogen levels through this mechanism. PMID:11460525

Verschuur, M; Bekkers, M; Van Erck, M G; Emeis, J J; De Maat, M P

2001-01-01

66

Rare loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL family members contribute to plasma triglyceride levels in humans  

PubMed Central

The relative activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in different tissues controls the partitioning of lipoprotein-derived fatty acids between sites of fat storage (adipose tissue) and oxidation (heart and skeletal muscle). Here we used a reverse genetic strategy to test the hypothesis that 4 angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL3, -4, -5, and -6) play key roles in triglyceride (TG) metabolism in humans. We re-sequenced the coding regions of the genes encoding these proteins and identified multiple rare nonsynonymous (NS) sequence variations that were associated with low plasma TG levels but not with other metabolic phenotypes. Functional studies revealed that all mutant alleles of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 that were associated with low plasma TG levels interfered either with the synthesis or secretion of the protein or with the ability of the ANGPTL protein to inhibit LPL. A total of 1% of the Dallas Heart Study population and 4% of those participants with a plasma TG in the lowest quartile had a rare loss-of-function mutation in ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, or ANGPTL5. Thus, ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL5, but not ANGPTL6, play nonredundant roles in TG metabolism, and multiple alleles at these loci cumulatively contribute to variability in plasma TG levels in humans.

Romeo, Stefano; Yin, Wu; Kozlitina, Julia; Pennacchio, Len A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

2008-01-01

67

46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

68

Elevated NT-pro-BNP levels are associated with comorbidities among HIV-infected women.  

PubMed

HIV infection is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These conditions result in elevation of plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels. The present study compares N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels in HIV-infected and -uninfected women and identifies factors influencing NT-pro-BNP levels in HIV-infected women. A total of 454 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had NT-pro-BNP determination. Elevated NT-pro-BNP level was defined using previously determined age stratified cut-off values of >164 ng/liter (age <60 years) and >225 (age > or = 60 years). HIV-infected women were older (41.6 +/- 8.9 vs. 38.9 +/- 10.5 years, p < 0.01) and were more likely to have anemia, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, and kidney dysfunction than HIV-uninfected women. HIV-infected women had significantly higher NT-pro-BNP levels (142.4 +/- 524.8 vs. 73.6 +/- 115.1 ng/liter, p = 0.01) and a higher prevalence of elevated NT-pro-BNP (12.1% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.08). In univariate analyses, elevated NT-pro-BNP was significantly associated with age, systolic BP, hypertension, anemia, triglyceride levels, kidney disease, and HCV seropositivity, but not HIV infection. In multivariate analysis, elevated NT-pro-BNP levels were significantly associated with anemia and kidney function, and had a borderline association with the presence of HCV antibodies. Among HIV-infected women, NT-pro-BNP levels were not independently associated with measures of severity of infection or with HAART use. Although HIV-infected women have higher NT-pro-BNP levels than HIV-uninfected women, the differences are due to non-HIV factors such as anemia, kidney disease, and HCV coinfection. These findings suggest that natriuretic peptide levels are a global marker of comorbidity in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:19803714

Mansoor, Ather; Althoff, Keri; Gange, Stephen; Anastos, Kathryn; Dehovitz, Jack; Minkoff, Howard; Kaplan, Robert; Holman, Susan; Lazar, Jason M

2009-10-01

69

A Review of Omega-3 Ethyl Esters for Cardiovascular Prevention and Treatment of Increased Blood Triglyceride Levels  

PubMed Central

The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.

von Schacky, Clemens

2006-01-01

70

Effects of work overload and burnout on cholesterol and triglycerides levels: The moderating efffects of emotional reactivity among male and female employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of objective and subjective overload, and of physical and emotional burnout, on cholesterol and triglycerides levels were studied in a quasiprospective design. The possible moderating effects of emotional reactivity on these relationships were also investigated. The study's hypotheses were tested separately for male and female employees. Time 1 (TI) data were collected from 665 healthy employees (30% women)

Arie Shirom; Mina Westman; Ora Shamai; Rafael S. Carel

1997-01-01

71

Effects of Work Overload and Burnout on Cholesterol and Triglycerides Levels: The Moderating Effects of Emotional Reactivity Among Male and Female Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of objective and subjective overload, and of physical and emotional burnout, on cholesterol and triglycerides levels were studied in a quasiprospective design. The possible moderating effects of emotional reactivity on these relationships were also investigated. The study's hypotheses were tested separately for male and female employees. Time 1 (T1) data were collected from 665 healthy employees (30% women)

Arie Shirom; Mina Westman; Ora Shamai; Rafael S. Carel

1997-01-01

72

The relationship in African-Americans of sex differences in insulin-mediated suppression of nonesterified fatty acids to sex differences in fasting triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin is a potent antilipolytic hormone that promotes the deposition of fat and decreases the release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate in African-Americans (AAs) sex differences in insulin-mediated suppression of plasma NEFA and fasting triglyceride (TG) levels. Ninety AAs, 44 men and 46 women with a mean age of

Anne E. Sumner; Harvey Kushner; Thomas N. Tulenko; Bonita Falkner; Julian B. Marsh

1997-01-01

73

Genome-wide scan on plasma triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, accounting for the effects of correlated quantitative phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasma triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are inversely correlated and both are genetically related. Two correlated traits may be influenced both by shared and unshared genes. The power to detect unshared trait-specific genes may be increased by incorporating correlated traits as covariates. The power to localize the shared genes may be improved by bivariate analysis. Univariate genome

Jing-Ping Lin; Laura Almasy; Christopher I Amos; Joan E Bailey-Wilson; Rita M Cantor; Cashell E Jaquish; Maria Martinez; Rosalind J Neuman; Jane M Olson; Lyle J Palmer; Stephen S Rich; M Anne Spence; Jean W MacCluer

2003-01-01

74

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

75

Elevated blood lead levels in urban moonshine drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: During a study of problem drinking, we found that surprisingly large numbers of emergency department patients reported moonshine consumption. Because of sporadic reports of moonshine-associated lead toxicity in rural areas, we suspected that urban ED patients might have previously unidentified elevated blood lead levels caused by moonshine consumption. We initiated an active screening program to identify patients with

Brent W. Morgan; Knox H. Todd; Brooks Moore

2001-01-01

76

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

77

Mild hypercholesterolemia, normal plasma triglycerides, and normal glucose levels across dementia staging in Alzheimer's disease: a clinical setting-based retrospective study.  

PubMed

We examined retrospectively the concurrent relationships between fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), in a clinical setting-based study. Total cholesterol level was higher in patients with AD compared to elderly controls; triglycerides or glucose levels did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Respective plotted trajectories of change in cholesterol level across age were fairly parallel. No significant difference in total cholesterol levels was recorded between patients with AD classified by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score subgroups. These results suggest that patients with AD have relative mild total hypercholesterolemia, normal triglyceridemia, and normal fasting plasma glucose level. Mild total hypercholesterolemia seems to be permanent across age, and across dementia severity staging, and fairly parallels the trajectory of age-related change in total cholesterolemia of healthy controls. We speculate that these biochemical parameters pattern may be present long before-a decade at least-the symptomatic onset of the disease. PMID:21715465

Ramdane, Said; Daoudi-Gueddah, Doria

2011-06-29

78

Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

Background Both apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III gene polymorphism and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased serum triglyceride (TG) levels, but their interactions on serum TG levels are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128) polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels. Methods A total of 516 unrelated nondrinkers and 514 drinkers aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoC-III 3238C>G was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed by using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor. Results Serum total cholesterol (TC), TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA-I and ApoB levels were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.05-0.001). There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two groups. Serum TG levels in nondrinkers were higher in CG genotype than in CC genotype (P < 0.01). Serum TC, TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in drinkers were higher in GG genotype than in CC or CG genotype (P < 0.01 for all). Serum HDL-C levels in drinkers were higher in CG genotype than in CC genotype (P < 0.01). Serum TC, TG, HDL-C and ApoA-I levels in CC genotype, TC, HDL-C, ApoA-I levels and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB in CG genotype, and TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoA-I and ApoB levels in GG genotype were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.05-0.01). But the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB in GG genotype was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of TC, TG and ApoB were correlated with genotype in nondrinkers (P < 0.05 for all). The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB were associated with genotype in drinkers (P < 0.01 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both groups. Conclusions This study suggests that the ApoC-III 3238CG heterozygotes benefited more from alcohol consumption than CC and GG homozygotes in increasing serum levels of HDL-C, ApoA-I, and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB, and lowering serum levels of TC and TG.

2010-01-01

79

Cardiac troponin level elevations not related to acute coronary syndromes.  

PubMed

Over the past 2 decades, cardiac troponins (cTn) have emerged as the preferred biomarkers for the noninvasive detection of myocardial injury. In conjunction with typical clinical findings of ischaemia, elevated cTn levels in blood confirm a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. However, neither cTnT or cTnI are exclusively released as a result of ischaemic myocardial cell necrosis, but also with numerous nonischaemic acute and chronic cardiac conditions, such as myopericarditis, toxic injury, or severe cardiac overload. With the advent of high-sensitivity assays, causes of cTn elevation not related to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have become common findings in patients with chest pain and in those with acute or chronic systemic disorders. Elevated cTn levels in blood are associated with increased rates of cardiac events and mortality, independently of the underlying disease. However, the clinical conditions leading to cTn release in patients who do not have ACS, and the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for these individuals, are largely unknown. Here, we provide an overview of the many causes and the prognostic importance of the release of cTn not related to ACS. We also recommend strategies to discriminate between ischaemic and nonischaemic cTn elevation, and describe the clinical evaluation of these patients. PMID:23979214

Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A

2013-08-27

80

Gene by Smoking Interaction: Evidence for Effects on LowDensity Lipoprotein Size and Plasma Levels of Triglyceride and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We seek to detennine whether significant gene X smoking interaction effects exist on plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and median LDL particle diameter (LDL-MPD) in Mexican American families enrolled in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. The sample consisted of 1,392 individuals distributed in 42 extended pedigrees, ranging in age from 16 years to 92 years. Separate

Stefan A. Czerwinski; Michael C. Mahaney; Savic L. Rainwater; John L. Vandeberg; Jean W. MacCluer; Michael P. Stern; John Blangero

2004-01-01

81

Variants of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene are associated with plasma cholesterol levels and body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of apolipo- protein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins from liver and in- testine. We set out to study the phenotypic modulation of all common genetic variants in the MTP gene. In addition, we aimed at characterizing the association between the various polymorphisms. A total of 564 healthy men were

Helena Ledmyr; Fredrik Karpe; Björn Lundahl; Margaret McKinnon; Camilla Skoglund-Andersson; Ewa Ehrenborg

82

Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2?=?0.214, P?levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP.

2013-01-01

83

Plasma Triglyceride Level is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Independent of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level: A Metaanalysis of Population-Based Prospective Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Despite nearly 40 years of research, the role of plasma triglyceride as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease remains elusive. The objectives of the present study were to quantify the magnitude of the association between triglyceride and cardiovascular disease in the general population, and to determine whether this relationship is independent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, using the semi-quantitative

John E. Hokanson; Melissa A. Austin

1996-01-01

84

42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

85

9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

86

FLYWAY-SCALE VARIATION IN PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS AS AN INDEX OF REFUELING RATE IN SPRING-MIGRATING WESTERN SANDPIPERS (CALIDRIS MAURI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fatt ening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the fl yway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31°N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60°N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and

Tony D. Williams; Nils Warnock; John Y. Takekawa; Mary Anne Bishop

2007-01-01

87

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

2010-01-01

88

Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention. PMID:8690811

Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

1996-03-01

89

Effects of Elevated Radon Levels on Kanne Tritium Monitors  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has used Kanne ionization chambers since the late 1950's to monitor for airborne tritium in reactor facilities. Two Kanne monitors indicated elevated airborne tritium levels while monitoring a non-ventilated room used to store tritiated liquid moderator. Subsequent air sample analysis failed to reveal the presence of airborne tritium. It was suspected that elevated radon levels caused the Kanne monitors to falsely indicate tritium activity. Two commercially available monitoring systems were used to quantify radon levels in the storage room. Measurements performed during this evaluation found that radon caused the Kanne monitors in the storage room to falsely indicate the presence of airborne tritium. A side-by-side comparison of a filtered versus an unfiltered Kanne monitor found that a high efficiency particulate filter reduced monitor response to near background under high radon conditions. It was recommended that a high efficiency filter be installed on the dedicated storage room Kanne monitor and that the room be de-posted as an Airborne Radioactivity Area. It was also found that the Kanne monitors would detect a spill from a single drum of moderator within minutes and the dose rate due to tritium exposure at 20 hours following this spill would be 4.56 rem/hour.

Farrell, W.E.

2003-11-24

90

Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain  

SciTech Connect

The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. (Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, (India))

1992-02-01

91

Reduced aortic lesions and elevated high density lipoprotein levels in transgenic mice overexpressing mouse apolipoprotein A-IV.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mouse lines carrying several copies of the mouse apo A-IV gene were produced. Lipoprotein composition and function, and aortic lesion development were examined. Apo A-IV levels in the plasma of transgenic mice were elevated threefold compared with nontransgenic littermates on a chow diet, and sixfold in mice fed an atherogenic diet. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were similar in transgenic and control mice fed a chow diet. However, with the atherogenic diet, male transgenic mice exhibited significantly higher levels of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001), and free fatty acids (P < 0.05), and lower levels of unesterified cholesterol (P < 0.05), than nontransgenic littermates. Expression of the apo A-IV transgene had a protective effect against the formation of diet-induced aortic lesions, with transgenics exhibiting lesion scores of approximately 30% those seen in control mice. HDL-sized lipoproteins isolated from transgenic mice fed the atherogenic diet promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded human monocytes more efficiently than comparable lipoproteins from nontransgenic counterparts. Plasma from transgenics also exhibited higher endogenous cholesterol esterification rates. Taken together, these results suggest that apo A-IV levels influence the metabolism and antiatherogenic properties of HDL.

Cohen, R D; Castellani, L W; Qiao, J H; Van Lenten, B J; Lusis, A J; Reue, K

1997-01-01

92

Elevated circulating fibrocyte levels in patients with hypertensive heart disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Autopsy and biopsy studies have shown that there is significantly more fibrosis in hearts of patients with hypertensive heart disease compared to normal hearts. Fibrocytes, a population of circulating bone marrow-derived cells, have been shown to home to tissues and promote scar formation in several diseases, but their role in human hypertensive heart disease has not been investigated to date. Our objective was to determine whether fibrocyte levels are elevated in individuals with hypertensive heart disease. Methods We measured peripheral blood fibrocyte levels and their activated phenotypes in 12 individuals with hypertensive heart disease as determined by increased left ventricular mass on noninvasive imaging and compared them to fibrocyte levels from 19 healthy normal controls and correlated them to cardiac MRI findings. Results Compared to normal controls, individuals with hypertensive heart disease had significantly higher circulating levels of total fibrocytes [median (interquartile range); 149000 (62200–220000) vs. 564500 (321000–1.2900e+006), P < 0.0001, respectively] as well as activated fibrocytes [15700 (6380–19800) vs. 478500 (116500–1.2360e+006) P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the fibrocyte subsets expressing the chemokine markers CXCR4 (P < 0.0001), CCR2 (P < 0.0001), CCR7 (P < 0.0001) and coexpression of both CXCR4 and CCR2 (P < 0.0001) were significantly elevated in patients with hypertensive heart disease compared to controls. Lastly, in patients with hypertensive heart disease there was a strong correlation between left ventricular mass index and total fibrocytes (r = 0.65, P = 0.037) and activated fibrocytes (r = 0.70, P = 0.016). Conclusion Our data suggest that bone marrow-derived circulating fibrocytes are associated with the presence and extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertensive heart disease.

Keeley, Ellen C.; Mehrad, Borna; Janardhanan, Rajesh; Salerno, Michael; Hunter, Jennifer R.; Burdick, Marie M.; Field, Joshua J.; Strieter, Robert M.; Kramer, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

93

Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.  

PubMed

Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion. PMID:8512441

Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

1993-06-28

94

eNOS genotype modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on serum triglyceride levels in a Japanese population  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide is a key molecule not only in the cardiovascular system, but also in the metabolic-endocrine system. The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of the NOS3 T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) with serum lipid levels on the basis of lifestyle factors for tailoring prevention of dyslipidemia. Methods For this cross-sectional study, a total of 2226 subjects aged 35 to 69 years (1084 men and 1142 women) were selected from Japanese participants in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were recruited in eight areas throughout Japan between February 2004 and November 2008. Results In a stratified analysis by leisure-time physical activity, the likelihood of hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglyceride levels ? 150 mg/dL) among subjects with the C allele was significantly lower than those without it in the active group (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22-0.84 in the fasting group), but not in the sedentary group. A gene-environment interaction between the T-786C polymorphism and leisure-time physical activity for hypertriglyceridemia was significant (P = 0.007 in the fasting group). Additionally, serum triglyceride levels (mean ± SD) across leisure-time physical activity classes decreased significantly only in the TC + CC genotype group (111 ± 60 mg/dL for sedentary, 95 ± 48 mg/dL for moderately active, 88 ± 44 mg/dL for very active, P for trend = 0.008 in the fasting group), but not in the TT genotype group. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol levels had no significant association with the polymorphism. Conclusions This study suggests that the NOS3 T-786C polymorphism modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on serum triglyceride levels.

2012-01-01

95

Prognostic significance of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST Trial).  

PubMed

Lower cholesterol levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and have been shown to predict in-hospital mortality. The relation between lipid profile and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for worsening HF is less clear. In this post hoc analysis of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan (EVEREST), 3,957 patients hospitalized for worsening HF with ejection fractions ?40% were examined. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured <48 hours after admission and evaluated as continuous variables. The primary end points of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF were compared using Cox regression models. Patient characteristics at randomization were also compared among quartiles of total cholesterol. Patients with lower total cholesterol tended to have lower blood pressure, ejection fractions, serum sodium, and albumin, and were more likely to have worse HF functional class, to have higher natriuretic peptide levels, and to have histories of diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, and coronary revascularization (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for baseline clinical risk factors, total cholesterol was predictive of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.85, p <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.82, p <0.001) at median follow-up of 9.9 months. Lower baseline triglyceride level was also associated with worse outcomes. In conclusion, lower baseline total cholesterol is correlated with a high-risk patient profile and is a marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized for worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels are predictive of mortality and HF rehospitalization beyond traditional risk factors. PMID:23206923

Greene, Stephen J; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Lupi, Laura; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Mentz, Robert J; Konstam, Marvin A; Nodari, Savina; Subacius, Haris P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bonow, Robert O; Gheorghiade, Mihai

2012-12-01

96

Effects of pyrazole partial agonists on HCA2-mediated flushing and VLDL-triglyceride levels in mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Niacin can effectively treat dyslipidaemic disorders. However, its clinical use is limited due to the cutaneous flushing mediated by the nicotinic acid receptor HCA2. In the current study, we evaluated two partial agonists for HCA2, LUF6281 and LUF6283, with respect to their anti-dyslipidaemic potential and cutaneous flushing effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In vitro potency and efficacy studies with niacin and the two HCA2 partial agonists were performed using HEK293T cells stably expressing human HCA2. Normolipidaemic C57BL/6 mice received either niacin or the HCA2 partial agonists (400 mg·kg?1·day?1) once a day for 4 weeks for evaluation of their effects in vivo. KEY RESULTS Radioligand competitive binding assay showed Ki values for LUF6281 and LUF6283 of 3 and 0.55 µM. [35S]-GTP?S binding revealed the rank order of their potency as niacin > LUF6283 > LUF6281. All three compounds reduced plasma VLDL-triglyceride concentrations similarly, while LUF6281 and LUF6283, in contrast to niacin, did not also exhibit the unwanted flushing side effect in C57BL/6 mice. Niacin reduced the expression of lipolytic genes HSL and ATGL in adipose tissue by 50%, whereas LUF6281 and LUF6283 unexpectedly did not. In contrast, the decrease in VLDL-triglyceride concentration induced by LUF6281 and LUF6283 was associated with a parallel >40% reduced expression of APOB within the liver. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The current study identifies LUF6281 and LUF6283, two HCA2 partial agonists of the pyrazole class, as promising drug candidates to achieve the beneficial lipid lowering effect of niacin without producing the unwanted flushing side effect.

Li, Zhaosha; Blad, Clara C; van der Sluis, Ronald J; de Vries, Henk; Van Berkel, Theo JC; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Hoekstra, Menno

2012-01-01

97

Elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Correlation with body mass index and serum triglyceride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous clinical studies reported elevated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but there are not sufficient data about SSAO in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The present study was conducted to investigate serum SSAO activity in NIDDM patients compared with nondiabetic and IDDM patients. Serum SSAO activity in 61 patients with diabetes (n = 34 NIDDM and

Zsuzsa Mészáros; Tamás Szombathy; Laura Raimondi; István Karádi; László Romics; Kálmán Magyar

1999-01-01

98

A genetic variant c.553G > T in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease and altered triglyceride levels in a Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation in plasma triglycerides (TG) has been widely accepted as a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk predictor. Recently, a new apolipoprotein playing an important role in TG metabolism named apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) was discovered, which is encoded by the APOA5 gene. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOA5 associated with increased TG concentrations have been identified. We here report that

Yibo Tang; Ping Sun; Dongping Guo; Albert Ferro; Yong Ji; Qi Chen; Leming Fan

2006-01-01

99

BACE1 levels are elevated in congestive heart failure.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are known to have a negative impact on the brain and neurocognition, and contribute to the development of vascular dementia and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among CV diseases, congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI) is a condition where the ability of the left ventricle to eject blood to the circulation is impaired. As a consequence, CHF triggers inflammation and results in reduced cerebral blood flow which are considered among the risk factors for development of AD. However, biochemical alterations in the brain following MI and CHF remain unknown. To address this issue, we investigated microglia activation; levels of BACE1, the key rate-limiting enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of AD; and VEGF levels in the hippocampus and cortex following MI. We created MI by the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Sprague-Dawley male rats and collected brains either 3 days after MI (AMI) or 21 days after MI (CHF). We investigated microglia activation in AMI and CHF brains by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting using macrophage/microglia marker Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), and observed activated morphology of microglia in the cortex of rats in both AMI and CHF. We also showed the levels of BACE1 were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of CHF rats. To determine whether hypoxia occurs in the CHF brain, we assessed levels of VEGF in the hippocampus and cortex. Western blotting analysis showed up-regulation of VEGF in the hippocampus of CHF brains. These results suggest that neuroinflammation takes place secondary to myocardial infarction. In addition, CHF-induced hypoxia might play a role in the elevation of BACE1 and VEGF levels. PMID:23127855

Nural-Guvener, Hikmet F; Mutlu, Nezahet; Gaballa, Mohamed A

2012-11-02

100

Influence of obesity and body fat distribution on postprandial lipemia and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in adult women.  

PubMed

We know that upper body obesity is associated with metabolic complications, but we don't know how regional body fat distribution influences postprandial lipemia in obese adults. Thus, this study explored the respective effects of android or gynoid types of obesity and fasting triglyceridemia on postprandial lipid metabolism and especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Twenty-four obese and 6 lean normotriglyceridemic women (control), age 24-57 yr, were enrolled. Among obese women with an android phenotype, 9 exhibited normal plasma triglyceride levels (mean: 1.38 mmol/L) (NTAO), and 7 displayed a frank hypertriglyceridemia (mean: 2.40 mmol/L) (HTAO). The 8 patients with a gynoid phenotype had normal triglyceride levels (mean: 1.00 mmol/L) (GO). All were given a mixed test meal providing 40 g triglycerides. Serum and incremental chylomicron triglycerides 0-7 h areas under the curve (AUCs) as well as triglyceride levels in apoB-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRLs) or chylomicrons were significantly higher in HTAOs and NTAOs than in GOs and controls postprandially. The size of chylomicron particles was bigger in controls and GOs than in HTAOs and NTAOs postprandially. Android obese subjects showed abnormally elevated fasting apoB-48 and apoB-100 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) levels. Most abnormalities that were found correlated to plasma levels of insulin and apoC-III. In conclusion, an abnormal postprandial lipid pattern is a trait of abdominal obesity even without fasting hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:9920081

Mekki, N; Christofilis, M A; Charbonnier, M; Atlan-Gepner, C; Defoort, C; Juhel, C; Borel, P; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Vialettes, B; Lairon, D

1999-01-01

101

Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality.

Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.

2010-01-01

102

Long distance runners and body-builders exhibit elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a).  

PubMed

A one-point cross-sectional study of 20 sedentary individuals, 20 low-aerobic athletes (body-builders), and 20 high-aerobic athletes (long distance, endurance runners) was conducted in Mexico City, Mexico to determine the influence of these diverse life-styles on the plasma levels of Lp(a). Only non-obese male subjects, aged 23-33, who were nonsmokers, non-alcoholics, and had never used anabolic steroids were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn 24 h following the last period of physical activity, and after a 12-14-h fast-period and a 15-min sitting-rest. Plasma levels of Lp(a) and other parameters, including postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as % body fat and muscle mass, and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) were measured to determine possible correlations with Lp(a) and to serve as convenient internal standards. Mean Lp(a) concentrations were significantly higher in the runners (52 +/- 19 mg/dl) than in the body-builders (40 +/- 6.4 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and the sedentary subjects (24 +/- 5 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Positive correlations between Lp(a) and Vo2max (P < 0.001), HDL-C (P < 0.005) and HDL2-C subfraction (P < 0.005), and a negative correlation with TG were determined. Agglomerative cluster methods suggested three close-distance clusters and a fourth cluster which is composed of four runners who exhibited low LDL-C/HDL-C and high LPL/HL ratios, high mean Lp(a), HDL2-C, and Vo2max levels, but low TG levels. These data show that some individuals who maintain a life-style of very high level physical exertion may have remarkably elevated plasma Lp(a) concentrations. The highly increased concentrations of Lp(a) in high exercise athletes may represent a normal metabolic response to repeated small tissue injuries resulting from frequent and prolonged large muscle movement. PMID:8187216

Cardoso, G C; Posadas, C; Orvanaños, O O; Peniche, C; Zamora, J; Aguilar, R; Holguin, J A; Raynaud, A S; Morrisett, J D; Guevara, J

1994-01-01

103

Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess the impact of the association between elevated oestradiol (E2) and low testosterone (T) levels on erectile dysfunction (ED) severity. A total of 614 male patients with ED and a normal or low T level in association with normal or elevated E2 levels were enrolled. Patients underwent routine laboratory investigations in addition to measurements of total T, total E2, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin. We compared the responses to the erectile function domain, Q3 (achieving erection) and Q4 (maintaining erection) of the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) score in patients with the following: normal T and E2 levels; low T level; low T level and elevated E2 level; and elevated E2 level. Of the patients included, 449 (73.1%) had normal T and E2 levels, 110 (17.9%) had a low T level, 36 (5.9%) had a low T level and an elevated E2 level, and 19 (3.1%) had an elevated E2 level. Increased ED severity was significantly associated with low T levels, elevated E2 levels, and both a low T level and an elevated E2 level. Additionally, the mean values of the EF-domain, Q3 and Q4 were significantly lower in patients with both a low T level and an elevated E2 level compared to patients with any condition alone. In conclusion, a low T level had the primary effect on erectile function; however, a concomitantly elevated E2 level had an additive impairment effect. PMID:23644871

El-Sakka, Ahmed I

2013-05-06

104

Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to assess the impact of the association between elevated oestradiol (E2) and low testosterone (T) levels on erectile dysfunction (ED) severity. A total of 614 male patients with ED and a normal or low T level in association with normal or elevated E2 levels were enrolled. Patients underwent routine laboratory investigations in addition to measurements of total T, total E2, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin. We compared the responses to the erectile function domain, Q3 (achieving erection) and Q4 (maintaining erection) of the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) score in patients with the following: normal T and E2 levels; low T level; low T level and elevated E2 level; and elevated E2 level. Of the patients included, 449 (73.1%) had normal T and E2 levels, 110 (17.9%) had a low T level, 36 (5.9%) had a low T level and an elevated E2 level, and 19 (3.1%) had an elevated E2 level. Increased ED severity was significantly associated with low T levels, elevated E2 levels, and both a low T level and an elevated E2 level. Additionally, the mean values of the EF-domain, Q3 and Q4 were significantly lower in patients with both a low T level and an elevated E2 level compared to patients with any condition alone. In conclusion, a low T level had the primary effect on erectile function; however, a concomitantly elevated E2 level had an additive impairment effect.

El-Sakka, Ahmed I

2013-01-01

105

Uremic hyperstannum: elevated tissue tin levels associated with uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that the concentration of the essential trace element tin is elevated in several tissues of dialyzed uremic patients. Analysis of 80 postmortem liver samples from controls and nondialyzed uremic and dialyzed uremic patients now shows that nondialyzed uremic patients also have abnormally high tin concentrations, averaging about three times that of controls. It is concluded that

L. L. Nunnelley; W. R. Smythe; A. C. Alfrey; L. S. Ibels

1978-01-01

106

The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

1984-05-01

107

Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

Walden, T.L. Jr.

1983-01-01

108

Knockdown of FABP5 mRNA decreases cellular cholesterol levels and results in decreased apoB100 secretion and triglyceride accumulation in ARPE-19 cells  

PubMed Central

To maintain normal retinal function, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells engulf photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) enriched in free fatty acids (FFAs). We have previously demonstrated fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) down-regulation in the RPE/choroidal complex in a mouse model of aging and early age-related macular degeneration. FABPs are involved in intracellular transport of FFAs and their targeting to specific metabolic pathways. To elucidate the role of FABP5 in lipid metabolism, the production of the FABP5 protein in a human RPE cell line was inhibited using RNA interference technology. As a result, the levels of cholesterol and cholesterol ester were decreased by about 40%, whereas FFAs and triglycerides were increased by 18 and 67% after siRNA treatment, respectively. Some species of phospholipids were decreased in siRNA-treated cells. Cellular lipid droplets were evident and apoB secretion was decreased by 76% in these cells. Additionally, we discovered that ARPE-19 cells could synthesize and secrete Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), which may serve as a backbone structure for the formation of lipoprotein particles in these cells. Our results indicate that FABP5 mRNA knockdown results in the accumulation of cellular triglycerides, decreased cholesterol levels, and reduced secretion of apoB100 protein and lipoprotein-like particles. These observations indicated that FABP5 plays a critical role in lipid metabolism in RPE cells, suggesting that FABP5 down-regulation in the RPE/choroid complex in vivo might contribute to aging and early age-related macular degeneration.

Wu, Tinghuai; Tian, Jane; Cutler, Roy G.; Telljohann, Richard S.; Bernlohr, David; Mattson, Mark P.; Handa, James T.

2010-01-01

109

Elevated Serum ALT Levels during Pegylated Interferon Monotherapy May Be Caused by Hepatic Iron Overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Persistently elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been observed in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy. We investigated whether elevated serum ALT levels during PEG-IFN therapy are associated with iron overload. Methods: Sixty-three CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN?-2a monotherapy were evaluated. The associations between elevated serum ALT levels (?70 IU\\/l) were investigated before and

Miki Nagashima; Masatoshi Kudo; Hobyung Chung; Emi Ishikawa; Tatsuo Inoue; Tatsuya Nakatani; Kensaku Dote

2008-01-01

110

Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia.

Karpe, F; Steiner, G; Olivecrona, T; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A

1993-01-01

111

A genome-wide association and gene-environment interaction study for serum triglycerides levels in a healthy Chinese male population.  

PubMed

Triglyceride (TG) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes or loci affecting lipid levels; however, such studies in Chinese populations are limited. A two-stage GWAS were conducted to identify genetic variants that were associated with TG in a Chinese population of 3495 men. Gene-environment interactions on serum TG levels were further investigated for the seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were studied in both stages. Two previously reported SNPs (rs651821 in APOA5, rs328 in LPL) were replicated in the second stage, and the combined P-values were 9.19 × 10(-26) and 1.41 × 10(-9) for rs651821 and rs328, respectively. More importantly, a significant interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels were observed (P = 3.34 × 10(-5)). Rs671 was significantly associated with serum TG levels in drinkers (P = 1.90 × 10(-10)), while no association was observed in non-drinkers (P > 0.05). For drinkers, men carrying the AA/AG genotype have significantly lower serum TG levels, compared with men carrying the GG genotype. For men with the GG genotype, the serum TG levels increased with the quantity of alcohol intake (P = 1.28 × 10(-8) for trend test). We identified a novel, significant interaction effect between alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism on TG levels, which suggests that the effect of alcohol intake on TG occurs in a two-faceted manner. Just one drink can increase TG level in susceptible individuals who carry the GG genotype, while individuals carrying AA/AG genotypes may actually benefit from moderate drinking. PMID:22171074

Tan, Aihua; Sun, Jielin; Xia, Ning; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Shijun; Tao, Sha; Gao, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haiying; Kim, Seong-Tae; Peng, Tao; Lin, Xiaoling; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Liang, Zhengjia; Shi, Deyi; Huang, Zhang; Huang, Xianghua; Liu, Ming; Ding, Qiang; Trent, Jeffrey M; Zheng, S Lilly; Mo, Zengnan; Xu, Jianfeng

2011-12-14

112

Postprandial Adiponectin Levels Are Associated with Improvements in Postprandial Triglycerides After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Postprandial hypertrygliceridemia is a known factor for cardiovascular disease and is often observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and visceral adiposity. Adiponectin is a hormone with antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, which decreases in obesity and T2DM subjects. The weight loss induced by diet or bariatric surgery could be restoring adiponectin levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, which could restore adiponectin and triglycerides (TG) levels in obese and diabetic patients. Methods: Ten patients with T2DM (BMI 39.3+2.44) were evaluated before and at 7 and 90 days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A meal test was performed and plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose, TG, and adiponectin levels were measured at fasting and at 30, 60, 90, and 120?min postprandial. Results: Seven days after surgery, significant reductions in the insulin resistance were observed, while TG and adiponectin levels remained unchanged during the meal test. Ninety days after surgery, TG and glucose levels decreased significantly at fasting, and postprandial, adiponectin, GLP-1, and insulin curves increased significantly after meal ingestion. Both changes in the area under the curve (AUC) of adiponectin correlated with changes in the AUC of TG (R=-0.64, P=0.003) and changes in AUC of adiponectin correlated with changes in total fat mass. No correlation was found between changes in insulin, GLP-1, and TG levels. Conclusions: The adiponectin levels may be involved in the mechanism responsible for high TG levels in obese and diabetic patients. These abnormalities can be reversed by RYGB. PMID:23745620

Umeda, Luciana M; Pereira, Andrea Z; Carneiro, Glaucia; Arasaki, Carlos H; Zanella, Maria Teresa

2013-06-07

113

Low IGF-I levels are often uncoupled with elevated GH levels in catabolic conditions.  

PubMed

Increased GH together with decreased IGF-I levels pointing to peripheral GH insensitivity in critically ill patients have been reported by some but not by other authors. To clarify whether elevated GH levels are coupled with low IGF-I levels in all catabolic conditions, basal GH and IGF-I levels were evaluated in patients with sepsis (SEP, no.=13; age [mean+/-SE]=59.2+/-1.2 yr), trauma (TRA, no.=16; age=42.3+/-3.4 yr), major burn (BUR, no.=26; age=52.8+/-4.2 yr) and post-surgical patients (SUR, no.=11; age=55.0+/-4.7 yr) 72 hours after ICU admission or after cardiac surgery. GH and IGF-I levels were also evaluated in normal subjects (NS, no.=75; age=44.0+/-1.5 yr), in adult hypopituitaric patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD, no.=54; age=44.8+/-2.3 yr), in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC, no.=12; age=50.4+/-2.8 yr) and in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, no.=19; age=18.7+/-0.8 yr). Basal IGF-I and GH levels in GHD were lower than in NS (68.6+/-6.4 vs 200.9+/-8.7 microg/l and 0.3+/-0.1 vs 1.4+/-0.2 microg/l; p<0.01). On the other hand, AN and LC showed IGF-I levels (70.4+/-9.1 and 52.4+/-10.5 microg/l) similar to those in GHD while GH levels (10.0+/-2.8 and 7.9+/-2.1 microg/l) were higher than those in NS (p<0.01). IGF-I levels in SEP (84.5+/-8.8 microg/l) were similar to those in GHD, AN and LC and lower than those in NS (p<0.01). IGF-I levels in BUR (105.2+/-10.9 microg/l) were lower than in NS (p<0.01) but higher than those in GHD, AN, LC and SEP (p<0.01). On the other hand, in TRA (162.8+/-17.4 microg/l) and SUR (135.0+/-20.7 microg/l) IGF-I levels were lower but not significantly different from those in NS and clearly higher than those in GHD, AN, LC, SEP and BUR. Basal GH levels in SEP (0.6+/-0.2 microg/l), TRA (1.8+/-0.5 microg/l), SUR (2.2+/-0.5 microg/l) and BUR (2.2+/-0.5 microg/l) were similar to those in NS, higher (p<0.05) than those in GHD and lower (p<0.01) than those in AN and LC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that low IGF-I levels are not always coupled with elevated GH levels in all catabolic conditions. Differently from cirrhotic and anorectic patients, in burned and septic patients GH levels are not elevated in spite of very low IGF-I levels similar to those in panhypopituitaric GHD patients. These findings suggest that in some catabolic conditions peripheral GH insensitivity and somatotrope insufficiency could be concomitantly present. PMID:9585386

Gianotti, L; Broglio, F; Aimaretti, G; Arvat, E; Colombo, S; Di Summa, M; Gallioli, G; Pittoni, G; Sardo, E; Stella, M; Zanello, M; Miola, C; Ghigo, E

1998-02-01

114

Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre-and early pubertal children  

PubMed Central

Laminins are large glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two LAMA5 polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and plasma glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, earlier work in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether LAMA5 rs659822 or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric, fasting lipid profile, and fasting glucose levels in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 years of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (p = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (p = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

2012-01-01

115

Genomewide scan for familial combined hyperlipidemia genes in finnish families, suggesting multiple susceptibility loci influencing triglyceride, cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels.  

PubMed Central

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The disease is characterized by increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), or both. We recently localized the first locus for FCHL, on chromosome 1q21-q23. In the present study, a genomewide screen for additional FCHL loci was performed. In stage 1, we genotyped 368 polymorphic markers in 35 carefully characterized Finnish FCHL families. We identified six chromosomal regions with markers showing LOD score (Z) values >1.0, by using a dominant mode of inheritance for the FCHL trait. In addition, two more regions emerged showing Z>2.0 with a TG trait. In stage 2, we genotyped 26 more markers and seven additional FCHL families for these interesting regions. Two chromosomal regions revealed Z>2.0 in the linkage analysis: 10p11.2, Z=3.20 (theta=.00), with the TG trait; and 21q21, Z=2.24 (theta=.10), with the apoB trait. Furthermore, two more chromosomal regions produced Z>2.0 in the affected-sib-pair analysis: 10q11.2-10qter produced Z=2.59 with the TC trait and Z=2.29 with FCHL, and 2q31 produced Z=2.25 with the TG trait. Our results suggest additional putative loci influencing FCHL in Finnish families, some potentially affecting TG levels and some potentially affecting TC or apoB levels.

Pajukanta, P; Terwilliger, J D; Perola, M; Hiekkalinna, T; Nuotio, I; Ellonen, P; Parkkonen, M; Hartiala, J; Ylitalo, K; Pihlajamaki, J; Porkka, K; Laakso, M; Viikari, J; Ehnholm, C; Taskinen, M R; Peltonen, L

1999-01-01

116

Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre-and early pubertal children.  

PubMed

Laminins are large glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two LAMA5 polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and plasma glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, earlier work in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether LAMA5 rs659822 or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric, fasting lipid profile, and fasting glucose levels in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7-12 years of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (p = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (p = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life. PMID:23264881

De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R

2012-10-01

117

Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels in South Asians in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report demonstrates that South Asians living in North America have elevated levels of Lp(a) compared with North American whites. Elevated Lp(a) levels may account, in part, for the tendency of South Asians to develop premature coronary heart disease (CHD).

Sonia S. Anand; Enas A. Enas; Janice Pogue; Steven Haffner; Thomas Pearson; Salim Yusuf

1998-01-01

118

HPLC of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride separation was investigated on a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column using two\\u000a different solvent systems. Complete separation of model compounds differing by two methylene groups was achieved. Partial\\u000a or complete separation was also observed in critical pairs; for example, the different types of triglycerides consisting of\\u000a palmitic and oleic acids. This observation was confirmed on natural

B. Herslöf; O. Podlaha; B. Töregård

1979-01-01

119

Elevated East Coast Sea Level Anomaly: June - July 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CO-OPS stations recorded higher than normal sea levels (SL) along the U.S. East Coast in June and July 2009. Near-peak levels in the latter half of June coincided with a perigean-spring tide, an extreme predicted tide when the moon is closest to the Earth...

C. Zervas S. Gill W. Sweet

2009-01-01

120

Elevated Serum ?-hCG Levels in Severe Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current hypotheses regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms of pregnancy-induced hypertention point to early placental abnormalities. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels reflect a different trophoblastic secretory response of preeclampsia. Thirteen pregnant women with severe preeclampsia were matched with twenty-one normotensive pregnant women with singleton pregnancies in the third trimester. Serum b-hCG levels were found

Erdal ARIGULO; Nursel BAZO; Özcan BALAT

121

Triglyceride Levels and Not Adipokine Concentrations Are Closely Related to severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an Obesity surgery Cohort  

PubMed Central

Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent in obesity, the metabolic determinants of advanced liver disease remain unclear. Adipokines reflect inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and may identify advanced NAFLD. At the time of obesity surgery, 142 consecutive patients underwent liver biopsy and had their preoperative demographic and clinical data obtained. Liver histology was scored by the NAFLD activity score, and patients subdivided into four groups. Concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and leptin were determined ~1 week prior to surgery and results were related to liver histology. The prevalence of no NAFLD was 30%, simple steatosis 23%, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) 28%, and definitive NASH 18%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence were 39 and 75%, respectively, and did not differ across the four histological groups (P = NS). Triglyceride (TG) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, strongly associated with advanced stages of NAFLD and NASH (P = 0.04). TG levels >150 mg/dl, increased the likelihood of NASH 3.4-fold, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels predicted no NAFLD (P < 0.01). Concentrations of TNF-?, leptin, and RBP4 did not differ among histological groups and thus did not identify NASH; however, there was a trend for adiponectin to be lower in NASH vs. no NAFLD (P = 0.061). In summary, both TG and ALT levels assist in identification of NASH in an obesity surgery cohort. These findings underscore the importance of fatty acid delivery mechanisms to NASH development in severely obese individuals.

Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Diab, Dima L.; Baker, Allison R.; Yerian, Lisa; Bajaj, Harpreet; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Schauer, Philip R.; Gupta, Manjula; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Stein, Catherine M.

2010-01-01

122

A common functional exon polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene is associated with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism and insulin levels.  

PubMed

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Emerging evidence has indicated that the functional MTP exon polymorphism I128T is associated with dyslipidemia and other traits of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and the T128 variant seems to confer a reduced stability of MTP, resulting in reduced binding of LDL particles. The aim of the study was to elucidate the association of this MTP polymorphism with parameters of postprandial metabolism. A total of 716 male subjects from a postprandially characterized cohort (MICK) and a nested case-control study (EPIC) of 190 incident type 2 diabetes cases and 380 sex- or age-matched controls were genotyped for the I128T exon polymorphism. In comparison to homozygote subjects of the wild allele, carriers of the less common allele of the MTP T128 genotype showed significantly lower postprandial insulin levels (P=0.017), lower diastolic blood pressure (P=0.049) and had a lower prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes type 2 (P=0.03) in the MICK. Consistent with this, we found a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in male subjects of the nested case-control study in the T128 genotype (P=0.007). These results suggest that the rare allele of the MTP I128T polymorphism may be protective against impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:16721486

Rubin, Diana; Helwig, Ulf; Pfeuffer, Maria; Schreiber, Stefan; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Foelsch, Ulrich R; Doering, Frank; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

2006-05-24

123

Riluzole elevates GLT-1 activity and levels in striatal astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Drugs which upregulate astrocyte glutamate transport may be useful neuroprotective compounds by preventing excitotoxicity. We set up a new system to identify potential neuroprotective drugs which act through GLT-1. Primary mouse striatal astrocytes grown in the presence of the growth-factor supplement G5 express high levels of the functional glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (also known as EAAT2) as assessed by Western blotting and 3H-glutamate uptake assay, and levels decline following growth factor withdrawal. The GLT-1 transcriptional enhancer dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 ?M) was able to prevent loss of GLT-1 levels and activity following growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, ceftriaxone, a compound previously reported to enhance GLT-1 expression, failed to regulate GLT-1 in this system. The neuroprotective compound riluzole (100 ?M) upregulated GLT-1 levels and activity, through a mechanism that was not dependent on blockade of voltage-sensitive ion channels, since zonasimide (1 mM) did not regulate GLT-1. Finally, CDP-choline (10 ?M – 1 mM), a compound which promotes association of GLT-1/EAAT2 with lipid rafts was unable to prevent GLT-1 loss under these conditions. This observation extends the known pharmacological actions of riluzole, and suggests that this compound may exert its neuroprotective effects through an astrocyte-dependent mechanism.

Carbone, Marica; Duty, Susan; Rattray, Marcus

2012-01-01

124

Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in 17-year-old Jerusalem offspring of Jews from 19 countries of birth.  

PubMed

The distribution of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was examined in 6,654 17-yr-old young men and women who attended an army medical examination. There were highly significant differences among the four main groups, classified according to their father's place of birth: Israel, the Asian Near East, North Africa and Europe (including the Americas, Oceania and Southern Africa). Mean levels of plasma cholesterol in each group varied in males from 126.9 to 137.4 mg/dl, TG from 72.1 to 77.8 mg/dl and HDL-C from 41.3 to 44.4 mg/dl. In females, the cholesterol levels ranged from 144.6 to 154.8 mg/dl, TG from 72.7 to 76.3 and HDL-C from 47.3 to 50.5 mg/dl. In the various groups, subjects of North African origin consistently had the lowest lipid values, and subjects whose fathers were born in Europe or Israel, the highest. When the subjects were classified according to their fathers' specific country of origin, mean cholesterol values ranged from a low of 126.2 mg/dl in Moroccan males to a high of 143.0 in Austrian and Swiss males, and from 137.6 mg/dl in Tunisian females to 161.6 in those whose fathers had emigrated from North American countries. HDL-C ranged in males from 40.0 mg/dl in the Egyptian group to 47.0 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group; in females, the values ranged from 46.0 mg/dl in the Algerian group to 53.4 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group. These findings are discussed in light of published reports of lipid and lipoprotein levels in individuals living in different countries. PMID:7161044

Halfon, S T; Eisenberg, S; Baras, M; Davies, A M; Halperin, G; Stein, Y

1982-11-01

125

Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation

Walden; T. L. Jr

1983-01-01

126

The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18

T. L. Walden; P. S. Draganac; W. R. Farkas

1984-01-01

127

Homocysteine plasma levels are elevated in females with anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In the present pilot study significantly (T = 2.46, P = 0.018) higher levels of homocysteine were found in female anorectic patients (14.07, SD 7.3?µmol\\/l; n = 18) when compared with bulimic patients (10.25, SD 2.82; n = 27) or healthy controls (8.10, SD 1.79; n = 25). Since homocysteine can induce neuronal cell death leading to brain atrophy

H. Frieling; K. Römer; B. Röschke; D. Bönsch; J. Wilhelm; R. Fiszer; M. de Zwaan; G. E. Jacoby; J. Kornhuber; S. Bleich

2005-01-01

128

Peptide YY Levels Are Elevated After Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Mechanisms that promote effective and sustained weight loss in persons who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are incompletely understood but may be mediated, in part, by changes in appetite. Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut-derived hormone with anorectic properties. We sought to determine whether gastric bypass surgery alters PYY levels or response to glucose.Research Methods and Procedures: PYY

Jean L. Chan; Edward C. Mun; Violeta Stoyneva; Christos S. Mantzoros; Allison B. Goldfine

2006-01-01

129

Human cytomegalovirus elevates levels of the cellular protein p53 in infected fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), like other DNA tumor viruses, induces morphological transformation of cells in vitro and stimulates host cell macromolecular synthesis in infected cells. Since other DNA tumor viruses, such as simian virus 40 and adenovirus, have previously been shown to interact with cellular protein p53, we investigated whether infection of cells by HCMV would modulate cellular p53 levels. Our results indicate that HCMV elevates cellular p53 levels on the order of 10- to 20-fold in infected fibroblasts. The induction of elevated p53 levels was dependent upon the presence of active virus and was prevented by neutralizing antibody. The induction of elevated p53 levels was determined not to be due to virus-receptor interactions or HCMV late events. The induction of elevated p53 levels commenced at immediate-early times of the HCMV multiplication cycle (6 h postinfection) and reached maximal levels by 24 h postinfection, before most of the HCMV DNA synthesis was initiated. HCMV immediate-early proteins were clearly shown to be responsible for elevating p53 levels in infected fibroblasts; expression of HCMV immediate-early region 1 and 2 proteins resulted in elevation of p53 levels in transfected human fibroblasts. This is the first report of increased p53 levels caused by HCMV in infected fibroblasts. Images

Muganda, P; Mendoza, O; Hernandez, J; Qian, Q

1994-01-01

130

Towards quantitative ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment.  

PubMed

The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected in order to conduct a marine ecological risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels, using a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). It became evident that information currently available from the literature is mostly insufficient for such a quantitative approach. Most studies focus on effects of expected future CO2 levels, testing only one or two elevated concentrations. A full dose-response relationship, a uniform measure of exposure, and standardized test protocols are essential for conducting a proper quantitative risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels. Improvements are proposed to make future tests more valuable and usable for quantitative risk assessment. PMID:23850125

de Vries, Pepijn; Tamis, Jacqueline E; Foekema, Edwin M; Klok, Chris; Murk, Albertinka J

2013-07-11

131

Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish.  

PubMed

The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs. PMID:23653595

De Marco, Rodrigo J; Groneberg, Antonia H; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramírez, Luis A; Ryu, Soojin

2013-05-06

132

Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs.

De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramirez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

2013-01-01

133

Hepatic ABCA1 and VLDL triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma TG concentrations and a near absence of HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which facilitates the efflux of cellular phospholipid and free cholesterol to assemble with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), forming nascent HDL particles. In this review, we summarize studies focused on the regulation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG production, with particular attention on recent evidence connecting hepatic ABCA1 expression to VLDL, LDL, and HDL metabolism. Silencing ABCA1 in McArdle rat hepatoma cells results in diminished assembly of large (>10nm) nascent HDL particles, diminished PI3 kinase activation, and increased secretion of large, TG-enriched VLDL1 particles. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout (HSKO) mice have a similar plasma lipid phenotype as Tangier disease subjects, with a twofold elevation of plasma VLDL TG, 50% lower LDL, and 80% reduction in HDL concentrations. This lipid phenotype arises from increased hepatic secretion of VLDL1 particles, increased hepatic uptake of plasma LDL by the LDL receptor, elimination of nascent HDL particle assembly by the liver, and hypercatabolism of apoA-I by the kidney. These studies highlight a novel role for hepatic ABCA1 in the metabolism of all three major classes of plasma lipoproteins and provide a metabolic link between elevated TG and reduced HDL levels that are a common feature of Tangier disease, MS, and T2D.

Liu, Mingxia; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S.

2011-01-01

134

Adenovirus infection elevates levels of cellular topoisomerase I  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a specific, sensitive, and quantitative assay for topoisomerase I, which is based on the formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate. The assay measures the quantitative transfer of TSP radioactivity from TSP-labeled DNA to topoisomerase I. Since TSP-labeled topoisomerase molecules are resolved by NaDodSO4/PAGE, HeLa topoisomerase I (100 kDa) and calf thymus topoisomerase I (82 kDa) can be quantitatively assayed in the same reaction mixture. The assay can detect at least 0.3 ng (3 fmol) of topoisomerase I. They have used their assay to measure the levels of topoisomerase I activity in crude extracts of nuclei prepared from uninfected, adenovirus-infected, and adenovirus-transformed human cells. The evidence suggests that an adenovirus early gene product, presumably a protein encoded in early region 1A (E1A), increases cellular topoisomerase I activity at least 10-fold.

Chow, K.C.; Pearson, G.D.

1985-04-01

135

Elevated CSF histamine levels in multiple sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Histamine is an ubiquitous inflammatory mediator of numerous physiological processes. Histamine and its receptors have been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We prospectively enrolled 36 MS patients and 19 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) histamine analysis. Findings CSF histamine levels in MS patient samples were significantly higher (median: 35.6 pg/ml) than in controls (median: 5.5 pg/ml; Beta?=?0.525, p?

2013-01-01

136

Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center  

SciTech Connect

Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

2002-05-14

137

Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels  

SciTech Connect

Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States)]|[Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-06-01

138

Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean ecosystem is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) related alterations due to the relatively high CO2 solubility and low carbonate saturation states of its cold surface waters. Thus far, however, there is only little known about the consequences of OA on the base of the food web. In a mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (overall CO2 levels ranged from ~ 180 to 1100 ?atm) in Kongsfjorden off Svalbard, we studied the consequences of OA on a natural pelagic microbial community. OA distinctly affected the composition and growth of the Arctic phytoplankton community, i.e. the picoeukaryotic photoautotrophs and to a lesser extent the nanophytoplankton thrived. A shift towards the smallest phytoplankton as a result of OA will have direct consequences for the structure and functioning of the pelagic food web and thus for the biogeochemical cycles. Besides being grazed, the dominant pico- and nanophytoplankton groups were found prone to viral lysis, thereby shunting the carbon accumulation in living organisms into the dissolved pools of organic carbon and subsequently affecting the efficiency of the biological pump in these Arctic waters.

Brussaard, C. P. D.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M. C. J.; Schulz, K.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2013-02-01

139

Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the fol...

D. E. Lincoln

1995-01-01

140

Photosynthetic acclimation of maize to growth under elevated levels of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on the photochemistry, biochemistry and physiology of C4 photosynthesis were studied in maize (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown at ambient (350??L?L?1) or ca. 3 times ambient (1100??L?L?1) CO2 levels under high light conditions in a greenhouse for 30?d. Relative to plants grown at ambient CO2 levels, plants grown under elevated CO2 accumulated

João P. Maroco; Gerald E. Edwards; Maurice S. B. Ku

1999-01-01

141

Physical activity modulates the combined effect of a common variant of the lipoprotein lipase gene and smoking on serum triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor against the occurrence and progression of coronary heart disease. The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) HindIII polymorphism has been associated with changes in triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. We have investigated whether the association between the LPL HindIII genetic polymorphism and lipid levels is modified by physical activity. We have also

Mariano Sentí; Roberto Elosua; Marta Tomás; Joan Sala; Rafael Masiá; José M. Ordovás; Haiqing Shen; Jaume Marrugat

2001-01-01

142

Elevation Uncertainty in Sea-Level Rise Assessments: How Much Land is Really at Risk?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for high-quality sea-level rise vulnerability and impact assessments is clear and has been well documented. Elevation is one of the most important parameters that determine the vulnerability of coastal lands to inundation due to storm surge flooding and longer term sea-level rise. In many sea-level rise impact assessments, elevation is often the primary variable that is analyzed to determine vulnerability to adverse effects of rising water levels. The accuracy and resolution with which coastal elevations have been mapped directly affect the reliability and usefulness of sea-level rise impact assessments that rely upon elevation as the foremost geophysical characteristic for determining vulnerability. Maps visualizing coastal areas subject to potential inundation or other adverse effects of sea-level rise have great appeal to planners and land managers who are charged with adapting to or reducing the risks. Likewise, sea-level rise assessments often include statistical summaries of population, infrastructure, and economic activity in the mapped impact zone because this information is critical for the mitigation efforts. Many studies have necessarily used elevation data to delineate potential impact zones and quantify effects. These studies generally have not considered the inherent vertical uncertainty of the elevation data used to delineate vulnerable lands. An analysis of four different elevation datasets, including lidar, that have been commonly used for mapping vulnerable coastal lands demonstrates that vertical uncertainty (elevation error) must be considered quantitatively to derive reliable estimates of land areas subject to potential inundation. Maps that include a spatial representation of the uncertainty associated with a given sea-level rise projected onto the land can then be produced. Statistical summaries of impacted population and other socioeconomic variables within the mapped inundation zone also benefit by incorporating the elevation uncertainty information. Because the coast is a highly dynamic environment subject to complex interactions among numerous physical processes and parameters, inundation will be the primary response to sea-level rise in only some coastal locations. For those areas, elevation is the most important factor in assessing vulnerability. However, the challenge remains to be able to quantify the various effects of sea-level rise and to identify the areas and settings along the coast in which inundation will be the dominant coastal change process.

Gesch, D. B.

2008-12-01

143

Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to be present in humans. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport lipids in the bloodstream, where the fatty acid moieties are liberated by the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant particles are cleared by the liver. Elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and prolonged circulation of cholesterol-rich remnants, especially in diabetic dyslipidemia, are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the precise biological role of BAT for TRL clearance remains unclear. Here we show that increased BAT activity induced by short-term cold exposure controls TRL metabolism in mice. Cold exposure drastically accelerated plasma clearance of triglycerides as a result of increased uptake into BAT, a process crucially dependent on local LPL activity and transmembrane receptor CD36. In pathophysiological settings, cold exposure corrected hyperlipidemia and improved deleterious effects of insulin resistance. In conclusion, BAT activity controls vascular lipoprotein homeostasis by inducing a metabolic program that boosts TRL turnover and channels lipids into BAT. Activation of BAT might be a therapeutic approach to reduce elevated triglyceride concentrations and combat obesity in humans. PMID:21258337

Bartelt, Alexander; Bruns, Oliver T; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinz; Ittrich, Harald; Peldschus, Kersten; Kaul, Michael G; Tromsdorf, Ulrich I; Weller, Horst; Waurisch, Christian; Eychmüller, Alexander; Gordts, Philip L S M; Rinninger, Franz; Bruegelmann, Karoline; Freund, Barbara; Nielsen, Peter; Merkel, Martin; Heeren, Joerg

2011-01-23

144

Gender Difference of Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation May Be Associated with Higher Hemoglobin Levels among Male Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years) who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI), levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%), more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p<0.001). Hemoglobin levels had a significant linear correlation with ALT levels in both genders. Abnormal ALT started to occur if hemoglobin >11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval) were 24.7 (15.0–40.6) for BMI ?27 kg/m2; 5.5 (2.9–10.4) for BMI 24–27 kg/m2; 2.7 (1.3–5.5) for Q5 (top 20th percentile) hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6–4.1) for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. Conclusions High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Liao, Yu-Kuei; Hsiao, Li-Chen; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Tok, Teck-Siang; Wang, Jung-Der

2010-01-01

145

[Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

Lincoln, D.E.

1995-10-01

146

Elevated serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Levels of serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) provide a reliable marker of disease activity in patients with hairy cell leukemia and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The malignant cells in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) express CD30 and are usually positive for expression of CD25. We measured serum sIL-2R and soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels in patients with ALCL treated with EPOCH (etoposide, prednisone, Oncovin, Cytoxan, hydroxydaunorubicin) infusional chemotherapy. Serum sCD30 levels were elevated and decreased in response to therapy as previously reported. Serum sIL-2R levels were elevated in 7 of 9 patients with ALCL and decreased in response to treatment. Baseline serum sIL-2R levels varied but correlated well with serum sCD30 levels (r = 0.97). Patients positive for the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene showed elevated sIL-2R levels, whereas those negative for ALK had normal serum sIL-2R levels and their tumors lacked CD25 expression. Serum sIL-2R levels were elevated in both patients with recurrent disease. PMID:15205267

Janik, John E; Morris, John C; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDonald, Kristin; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S; Grant, Nicole; Gutierrez, Martin; Waldmann, Thomas A; Wilson, Wyndham H

2004-06-17

147

Triglyceride levels are ethnic-specifically associated with an index of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and n-3 PUFA levels in Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulated evidence suggests that hypertriglyc- eridemia (HTG) is independently associated with an in- creased incidence of cardiovascular disease. The hypotriglyc- eridemic effects of n-3 PUFAs have been confirmed in Caucasians, but the effect in Asians is less clear. Recent evi- dence indicates that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity induced with high-carbohydrate diets increases plasma tri- glyceride levels. We investigated the relationship

Kuninori Shiwaku; Michio Hashimoto; Keiko Kitajima; Akiko Nogi; Erdembileg Anuurad; Byambaa Enkhmaa; Jung-Man Kim; In-Shik Kim; Sung-Kook Lee; Tsendsuren Oyunsuren; Osamu Shido; Yosuke Yamane

2004-01-01

148

Elevated Serum CA 125 Levels in Mitral Stenotic Patients with Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Elevated tumor marker levels have been reported in heart failure patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and enlargement. The levels of several tumor markers, including CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and CEA, in rheumatic mitral stenotic patients were compared to the control group. Materials and Methods: Tumor markers were measured in 60 mitral stenotic patients and in

Can Duman; Ertugrul Ercan; Istemihan Tengiz; Huseyin Bozdemir; H. Ekin Ercan; Istemi Nalbantgil

2003-01-01

149

Wound Fluid from Chronic Leg Ulcers Contains Elevated Levels of Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to

Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell

1993-01-01

150

Elevated levels of a C-terminal agrin fragment identifies a new subset of sarcopenia patients.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is a recently defined medical condition described as age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Recently, a transgenic mouse model was described linking dispersal of the neuromuscular junction caused by elevated agrin degradation to the rapid onset of sarcopenia. These mice show a significant elevation of serum levels of a C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF) compared to wild-type littermates. A series of experiments was designed to ascertain the significance of elevated agrin degradation in the development of human sarcopenia. A quantitative Western blot method was devised to detect CAF in sera of humans. A first trial on consenting blood donors (n=169; age 19-74 years) detected CAF in the limited range of 2.76 ± 0.95 ng/ml. In sarcopenia patients (diagnosed according to clinical and instrumental standards) mean CAF levels were significantly elevated (p=9.8E10-9; n=73; age 65-87 years) compared to aged matched controls. Of all sarcopenia patients, 40% had elevated, non-overlapping CAF levels compared to controls. Evidence is presented for a pathogenic role of the agrin/neurotrypsin system in a substantial subset of sarcopenia patients. These patients are characterized by elevated CAF blood levels compared to aged-matched healthy volunteers suggesting the identification of an agrin-dependent form of sarcopenia. Elevated CAF levels in a large subpopulation of sarcopenic patients suggest the existence of a specific form of sarcopenia for which CAF could become a biomarker and a new target for therapeutic interventions. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by the development of a small molecule capable of inhibiting neurotrypsin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22433628

Hettwer, Stefan; Dahinden, Pius; Kucsera, Stefan; Farina, Carlo; Ahmed, Shaheen; Fariello, Ruggero; Drey, Michael; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Vrijbloed, Jan Willem

2012-03-11

151

Prognostic Significance of Elevated Cardiac Troponin-T Levels in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated levels of biochemical markers of myocardial necrosis have been associated with worsened outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but there are few prospective data on this relationship. We investigated elevated cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels and their relationship with outcome in patients with ARDS. Methods A prospective cohort study of patients with ARDS was conducted at a tertiary-care academic medical center. Patients had blood taken within 48 hours of ARDS onset and assayed for cTnT. Patients were followed for the outcomes of 60-day mortality, number of organ failures, and days free of mechanical ventilation. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic (ECG) data were analyzed for signs of myocardial ischemia, infarction, or other myocardial dysfunction. Results 177 patients were enrolled, 70 of whom died (40%). 119 patients had detectable cTnT levels (67%). Median cTnT level was 0.03 ng/mL, IQR 0–0.10 ng/mL, and levels were higher among non-survivors (P?=?.008). Increasing cTnT level was significantly associated with increasing mortality (P?=?.008). The association between increasing cTnT level and mortality remained significant after adjustment in a multivariate model (HRadj?=?1.45, 95% CI 1.17–1.81, P?=?.001). Elevated cTnT level was also associated with increased number of organ failures (P?=?.002), decreased number of days free of mechanical ventilation (P?=?.03), echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities (P?=?0.001), and severity of tricuspid regurgitation (P?=?.04). There was no association between ECG findings of myocardial ischemia or infarction and elevated cTnT. Conclusions Elevated cTnT levels are common in patients with ARDS, and are associated with worsened clinical outcomes and certain echocardiographic abnormalities. No association was seen between cTnT levels and ECG evidence of coronary ischemia.

Januzzi, James L.; Gong, Michelle N.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

2012-01-01

152

Systemic ethanol administration elevates deoxycorticosterone levels and chronic ethanol exposure attenuates this response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic ethanol administration is known to elevate levels of the GABAergic neuroactive steroid 3?,21-dihydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one (3?,5?-THDOC). 3?,5?-THDOC is synthesized from deoxycorticosterone (DOC) by metabolism in adrenals and brain. The present study investigated DOC levels in plasma and brain following ethanol administration to naïve and ethanol-exposed rats. Rats were administered ethanol (2 g\\/kg, i.p.) or saline and DOC levels were measured in

Rahul T. Khisti; Kevin N. Boyd; Sandeep Kumar; A. Leslie Morrow

2005-01-01

153

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

PubMed

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

2013-02-26

154

Influence of plant diversity and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on belowground bacterial diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in aboveground plant species diversity as well as variations of environmental conditions such as exposure of ecosystems to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide may lead to changes in metabolic activity, composition and diversity of belowground microbial communities, both bacterial and fungal. Results We examined soil samples taken from a biodiversity × CO2 grassland experiment where replicate plots harboring 5, 12, or 31 different plant species had been exposed to ambient or elevated (600 ppm) levels of carbon dioxide for 5 years. Analysis of soil bacterial communities in these plots by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) showed that dominant soil bacterial populations varied only very little between different experimental treatments. These populations seem to be ubiquitous. Likewise, screening of samples on a high-resolution level by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that increased levels of carbon dioxide had no significant influence on both soil bacterial community composition (appearance and frequency of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) and on bacterial richness (total number of different OTUs). In contrast, differences in plant diversity levels had a significant effect on bacterial composition but no influence on bacterial richness. Regarding species level, several bacterial species were found only in specific plots and were related to elevated carbon dioxide or varying plant diversity levels. For example, analysis of T-RFLP showed that the occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium was significantly increased in plots exposed to elevated CO2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion Plant diversity levels are affecting bacterial composition (bacterial types and their frequency of occurrence). Elevated carbon dioxide does not lead to quantitative alteration (bacterial richness), whereas plant diversity is responsible for qualitative changes (bacterial diversity).

Gruter, Dominique; Schmid, Bernhard; Brandl, Helmut

2006-01-01

155

Deranged aortic intima-media thickness, plasma triglycerides and granulopoiesis in Sl/Sl(d) mice.  

PubMed Central

Studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of a high-fat dietary regimen on aortic wall thickness, peripheral blood leukocyte profile, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the mast cell-deficient Sl/Sl(d) mouse. The results demonstrated that the mean aortic wall thickness of Sl/Sl(d) mice was significantly higher than their normal littermates, and were increased in both genotypes after a 17-day high-fat regimen. In comparison with normal littermates, Sl/Sl(d) genotypes had elevated levels of plasma triglycerides with normal levels of plasma cholesterol, and the high-fat diet markedly lowered the triglyceride levels. Total peripheral blood leukocytes, the monocyte and granulocyte counts, and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in Sl/Sl(d) mice, although the number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the same in both genotypes. Interestingly, the high-fat diet regimen elevated leukocyte counts and the number of monocytes and granulocytes in Sl/Sl(d) mice.

Dileepan, Kottarappat N; Johnston, Thomas P; Li, Yuai; Tawfik, Ossama; Stechschulte, Daniel J

2004-01-01

156

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by man- groves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of

Karen L. McKee; Donald R. Cahoon; Ilka C. Feller

2007-01-01

157

PLASMA SELENIUM LEVELS CORRELATE WITH ELEVATED IMMUNOCOMPETENCE OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS LARVAE AGAINST BACULOVIRUS INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have previously found that dietary Sodium Selenium (Se) impacted the growth and development of Trichoplusia ni reared for many generations on diet containing extremely low levels of Se. Larvae had an elevated resistance to per os infection with a baculovirus. In this study we examine how dietar...

158

Timing Is Everything: Executive Functions in Children Exposed to Elevated Levels of Phenylalanine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses how the timing of a known biological insult affects the developmental progression of executive functions. The sample consisted of children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine, either postnatally, as in phenylketonuria (PKU; n = 46), or prenatally, as in maternal PKU (n = 15). Nonhyperphenylanemic siblings of children with PKU (n = 18) served as controls. Results

Kevin M. Antshel; Susan E. Waisbren

2003-01-01

159

Risk for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in 3- and 4YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective We conducted a study to evaluate the relation between environmental, demographic, and medical risk factors and late-onset\\u000a childhood lead poisoning, defined as children who were poisoned at age 3 or older. Methods We performed a retrospective case–control study of 262 children whose test results showed non-elevated (<10 ?g\\/dl) blood\\u000a lead levels (BLLs) before age 2 but levels ?10 ?g\\/dl after age

Jaime S. Raymond; Roberta Anderson; Mark Feingold; David Homa; Mary Jean Brown

2009-01-01

160

Cyclosporine induces elevated procollagen ?1 (I) mRNA levels in the rat renal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclosporine induces elevated procollagen ?1 (I) mRNA levels in the rat renal cortex. Chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity is a poorly understood drug side-effect characterized by renal cortical interstitial scarring. To evaluate procollagen mRNA levels as an early factor in the development of this form of renal fibrosis, we measured renal procollagen alpha 1 (I), alpha 1 (III), alpha 1 (IV) and

Cynthia C Nast; Sharon G Adler; Alexander Artishevsky; Clarisse T Kresser; Khaja Ahmed; Patricia S Anderson

1991-01-01

161

Flavor and Stability of Pasteurized Milk with Elevated Levels of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Vaccenic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theobjectivesofthisstudyweretodetermineifflavor differences between 2% fat pasteurized milks with and without naturally enhanced vaccenic acid (VA) and cis- 9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) levels could be detected over the commercial shelf life of the product and to determine if milk with elevated VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels was more susceptible to develop- ment of light-induced oxidative flavor defects. Cows

J. M. Lynch; A. L. Lock; D. A. Dwyer; R. Noorbakhsh; D. M. Barbano; D. E. Bauman

2005-01-01

162

Gut triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption.

Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood

2012-01-01

163

Elevating SOX2 Levels Deleteriously Affects the Growth of Medulloblastoma and Glioblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas and glioblastomas are devastating tumors that respond poorly to treatment. These tumors have been shown to express SOX2 and overexpression of SOX2 has been correlated with poor prognosis. Although knockdown of SOX2 impairs the growth and tumorigenicity of brain tumor cells, it was unclear how elevating SOX2 levels would affect their fate. Interestingly, studies conducted with neural stem cells have shown that small increases or decreases in the level of this transcription factor significantly alter their fate. Here, we report that elevating SOX2 3-fold above endogenous levels in U87 and U118 glioblastoma, and DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly impairs their ability to proliferate. We extended these findings and determined that elevating SOX2 in DAOY cells remodels their cell-cycle profile by increasing the proportion of cells in the G1-compartment, and induces the expression of genes associated with differentiation. Furthermore, we show that elevating SOX2 leads to a dramatic induction of CD133 expression in DAOY cells, yet inhibits the ability of both CD133+ and CD133? cells to form neurospheres. Together, these findings argue that SOX2 levels must be carefully controlled in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas to maintain their fate. Equally important, our data suggests that increases in the expression of SOX2 during brain tumor progression are likely to be linked closely with changes in other critical genes that work in concert with SOX2 to enhance the tumorigenicity of brain tumors. Importantly, we demonstrate that this is also likely to be true for other cancers that express SOX2. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the advantage of using inducible promoters to study the effects of SOX2 elevation, as compared to gene expression systems that rely on constitutive expression.

Cox, Jesse L.; Wilder, Phillip J.; Desler, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie

2012-01-01

164

Elevated Levels of Plasma Angiogenic Factors Are Associated with Human Lymphatic Filarial Infections  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic dilatation, dysfunction, and lymphangiogenesis are hallmarks of patent lymphatic filariasis, observed even in those with subclinical microfilaremia, through processes associated, in part, by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). A panel of pro-angiogenic factors was measured in the plasma of subjects from filaria-endemic regions using multiplexed immunological assays. Compared with endemic normal control subjects, those with both subclinical microfilaremia, and those with longstanding lymphedema had significantly elevated levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and angiopoeitins (Ang-1/Ang-2), with only levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) being elevated only if lymphedema was evident. Furthermore, levels of these factors 1-year post-treatment with doxycycline were similar to pretreatment levels suggesting a minimal role, if any, for Wolbachia. Our data support the concept that filarial infection per se is associated with elevated levels of most of the known pro-angiogenic factors, with only a few being associated with the serious pathologic consequences associated with Wuchereria bancrofti infection.

Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Maldarelli, Grace; Kumaraswami, V.; Klion, Amy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.

2010-01-01

165

Clinical implications of elevated serum soluble CD137 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Research has focused on identifying specific serum biomarkers to detect vulnerable plaques. These markers serve as diagnostic tools for acute coronary syndrome and assist in identifying high-risk patients. However, the existing data are limited and conflicting. This study tested the hypothesis that CD137 levels identify patients with acute coronary syndrome who are at a heightened risk for recurrent cardiac events. METHODS: The levels of soluble CD137 (sCD137) were measured using ELISA in 180 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 120 patients with acute chest pain. Platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic characteristics of sCD137. RESULTS: The levels of sCD137 were elevated in 75 patients with acute coronary syndromes and 20 patients with acute chest pain (>35.0 ng/ml). In patients with acute coronary syndrome, elevated sCD137 levels (>35.0 ng/ml) indicated an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (OR?=?1.93, 95% CI: 1.39-2.54). Elevated serum levels of sCD137 and cTnT were correlated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in both groups after 30 days, six months and nine months of follow-up. The increased sCD137 levels were significantly correlated with the levels of troponin I (r?=?0.4799, p<0.001). Importantly, 26 patients with normal cTnI levels had acute coronary syndrome. However, elevated sCD137 levels identified these patients as a being high-risk subgroup (OR?=?2.14, 95% CI: 1.25-4.13). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated sCD137 levels indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Soluble CD137 may be a useful prognostic marker or indicator for adverse events in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Yan, Jinchuan; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Rui; Yang, Haibing

2013-01-01

166

Triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Results from the Québec cardiovascular study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of reduced plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations as risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) was examined in a sample of 2177 men from the Québec City suburbs. The sample included 202 men with known IHD. The relationship between HDL-C and TG levels, although significant (r = ?0.49, P 2.3

Benoît Lamarche; Jean-Pierre Després; Sital Moorjani; Bernard Cantin; Gilles R. Dagenais; Paul-J. Lupien

1996-01-01

167

Chronic treatment with a stable obestatin analog significantly alters plasma triglyceride levels but fails to influence food intake; fluid intake; body weight; or body composition in rats.  

PubMed

Obestatin (OB(1-23) is a 23 amino acid peptide encoded on the preproghrelin gene, originally reported to have metabolic actions related to food intake, gastric emptying and body weight. The biological instability of OB(1-23) has recently been highlighted by studies demonstrating its rapid enzymatic cleavage in a number of biological matrices. We assessed the stability of both OB(1-23) and an N-terminally PEGylated analog (PEG-OB(1-23)) before conducting chronic in vivo studies. Peptides were incubated in rat liver homogenate and degradation monitored by LC-MS. PEG-OB(1-23) was approximately 3-times more stable than OB(1-23). Following a 14 day infusion of Sprague-Dawley rats with 50 nmol/kg/day of OB(1-23) or a N-terminally PEGylated analog (PEG-OB(1-23)), we found no changes in food/fluid intake, body weight and plasma glucose or cholesterol between groups. Furthermore, morphometric liver, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and tissue triglyceride concentrations remained unaltered between groups. However, with stabilized PEG-OB(1-23) we observed a 40% reduction in plasma triglycerides. These findings indicate that PEG-OB(1-23) is an OB(1-23) analog with significantly enhanced stability and suggest that obestatin could play a role in modulating physiological lipid metabolism, although it does not appear to be involved in regulation of food/fluid intake, body weight or fat deposition. PMID:21167891

Agnew, A; Calderwood, D; Chevallier, O P; Greer, B; Grieve, D J; Green, B D

2010-12-16

168

Liraglutide suppresses postprandial triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 elevations after a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.  

PubMed

AIMS: Postprandial triglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effects of steady-state liraglutide 1.8?mg versus placebo on postprandial plasma lipid concentrations after 3?weeks of treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In a cross-over trial, patients with T2DM (n?=?20, 18-75?years, BMI 18.5-40?kg/m(2) ) were randomized to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (weekly dose escalation from 0.6 to 1.8?mg) and placebo. After each 3-week period, a standardized fat-rich meal was provided, and the effects of liraglutide on triglyceride (primary endpoint AUC0-8h ), apolipoprotein B48, non-esterified fatty acids, glycaemic responses and gastric emptying were assessed. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00993304. Funding: Novo Nordisk A/S. RESULTS: After 3?weeks, mean postprandial triglyceride (AUC0-8h liraglutide/placebo treatment-ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.62-0.83], p?=?0.0004) and apolipoprotein B48 (AUC0-8h ratio 0.65 [0.58-0.73], p?triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 after a fat-rich meal, independently of gastric emptying. Results indicate liraglutide's potential to reduce CVD risk via improvement of postprandial lipaemia. PMID:23683069

Hermansen, K; Baekdal, T A; Düring, M; Pietraszek, A; Mortensen, L S; Jørgensen, H; Flint, A

2013-05-17

169

Effect of dexamethasone on elevated cytokine mRNA levels in chemical-induced hippocampal injury.  

PubMed

An acute administration of the hippocampal toxicant trimethyltin (TMT) produced a specific pattern of neuronal necrosis in dentate granule cells with accompanying astrogliosis and initiation of a cytokine response within 24 hours. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the anti-inflammatory agent, dexamethasone (DEX), on the pattern of cytokine expression and neuronal degeneration occurring after an acute TMT injection. Dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) was administered to 21-day-old male mice 1 hour prior to an injection of TMT hydroxide (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice receiving 0.2 mg/kg DEX received a second injection 6 hours after TMT. Twenty-four hours later, neuronal necrosis and astrogliosis were assessed and found to be similar in animals treated with TMT, either in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. Pretreatment with dexamethasone failed to prevent the neurodegeneration and astrogliosis. The TMT-induced injury response was represented in elevations of mRNA levels for the injury-associated host response genes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), EB22/5.3, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The combination of DEX and TMT produced increased elevation in mRNA levels for EB22/5.3 and ICAM, while GFAP levels remained the same as with TMT alone. The injury response from TMT was accompanied by elevations in mRNA levels for the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, TNFbeta, and interleukin (IL)-1alpha. Treatment with dexamethasone prior to TMT resulted in significantly elevated levels of TNFalpha, TNFbeta, and IL-1alpha as compared to TMT alone. These data represent the inability of glucocorticoids to downregulate the injury response in rat hippocampus following a systemic injection of TMT and suggest a stimulation and "priming" of hippocampal cells by dexamethasone. PMID:10467263

Bruccoleri, A; Pennypacker, K R; Harry, G J

1999-09-15

170

Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.  

PubMed

Kawasaki's disease is a disease of unknown cause. The characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki's disease are fever> or =102 degrees F for> or =5 days accompanied by a bilateral bulbar conjunctivitis/conjunctival suffusion, erythematous rash, cervical adenopathy, pharyngeal erythema, and swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet. Kawasaki's disease primarily affects children and is rare in adults. In children, Kawasaki's disease is more likely to be associated with aseptic meningitis, coronary artery aneurysms, and thrombocytosis. In adult Kawasaki's disease, unilateral cervical adenopathy, arthritis, conjunctival suffusion/conjunctivitis, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]/serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) are more likely. Kawasaki's disease in adults may be mimicked by other acute infections with fever and rash, that is, group A streptococcal scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). Because there are no specific tests for Kawasaki's disease, diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and the syndromic approach. In addition to rash and fever, scarlet fever is characterized by circumoral pallor, oropharyngeal edema, Pastia's lines, and peripheral eosinophilia, but not conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis, or an elevated SGOT/SGPT. In TSS, in addition to rash and fever, there is conjunctival suffusion, oropharyngeal erythema, and edema of the dorsum of the hands/feet, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, and thrombocytopenia. Patients with TSS do not have cervical adenopathy or splenomegaly. RMSF presents with fever and a maculopapular rash that becomes petechial, first appearing on the wrists/ankles after 3 to 5 days. RMSF is accompanied by a prominent headache, periorbital edema, conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, but not oropharyngeal erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normal<189 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adult Kawasaki's disease with highly elevated serum ferritin levels. This is also the first report of splenomegaly in adult Kawasaki's disease. We conclude that Kawasaki's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with rash/fever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. PMID:20207278

Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

2009-09-03

171

Assessing the risks to young children of three effects associated with elevated blood-lead levels  

SciTech Connect

Formal risk assessments were conducted as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's current review of the primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead. The assessments focused on three potentially adverse effects of exposure to lead in children from birth through the seventh birthday: erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) elevation, hemoglobin (Hb) decrement, and intelligence quotient (IQ) effect. The same general strategy was followed in all three cases: for two levels of each effect, probability distributions over population response rate were estimated at a series of blood-lead (PbB) levels. These distributions were estimated from data in the case of EP elevation and from expert judgements in the cases of Hb decrement and IQ effect. Although of interest in their own right, these estimates were combined with PbB distributions to yield probability distributions over the estimated percentages of children experiencing the particular health effects. 15 refs., 24 figs., 24 tabs.

Wallsten, T.S.; Whitfield, R.G.

1986-12-01

172

Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration  

PubMed Central

We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n?=?18) or 24 IU (n?=?10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n?=?18), and each hour after administration, for 7?h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1?h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7?h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 or 24 IU) did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7?h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed.

van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

2012-01-01

173

Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7?h after Intranasal Administration.  

PubMed

We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n?=?18) or 24 IU (n?=?10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n?=?18), and each hour after administration, for 7?h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1?h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7?h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 or 24 IU) did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7?h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed. PMID:23233832

van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

2012-12-07

174

Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric concentration of COâ, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric COâ levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased COâ, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and

Ahluwalia

1996-01-01

175

Peripheral Blood Monocyte Vitamin D Receptor Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Idiopathic Hypercalciuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is the most common cause of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Increased intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption and decreased tubule calcium reabsorption may be caused by elevated serum 1,25-dihy- droxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in some patients but not in those with normal serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. Because 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its biological actions through binding to the cellular vitamin D receptor

MURRAY J. FAVUS; ALEXANDER J. KARNAUSKAS; JOAN H. PARKS; FREDRIC L. COE

176

Elevated Circulating Free Fatty Acid Levels Impair Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that insulin-resistant obese sub- jects exhibit impaired endothelial function. Here, we test the hypothesis that elevation of circulating FFA to levels seen in insulin-resistant subjects can impair endothelial function. We studied leg blood flow responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (Mch) or the endothelium-indepen- dent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside during the

Helmut O. Steinberg; Manal Tarshoby; Robert Monestel; Ginger Hook; Jessica Cronin; Ann Johnson; Basel Bayazeed; Alain D. Baron

177

Elevated HGF Levels in Sera from Breast Cancer Patients Detected Using a Protein Microarray ELISA  

SciTech Connect

We developed an ELISA in high-density microassay format to detect hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in human serum. The microassay can detect HGF at sub-pg/mL concentrations in sample volumes of 100 uL or less. The microassay is also quantitative and was used to detect elevated HGF levels in sera from recurrent breast cancer patients. The microarray format provides the potential for high-throughput quantitation of multiple biomarkers in parallel.

Woodbury, Ronald L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Varnum, Susan M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zangar, Richard C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-01-01

178

Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that

Cesare Mondadori; Thomas Ducret; Albert Hiiusler

1992-01-01

179

Elevation in presynaptic Ca2+ level accompanying initial nerve-muscle contact in tissue culture.  

PubMed

Nerve-muscle cocultures were used to study the relationship between neuronal Ca2+ level and the earliest nerve-muscle interaction. Xenopus spinal cord neurons were loaded with Ca2+ indicators and monitored by digital video microscopy as a myoball was manipulated into contact with it. Transmitter release was measured from the myoball by whole-cell recording. We observed a 1.5- to 6-fold increase in Ca2+ level in the neurite upon contact with a myoball. Fifty percent of the pairs showing Ca2+ elevation were also positive for neurotransmission. This Ca2+ rise was suppressed by lifting away the myoball, by Ca(2+)-free solution, or by suramin, a polyanionic compound that interferes with cell surface receptors. This suppression was accompanied by a reduction in transmitter release. The specificity of the nerve-muscle contact-induced Ca2+ rise was shown by its absence upon neuron-neuron contact. Naturally formed nerve-muscle contacts also showed an elevation in presynaptic Ca2+ level. Thus, this elevation appears to be a physiological step in the early stage of synaptogenesis and is likely mediated by muscle-derived molecules. PMID:8098609

Dai, Z; Peng, H B

1993-05-01

180

Inhibition of Stabilin-2 elevates circulating hyaluronic acid levels and prevents tumor metastasis  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been implicated in the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. However, most previous studies were conducted on extracellular matrix or pericellular HA, and the role of circulating HA in vivo has not been studied. HA is rapidly cleared from the bloodstream. The scavenger receptor Stabilin-2 (Stab2) is considered a major clearance receptor for HA. Here we report a dramatic elevation in circulating HA levels in Stab2-deficient mice without any overt phenotype. Surprisingly, the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells to the lungs was markedly suppressed in the Stab2-deficient mice, whereas cell proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, administration of an anti-Stab2 antibody in Stab2+ mice elevated serum HA levels and prevented the metastasis of melanoma to the lung, and also suppressed spontaneous metastasis of mammary tumor and human breast tumor cells inoculated in the mammary gland. Administration of the antibody or high-dose HA in mice blocked the lodging of melanoma cells to the lungs. Furthermore, HA at high concentrations inhibited the rolling/tethering of B16 cells to lung endothelial cells. These results suggest that blocking Stab2 function prevents tumor metastasis by elevating circulating HA levels. Stab2 may be a potential target in antitumor therapy.

Hirose, Yoshikazu; Saijou, Eiko; Sugano, Yasuyoshi; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Nonaka, Hidenori; Chen, Yen-Rong; Sekine, Keisuke; Kido, Taketomo; Nakamura, Takashi; Kato, Shigeaki; Kanke, Toru; Nakamura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Ochiya, Takahiro; Miyajima, Atsushi

2012-01-01

181

Inhibition of Stabilin-2 elevates circulating hyaluronic acid levels and prevents tumor metastasis.  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been implicated in the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. However, most previous studies were conducted on extracellular matrix or pericellular HA, and the role of circulating HA in vivo has not been studied. HA is rapidly cleared from the bloodstream. The scavenger receptor Stabilin-2 (Stab2) is considered a major clearance receptor for HA. Here we report a dramatic elevation in circulating HA levels in Stab2-deficient mice without any overt phenotype. Surprisingly, the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells to the lungs was markedly suppressed in the Stab2-deficient mice, whereas cell proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, administration of an anti-Stab2 antibody in Stab2(+) mice elevated serum HA levels and prevented the metastasis of melanoma to the lung, and also suppressed spontaneous metastasis of mammary tumor and human breast tumor cells inoculated in the mammary gland. Administration of the antibody or high-dose HA in mice blocked the lodging of melanoma cells to the lungs. Furthermore, HA at high concentrations inhibited the rolling/tethering of B16 cells to lung endothelial cells. These results suggest that blocking Stab2 function prevents tumor metastasis by elevating circulating HA levels. Stab2 may be a potential target in antitumor therapy. PMID:22371575

Hirose, Yoshikazu; Saijou, Eiko; Sugano, Yasuyoshi; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Nonaka, Hidenori; Chen, Yen-Rong; Sekine, Keisuke; Kido, Taketomo; Nakamura, Takashi; Kato, Shigeaki; Kanke, Toru; Nakamura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Ochiya, Takahiro; Miyajima, Atsushi

2012-02-27

182

Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.  

PubMed

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, Zhongmao

2012-12-21

183

Plasma post-heparin lipolytic activity and triglyceride clearance in uremic and hemodialysis patients and renal allograft recipients.  

PubMed

In order to study mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridemia in uremia, maintenance hemodialysis, and post-renal transplantation, plasma post-heparin lipolytic acitivity was measured and the kinetics of triglyceride removal were determined during infusions of triglyceride in patients from each of these groups and in healthy control subjects. In addition, plasma lipolytic activity was measured both during the course of a single hemodialysis treatment and in response to daily hemodialysis over a five-day period. The mean serum triglyceride level was significantly elevated and the mean plasma post-heparin lipolytic activity significantly reduced in all three groups. Post-heparin lipolytic activity in transplant recipients with a normal serum creatinine concentration was not significantly different from that in control subjects. Those transplant recipients with mildly impaired graft function had levels of post-heparin lipolytic activity comparable to those in patients with end-stage renal failure. Triglyceride clearance was significantly reduced in both the transplant recipients and in the uremic patients. During a single hemodialysis treatment with systemic heparinization plasma lipolytic activity decreased after the first hour. With daily hemodialysis, predialysis post-heparin lipolytic activity progressively declined after the second day. It is concluded that reduced post-heparin lipolytic activity and decreased triglyceride clearance contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia seen not only in uremic patients and in patients on maintenance hemodialysis but also in renal allograft recipients. Diminished lipolytic activity in hemodialysis patients may be in part due to heparin-induced depletion. PMID:775004

Ibels, S L; Reardon, M F; Nestel, P J

1976-04-01

184

Elevated Troponin I Level on Admission Is Associated With Adverse Outcome of Primary Angioplasty in Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing thrombolytic therapy, an elevated troponin level on admission is associated with a lower reperfusion rate and a complicated clinical course. Whether an elevated troponin level on admission similarly predicts an adverse outcome in patients undergoing primary angioplasty is currently unknown and was investigated in the present study. Methods and Results—Cardiac troponin I

Shlomo Matetzky; Tali Sharir; Michelle Domingo; Marko Noc; Kuang-Yuh Chyu; Sanjay Kaul; Neal Eigler; Prediman K. Shah; Bojan Cercek

185

Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor contributes to triglyceride degradation.  

PubMed

Pigment epithelium-derived factor is well known as a secreted glycoprotein with multiple functions, such as anti-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-tumor activities. However, its intracellular role remains unknown. The present study was performed to demonstrate the intracellular function of pigment epithelium-derived factor on triglyceride degradation. Hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor levels increased at the early stage and subsequently decreased after 16 weeks in high-fat-diet-fed mice compared to those in chow-fed mice. Similarly, oleic acid led to long-term downregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor in HepG2 cells. Endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor was an intracellular protein with cytoplasmic distribution in hepatocytes by immunostaining. Exogenous FITC-labeled pigment epithelium-derived factor could be absorbed into hepatocytes. Both signal peptide deletion and full-length pigment epithelium-derived factor transfection HeLa cells and hepatocytes promoted triglyceride degradation. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor co-immunoprecipitated with adipose triglyceride lipase and promoted triglyceride degradation in an adipose triglyceride lipase-dependent manner. Additionally, pigment epithelium-derived factor bound to the C-terminal of adipose triglyceride lipase (aa268-504) and adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 complex simultaneously, which facilitated adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 translocation onto lipid droplet using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor in hepatocytes diminished triglyceride degradation. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor was decreased in obese mice accompanied with hepatic steatosis. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to and facilitates adipose triglyceride lipase translocation onto lipid droplet, which promotes triglyceride degradation. These findings suggest that a decreased level of hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor may contribute to hepatic steatosis in obesity. PMID:23886488

Dai, Zhiyu; Zhou, Ti; Li, Cen; Qi, Weiwei; Mao, Yuling; Lu, Juling; Yao, Yachao; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Hong, Honghai; Li, Shuai; Cai, Weibin; Yang, Zhonghan; Ma, Jianxing; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan

2013-07-22

186

Detection of elevated levels of 2-5A synthetase in serum from children with various infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

By a sensitive radioimmunoassay method, (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase was detected in serum from patients with viral, bacterial, or mycoplasmal infections at elevated levels compared with enzyme levels in serum from healthy individuals and patients suffering from noninfectious diseases.

Sugino, H; Mitani, I; Koike, M; Kodama, T; Sokawa, J; Sawai, H; Ishibashi, K; Itoh, M; Watanabe, S; Sokawa, Y

1986-01-01

187

Surface Elevation, Carbon Sequestration Potential and Rising sea Levels in Estuarine Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat for commercially important fish species and migratory shorebirds, serving as nurseries for many other marine organisms and supporting the productivity of adjacent coastal waters. Typically, these wetlands are driven by tidal hydrodynamics and are net sinks for sediment and soil carbon. Their distribution in the tidal frame depends on a delicate balance between topographic gradient, the rate of vertical soil development, and the rate of sea level change. The complex interactions between hydrodynamics, ecology and soil processes that govern this balance produce positive feedbacks and system self-organization. As complex systems, these wetlands demonstrate resilience under a wide range of conditions but they have been observed to collapse or move to another equilibrium state above certain thresholds. Research at a wetland in the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia has tracked changes in relative sea level and surface elevation in mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands over a five year period (2002- 2006) and soil carbon over a two year period (2005-2006). Mangrove surface elevation was strongly correlated with relative sea level (R2=0.715, p=0.004) but there was no correlation between relative sea level and saltmarsh surface elevation (R2=0.093, p=0.424). Soil carbon levels were high in both vegetation types (% loss on ignition of 16.2% and 18.8% for mangrove and saltmarsh soils, respectively) and not significantly different (ANOVA F=1.36, p=0.270). A 16% increase in soil carbon was recorded in each vegetation type over the period 2005-2006. Mean annual sea level rose by 55 mm and net annual precipitation (rainfall minus evaporation) fell by 189 mm over the same period. The ability of mangrove to respond rapidly to changes in relative sea level and the indicative positive trend between soil carbon and relative sea level suggest that this wetland type is both resilient to future sea level rise and has the potential to sequester carbon. Saltmarsh exhibited a similar potential for carbon sequestration, but low resilience to rising sea level, particularly in areas with steep or urbanised landward topography. Incorporation of these findings into general models of wetland hydrodynamics will inform strategies for adaptive management of estuarine wetlands in response to future climate change.

Rodríguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saco, P. M.

2007-12-01

188

Elevated levels of HSF1 indicate a poor prognosis in breast cancer.  

PubMed

HSF1 is the transcriptional activator of heat shock protein genes in both cell stress and cancer. The studies of Santagata et al. clearly establish that HSF1 levels are increased in the nuclei of mammary cancer cells, both at the in situ and invasive stages, and that these levels are closely correlated with increased mortality. HSF1 levels were elevated in estrogen receptor-positive cells, as well as HER2-expressing and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and higher levels of nuclear HSF1 were associated with a poor prognosis. These studies establish a clear role for HSF1 in human mammary carcinoma and suggest the potential for targeting HSF1 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:22515443

Calderwood, Stuart K

2012-04-01

189

Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO(2) levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(CO2)) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric P(CO2) (?400 ?atm, normocapnia) or P(CO2) projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (?700-800 ?atm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated P(CO2) and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and P(CO2), suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high P(CO2). Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated P(CO2) and fluctuating salinity may jeopardize the survival of eastern oysters because of weakening of their shells and increased energy consumption. PMID:22162851

Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna V; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans O; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, Christian; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

2012-01-01

190

Elevated Plasma Von Willebrand Factor and Propeptide Levels in Malawian Children with Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of the significant mortality associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, the mechanisms underlying severe disease remain poorly understood. We have previously shown evidence of endothelial activation in Ghanaian children with malaria, indicated by elevated plasma levels of both von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its propeptide. In the current prospective study of children in Malawi with retinopathy confirmed cerebral malaria, we compared these markers with uncomplicated malaria, non malarial febrile illness and controls. Methods and Findings Children with cerebral malaria, mild malaria and controls without malaria were recruited into the study. All comatose patients were examined by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Plasma VWF and propeptide levels were measured by ELISA. Median VWF and propeptide levels were significantly higher in patients with uncomplicated malaria than in children with non-malarial febrile illness of comparable severity, in whom levels were higher than in non-febrile controls. Median concentrations of both markers were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria, and were similar in patients with and without retinopathy. Levels of both VWF and propeptide fell significantly 48 hours after commencing therapy and were normal one month later. Conclusions In children with malaria plasma VWF and propeptide levels are markedly elevated in both cerebral and mild paediatric malaria, with levels matching disease severity, and these normalize upon recovery. High levels of both markers also occur in retinopathy-negative ‘cerebral malaria’ cases, many of whom are thought to be suffering from diseases other than malaria, indicating that further studies of these markers will be required to determine their sensitivity and specificity.

Phiri, Happy T.; Bridges, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon J.; van Mourik, Jan A.; de Laat, Bas; M'baya, Bridon; Taylor, Terrie E.; Seydel, Karl B.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Faragher, E. Brian; Craig, Alister G.; Bunn, James E. G.

2011-01-01

191

Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.

Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

2011-01-01

192

Children with moderately elevated blood lead levels: a role for other diagnostic tests?  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined potential limitations of relying exclusively on blood lead (BPb) levels to evaluate children with moderately elevated BPb levels (1.21-2.12 micromol/l, or 25-44 microg/dl).We tested the following hypotheses: 1) such children without elevated erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) levels (>=0.62 micromol/l or >/= 35 microg/dl) are unlikely to respond to a chelating agent with a brisk urinary Pb diuresis; 2) those with elevated EP levels, but low hematologic indices consistent with iron deficiency, are also unlikely to respond to a chelating agent with a robust urinary Pb diuresis; and 3) those with elevated EP levels and iron sufficiency are more likely to respond to a chelating agent. To test these hypotheses, we performed retrospective analyses of the relationships between EP concentrations, hematologic indices, and urinary Pb excretion ratios (uPbr) in moderately Pb-poisoned children undergoing the CaNa2EDTA lead mobilization test (Pb-MT). Data from 122 children were available. Urinary Pb excretion was limited in children with an EP <0.62 micromol/l (<35 microg/dl); only 5% (1/21) of Pb-MTs were positive (uPbr >=0.6). In children with an EP >=0.62 micromol/l, low hematologic indices, such as a mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) <23 pg, were associated with relatively little Pb excretion (0/14 positive Pb-MTs). In contrast, 32% (28/87) of Pb-MTs were positive in children with an EP >/= 0.62 micromol/l and iron sufficiency (p<0.01 by chi-square comparison between groups with EP >/= 0.62 micromol/l and either MCH <23 pg or MCH >/= 23 pg). We conclude that only a minority of moderately Pb-poisoned children will demonstrate enhanced urinary Pb excretion in response to chelation therapy. Some of the predicted nonresponders can be readily identified by adding the EP and complete blood count to the panel of tests performed. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B

Markowitz, M E; Clemente, I; Rosen, J F

1997-01-01

193

[Triglyceride (TG) and remnant lipoproteins].  

PubMed

Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by approximately 30%, and the remaining 70% should be the second front of CVD risk reduction. Such residual risks include high triglyceride (TG) concentrations and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) in terms of dyslipidemia. TG-rich lipoproteins are heterogenous and composed of a variety of subfractions, all of which are not necessarily relevant to atherosclerosis and CVD risk. However, remnant lipoproteins, TG-rich lipoproteins, are atherogenic and related to CVD risk. Two different methods (RLP-C and RemL-C) have been developed to measure cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins. Although there is a difference in affinity to intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) between the two methods, they may be better qualified as biomarkers of CVD risk than TG itself. TG measurements play a certain role in the evaluation of CVD risk, but the remnant lipoprotein cholesterol measurement can provide better screening for patients at high CVD risk than TG and may be a useful examination in both quantity and quality. PMID:22686044

Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kisugi, Reiko; Koike, Masaru; Kurosawa, Hideo

2012-04-01

194

[Extraordinary high elevation of serum CA19-9 levels in an apparently healthy subject].  

PubMed

We studied the woman presenting extraordinarily high serum CA19-9 levels who did not have any disease that was known to result in elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Her CA19-9 values in sera obtained by 16 determinations with the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) over a period of 7 years were from 820 U/ml to 1,310 U/ml (median 1,015 U/ml). The correlation was good between serum CA19-9 levels in this subject with the EIA and radio immunoassay (RIA). The molecular weight of CA19-9 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (TSK gel G4000 SWXL column). While the molecular weights of CA19-9 in each patient with pancreatic cancer, cholangioma, cholecystitis or pancreatitis that were used as controls, were greater than 1,000 kDa, the CA19-9 of this subject had the molecular weight of approximately 550 kDa. To further determine whether human immunoglobulin was involved in the elevation of CA19-9 in the serum of this subject, we investigated the effect of adding rabbit anti-human IgM, IgG and IgA sera to the serum of this subject, CA19-9 values were unaffected by these antisera. Thus, the data obtained from the absorption study indicated that an anti-idiotypic antibody against the anti-CA19-9 antibody is unlikely to be responsible for an elevation of CA19-9 in the serum of this subject. PMID:10590668

Kaneko, Y; Shibata, Y; Nakamura, H; Kuroda, M; Nakazima, T; Kasakura, S

1999-10-01

195

The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-06-01

196

A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax.  

PubMed

A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians. Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four FIS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (<10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (>100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure. PMID:20158198

Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Westberg, Håkan; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

2010-03-15

197

The effects of elevated endogenous GABA levels on movement-related network oscillations.  

PubMed

The EEG/MEG signal is generated primarily by the summation of the post-synaptic potentials of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons and cortical oscillations are thought to be dependent on the balance of excitation and inhibition between these cell types. To investigate the dependence of movement-related cortical oscillations on excitation-inhibition balance, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks GABA Transporter 1(GAT-1), the GABA uptake transporter and increases endogenous GABA activity. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in 15 healthy participants we administered either 15mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms, while the participants performed a movement task, prior to, one hour post, three hour post and five hour post tiagabine ingestion. Using time-frequency analysis of beamformer source reconstructions, we quantified the baseline level of beta activity (15-30Hz), the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR), beta event-related desynchronisation (beta-ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronisation (MRGS) (60-90Hz). Our results demonstrated that tiagabine, and hence elevated endogenous GABA levels causes, an elevation of baseline beta power, enhanced beta-ERD and reduced PMBR, but no modulation of MRGS. Comparing our results to recent literature (Hall et al., 2011) we suggest that beta-ERD may be a GABA(A) receptor mediated process while PMBR may be GABA(B) receptor mediated. PMID:23110884

Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Myers, J F M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Lingford-Hughes, A; Singh, K D; Hamandi, K

2012-10-27

198

Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major\\u000a public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based\\u000a school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and

Alice PS Kong; Kai-Chow Choi; Chung Shun Ho; Michael HM Chan; Chun Kwok Wong; Eric KH Liu; Winnie CW Chu; Viola CY Chow; Joseph TF Lau; Juliana CN Chan

2011-01-01

199

Occurrence of elevated protoporphyrin levels in relation to lead burden in infants  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous blood lead (PbB), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), and hematocrit measurements were made semiannually in 232 normal infants from 6 to 24 months of age. The PbB averaged 7 (SD = 5) and ranged from 0 to 64 ..mu..g/dl. The incidence of elevated EP, a marker for deranged heme synthesis, was unrelated to PbB at levels below 15 ..mu..g/dl but was fourfold greater among the infants with PbB above 15 ..mu..g/dl. This relationship persisted even after eliminating the 31 (4%) anemic (hematocrit < 33%) samples. The confounding effects of iron deficiency are discussed.

Rabinowitz, M.B.; Leviton, A.; Needleman, H.L.

1986-04-01

200

Elevated Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cytokine Levels in Boys with Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy Correlates with MRI Severity  

PubMed Central

Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these boys. Methodology/Principal Findings Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p?=?0.0001), IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p?=?0.005), MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p?=?0.002), and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001) were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p?=?0.0001). The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.008 respectively), as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p?=?0.002). Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p?=?0.0001 for both), as well as Loes MRI severity score (p?=?0.0007). Conclusions/Significance IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies.

Lund, Troy C.; Stadem, Paul S.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Raymond, Gerald; Miller, Weston P.; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J.

2012-01-01

201

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of chiral triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain reaction conditions, the acidolysis of tripalmitin with oleic acid using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei resulted in a higher level of monosubstituted oleoyldipalmitoyl (OPP) triglycerides than had been predicted according to\\u000a kinetic modeling. The reaction products were subjected to chiral analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),\\u000a which indicated that the enzyme was more active at the sn-1 position

Ian C. Chandler; Paul T. Quinlan; Gerald P. McNeill

1998-01-01

202

Elevated VEGF Levels in Pulmonary Edema Fluid and PBMCs from Patients with Acute Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is characterized by vascular permeability, hypoxia, and acute pulmonary edema. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced by hypoxia, potently induces vascular permeability, and is associated with high-altitude-induced pulmonary edema. Hantaviruses alter the normal regulation of ?3 integrins that restrict VEGF-directed permeability and hantavirus infected endothelial cells are hyperresponsive to the permeabilizing effects of VEGF. However, the role of VEGF in acute pulmonary edema observed in HPS patients remains unclear. Here we retrospectively evaluate VEGF levels in pulmonary edema fluid (PEF), plasma, sera, and PBMCs from 31 HPS patients. VEGF was elevated in HPS patients PEF compared to controls with the highest levels observed in PEF samples from a fatal HPS case. VEGF levels were highest in PBMC samples during the first five days of hospitalization and diminished during recovery. Significantly increased PEF and PBMC VEGF levels are consistent with acute pulmonary edema observed in HPS patients and HPS disease severity. We observed substantially lower VEGF levels in a severe HPS disease survivor after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These findings suggest the importance of patients' VEGF levels during HPS, support the involvement of VEGF responses in HPS pathogenesis, and suggest targeting VEGF responses as a potential therapeutic approach.

Gavrilovskaya, Irina; Gorbunova, Elena; Koster, Frederick; Mackow, Erich

2012-01-01

203

Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?  

PubMed

The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise. PMID:23580449

Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

2013-04-09

204

Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?  

PubMed

The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise. PMID:24172996

Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

2013-10-01

205

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron-sufficient microcytosis.  

PubMed

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P < 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels. PMID:9604187

Ronin, D; Strehl, F

1998-05-01

206

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.  

SciTech Connect

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

1998-05-01

207

Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma  

SciTech Connect

Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

1990-01-01

208

Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

209

Interleukin-8 induces an elevation in the endotoxin activity assay (EAA) level: does the EAA truly measure the endotoxin level?  

PubMed

The endotoxin activity assay (EAA) is a FDA-approved blood endotoxin assay that is reported as a useful tool for the diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial infection. However, discrepancies between the results of the EAA and those of the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay have been reported. Thus, we verified these methods. Blood was incubated with anti-endotoxin antibody, the resultant polymorphonuclear activation to produce oxidants was measured and the EAA level calculated. As a reference endotoxin assay, we used an endotoxin-specific LAL assay. Significant increases in plasma LAL assay levels were observed only in patients with sepsis caused by gram-negative bacterial infections, whereas higher EAA levels were observed in almost all the sepsis cases and the SIRS cases, especially those with acute pancreatitis. Graded amounts of LPS (1-10,000 pg/ml) were spiked into normal blood to obtain dose-response curves: a good dose-response curve, from 1 to 1,000 pg/ml, was obtained for the LAL assay. A good dose-response curve was barely obtained for the EAA; the lowest detection limit seemed to be 1,000 pg/ml. Addition of methylprednisolone decreased the EAA levels. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) induced elevation in EAA levels when IL-8 was added to volunteers' blood samples. Overall, the EAA kit could not measure clinically relevant doses of endotoxin. Because IL-8 induced an increase in EAA level, it is suggested that the EAA level reflects the primed state of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:23460381

Matsumoto, Naoya; Takahashi, Gaku; Kojika, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yasushi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Inada, Katsuya; Endo, Shigeatsu

2013-03-05

210

Elevated serum CA19-9 levels in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Relationship with Lewis blood group.  

PubMed

Many non-malignant diseases may be associated with elevated serum CA19-9 levels. Recent reports suggest that diabetes mellitus may also be responsible for some elevations. In this study we investigated the influence of the glycaemic level and Lewis phenotype on the serum CA19-9 levels in diabetic patients. In 15 out of 84 patients (17.8%) serum CA19-9 exceeded 100 kU/L (highest value: 208 kU/L). CA19-9 concentrations were significantly correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin levels. On the other hand, no correlation was found between CA19-9 levels and the type of diabetes, lipase levels, or the presence of anti-islet cell antibodies. Le(a-b-) patients had significantly lower serum CA19-9 levels. This study emphasizes the frequency of CA19-9 elevations in diabetic patients without cancer. PMID:8187985

Petit, J M; Vaillant, G; Olsson, N O; Guignier, F; Collignon, S; Verges, B; Brun, J M

1994-01-01

211

Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1.

Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

1993-01-01

212

Preliminary evidence that plasma oxytocin levels are elevated in major depression.  

PubMed

It is well established that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is involved in regulating social behavior, anxiety, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis physiology in mammals. Because individuals with major depression often exhibit functional irregularities in these measures, we test in this pilot study whether depressed subjects (n=11) exhibit dysregulated OT biology compared to healthy control subjects (n=19). Subjects were hospitalized overnight and blood samples were collected hourly between 1800 and 0900h. Plasma levels of OT, the closely related neuropeptide argine-vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol were quantified. Results indicated that depressed subjects exhibit increased OT levels compared to healthy control subjects, and this difference is most apparent during the nocturnal peak. No depression-related differences in AVP or cortisol levels were discerned. This depression-related elevation in plasma OT levels is consistent with reports of increased hypothalamic OT-expressing neurons and OT mRNA in depressed patients. This present finding is likewise consistent with the hypothesis that dysregulated OT biology may be a biomarker of the emotional distress and impaired social relationships which characterize major depression. Additional research is required to elucidate the role of OT in the pathophysiology of this psychiatric disorder. PMID:20494448

Parker, Karen J; Kenna, Heather A; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Keller, Jennifer; Blasey, Christine M; Amico, Janet A; Schatzberg, Alan F

2010-05-21

213

Preliminary evidence that plasma oxytocin levels are elevated in major depression  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is involved in regulating social behavior, anxiety, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis physiology in mammals. Because individuals with major depression often exhibit functional irregularities in these measures, we test in this pilot study whether depressed subjects (n=11) exhibit dysregulated OT biology compared to healthy control subjects (n=19). Subjects were hospitalized overnight and blood samples were collected hourly between 1800 and 0900 h. Plasma levels of OT, the closely related neuropeptide argine-vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol were quantified. Results indicated that depressed subjects exhibit increased OT levels compared to healthy control subjects, and this difference is most apparent during the nocturnal peak. No depression-related differences in AVP or cortisol levels were discerned. This depression-related elevation in plasma OT levels is consistent with reports of increased hypothalamic OT-expressing neurons and OT mRNA in depressed patients. This present finding is likewise consistent with the hypothesis that dysregulated OT biology may be a biomarker of the emotional distress and impaired social relationships which characterize major depression. Additional research is required to elucidate the role of OT in the pathophysiology of this psychiatric disorder.

Parker, Karen J.; Kenna, Heather A.; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Keller, Jennifer; Blasey, Christine M.; Amico, Janet A.; Schatzberg, Alan F.

2009-01-01

214

Elevated Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. Methods We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40%) and 47 non-PGD subjects (59%) received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p?=?0.03). The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p?=?0.02); there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p?=?0.9). Conclusions Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

Cantu, Edward; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shah, Rupal J.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2012-01-01

215

Elevated blood lead levels associated with illicitly distilled alcohol--Alabama, 1990-1991.  

PubMed

The use of automobile radiators containing lead-soldered parts in the illicit distillation of alcohol (i.e., "moonshine") is an important source of lead poisoning among persons in some rural Alabama counties. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight persons were diagnosed with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) at a local hospital and were reported to the notifiable disease surveillance system maintained by the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH). None of these patients had known histories of occupational or other potential sources of lead exposure, but all reported recent histories of moonshine ingestion. This report summarizes the results of an investigation of these cases conducted by the ADPH during December 1991. PMID:1565093

1992-05-01

216

Remote sensing of an elevated level of background ionization with a 1 THz, 1 kW Gyro-BWO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One application of the THz gyro- BWO under development at the University of Maryland is remote sensing of an elevated level of background ionization in air at NTP; such an elevated level might be found in the vicinity of radioactive material. The aim of the gyro-BWO development is to produce ˜1 kW of THz power in a 100 microsecond pulse. When such radiation is focused to a spot of cross-sectional area ˜?^2, the electric field would be sufficient to break down the air if the background ionization level were sufficiently elevated. With the time to breakdown dependent on background electron density no, an elevated value of no will manifest itself by causing a shortening of the transmitted or reflected THz pulse. The range and sensitivity of such a detection scheme will be discussed.

Granatstein, Victor; Nusinovich, Gregory

2009-11-01

217

Elevated Levels of Methylmalonate and Homocysteine in Parkinson’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Increasing evidence suggests that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonate (MMA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Methods: The urine levels of MMA and serum levels of Hcy as well as folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured in patients suffering from the distinct neurodegenerative diseases progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and

Johannes Levin; Kai Bötzel; Armin Giese; Michael Vogeser; Stefan Lorenzl

2010-01-01

218

Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from Lake Mjøsa, Norway.  

PubMed

Surprisingly high levels of PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in fish from Lake Mjøsa watercourse initialized a more detailed study of PBDE contamination in the Lake Mjøsa region as well as fish from other lakes in southeast Norway. With exception of the fish from Lake Mjøsa, the sum concentration of PBDEs in trout was, on a wet weight (ww) basis, in the range of 0.3-40 ng/g (21-1215 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) in fish fillet and 39-446 ng/g (125-915 ng/g lw) in burbot liver. The PBDE levels in fish from Lake Mjøsa, was found in the range of 72-1120 ng/g ww (2348-16,753 ng/g lw) in trout and 156-2265 ng/g ww (4201-45,144 ng/g lw) in burbot. It was later confirmed that the elevated levels in Lake Mjøsa were mainly caused by the release of PBDEs to the water from a textile manufacturer in the town of Lillehammer. In addition to PBDE levels in fish we also present information on the spatial distribution of PBDEs in air around the Mjøsa watercourse, based on the complementary use of passive air samples and analysis of moss, including data on measured air concentrations. The results confirm the presence of an active source of atmospheric PBDEs in the region of Lillehammer. Although this source appears to have a limited impact on atmospheric levels towards the southern reaches of the lake, it could still be a significant source of PBDEs to the lake as a whole. However, more research is needed to better understand and quantify the relative importance of various sources and pathways for which PBDEs enter Lake Mjøsa in order to support the development of future control strategies. PMID:17976687

Mariussen, Espen; Fjeld, Eirik; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Borgen, Anders; Kjellberg, Gösta; Schlabach, Martin

2007-10-31

219

Elevated Circulating Levels and Tissue Expression of Pentraxin 3 in Uremia: A Reflection of Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Elevated systemic pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels appear to be a powerful marker of inflammatory status and a superior outcome predictor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As previous data imply that PTX3 is involved in vascular pathology and that adipose tissue mass may influence circulating PTX3 levels, we aimed to study the importance of adipose tissue expression of PTX3 in the uremic milieu and its relation to endothelial dysfunction parameters. Plasma PTX3 and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) PTX3 mRNA levels were quantified in 56 stage 5 CKD patients (median age 57 [range 25–75] years, 30 males) and 40 age and gender matched controls (median age 58 [range 20–79] years, 27 males). Associations between PTX3 measures and an extensive panel of clinical parameters, including surrogate markers of endothelial function, were assessed. Functional ex vivo studies on endothelial status and immunohistochemical staining for PTX3 were conducted in resistance subcutaneous arteries isolated from SAT. SAT PTX3 mRNA expression correlated with plasma PTX3 concentrations (rho?=?0.54, p?=?0.0001) and was increased (3.7 [0.4–70.3] vs. 1.2 [0.2–49.3] RQ, p?=?0.02) in CKD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but was not significantly different between patients and controls. The association to CVD was lost after adjustments. SAT PTX3 mRNA levels were independently correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine and basal resistance artery tone developed after inhibition with nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (rho?=??0.58, p?=?0.002). Apparent positive PTX3 immunoreactivity was observed in both patient and control arteries. In conclusion, fat PTX3 mRNA levels are associated with measures of endothelial cell function in patients with CKD. PTX3 may be involved in adipose tissue-orchestrated mechanisms that are restricted to the uremic milieu and modify inflammation and vascular complications in CKD patients.

Witasp, Anna; Ryden, Mikael; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Nordfors, Louise; Naslund, Erik; Hammarqvist, Folke; Arefin, Samsul; Kublickiene, Karolina; Stenvinkel, Peter

2013-01-01

220

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

221

ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels.  

PubMed

The sense of hearing is remarkable for its auditory dynamic range, which spans more than 10(12) in acoustic intensity. The mechanisms that enable the cochlea to transduce high sound levels without damage are of key interest, particularly with regard to the broad impact of industrial, military, and recreational auditory overstimulation on hearing disability. We show that ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 receptor subunits in the cochlea are necessary for the development of temporary threshold shift (TTS), evident in auditory brainstem response recordings as sound levels rise. In mice null for the P2RX2 gene (encoding the P2X2 receptor subunit), sustained 85-dB noise failed to elicit the TTS that wild-type (WT) mice developed. ATP released from the tissues of the cochlear partition with elevation of sound levels likely activates the broadly distributed P2X2 receptors on epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic compartment. This purinergic signaling is supported by significantly greater noise-induced suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions derived from outer hair cell transduction and decreased suprathreshold auditory brainstem response input/output gain in WT mice compared with P2RX2-null mice. At higher sound levels (?95 dB), additional processes dominated TTS, and P2RX2-null mice were more vulnerable than WT mice to permanent hearing loss due to hair cell synapse disruption. P2RX2-null mice lacked ATP-gated conductance across the cochlear partition, including loss of ATP-gated inward current in hair cells. These data indicate that a significant component of TTS represents P2X2 receptor-dependent purinergic hearing adaptation that underpins the upper physiological range of hearing. PMID:23592720

Housley, Gary D; Morton-Jones, Rachel; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Telang, Ravindra S; Paramananthasivam, Vinthiya; Tadros, Sherif F; Wong, Ann Chi Yan; Froud, Kristina E; Cederholm, Jennie M E; Sivakumaran, Yogeesan; Snguanwongchai, Peerawuth; Khakh, Baljit S; Cockayne, Debra A; Thorne, Peter R; Ryan, Allen F

2013-04-16

222

ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels  

PubMed Central

The sense of hearing is remarkable for its auditory dynamic range, which spans more than 1012 in acoustic intensity. The mechanisms that enable the cochlea to transduce high sound levels without damage are of key interest, particularly with regard to the broad impact of industrial, military, and recreational auditory overstimulation on hearing disability. We show that ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 receptor subunits in the cochlea are necessary for the development of temporary threshold shift (TTS), evident in auditory brainstem response recordings as sound levels rise. In mice null for the P2RX2 gene (encoding the P2X2 receptor subunit), sustained 85-dB noise failed to elicit the TTS that wild-type (WT) mice developed. ATP released from the tissues of the cochlear partition with elevation of sound levels likely activates the broadly distributed P2X2 receptors on epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic compartment. This purinergic signaling is supported by significantly greater noise-induced suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions derived from outer hair cell transduction and decreased suprathreshold auditory brainstem response input/output gain in WT mice compared with P2RX2-null mice. At higher sound levels (?95 dB), additional processes dominated TTS, and P2RX2-null mice were more vulnerable than WT mice to permanent hearing loss due to hair cell synapse disruption. P2RX2-null mice lacked ATP-gated conductance across the cochlear partition, including loss of ATP-gated inward current in hair cells. These data indicate that a significant component of TTS represents P2X2 receptor-dependent purinergic hearing adaptation that underpins the upper physiological range of hearing.

Housley, Gary D.; Morton-Jones, Rachel; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M.; Telang, Ravindra S.; Paramananthasivam, Vinthiya; Tadros, Sherif F.; Wong, Ann Chi Yan; Froud, Kristina E.; Cederholm, Jennie M. E.; Sivakumaran, Yogeesan; Snguanwongchai, Peerawuth; Khakh, Baljit S.; Cockayne, Debra A.; Thorne, Peter R.; Ryan, Allen F.

2013-01-01

223

A Case of Levofloxacin-Induced Anaphylaxis With Elevated Serum Tryptase Levels  

PubMed Central

Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone and L-isomer of the racemate ofloxacin, has been approved for the treatment of acute and chronic bacterial infections. Gastrointestinal complaints are the most frequently reported adverse drug reactions to fluoroquinolones. Other adverse events include headache, dizziness, increased liver enzyme levels, photosensitivity, tachycardia, QT prolongation, and eruptions. Anaphylaxis has been documented as a rare adverse drug reaction to levofloxacin; however, diagnostic tests are needed to evaluate whether these reactions are the result of levofloxacin treatment. While the results of skin tests are considered unreliable due to false-positive responses, the oral provocation test is currently considered to be the most reliable test. Tryptase, a neutral protease, is the dominant protein component of secretory granules in human mast cells, and an increased serum concentration of tryptase is a highly sensitive indicator of anaphylaxis. Herein, we report a case of levofloxacin-induced anaphylaxis in which the patient exhibited elevated serum tryptase levels and a positive oral levofloxacin challenge test result. As anaphylaxis is potentially life-threatening, the administration of fluoroquinolones to patients who have experienced a prior reaction to this type of agent should be avoided.

Lee, Ji-Ho; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Shin, Kye Chul; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Kim, Chong Whan

2013-01-01

224

Elevated serum aluminum levels in hemodialysis patients associated with use of electric pumps--Wyoming, 2007.  

PubMed

Aluminum toxicity can cause osteomalacia, anemia, and dementia in hemodialysis patients and has historically been associated with exposure to contaminated water or dialysate preparations or ingestion of aluminum-containing phosphate binders. Since 2002, improvements in water treatment methods and use of non-aluminum-containing phosphate binders have resulted in low prevalence (<1%) of aluminum toxicity among hemodialysis patients. In the United States, reported cases of aluminum toxicosis are rare, and no outbreak has been reported since 1992. This report describes 10 patients treated at a hemodialysis unit in a Wyoming hospital (hospital A) in 2007 who had elevated serum aluminum levels that were detected through routine serum aluminum screening. An investigation was conducted by the Wyoming Department of Health, which determined that the source of exposure was dialysate acid concentrate that became contaminated with aluminum as it passed through two electric drum pumps. The drum pumps had been used to transfer dialysate acid concentrate from 55-gallon storage drums to 1-gallon jugs for use on individual hemodialysis machines. Removal of the pumps from service resulted in a rapid reduction in patient serum aluminum levels. The findings suggest that regular assessment of machine compatibility with dialysate fluid is needed. PMID:18583956

2008-06-27

225

miR-886-3p levels are elevated in Friedreich ataxia.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common inherited ataxia caused primarily by an intronic GAA.TTC triplet repeat expansion in the frataxin (FXN) gene. FXN RNA and protein levels are reduced in patients leading to progressive gait and limb ataxia, sensory loss, reduced tendon reflexes, dysarthria, absent lower limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Neurological manifestations ensue from primary loss of dorsal root ganglia neurons and their associated axons ascending centrally in the spinal cord and peripherally in large myelinated nerves. Small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs have been shown to be dysregulated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Here we report that hsa-miR-886-3p (miR-886-3p) was increased in patient cells as well as peripheral patient blood samples. Selective reduction in miR-886-3p by an anti-miR led to elevation of FXN message and protein levels without associated changes in histone marks at the FXN locus. Nevertheless, derepression of frataxin by a histone deacetylase inhibitor leads to a decrease in miR-886-3p. These results outline involvement of a small RNA, miR-886-3p in FRDA and a novel therapeutic approach to this disease using an anti-miR-886-3p. PMID:22764244

Mahishi, Lata H; Hart, Ronald P; Lynch, David R; Ratan, Rajiv R

2012-07-01

226

Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels  

PubMed Central

Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e), and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

2011-01-01

227

Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.

Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

2011-01-01

228

Elevated gene expression levels distinguish human from non-human primate brains  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how the human brain differs from that of our closest relatives. To investigate the genetic basis of human specializations in brain organization and cognition, we compared gene expression profiles for the cerebral cortex of humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques by using several independent techniques. We identified 169 genes that exhibited expression differences between human and chimpanzee cortex, and 91 were ascribed to the human lineage by using macaques as an outgroup. Surprisingly, most differences between the brains of humans and non-human primates involved up-regulation, with ?90% of the genes being more highly expressed in humans. By contrast, in the comparison of human and chimpanzee heart and liver, the numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were nearly identical. Our results indicate that the human brain displays a distinctive pattern of gene expression relative to non-human primates, with higher expression levels for many genes belonging to a wide variety of functional classes. The increased expression of these genes could provide the basis for extensive modifications of cerebral physiology and function in humans and suggests that the human brain is characterized by elevated levels of neuronal activity.

Caceres, Mario; Lachuer, Joel; Zapala, Matthew A.; Redmond, John C.; Kudo, Lili; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Lockhart, David J.; Preuss, Todd M.; Barlow, Carrolee

2003-01-01

229

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

Poisbleau, Maud; Muller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

230

Effect of elevated catecholamine levels on cerebral hemodynamics in patients with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the levels of catecholamines and cerebral hemodynamics in patients with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study included 50 patients with chronic PTSD hospitalized for psychiatric treatment for the first time, and 50 healthy control subjects. All study subjects were in the 30-50 age group. In PTSD group, determination of vanllylmandelic acid (VMA), an epinephrine and norepinephrine metabolite, in 24-h urine and transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography of the circle of Willis vasculature were performed on the first day of hospital stay. The same diagnostic procedures were repeated upon the completion of 21-day medicamentous psychiatric treatment. Initial analysis revealed concurrently elevated 24-h VMA in 29 (58.00%) patients and increased values of the mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) in the circle of Willis vasculature in 34 (68.00%) patients, indicating a high correlation of the respective parameters (p = 0.3290). Second analysis performed after 21-day psychiatric treatment showed concurrently elevated 24-h VMA in eight (16.00%) patients and increased MBFV in the circle of Willis vasculature in nine (18.00%) patients, also pointing to a high correlation of the parameters observed (p = 0.7906). In the control group, only two (4.00%) subjects had elevated MBFV in the circle of Willis vessels, whereas the level of 24-h VMA was normal in all control subjects. Study results pointed to a significant association between elevated levels of stress hormones and increased MBFV in the circle of Willis vasculature caused by cerebral vasospasm. Medicamentous psychiatric treatment for PTSD administered for three weeks significantly reduced the proportion of PTSD patients with elevated levels of the catecholamine metabolite and cerebral vasospasm. Study results showed a high correlation between diurnal VMA level and elevated MBFV in the circle of Willis vessels, clearly demonstrating the effect of prolonged elevation of catecholamine levels on cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:21755720

Dikanovi?, Marinko; Demarin, Vida; Kadoji?, Dragutin; Kadoji?, Mira; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Titli?, Marina; Bitunjac, Milan; Soldo-Butkovi?, Silva

2011-06-01

231

The effect of elevated plasma phenylalanine levels on protein synthesis rates in adult rat brain.  

PubMed Central

Increasing the plasma phenylalanine concentration to levels as high as 0.560-0.870 mM (over ten times normal levels) had no detectable effect on the rate of brain protein synthesis in adult rats. The average rates for 7-week-old rats were: valine, 0.58 +/- 0.05%/h, phenylalanine, 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h, and tyrosine, 0.60 +/- 0.09%/h, or 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h overall. Synthesis rates calculated on the basis of the specific activity of the tRNA-bound amino acid were slightly lower (4% lower for phenylalanine) than those based on the brain free amino acid pool. Similarly, the specific activities of valine and phenylalanine in microdialysis fluid from striatum were practically the same as those in the brain free amino acid pool. Thus the specific activities of the valine and phenylalanine brain free pools are good measures of the precursor specific activity for protein synthesis. In any event, synthesis rates, whether based on the specific activities of the amino acids in the brain free pool or those bound to tRNA, were unaffected by elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine. Brain protein synthesis rates measured after the administration of quite large doses of phenylalanine (> 1.5 mumol/g) or valine (15 mumol/g) were in agreement (0.62 +/- 0.01 and 0.65 +/- 0.01%/h respectively) with the rates determined with infusions of trace amounts of amino acids. Thus the technique of stabilizing precursor-specific activity, and pushing values in the brain close to those of the plasma, by the administration of large quantities of precursor, appears to be valid.

Dunlop, D S; Yang, X R; Lajtha, A

1994-01-01

232

Elevated corticosterone levels and severe weather conditions decrease parental investment of incubating Adélie penguins.  

PubMed

Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adélie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and rotation rates, enabling a detailed investigation of incubation behaviour. Corticosterone levels of treated birds were 2.4-fold higher than those of controls 18 days post treatment. Exogenous corticosterone triggered nest desertion in 61% of the treated birds; consequently reducing reproductive success, indicating that corticosterone can reduce or disrupt parental investment. Regarding egg temperatures, hypothermic events became more frequent and more pronounced in treated birds, before these birds eventually abandoned their nest. The treatment also significantly decreased incubation temperatures by 1.3°C and lengthened the incubation period by 2.1 days. However, the number of chicks at hatching was similar among successful nests, regardless of treatment. Weather conditions appeared to be particularly important in determining the extent to which corticosterone levels affected the behaviour of penguins, as treated penguins were more sensitive to severe weather conditions. This underlines the importance of considering the interactions of organisms with their environment in studies of animal behaviour and ecophysiology. PMID:23291423

Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry

2013-01-03

233

Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant ?H2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes.

Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

2008-01-01

234

ELEVATED GLUTATHIONE LEVELS CONFER CELLULAR SENSITIZATION TO CISPLATIN TOXICITY BY UPREGULATION OF COPPER TRANSPORTER HCTR1*  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that treating cultured cells with cisplatin (CDDP) upregulated the expression of glutathione (GSH) and its de novo rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunits. It has also been shown that many CDDP-resistant cell lines exhibit high levels of GCLC/GCLM and GSH. Since GSH system is the major intracellular regulator of redox conditions that serve as an important detoxification cytoprotector, these results have been taken into considerations that elevated levels of GCL/GSH are responsible for the CDDP resistance. In contrast to this context, we demonstrated here that overexpression of GSH by transfection with expression plasmid containing the GCLC cDNA conferred sensitization to CDDP through upregulation of human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1), which is also a transporter for CDDP. Depleting GSH levels in these transfected cells reversed CDDP sensitivity with concomitant reduction of hCtr1 expression. While rates of Cu transport were also upregulated in the transfected cells, these cells exhibited biochemical signature of Cu deficiency, suggesting that GSH functions as an intracellular Cu-chelator and that overexpression of GSH can alter Cu metabolism. More importantly, our results reveal a new role of GSH in the regulation of CDDP sensitivity. Overproduction of GSH depletes bioavailable Cu pool, leading to upregulation of hCtr1 and sensitization of CDDP transport and cell killing. These findings also have important implications that modulation of intracellular Cu pool may be a novel strategy for improving chemotherapeutic efficacy of platinum-based antitumor agents.

Chen, Helen H. W.; Song, Im-Sook; Hossain, Anwar; Choi, Min-Koo; Yamane, Yoshiaki; Liang, Zheng D.; Lu, Jia; Wu, Lily Y-H; Siddik, Zahid H.; Klomp, Leo W. J.; Savaraj, Niramol; Tien, Kuo Macus

2008-01-01

235

Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?  

PubMed

Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing. PMID:22424943

Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

2012-03-16

236

The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression  

SciTech Connect

Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

237

CARBON & NITROGEN DYTNAMICS IN SOYBEAN GROWN IN THE FIELD UNDER ELEVATED LEVELS OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Predicted increases in the partial pressure of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) offer the chance for increased crop productivity because photosynthesis is enhanced at elevated pCO2. However, sustained stimulation of growth in elevated pCO2 is dependant upon the adequate supply of other nutrients, n...

238

Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction (MI) among hypertensives that may be attributable to elevated total cholesterol, and to investigate how well

Nicole L. Glazer; Nicholas L. Smith; Susan R. Heckbert; Carine J. M. Doggen; Rozenn N. Lemaitre; Bruce M. Psaty

2005-01-01

239

HOW WILL FUTURE ELEVATED LEVELS OF CO2 AND O3 AFFECT ANTIOXIDANT METABOLISM IN SOYBEAN?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immense research efforts have been devoted to characterizing the effects of global change on plants, particularly elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3. While the physiological responses of plants to elevated [CO2] and [O3] have been well characterized, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms by w...

240

Elevation of transcription factor Islet-1 levels in vivo increases ?-cell function but not ?-cell mass.  

PubMed

A decrease in the expression of Islet-1 (Isl-1), an islet transcription factor, has been reported in several physiological settings of reduced ?-cell function. Here, we investigate whether an increased level of Isl-1 in islet cells can enhance ?-cell function and/or mass. We demonstrate that transgenic mice with Isl-1 overexpression display improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion without significant changes in ? cell mass. From our microarray study, we identify approximately 135 differentially expressed genes in the islets of Isl-1 overexpressing mice that have been implicated to function in numerous biological processes including protein trafficking, metabolism and differentiation. Using real-time PCR we have confirmed upregulation of Caps2, Sec14l4, Slc2a10, P2rx7, Afamin, and Neurogenin 3 that may in part mediate the observed improved insulin secretion in Isl-1 overexpressing mice. These findings show for the first time that Isl-1 is a key factor in regulating adult ? cell function in vivo, and suggest that Isl-1 elevation could be beneficial to improve glucose homeostasis. PMID:22595886

Liu, Jingxuan; Walp, Erik R; May, Catherine Lee

2012-05-01

241

Influence of Elevated Levels of Arsenic on Microbial Activity in a Headwater Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial communities play central roles in nutrient uptake, metabolism and leaf decomposition in streams. Research has shown that metazoans are extremely sensitive to arsenic pollution but microbial communities and processes appear more resistant to the influences of heavy metals and metalloids. In the case of arsenic and phosphorus, the dominant forms in aquatic ecosystems, (i.e., arsenate and phosphate) are chemically analogous. This makes it difficult for an organism to differentiate between these two molecules, potentially increasing arsenic toxicity under P-limiting situations. The primary goal of this study was determine how low phosphate concentrations and elevated levels of arsenic affected microbial activity in a headwater stream adjacent to an abandoned arsenic mine. Microbial respiration and phosphorus uptake measured on leaves and rocks were compared between an upstream (reference) and a `disturbed' reach adjacent to the arsenic mine during fall of 2004. Arsenic in stream water was <10 ppb in the reference reach and increased to 1000 ppb at the bottom of the mine-influenced reach. Soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were <10 ppb and nitrate concentrations ranged from 400 to 800 ppb across both reaches. Microcosm respiration (0.7-1.1 g O2/m2/d) and P uptake rates (80-1600 ?g P/m2/d) were influenced by arsenic toxicity.

Reinhardt, L. P.; Lottig, N. R.; Valett, H. M.; Schreiber, M. E.

2005-05-01

242

Carbon fluxes in natural plankton communities under elevated CO2 levels: a stable isotope labeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon fluxes in natural plankton communities was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Triplicate mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated with 1×(~350 ?atm), 2×(~700 ?atm), and 3× present day CO2(~1050 ?atm) levels for 3 weeks. 13C labeled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, zooplankton, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, while it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores grew faster than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria. There was no indication of enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

de Kluijver, A.; Soetaert, K.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Bellerby, R. G. J.; Middelburg, J. J.

2010-05-01

243

Elevated levels of anti inflammatory IL-10 and pro inflammatory IL-17 in malignant pleural effusions  

PubMed Central

Background Pleural effusions can be caused by highly different underlying diseases and are characterized by complex interactions of various local and circulating cells as well as numerous soluble parameters like interleukins (IL). Knowledge of this complex network can be helpful in order to make the differential diagnosis in known malignant pleural effusions and understand the underlying immunochemistry of each disease or condition. Methods We investigated immunoreactive concentrations of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Interleukin 17 (IL-17) in malignant pleural effusions and peripheral blood from patients with bronchial carcinomas and other carcinomas, excluding other conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and pneumonias in twenty four (24) patients (9 men/15 women), 37-74 years (mean:61) with already diagnosed malignant pleural effusions applying the ELISA method. Results The SPSS 15 program for Windows was used. Quantitative analysis showed high concentrations of IL-10 and IL-17 in pleural fluid and blood. Even though IL-17 levels -both blood and pleural- were lower than IL-10’s, statistical correlation between blood and pleural concentations was proven, confirming once more the systematic action of these cytokines. At the same time high IL-17 levels in malignant effusions shows maybe a new perspective in understanding the pathophysiology of malignant pleural effusions. Conclusions Our results confirm the pathogenetic role of these cytokines in malignant pleural effusions combining for the first time a pro- and an anti- inflammatory cytokine. The observation that IL-17 is elevated in malignant pleural effusions may give a new meaning in Virchow’s remarks 100 years ago. Larger number of patients is needed to confirm our hypothesis.

2012-01-01

244

Elevated Level of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2/3 in the Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depression  

PubMed Central

Clinical, postmortem and preclinical research strongly implicates dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been proposed as attractive targets for discovery of novel therapeutic approaches against depression. The aim of this study was to examine mGluR2/3 protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) from depressed subjects. In addition, to test whether antidepressants influence mGluR2/3 expression we also studied levels of mGluR2/3 in fluoxetine treated monkeys. Postmortem human prefrontal samples containing Brodmann’s area 10 (BA 10) were obtained from 11 depressed and 11 psychiatrically healthy controls. Male rhesus monkeys were treated chronically with fluoxetine (dose escalated to 3mg/kg, p.o; n=7) or placebo (n=6) for 39 weeks. The mGluR2/3 immunoreactivity was investigated using Western blot method. There was a robust (+67%) increase in the expression of the mGlu2/3 protein in the PFC of depressed subjects relative to healthy controls. The expression of mGlu2/3 was unchanged in the PFC of monkeys treated with fluoxetine. Our findings provide the first evidence that mGluR2/3 is elevated in the PFC in MDD. This observation is consistent with reports showing that mGluR2/3 antagonists exhibit antidepressant-like activity in animal models and demonstrates that these receptors are promising targets for the discovery of novel antidepressants.

Feyissa, Anteneh M.; Woolverton, William L.; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J.; Wang, Zhixia; Kyle, Patrick B.; Hasler, Gregor; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Iyo, Abiye H.; Karolewicz, Beata

2009-01-01

245

Elevated level of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 in the prefrontal cortex in major depression.  

PubMed

Clinical, postmortem and preclinical research strongly implicates dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been proposed as attractive targets for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches against depression. The aim of this study was to examine mGluR2/3 protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) from depressed subjects. In addition, to test whether antidepressants influence mGluR2/3 expression we also studied levels of mGluR2/3 in fluoxetine-treated monkeys. Postmortem human prefrontal samples containing Brodmann's area 10 (BA10) were obtained from 11 depressed and 11 psychiatrically healthy controls. Male rhesus monkeys were treated chronically with fluoxetine (dose escalated to 3mg/kg, p.o.; n=7) or placebo (n=6) for 39 weeks. The mGluR2/3 immunoreactivity was investigated using Western blot method. There was a robust (+67%) increase in the expression of the mGlu2/3 protein in the PFC of depressed subjects relative to healthy controls. The expression of mGlu2/3 was unchanged in the PFC of monkeys treated with fluoxetine. Our findings provide the first evidence that mGluR2/3 is elevated in the PFC in MDD. This observation is consistent with reports showing that mGluR2/3 antagonists exhibit antidepressant-like activity in animal models and demonstrates that these receptors are promising targets for the discovery of novel antidepressants. PMID:19945495

Feyissa, Anteneh M; Woolverton, William L; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Wang, Zhixia; Kyle, Patrick B; Hasler, Gregor; Stockmeier, Craig A; Iyo, Abiye H; Karolewicz, Beata

2009-11-26

246

Nicolas Andry Award. Increased tissue pressure and its effects on muscle oxygenation in level and elevated human limbs.  

PubMed

Increased tissue pressure is an important cause of local circulatory compromise. In both rabbit and human model systems known external pressures were applied to otherwise normal limbs. Side-by-side comparison of the wick and the infusion techniques revealed that both methods of pressure measurement yielded essentially identical results when tissue pressure was elevated. Measured tissue pressure significantly exceeded the external pressure applied to the limb. Using a mass spectrometer-Teflon membrane catheter system, we monitored muscle PO2 and PCO2 at different applied pressures. Muscle PO2 decreased progressively with increasing tissue pressure but did not approach zero until tissue pressure exceeded local arterial pressure. Comparison of results with level and elevated limbs indicated that elevation of an extremity dramatically lowered its tolerance for increased tissue pressure. Although they may be clinically useful modalities, these are conditions in which compression and elevation have a significant potential for compromising local circulation. PMID:535242

Matsen, F A; Krugmire, R B; King, R V

1979-10-01

247

Plasma Cell-Free DNA Levels Are Elevated in Acute Puumala Hantavirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Introduction Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease. Methods Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20 patients with acute NE. We also carried out a qualitative high-sensitivity lab-on-a-chip DNA assay in 20 patients to elucidate the appearance of cf-DNA in plasma and urine. Results The maximum plasma cf-DNA values taken during acute NE were significantly higher than the control values taken after the hospitalization period (median 1.33 µg/ml, range 0.94–3.29 µg/ml vs. median 0.77 µg/ml, range 0.55–0.99 µg/ml, P<0.001). The maximum plasma cf-DNA levels correlated positively with maximum blood leukocyte count (r?=?0.388, P?=?0.002) and the length of hospital stay (r?=?0.376, P?=?0.003), and inversely with minimum blood platelet count (r?=??0.297, P?=?0.020). Qualitative analysis of plasma cf-DNA revealed that in most of the patients cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA (150–200 bp). The visually graded maximum cf-DNA band intensity correlated positively with the maximum quantity of total plasma cf-DNA (r?=?0.513, P?=?0.021). Maximum urinary excretion of cf-DNA in turn was not markedly increased during the acute phase of NE and did not correlate with any of the variables reflecting severity of the disease or with the maximum plasma cf-DNA level. Conclusions The plasma levels of cf-DNA are elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlate with the apoptotic cf-DNA-band intensity. The plasma cf-DNA concentration correlates with some variables reflecting the severity of the disease. The urinary excretion of cf-DNA does not reflect the degree of inflammation in the kidney.

Outinen, Tuula K.; Kuparinen, Taru; Jylhava, Juulia; Leppanen, Sonja; Mustonen, Jukka; Makela, Satu; Porsti, Ilkka; Syrjanen, Jaana; Vaheri, Antti; Hurme, Mikko

2012-01-01

248

Short-term cognition deficits during early alcohol withdrawal are associated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients with alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Higher plasma homocysteine levels have been found in actively drinking alcoholics as well as in early abstinent patients.\\u000a Furthermore, elevated homocysteine levels are associated with cognitive decline in dementia and in healthy elderly people.\\u000a The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a possible association between homocysteine serum levels and clinically\\u000a well known cognitive deficits during alcohol withdrawal. We

J. Wilhelm; K. Bayerlein; T. Hillemacher; U. Reulbach; H. Frieling; B. Kromolan; D. Degner; J. Kornhuber; S. Bleich

2006-01-01

249

Elevated level of anterior gradient-2 in pancreatic juice from patients with pre-malignant pancreatic neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) are precursors of malignant pancreatic cancer, an ideal stage for early cancer detection. We applied quantitative proteomics to identify aberrantly elevated proteins in pancreatic juice samples derived from patients with PanIN3. Results Twenty proteins were found elevated in all three PanIN juices by at least two-fold. Among these proteins, anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) was found to be 2-10 fold elevated in PanIN3 juice samples analyzed by quantitative proteomics. An ELISA assay was developed to evaluate AGR2 levels in 51 pancreatic juice samples and 23 serum samples from patients with pancreatic cancer, pre-malignant lesions (including PanIN3, PanIN2, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)) and benign disease controls (including chronic pancreatitis). AGR2 levels in the pancreatic juice samples were found significantly elevated in patients with pre-malignant conditions (PanINs and IPMNs) as well as pancreatic cancer compared to control samples (p ? 0.03). By ROC analysis, the AGR2 ELISA achieved 67% sensitivity at 90% specificity in predicting PanIN3 juice samples from the benign disease controls. Conclusions These results suggest that elevation of AGR2 levels in pancreatic juice occurs in early pancreatic cancer progression and could be further investigated as a potential candidate juice biomarker for early detection of pancreatic cancer.

2010-01-01

250

Elevated factor VIII level and stroke in patients without traditional risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemostasis is affected by interactions between physiological processes, including those connected with the coagulation system, whose essence is converting fibrinogen into fibrin. The role of factor VIII (FVIII) consists in activating factor X, which directly participates in the generation of thrombin, which is able to produce stable fibrin, which in turn forms blood clots. There are divergent opinions regarding the significance of high levels of FVIII in stroke pathogenesis. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate FVIII activity in individuals with cryptogenic stroke in order to determine a potential relationship between it and cerebral ischemia. Material and methods Nine patients suffering with stroke were used in this study: six women and three men aged 49–63 years. In all of the patients, the presence of known and potential risk factors for stroke had been excluded during previous diagnostic procedures. These patients accounted for 1.2% of the 719 people who suffered a stroke and were hospitalized in 2011 at the Stroke Unit. FVIII activity was examined in each of the nine qualified subjects within 1–2 months of the occurrence of stroke (the first test) and repeated (the second test) in five patients with abnormal results obtained from the first examination. Results Increased activity of FVIII was found in 5 out of 9 patients. In patients with abnormal results, elevated FVIII was found in follow-up examinations in the 8th–10th month following stroke. Hemodynamic abnormalities in carotid or cerebral artery (presence of thrombus) were found in 3 of the 5 patients with increased FVIII levels. In the first 24 hours following stroke the neurological state of patients with abnormal FVIII was worse than individuals with normal FVIII activity. The patients with abnormal FVIII levels were found to be more disabled in the examination of self-dependence on the 90th day after stroke. Conclusion When searching for the causes of stroke, it is worth examining the coagulation system, including FVIII concentration, the abnormality of which may play a significant part in brain ischemia. More research is needed to determine the relationship between abnormal FVIII activity and stroke.

Anetta, Lasek-Bal; Przemyslaw, Puz; Zofia, Kazibutowska

2013-01-01

251

Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajós region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajós. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 microg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 microg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 microg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 microg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 microg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 microg/g, 1.9-1437 microg/g) and Sr (38.7 microg/g, 3.3-173 microg/g). PMID:20646739

Lemire, Mélanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Mergler, Donna

2010-09-01

252

Elevated Plasma Levels of Endostatin Are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or presence of albuminuria (?30 mg/24 h). Results After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3–357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7–134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = ?0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of ?26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (?131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2–45.5; p < 0.0001). Conclusion These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk.

Chen, Jing; Hamm, L. Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A.; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T.; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E.; He, Jiang

2012-01-01

253

Phytoplankton-bacteria coupling under elevated CO2 levels: a stable isotope labelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on carbon transfer from phytoplankton to bacteria was investigated during the 2005 PeECE III mesocosm study in Bergen, Norway. Sets of mesocosms, in which a phytoplankton bloom was induced by nutrient addition, were incubated under 1× (~350 ?atm), 2× (~700 ?atm), and 3× present day CO2 (~1050 ?atm) initial seawater and sustained atmospheric CO2 levels for 3 weeks. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to all mesocosms to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into phytoplankton and subsequently heterotrophic bacteria, and settling particles. Isotope ratios of polar-lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) were used to infer the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Phytoplankton PLFA were enriched within one day after label addition, whilst it took another 3 days before bacteria showed substantial enrichment. Group-specific primary production measurements revealed that coccolithophores showed higher primary production than green algae and diatoms. Elevated CO2 had a significant positive effect on post-bloom biomass of green algae, diatoms, and bacteria. A simple model based on measured isotope ratios of phytoplankton and bacteria revealed that CO2 had no significant effect on the carbon transfer efficiency from phytoplankton to bacteria during the bloom. There was no indication of CO2 effects on enhanced settling based on isotope mixing models during the phytoplankton bloom, but this could not be determined in the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that CO2 effects are most pronounced in the post-bloom phase, under nutrient limitation.

de Kluijver, A.; Soetaert, K.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Bellerby, R. G. J.; Middelburg, J. J.

2010-11-01

254

Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.  

PubMed

We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 ?g/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ? 45 ?g/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning. PMID:22302239

Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

255

Elevated levels of bilirubin and long-term exposure impair human brain microvascular endothelial cell integrity.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of encephalopathy by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) seems to involve the passage of high levels of the pigment across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the consequent damage of neuronal cells. However, it remains to be clarified if and how the disruption of BBB occurs by UCB. We used confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to explore the sequence of events produced by UCB. A cell line and primary cultures of HBMEC were exposed to 50 or 100 µM UCB, in the presence of 100 µM human serum albumin, to mimic moderate and severe jaundice, for 1-72 h. UCB caused loss of cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. UCB inhibited the secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor at early time points, but enhanced their secretion at later time points. Upregulation of mRNA expression, particularly by 100 µM UCB, preceded cytokine secretion. Other early events include the disruption of glutathione homeostasis and the increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression followed by nitrite production. Prolonged exposure to UCB upregulated the expression of ?-catenin and caveolin-1. In conclusion, elevated concentrations of UCB affect the integrity of HBMEC monolayers mediated by oxidative stress and cytokine release. UCB also induced increased expression of caveolin-1, which has been associated with BBB breakdown, and ?-catenin, probably as an attempt to circumvent that impairment. These findings provide a basis for target-directed therapy against brain endothelial injury caused by UCB. PMID:21463246

Palmela, Inês; Cardoso, Filipa L; Bernas, Michael; Correia, Leonor; Vaz, Ana R; Silva, Rui F M; Fernandes, Adelaide; Kim, Kwang S; Brites, Dora; Brito, Maria A

2011-05-01

256

Associations between suicide attempts and elevated bedtime salivary cortisol levels in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities have been reported in bipolar disorder and also in suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between suicidal behaviors and the HPA axis function in bipolar disorder, attending to and minimizing confounding factors. We compare HPA axis activity in bipolar individuals with and without suicidal behavior and unaffected healthy controls through measurement of salivary cortisol. Method Salivary cortisol was collected for three consecutive days in 29 controls, 80 bipolar individuals without a history of suicide and 56 bipolar individuals with a past history of suicide. Clinical factors that affect salivary cortisol were also examined. Results A past history of suicide was associated with a 7.4% higher bedtime salivary cortisol level in bipolar individuals. There was no statistical difference between non-suicidal bipolar individuals and controls in bedtime salivary cortisol and awakening salivary cortisol was not different between the three groups. Limitations The measure of salivary cortisol was a home based collection by the study subjects and the retrospective clinical data was primarily based on their historical account. Conclusions Bipolar individuals with a past history of suicidal behavior exhibit hyperactivity in the HPA axis. This biological marker remains significant regardless of demographic factors, mood state, severity and course of illness. This finding in bipolar disorder is consistent with the evidence for altered HPA axis functioning in suicide and mood disorders and is associated with a clinical subgroup of bipolar patients at elevated risk for suicide based on their history, and in need of further attention and study.

Kamali, Masoud; Saunders, Erika F.H.; Prossin, Alan R.; Brucksch, Christine B.; Harrington, Gloria J.; Langenecker, Scott A.; McInnis, Melvin G.

2013-01-01

257

Severe menorrhagia, unilateral ovarian mass, elevated inhibin levels, and severe hypothyroidism: an unusual presentation of Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome.  

PubMed

A 10 year old female presented with a 3 week history of persistent vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, and generalized fatigue. Further work-up determined that she had severe autoimmune hypothyroidism, precocious puberty, and a large left cystic ovarian mass, consistent with Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome. In addition, the patient had elevated inhibin A and B levels, which may be elevated in granulosa cell tumor. The patient was managed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy and careful observation. Complete resolution of the ovarian mass and interval normalization of the inhibin levels were achieved. In females with severe primary hypothyroidism, ovarian masses, and elevated tumor markers, operative resection may be avoided with appropriate thyroid replacement therapy and close observation. PMID:23331842

Tran, Sifrance; Kim, Ellen E; Chin, Anthony C

2013-01-01

258

Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO2.  

PubMed

The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high ?(9)-THC yielding varieties of Cannabis sativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 ?mol mol(-1)) significantly (p?elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol(-1)). An average increase of about 48 %, 45 %, 44 % and 38 % in P N and, about 177 %, 157 %, 191 % and 182 % in WUE was observed due to elevated CO2 (700 ?mol mol(-1)) as compared to ambient CO2 concentration in HPM, K2, MX and W1 varieties, respectively. The higher WUE under elevated CO2 conditions in Cannabis sativa, primarily because of decreased stomatal conductance and subsequently the transpiration rate, may enable this species to survive under expected harsh greenhouse effects including elevated CO2 concentration and drought conditions. The higher P N, WUE and nearly constant C i/C a ratio under elevated CO2 concentrations in this species reflect a close coordination between its stomatal and mesophyll functions. PMID:23573021

Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

2011-05-25

259

Effects of tissue factor, thrombomodulin and elevated clotting factor levels on thrombin generation in the calibrated automated thrombogram.  

PubMed

Elevated procoagulant levels have been correlated with increased thrombin generation in vitro and with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in epidemiological studies. Thrombin generation tests are increasingly being employed as a high throughput method to provide a global measure of procoagulant activity in plasma samples. The objective of this study was to distinguish the effects of assay conditions [tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, platelets/lipids] and factor levels on thrombin generation parameters, and determine the conditions and parameters with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated factor levels. Thrombin generation was measured using calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) in corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated platelet-free plasma (PFP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical analysis was performed using logarithms of observed values with analysis of variance that accounted for experiment and treatment. The relative sensitivity of lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak height and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) to elevated factors XI, IX, VIII, X, and prothrombin was as follows: PFP initiated with 1 pM TF > PFP initiated with 5 pM TF > PRP initiated with 1 pM TF. For all conditions, inclusion of thrombomodulin prolonged the LT and decreased the peak and ETP; however, addition of thrombomodulin did not increase the ability of CAT to detect elevated levels of individual procoagulant factors. In conclusion, CAT conditions differentially affected the sensitivity of thrombin generation to elevated factor levels. Monitoring the peak height and/or ETP following initiation of clotting in PFP with 1 pM TF was most likely to detect hypercoagulability due to increased procoagulant factor levels. PMID:19888532

Machlus, Kellie R; Colby, Emily A; Wu, Jogin R; Koch, Gary G; Key, Nigel S; Wolberg, Alisa S

2009-11-01

260

Effects of tissue factor, thrombomodulin and elevated clotting factor levels on thrombin generation in the calibrated automated thrombogram  

PubMed Central

Summary Elevated procoagulant levels have been correlated with increased thrombin generation in vitro and with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in epidemiological studies. Thrombin generation tests are increasingly being employed as a high throughput method to provide a global measure of procoagulant activity in plasma samples. The objective of this study was to distinguish the effects of assay conditions [tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, platelets/lipids] and factor levels on thrombin generation parameters, and determine the conditions and parameters with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated factor levels. Thrombin generation was measured using calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) in corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated platelet-free plasma (PFP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical analysis was performed using logarithms of observed values with analysis of variance that accounted for experiment and treatment. The relative sensitivity of lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak height and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) to elevated factors XI, IX, VIII, X, and prothrombin was as follows: PFP initiated with 1 pM TF > PFP initiated with 5 pM TF > PRP initiated with 1 pM TF. For all conditions, inclusion of thrombomodulin prolonged the LT and decreased the peak and ETP; however, addition of thrombomodulin did not increase the ability of CAT to detect elevated levels of individual procoagulant factors. In conclusion, CAT conditions differentially affected the sensitivity of thrombin generation to elevated factor levels. Monitoring the peak height and/or ETP following initiation of clotting in PFP with 1 pM TF was most likely to detect hypercoagulability due to increased procoagulant factor levels.

Machlus, Kellie R.; Colby, Emily A.; Wu, Jogin R.; Koch, Gary G.; Key, Nigel S.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

2010-01-01

261

Elevated Cholesterol Levels in the Plasma Membranes of Macrophages Inhibit Migration by Disrupting RhoA Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—Atherogenesis begins as small subendothelial accumulations of foam cells that develop through unregulated uptake of modified and aggregated low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The reason why foam cells remain in the atherosclerotic plaque rather than migrating out of the area is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated membrane cholesterol levels, which may result from interactions with aggregated LDL, affect macrophage migration.

Tomokazu Nagao; Chunbo Qin; Inna Grosheva; Frederick R. Maxfield; Lynda M. Pierini

2010-01-01

262

Acute changes in short-term plasticity at synapses with elevated levels of neuronal calcium sensor-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term synaptic plasticity is a defining feature of neuronal activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Depression of synaptic activity might be due to limited vesicle availability, whereas facilitation is thought to result from elevated calcium levels. However, it is unclear whether the strength and direction (facilitation versus depression) of plasticity at a given synapse result from preexisting

Tanya Sippy; Alberto Cruz-Martín; Andreas Jeromin; Felix E Schweizer

2003-01-01

263

Elevated Soil Arsenic Levels at a Former Crude Oil Storage Facility-Assessment, Remediation, and Possible Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and near-surface soil arsenic levels were measured at a former crude oil storage facility within the greater Los Angeles area of Southern California. Arsenic was present in soil within some portions of the site at concentrations defined as being hazardous by both the State of California and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The elevated soil total arsenic concentrations

Daniel E. Wellman; Deborah A. Reid; April L. Ulery

1999-01-01

264

Deletion polymorphism in the gene for angiotensin converting enzyme is associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme insertion\\/deletion (ACE I\\/D) polymorphism, and its association with other known risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis, has been studied, in a normal south Italian population. Subjects homozygous for deletion showed elevated fasting blood glucose levels when compared with subjects homozygous for insertion. The difference was consistent with an increased number of type 2

Adriana Zingone; Andrea Dominijanni; Evelina Mele; Onorina Marasco; Franca Melina; Pasquale Minchella; Barbara Quaresima; Maria Teresa Tiano; Agostino Gnasso; Arturo Pujia; Nicola Perrotti

1994-01-01

265

Assessment of Elevated Radionuclide Levels in Soils Associated with an Avian Colony in a High Arctic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an investigation into the occurrence of elevated levels of radionuclides in soils associated with a seabird colony in the Arctic. Soils and other materials were collected from a seabird colony (primarily composed of kittiwakes) in Kongsfjorden, located in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The samples were analyzed for a suite of gamma emitting

M. DOWDALL; J. P. GWYNN; G. W. GABRIELSEN; B. LIND

2005-01-01

266

Diagnostic dilemma with elevated level of ?-fetoprotein in an undiagnosed twin pregnancy with a small discordant holoacardius acephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a patient who had highly elevated levels of ?-fetoprotein when she was first examined and a positive acetylcholinesterase test result in amniotic fluid. Despite repeated ultrasonographic screening, pathologic findings were not detected and the holoacardius acephalus twin was not identified. After termination of pregnancy the histopathologic findings demonstrated a twin pregnancy with a holoacardius acephalus.

Michael Entezami; Sanyukta Runkel; Nanette Sarioglu; Sven Hese; Hans Karl Weitzel

1997-01-01

267

Elevated Levels of Shed Membrane Microparticles With Procoagulant Potential in the Peripheral Circulating Blood of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Apoptotic microparticles are responsible for almost all tissue factor activity of the plaque lipid core. We hypothesized that elevated levels of procoagulant microparticles could also circulate in the peripheral blood of patients with recent clinical signs of plaque disruption and thrombosis. Methods and Results—We studied 39 patients with coronary heart disease, including 12 patients with stable angina and 27 patients

Ziad Mallat; Hakim Benamer; Benedicte Hugel; Joelle Benessiano; P. Gabriel Steg; Jean-Marie Freyssinet; Alain Tedgui

268

Maps of lands vulnerable to sea level rise: modeled elevations along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the broad-scale ramifications of accelerated sea level rise requires maps of the land that could be inundated or eroded. Producing such maps requires a combination of elevation information and models of shoreline erosion, wetland accretion, and other coastal processes. Assessments of coastal areas in the United States that combine all of these factors have focused on relatively small areas,

James G. Titus; Charlie Richman

2001-01-01

269

Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when

E-ri M Sol; Meri Hovsepyan; Peter Bergsten

2009-01-01

270

Altered platelet reactivity in peripheral vascular disease complicated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated plasma concentrations of the sulphur-containing amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The mechanism by which Hcy exerts these effects has yet to be fully elucidated, although a variety of possible mechanisms have been proposed, including endothelial dysfunction or haemostatic abnormalities. However, the influence of Hcy on platelets, cells central to the

Rocio Riba; Anna Nicolaou; Max Troxler; Shervanthi Homer-Vaniasinkam; Khalid. M. Naseem

2004-01-01

271

EFFECTS OF TILLAGE PRACTICE AND ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 LEVEL ON SOIL CO2 EFFLUX  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated atmospheric CO2 can affect both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which will impact the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere; research is needed to more accurately quantify the effects of CO2 on soil respirat...

272

Impact of increased erythropoietin receptor expression and elevated serum erythropoietin levels on clinicopathological features and prognosis in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin (EPO) expression and EPO receptor (EpoR) expression have been demonstrated in various malignant tumors. EPO-EpoR signaling can activate several downstream signal transduction pathways that enhance tumor aggressiveness. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of overexpression of EpoR and elevated serum EPO (sEPO) levels on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). EpoR expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 56 patients. Tumors with a staining intensity greater than that of surrounding proximal tubules were defined as tumors with high EpoR expression. The association between EpoR expression levels and various clinicopathological factors was analyzed. sEPO levels were determined in 138 patients and its correlation to clinicopathological factors was also analyzed, and EpoR expression was determined in surgical specimens removed from 47 of those 138 patients. Patients with high EpoR expression and patients with sEPO elevation had clinicopathological features less favorable than those of other patients. Tumors demonstrating high EpoR expression had a significantly higher number of Ki-67-positive cells compared to those with low EpoR expression. Tumor assemblies in microvessels demonstrated high EpoR expression. Patients whose tumors demonstrated high EpoR expression and those with sEPO elevation had a significantly lower survival rate compared to other patients, and patients with both high EpoR expression and sEPO elevation had an extremely poor prognosis. Microvascular invasion was an independent factor associated with sEPO elevation, suggesting that EPO-EpoR signaling might be important in RCC metastasis. EPO-EpoR signaling may be involved in tumor growth and progression in RCC and the combination of EpoR expression and sEPO levels may effectively predict clinical outcome.

ITO, KEIICHI; YOSHII, HIDEHIKO; ASANO, TAKAKO; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; SUMITOMO, MAKOTO; HAYAKAWA, MASAMICHI; ASANO, TOMOHIKO

2012-01-01

273

Highly purified eicosapentaenoic Acid may increase low-density lipoprotein particle size by improving triglyceride metabolism in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.  

PubMed

Background:?The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, as one of the possible mechanisms by which intake of EPA may prevent coronary events. Methods and Results:?Hypertriglyceridemic subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=72) or an EPA group (n=72; EPA regimen 1,800mg/day for 6 months). In the EPA group, the serum LDL-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remained unchanged, but there was a significant increase in LDL particle size based on LDL-relative mobility measured on lipoprotein polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and a significant decrease in serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) level. None of these changes were observed in the control group. After adjustments for coronary risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified elevation of serum EPA-related markers (6-month EPA, 6-month EPA/arachidonic acid [AA] ratio, change in [?] EPA, and EPA/AA), and treatment with statins and EPA as independent variables associated with increase in LDL particle size. Negative correlations were found between ?TRLs and ?LDL particle size, suggesting that improvement in triglyceride metabolism was associated with an increase in LDL particle size. Conclusions:?EPA increases LDL particle size by improving triglyceride metabolism; and serum EPA level and EPA/AA ratio after EPA treatment may be useful markers of increased LDL particle size.??(Circ J?2013; 77: 2349-2357). PMID:23811682

Tani, Shigemasa; Nagao, Ken; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Hirayama, Atsushi

2013-06-26

274

Comparison of DNA Adduct Levels in Human Placenta from Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposed Women and Smokers in Which CYP 1A1 Levels Are Similarly Elevated.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cigarette smoking is associated with high elevations in levels of both cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and DNA adducts in human placenta. The identity of the smoking related adducts is not known. The DNA adducts identified in placenta of smokers could resul...

J. E. Gallagher R. B. Everson J. Lewtas M. George G. W. Lucier

1994-01-01

275

COMPARISON OF DNA ADDUCT LEVELS IN HUMAN PLACENTA FROM POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSED WOMEN AND SMOKERS IN WHICH CYP 1A1 LEVELS ARE SIMILARLY ELEVATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Cigarette smoking is associated with high elevations in levels of both cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and DNA adducts in human placenta. he identity of the smoking related adducts is not known. he DNA adducts identified in placenta of smokers could result from chemicals resent in ...

276

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

1985-12-31

277

Serum Levels of Interleukin18 Are Elevated in the Subacute Phase of Kawasaki Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Elevations of various cytokines, including Th1 and Th2 cytokines, have been reported in the acute phase of Kawasaki syndrome (KS). As interleukin (IL)-18 plays an important role in the Th1 cell response, investigating the relevance of IL-18 in KS should be helpful in determining the pathophysiology of KS. Therefore, we examined the IL-18 values in KS. Methods: Serum IL-18

Yuichi Nomura; Kiminori Masuda; Nobuaki Maeno; Masao Yoshinaga; Yoshifumi Kawano

2004-01-01

278

Ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift.  

PubMed

Terrestrial ecosystems gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). The extent to which the biosphere can act as a buffer against rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration in global climate change projections remains uncertain at the present stage. Biogeochemical theory predicts that soil nitrogen (N) scarcity may limit natural ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) concentration, diminishing the CO(2)-fertilization effect on terrestrial plant productivity in unmanaged ecosystems. Recent models have incorporated such carbon-nitrogen interactions and suggest that anthropogenic N sources could help sustain the future CO(2)-fertilization effect. However, conclusive demonstration that added N enhances plant productivity in response to CO(2)-fertilization in natural ecosystems remains elusive. Here we manipulated atmospheric CO(2) concentration and soil N availability in a herbaceous brackish wetland where plant community composition is dominated by a C(3) sedge and C(4) grasses, and is capable of responding rapidly to environmental change. We found that N addition enhanced the CO(2)-stimulation of plant productivity in the first year of a multi-year experiment, indicating N-limitation of the CO(2) response. But we also found that N addition strongly promotes the encroachment of C(4) plant species that respond less strongly to elevated CO(2) concentrations. Overall, we found that the observed shift in the plant community composition ultimately suppresses the CO(2)-stimulation of plant productivity by the third and fourth years. Although extensive research has shown that global change factors such as elevated CO(2) concentrations and N pollution affect plant species differently and that they may drive plant community changes, we demonstrate that plant community shifts can act as a feedback effect that alters the whole ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) concentrations. Moreover, we suggest that trade-offs between the abilities of plant taxa to respond positively to different perturbations may constrain natural ecosystem response to global change. PMID:20596018

Langley, J Adam; Megonigal, J Patrick

2010-07-01

279

FLOOD EXTENT PREDICTION FROM LAKE HEIGHTS AND WATER LEVEL ESTIMATION FROM FLOOD EXTENTS USING RIVER GAUGES, ELEVATION MODELS AND ENVISAT DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water levels and water extents are essential information in flood monitoring and forecasting. Two experimental and complementary ways were explored in order to estimate water level and water extent and forecast them: 1) The estimation of water level through combining water extents derived from earth observation data with elevation from a Digital Elevation Model; 2) The estimation of flood extents

ANDREOLI Rémi; YESOU Hervé; Bld Sébastien Brant

2007-01-01

280

Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.  

PubMed

The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts. PMID:21166283

Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

2010-08-01

281

Determinants of low HDL levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), af- fected family members frequently have reduced levels of HDL cholesterol, in addition to elevated levels of total cho- lesterol and\\/or triglycerides (TGs). In the present study, we focused on those determinants that are important regula- tors of HDL cholesterol levels in FCHL, and measured post- heparin plasma activities of hepatic lipase (HL), lipoprotein lipase,

Aino Soro; Matti Jauhiainen; Christian Ehnholm; Marja-Riitta Taskinen

2003-01-01

282

Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

2010-02-01

283

Protection from sickle cell retinopathy is associated with elevated HbF levels and hydroxycarbamide use in children.  

PubMed

Elevated foetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels are protective against some manifestations of sickle cell anaemia but the impact on retinopathy is unknown. We report on 123 children with HbSS, 10.6% of whom developed retinopathy. Independent of hydroxycarbamide, children with a HbF <15% had 7.1-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.5-33.6) higher odds of developing retinopathy. In children treated with hydroxycarbamide, those with retinopathy had lower HbF levels compared to children without retinopathy (9% vs. 16%; P = 0.005). We report a protective benefit of elevated HbF regarding retinopathy, and our data suggests induction of HbF with hydroxycarbamide may prevent retinopathy in children. PMID:23384083

Estepp, Jeremie H; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Wang, Winfred C; Hoehn, Mary E; Hankins, Jane S; Aygun, Banu

2013-02-06

284

Collagen IV levels are elevated in the serum of patients with primary breast cancer compared to healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Collagen IV is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and may be a marker of angiogenesis. Serum levels of this protein are elevated in some human cancers. Our objectives were to compare collagen IV levels in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy women and to examine changes during preoperative chemotherapy. Sera from 51 patients with stage II–III breast cancer and 55 healthy controls were analysed. Collagen IV level was measured by a commercially available sandwich enzyme link immunoassay. Baseline serum levels were compared between cancer patients and healthy women and paired pre- and post-chemotherapy measurements were also performed in 39 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and were correlated with response to therapy. The median serum collagen IV concentration was significantly higher in cancer patients (166??g?l?1) than in healthy women (115??g?l?1), P<0.001. Chemotherapy induced a significant further increase in serum collagen IV (167??g?l?1 prechemo vs 206??g?l?1 postchemo, P=0.001). There were no correlations between baseline collagen IV levels and response to therapy, age, clinical stage or HER2 status. In conclusion, patients with breast cancer have elevated levels of collagen IV compared to healthy women and collagen IV levels increase further during chemotherapy.

Mazouni, C; Arun, B; Andre, F; Ayers, M; Krishnamurthy, S; Wang, B; Hortobagyi, G N; Buzdar, A U; Pusztai, L

2008-01-01

285

The impact of elevated CO 2 on plant-herbivore interactions: experimental evidence of moderating effects at the community level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly little research has been published on the responses to elevated [CO2] at the community level, where herbivores can select their preferred food. We investigated the combined effects of atmospheric\\u000a [CO2] and herbivory on synthesised plant communities growing on soils of different fertility. Factorial combinations of two [CO2] (350 or 700 l l?1), two fertility (fertilised or non-fertilised), and two

S. Díaz; L. H. Fraser; J. P. Grime; V. Falczuk

1998-01-01

286

Increased prevalence of combined MTR and MTHFR genotypes among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine plasma levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A?G polymorphism among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels is unknown. Therefore, 1,716 subjects, including 415 hemodialysis patients, 179 peritoneal dialysis patients, 733 kidney graft recipients, and 389 healthy subjects, were investigated. The distribution of MTR 2756A?G, as well as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T\\/1298A?C, genotypes among study participants with extremely

Alexandra Feix; Robert Fritsche-Polanz; Josef Kletzmayr; Andreas Vychytil; Walter H. Hörl; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Manuela Födinger

2001-01-01

287

Nerve sprouting in innervated adult skeletal muscle induced by exposure to elevated levels of insulin-like growth factors  

PubMed Central

Partial denervation or paralysis of adult skeletal muscle is followed by nerve sprouting, probably due to release of diffusible sprout- inducing activity by inactive muscle. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IFG2) are candidates for muscle-derived sprouting activity, because (a) they induce neurite growth from peripheral neurons in vitro; and (b) their mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle increase severalfold after denervation or paralysis. We sought to determine whether the presence of elevated levels of IGFs in innervated adult skeletal muscle was sufficient to produce intramuscular nerve growth. Low concentrations of IGFs induced massive neurite growth from enriched embryonic chick motoneurons in vitro. Half-maximal responses required 0.2 nM IGF2 or IGF1, or 20 nM insulin. Similar hormone binding properties of motoneuron processes in vitro were observed. Exposure of adult rat or mouse gluteus muscle in vivo to low quantities of exogenous IGF2 or IGF1 led to intramuscular nerve sprouting. Numbers of sprouts in IGF-exposed muscles were 10-fold higher than in vehicle- exposed or untreated muscles, and 12.2% of the end plates in IGF- exposed muscle (control: 2.7%) had sprouts growing from them. The nerve growth reaction was accompanied by elevated levels of intramuscular nerve-specific growth-associated protein GAP43. Additional properties of IGF-exposed muscle included modest proliferation of interstitial cells and elevated interstitial J1 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that elevated levels of IGFs in denervated or paralyzed muscle might trigger coordinate regenerative reactions, including nerve sprouting and expression of nerve growth-supporting substrate molecules by activated interstitial cells.

1990-01-01

288

Elevated IgE level in relationship to nutritional status and immune parameters in early human immunodeficiency virus–1 disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation of IgE has been associated with T-cell dysregulation and with the occurrence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The precise cause of IgE overproduction during the early stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 disease, however, has not been established. In light of reports demonstrating that IgE production may be affected by vitamin E levels in an

Gail Shor-Posner; Maria Jose Miguez-Burbano; Ying Lu; Daniel Feaster; MaryAnn Fletcher; Howerde Sauberlich; Marianna K. Baum

1995-01-01

289

Brief communication Dietary supplementation with cacao liquor proanthocyanidins prevents elevation of blood glucose levels in diabetic obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Effective approaches should be established to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has been increasing in developed countries. The present study examined whether dietary supplementation with cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CLPr) could prevent elevation of blood glucose levels in mice with diabetes mellitus and obesity. Methods: C57BL\\/KsJ-db\\/db (db\\/db) diabetic obese mice and C57BL\\/KsJ-db\\/m (db\\/m) control mice were

Makoto Tomaru; Hirohisa Takano; Naomi Osakabe; Akiko Yasuda; Ken-ichiro Inoue; Rie Yanagisawa; Tsuneto Ohwatari; Hiroshi Uematsu; Meiji Seika Kaisha

2007-01-01

290

Positron emission tomography with F-18-deoxyglucose in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, elevated thyroglobulin levels, and negative iodine scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, elevated serum levels of thyroglobulin (hTg) may occur in spite of otherwise\\u000a negative diagnostic procedures and in particular in spite of a negative iodine-131 scan. Positron emission tomography with\\u000a F-18-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a potentially useful method for the detection of metastatic lesions or the recurrence of thyroid\\u000a cancer. We aimed to investigate whether

G. Altenvoerde; H. Lerch; T. Kuwert; P. Matheja; M. Schäfers; O. Schober

1998-01-01

291

Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi\\/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area

P. E. Dresel; R. M. Smith; B. A. Williams; C. J. Thompson; J. C. Evans; L. C. Hulstrom

2000-01-01

292

Elevated level of lysine 9-acetylated histone H3 at the MDR1 promoter in multidrug-resistant cells.  

PubMed

Failure of chemotherapy in breast cancer presents a major problem and is often due to elevated expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC)-type transporters, such as MDR1 protein. It has been shown that MDR1/ABCB1 gene expression is regulated at the chromatin level by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. However, the modified histone residues have not been identified and the role of various histone acetyl transferases (HATs) is not fully understood. By studying a breast carcinoma model cell line and its MDR1-overexpressing derivative, we show that the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation level is elevated 100-fold in the promoter and first exon of the MDR1 gene in the drug-resistant cell line compared to the drug-sensitive cell line. The acetylation level of the other examined lysine residues (H3K4, H3K14, H4K8, and H4K12) is weakly or not at all elevated in the MDR1 locus, although their acetylation is generally increased genome-wide in the drug-resistant cell. Downregulation of the expression of HATs PCAF and GCN5 by RNAi effectively reduces the expression of MDR1. Unexpectedly, treatment with a p300-selective inhibitor (HAT inhibitor II) further increases MDR1 expression and drug efflux in the drug-resistant cells. Our data suggest that repeated exposure to chemotherapy may result in deregulated histone acetylation genome-wide and in the MDR1 promoter. PMID:22320423

Toth, Monika; Boros, Imre M; Balint, Eva

2012-03-19

293

Aortitis syndrome (Takayasu's arteritis) with cataract and elevated serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor.  

PubMed

The aortitis syndrome is a chronic inflammatory process that affects the aorta and its primary branches. Patients with aortitis syndrome exhibit various ocular changes. We present a patient in whom cataract was the initial objective finding. The serum concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor, a cytokine that affects neovascularization, and vasopermeability, was elevated before the initiation of prednisolone treatment. Cataract should be considered as a possible characteristic initial finding in patients with aortitis syndrome. Vascular endothelial growth factor may be involved in the progression of aortitis syndrome. PMID:9506883

Harada, M; Yoshida, H; Mitsuyama, K; Sakamoto, M; Koga, H; Matsuo, K; Teshima, Y; Ikeda, E; Sakisaka, S; Sata, M; Tanikawa, K

1998-01-01

294

A genome scan for serum triglyceride in obese nuclear families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are increased in extremely obese individuals, indicating abnormalities in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. We carried out a genome scan for serum TG in 320 nuclear families segregating ex- treme obesity and normal weight. Three hundred eighty-two Marshfield microsatellite markers (Screening Set 11) were genotyped. Quantitative linkage analyses were performed us- ing family regression and variance

Wei-Dong Li; Chuanhui Dong; Ding Li; Cathleen Garrigan; R. Arlen Price

2004-01-01

295

Products of oxidative stress inhibit aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways in dopamine catabolism yielding elevated levels of a reactive intermediate.  

PubMed

Dopamine (DA) has been implicated as an endogenous neurotoxin to explain the selective neurodegeneration as observed for Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are hypothesized culprits in PD pathogenesis. DA undergoes catabolism by monoamine oxidase (MAO) to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), which is further oxidized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). As a minor and compensatory metabolic pathway, DOPAL can be reduced to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) via cytosolic aldehyde or aldose reductase (AR). Previous studies have found DOPAL to be significantly more toxic to DA cells than DA and that the major lipid peroxidation products, that is, 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), potently inhibit DOPAL oxidation via ALDH. The hypothesis of this work is that lipid peroxidation products inhibit DOPAL oxidation, yielding aberrant levels of the toxic aldehyde intermediate. To test this hypothesis, nerve growth factor-differentiated PC6-3 cells were used as a model for DA neurons. Cell viability in the presence of 4HNE and MDA (2-100 microM) was measured by MTT assay, and it was found that only 100 microM 4HNE exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with varying concentrations of 4HNE and MDA resulted in reduced DOPAC production and significant elevation of DOPAL levels, suggesting inhibition of ALDH. In cells treated with 4HNE that exhibited elevated DOPAL, there was a significant increase in DOPET. However, elevated DOPET was not observed for the cells treated with MDA, suggesting MDA to be an inhibitor of AR. Using isolated cytosolic AR, it was found that MDA but not 4HNE inhibited reductase activity toward DOPAL, surprisingly. These data demonstrate that the oxidative stress products 4HNE and MDA inhibit the aldehyde biotransformation step of DA catabolism yielding elevated levels of the endogenous neurotoxin DOPAL, which may link oxidative stress to selective neurodegeneration as seen in PD. PMID:19388687

Jinsmaa, Yunden; Florang, Virginia R; Rees, Jennifer N; Anderson, David G; Strack, Stefan; Doorn, Jonathan A

2009-05-01

296

Products of Oxidative Stress Inhibit Aldehyde Oxidation and Reduction Pathways in Dopamine Catabolism Yielding Elevated Levels of a Reactive Intermediate  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA) has been implicated as an endogenous neurotoxin to explain the selective neurodegeneration as observed for Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are hypothesized culprits in PD pathogenesis. DA undergoes catabolism by monoamine oxidase (MAO) to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), which is further oxidized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). As a minor and compensatory metabolic pathway, DOPAL can be reduced to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) via cytosolic aldehyde or aldose reductase (AR). Previous studies have found DOPAL to be significantly more toxic to DA cells than DA and that the major lipid peroxidation products, i.e. 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), potently inhibit DOPAL oxidation via ALDH. The hypothesis of this work is that lipid peroxidation products inhibit DOPAL oxidation, yielding aberrant levels of the toxic aldehyde intermediate. To test this hypothesis, nerve-growth factor differentiated PC6-3 cells were used as a model for DA neurons. Cell viability in the presence of 4HNE and MDA (2-100 ?M) was measured by MTT assay and it was found that only 100 ?M 4HNE exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with varying concentrations of 4HNE and MDA resulted in reduced DOPAC production and significant elevation of DOPAL levels, suggesting inhibition of ALDH. In cells treated with 4HNE that exhibited elevated DOPAL, there was a significant increase in DOPET. However, elevated DOPET was not observed for the cells treated with MDA, suggesting MDA to be an inhibitor of AR. Using isolated cytosolic AR, it was found that MDA but not 4HNE inhibited reductase activity toward DOPAL, surprisingly. These data demonstrate that the oxidative stress products 4HNE and MDA inhibit the aldehyde biotransformation step of DA catabolism yielding elevated levels of the endogenous neurotoxin DOPAL, which may link oxidative stress to selective neurodegeneration as seen in PD.

Jinsmaa, Yunden; Florang, Virginia R.; Rees, Jennifer N.; Anderson, David G.; Strack, Stefan; Doorn, Jonathan A.

2009-01-01

297

Triglyceride Synthesis in Epididymal Adipose Tissue  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic has generated interest in determining the contribution of various pathways to triglyceride synthesis, including an elucidation of the origin of triglyceride fatty acids and triglyceride glycerol. We hypothesized that a dietary intervention would demonstrate the importance of using glucose versus non-glucose carbon sources to synthesize triglycerides in white adipose tissue. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low fat, high carbohydrate (HC) diet or a high fat, carbohydrate-free (CF) diet and maintained on 2H2O (to determine total triglyceride dynamics) or infused with [6,6-2H]glucose (to quantify the contribution of glucose to triglyceride glycerol). The 2H2O labeling data demonstrate that although de novo lipogenesis contributed ?80% versus ?5% to the pool of triglyceride palmitate in HC- versus CF-fed mice, the epididymal adipose tissue synthesized ?1.5-fold more triglyceride in CF- versus HC-fed mice, i.e. 37 ± 5 versus 25 ± 3 ?mol × day–1. The [6,6-2H]glucose labeling data demonstrate that ?69 and ?28% of triglyceride glycerol is synthesized from glucose in HC- versus CF-fed mice, respectively. Although these data are consistent with the notion that non-glucose carbon sources (e.g. glyceroneogenesis) can make substantial contributions to the synthesis of triglyceride glycerol (i.e. the absolute synthesis of triglyceride glycerol from non-glucose substrates increased from ?8 to ?26 ?mol × day–1 in HC- versus CF-fed mice), these observations suggest (i) the importance of nutritional status in affecting flux rates and (ii) the operation of a glycerol-glucose cycle.

Bederman, Ilya R.; Foy, Steven; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Alexander, James C.; Previs, Stephen F.

2009-01-01

298

Normal Triglyceride Levels and Coronary Artery Disease Events: The Baltimore Coronary Observational Long-Term Study 1 1 This study was supported by Grants HL02263 and HL52663 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to evaluate long-term predictors of coronary events in men and women with arteriographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD).Background. There is conflicting evidence of the role of triglycerides (TGs) as a prognosticator of CAD, and no studies have examined the long-term outcome of “normal” levels in predicting new coronary events.Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study that

Michael Miller; Alexander Seidler; Azita Moalemi; Thomas A Pearson

1998-01-01

299

Elevated furin levels in human cystic fibrosis cells result in hypersusceptibility to exotoxin A-induced cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Progressive pulmonary disease and infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain an intractable problem in cystic fibrosis (CF). At the cellular level, CF is characterized by organellar hyperacidification, which results in altered protein and lipid glycosylation. Altered pH of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) may further disrupt the protein processing and packaging that occurs in this organelle. Here we measured activity of the major TGN endoprotease furin and demonstrated a marked upregulation in human CF cells. Increased furin activity was linked to elevated production in CF of the immunosuppressive and tissue remodeling cytokine TGF-beta and its downstream effects, including macrophage deactivation and augmented collagen secretion by epithelial cells. As furin is responsible for the proteolytic processing of a range of endogenous and exogenous substrates including growth factors and bacterial toxins, we determined that elevated furin-dependent activation of exotoxin A caused increased cell death in CF respiratory epithelial cells compared with genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator-corrected cells. Thus elevated furin levels in CF respiratory epithelial cells contributes to bacterial toxin-induced cell death, fibrosis, and local immunosuppression. These data suggest that the use of furin inhibitors may represent a strategy for pharmacotherapy in CF. PMID:17948127

Ornatowski, Wojciech; Poschet, Jens F; Perkett, Elizabeth; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Deretic, Vojo

2007-11-01

300

Gravity stress elevates the nociceptive threshold level with immunohistochemical changes in the rat brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Wistar male rats were exposed to 2G hypergravity by continuous centrifugation for 15 minutes. The nociceptive threshold was measured by using the von Frey type filament on the rat skin surfaces after hypergravity exposure. Following the hypergravity exposure, rats were sacrificed with anesthesia, then perfused and fixed for immunohistochemical examination. The 2G hypergravity elevated the nociceptive threshold up to 2-fold and induced analgesic effects on rats that remained for 2 hours after termination of centrifugation. Expression of Fos-immunoreactive proteins was prominently induced by 2G hypergravity in the arcuate nucleas and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The 15-minute flash exposure to 2G hypergravity induced pain suppression in rats, which might be attributed to change of neuronal activity in rat hypothalamus.

Kumei, Yasuhiro; Shimokawa, Reiko; Kimoto, Mari; Kawauchi, Yasuko; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Makita, Koshi; Ohya, Keiichi; Toda, Kazuo

2001-08-01

301

Elevated Plasma Long Pentraxin-3 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pre-transplant, and 6 and 24 hours post reperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction<0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 hours were associated with PGD (OR=1.6, p=0.02 at 6hrs; OR=1.4, p=0.008 at 24hrs). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted.

Diamond, Joshua M.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Ahya, Vivek N.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Deutschman, Clifford C.; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Ashish S.; Belperio, John A.; Wilkes, David; Reynolds, John M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2011-01-01

302

Elevated body fat percentage and cardiovascular risks at low body mass index levels among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) in Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians, and to determine the risk for selected comorbidities at various BMI categories and abdominal fat distributions, as assessed by waist circumference (WC). The study was a cross-sectional (population) design. In total, 4723 subjects participated in the National Health Survey of 1998 in which the risks were investigated. A selected subsample of 291 subjects participated in a detailed body composition study, where weight, height and WC were measured, as were blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum triglycerides and fasting glucose. In the subsample, BF% was determined by means of a chemical four-compartment model. At any given BF% the BMI of Singaporeans was about 3 kg m(-2) lower than that of Caucasians. There were slight differences in the BF%/BMI relationship between the three ethnic groups. For all the ethnic groups, it was found that at low categories of BMI (between 22 and 24 kg m(-2)) and WC (between 75 and 80cm for women and between 80 and 85 cm for men), the absolute risks for having at least one of the aforementioned risk factors were high, ranging from 41 to 81%. At these same categories the relative risks were significantly higher compared to the reference category, odds ratios ranging from 1.97-4.38. These categories of BMI and WC were all far below the cut-off values of BMI and WC as currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The data from the current study, which includes evidence that not only risk factors, but also BF% are elevated at low BMI values, presents a strong case for lowering the BMI cut-off value for overweight and obesity among Singaporeans, from 25 kg m(-2) and 30 kg m(-2) to 23 kg m(-2) and 27 kg m(-2), respectively. PMID:12164474

Deurenberg-Yap, M; Chew, S K; Deurenberg, P

2002-08-01

303

Relation of elevated levels of plasma myeloperoxidase to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are related to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion. Moreover, elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Plasma MPO levels were measured in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (n = 160) who had undergone percutaneous coronary stenting within 12 hours of symptom onset. We investigated whether the plasma MPO level at admission was associated with impaired myocardial microcirculation, as indicated by ST-segment resolution and myocardial blush grade after reperfusion, and left ventricular ejection fraction and remodeling at 6 months. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median MPO value for the entire cohort (low-MPO group < or =50 ng/ml, n = 80; high-MPO group >50 ng/ml, n = 80). ST-segment resolution and the myocardial blush grade were significantly lower in the high-MPO than in the low-MPO group (48 +/- 27% vs 61 +/- 24%, p <0.005; and 2.1 +/- 0.8 vs 2.4 +/- 0.7, p <0.01; respectively). Moreover, the percentage of increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was significantly greater and the left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 months was significantly lower in the high-MPO group than in the low-MPO group (8.2 +/- 24.7% vs -1.9 +/- 23.5%, p <0.05; and 46 +/- 9% vs 54 +/- 9%, p <0.0001, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that the plasma MPO level was an independent predictor of incomplete ST-segment resolution (odds ratio 6.94, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 22.9, p = 0.0015). In conclusion, elevated plasma MPO levels at admission were associated with impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:20346307

Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Komatsu, Ryushi; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Masashi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Becker, Anton E; Ueda, Makiko

2010-02-13

304

Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?  

PubMed

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet. PMID:15091467

Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

1995-01-01

305

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

NONE

1998-08-01

306

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins prevent septic death in rats  

PubMed Central

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins bind and inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro and prevent death when given before a lethal dose of endotoxin in animals. However, lipoproteins have not yet been demonstrated to improve survival in polymicrobial gram-negative sepsis. We therefore tested the ability of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to prevent death after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. Animals were given bolus infusions of either chylomicrons (1 g triglyceride/kg per 4 h) or an equal volume of saline for 28 h after CLP. Chylomicron infusions significantly improved survival (measured at 96 h) compared with saline controls (80 vs 27%, P < or = 0.03). Chylomicron infusions also reduced serum levels of endotoxin, measured 90 min (26 +/- 3 vs 136 +/- 51 pg/ml, mean +/- SEM, P < or = 0.03) and 6 h (121 +/- 54 vs 1,026 +/- 459 pg/ml, P < or = 0.05) after CLP. The reduction in serum endotoxin correlated with a reduction in serum tumor necrosis factor, measured 6 h after CLP (0 +/- 0 vs 58 +/- 24 pg/ml, P < or = 0.03), suggesting that chylomicrons improve survival in this model by limiting macrophage exposure to endotoxin and thereby reducing secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Infusions of a synthetic triglyceride-rich lipid emulsion (Intralipid; KabiVitrum, Inc., Alameda, CA) (1 g triglyceride/kg) also significantly improved survival compared with saline controls (71 vs 27%, P < or = 0.03). These data demonstrate that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins can protect animals from lethal polymicrobial gram- negative sepsis.

1995-01-01

307

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

2013-10-06

308

Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia.  

PubMed

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is required for the biosynthesis of oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1). These monounsaturated fatty acids are the major components of phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters, and cholesterol esters. Mice with a targeted disruption of the SCD1 gene have very low levels of VLDL and impaired triglyceride and cholesterol ester biosynthesis. In the HYPLIP mouse, a model of hyperlipidemia, there was a 4-fold increase in hepatic SCD activity, a 1.8-fold increase in the desaturation index, and a 2-fold increase in plasma triglycerides. We used the plasma ratio of 18:1/18:0 (the "desaturation index") as an in vivo measure of SCD activity in human subjects. In human subjects with triglycerides ranging from 0.3 to 20 mM, the desaturation ratio accounted for one-third of the variance in plasma triglyceride levels. A 2-fold increase in the desaturation index was associated with a 4-fold increase in plasma triglycerides. In human subjects exposed to a high carbohydrate diet, the desaturation index explained 44% of the variance in triglycerides. We propose that many of the factors that influence plasma triglyceride levels do so by converging upon the regulation of SCD activity. PMID:12401889

Attie, Alan D; Krauss, Ronald M; Gray-Keller, Mark P; Brownlie, Alison; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kastelein, John J; Lusis, Aldons J; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Stoehr, Jonathan P; Hayden, Michael R; Ntambi, James M

2002-11-01

309

Elevated blood levels of inflammatory monocytes (CD14+ CD16+ ) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder. Although its pathophysiology is not completely understood, neurogenic inflammation is thought to play a significant role. Microglia and astrocytes are activated following tissue injury or inflammation and have been reported to be both necessary and sufficient for enhanced nociception. Blood-borne monocytes/macrophages can infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and differentiate into microglia resulting in hypersensitivity and chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of the proinflammatory CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes as well as plasma cytokine levels in blood from CRPS patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy control individuals. Forty-six subjects (25 CRPS, 21 controls) were recruited for this study. The percentage of monocytes, T, B or natural killer (NK) cells did not differ between CRPS and controls. However, the percentage of the CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte/macrophage subgroup was elevated significantly (P<0·01) in CRPS compared to controls. Individuals with high percentage of CD14(+) CD16(+) demonstrated significantly lower (P<0·05) plasma levels on the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Our data cannot determine whether CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes became elevated prior to or after developing CRPS. In either case, the elevation of blood proinflammatoty monocytes prior to the initiating event may predispose individuals for developing the syndrome whereas the elevation of blood proinflammatory monocytes following the development of CRPS may be relevant for its maintenance. Further evaluation of the role the immune system plays in the pathogenesis of CRPS may aid in elucidating disease mechanisms as well as the development of novel therapies for its treatment. PMID:21303362

Ritz, B W; Alexander, G M; Nogusa, S; Perreault, M J; Peterlin, B L; Grothusen, J R; Schwartzman, R J

2011-02-08

310

Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration is reemerging as an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. More complete understanding of the genes and variants that modulate plasma TG should enable development of markers for risk prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies and might help specify new directions for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified both known and novel loci associated with plasma TG concentration. However, genetic variation at these loci explains only ?10% of overall TG variation within the population. As the GWAS approach may be reaching its limit for discovering genetic determinants of TG, alternative genetic strategies, such as rare variant sequencing studies and evaluation of animal models, may provide complementary information to flesh out knowledge of clinically and biologically important pathways in TG metabolism. Herein, we review genes recently implicated in TG metabolism and describe how some of these genes likely modulate plasma TG concentration. We also discuss lessons regarding plasma TG metabolism learned from various genomic and genetic experimental approaches. Treatment of patients with moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia with existing therapies is often challenging; thus, gene products and pathways found in recent genetic research studies provide hope for development of more effective clinical strategies.

Johansen, Christopher T.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A.

2011-01-01

311

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management  

PubMed Central

Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (?1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal.

Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Boren, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

2011-01-01

312

Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Is Activated by Elevated Plasma Catecholamines Levels and Is Inversely Related to Central Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown that adult human possess active brown adipose tissue (BAT), which might be important in controlling obesity. It is known that ß-adrenoceptor-UCP1 system regulates BAT in rodent, but its influence in adult humans remains to be shown. The present study is to determine whether BAT activity can be independently stimulated by elevated catecholamines levels in adult human, and whether it is associated with their adiposity. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 14 patients with pheochromocytoma and 14 normal subjects who had performed both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and plasma total metanephrine (TMN) measurements during 2007–2010. The BAT detection rate and the mean BAT activity were significantly higher in patients with elevated TMN levels (Group A: 6/8 and 6.7±2.1 SUVmean· g/ml) than patients with normal TMN concentrations (Group B: 0/6 and 0.4±0.04 SUVmean· g/ml) and normal subjects (Group C: 0/14 and 0.4±0.03 SUVmean·g/ml). BAT activities were positively correlated with TMN levels (R?=?0.83, p<0.0001) and were inversely related to body mass index (R?=??0.47, p?=?0.010), visceral fat areas (R?=??0.39, p?=?0.044), visceral/total fat areas (R?=??0.52, p?=?0.0043) and waist circumferences (R?=??0.43, p?=?0.019). Robust regression revealed that TMN (R?=?0.81, p<0.0001) and waist circumferences (R?=??0.009, p?=?0.009) were the two independent predictors of BAT activities. Conclusions/Significance Brown adipose tissue activity in adult human can be activated by elevated plasma TMN levels, such as in the case of patients with pheochromocytoma, and is negatively associated with central adiposity.

Ning, Guang; Gu, Weiqiong; Su, Tingwei; Xu, Min; Li, Biao; Wang, Weiqing

2011-01-01

313

Elevated IgE level in relationship to nutritional status and immune parameters in early human immunodeficiency virus-1 disease.  

PubMed

Elevation of IgE has been associated with T-cell dysregulation and with the occurrence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The precise cause of IgE overproduction during the early stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease, however, has not been established. In light of reports demonstrating that IgE production may be affected by vitamin E levels in an animal model, we evaluated nutritional status in relationship to plasma IgE levels and immune parameters in 100 asymptomatic HIV-1-seropositive and 42 HIV-1-seronegative homosexual men. Approximately 18% of the HIV-1-seropositive population demonstrated biochemical evidence of plasma vitamin E deficiency (< 5 micrograms/ml). Subsequent analysis of available samples indicated a dramatic elevation of IgE levels (308 +/- 112 IU/ml) in vitamin E-deficient seropositive subjects (n = 9) as compared with age and CD4-matched HIV-1-seropositive persons with adequate vitamin E levels (n = 16, 118.1 +/- 41.1 IU/ml) and significantly lower levels (59.5 +/- 15.7 IU/ml) in HIV-1-seronegative men (n = 20, p = 0.01). This effect, which was independent of CD4 cell count, did not appear to be influenced by atopic or gastrointestinal parasitic disease. The low plasma vitamin E levels were related at least in part to dietary intake (r = 0.552, p = 0.01), suggesting that supplementation may be warranted in HIV-1-infected persons in whom vitamin E deficiency develops. Analysis of covariance revealed a strong relationship between IgE levels and CD8 cell counts (p < 0.006), and between IgE level and vitamin E deficiency (p < 0.039).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722170

Shor-Posner, G; Miguez-Burbano, M J; Lu, Y; Feaster, D; Fletcher, M; Sauberlich, H; Baum, M K

1995-04-01

314

A persistently elevated C-reactive protein level in pneumonia may indicate empyema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coelho et al. [1] investigated the use of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels for monitoring of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). They found that patients without a decrease in CRP levels on treatment had an increased mortality compared to patients with a rapid fall of this marker. The authors did not discuss another important use of the analysis of the

Michael Eisenhut

2008-01-01

315

Elevation of the Serum Uric Acid Level Preceding the Clinical Manifestation of Preeclampsia in Twin Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess changes in the serum uric acid level in the third trimester of twin pregnancies, a total of 152 consecutive women with twin pregnancies were examined. Serum uric acid levels were analyzed in the women at varying gestational weeks in the presence or absence of preeclampsia. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff value

Toshimitsu Koike; Hisanori Minakami; Takeshi Takayama; Shuichi Ogawa; Tomoyuki Kuwata; Ikuo Sato

1997-01-01

316

Great Lakes Water Levels 1973. Daily and Monthly Average Water Surface Elevations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains Lake Survey Center Great Lakes water level gage records and shows in tabular form daily and monthly average levels for each gage in the network for the calendar year. It also contains, in a separate table, the highest and lowest d...

1974-01-01

317

Great Lakes Water Levels 1974. Daily and Monthly Average Water Surface Elevations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains Lake Survey Center Great Lake water-level gage records and shows in tabular form daily and monthly average levels for each gage in the network for the calendar year. It also contains, in a separate table, the highest and lowest da...

1975-01-01

318

Great Lakes Water Levels--1972. Daily and Monthly Average Water Surface Elevations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains Lake Survey Center Great Lakes water level gage records and shows in tabular form daily and monthly average levels for each gage in the network for the calendar year. It also contains, in a separate table, the highest and lowest d...

1973-01-01

319

Antiangiogenic Gene Therapy of Cancer Utilizing a Recombinant Adenovirus to Elevate Systemic Endostatin Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy represents a possible alternative to the chronic delivery of recombinant antiangiogenic proteins to cancer patients. Inducing normal host tissues to produce high circulating levels of these proteins may be more effective than targeting antiangiogenic genes to tumor tissue specif- ically. Previously reported gene therapy approaches in mice have achieved peak circulating endostatin levels of 8 -33 ng\\/ml. Here

Andrew L. Feldman; Nicholas P. Restifo; H. Richard Alexander; David L. Bartlett; Patrick Hwu; Prem Seth; Steven K. Libutti

320

Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

2011-01-01

321

Elevated levels of active matrix metalloproteinase-9 cause hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of extracellular proteases involved in tissue remodeling in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While increased expression of MMPs (especially MMP-9) has been observed in skeletal muscle in numerous conditions, their physiological significance remains less-well understood. By generating novel skeletal muscle-specific transgenic (Tg) mice expressing constitutively active mutant of MMP-9 (i.e. MMP-9G100L), in this study, we have investigated the effects of elevated levels of MMP-9 on skeletal muscle structure and function in vivo. Tg expression of enzymatically active MMP-9 protein significantly increased skeletal muscle fiber cross-section area, levels of contractile proteins and force production in isometric contractions. MMP-9 stimulated the activation of the Akt signaling pathway in Tg mice. Moreover, expression of active MMP-9 increased the proportion of fast-type fiber in soleus muscle of mice. Overexpression of MMP-9 also considerably reduced the deposition of collagens I and IV in skeletal muscle in vivo. In one-year-old mdx mice (a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, DMD), deletion of the Mmp9 gene reduced fiber hypertrophy and phosphorylation of Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Collectively, our study suggests that elevated levels of active MMP-9 protein cause hypertrophy in skeletal muscle and that the modulation of MMP-9 levels may have therapeutic value in various muscular disorders including DMD.

Dahiya, Saurabh; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Jiang, Chunhui; Paul, Pradyut K.; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

2011-01-01

322

Chitinase 3-Like 1 Protein Levels Are Elevated in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background Currently there are few studies characterising the nature and aetiology of human schistosome-related inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40, a molecule associated with inflammatory processes, and schistosome infection, morbidity and systemic cytokine levels. Methods Serological levels of CHI3L1 and a panel of cytokines (IFN-y, IL-4/5/6/9/10/13 and 17) were measured in two Zimbabwean populations resident in a high and low schistosome infection area. CHI3L1 levels were related to schistosome infection, haematuria status and cytokine levels after allowing for confounding variables. The effect of antihelminthic treatment with praziquantel on CHI3L1 levels was determined in 246 participants 6 weeks post-treatment. Results CHI3L1 levels increased with age in both areas but were significantly higher in the high infection areas compared to the low infection area. CHI3L1 levels were also higher in infected compared to uninfected individuals with this difference being significant in the youngest age group. Curative antihelminthic treatment resulted in a significant decrease in CHI3L1 levels. Of the cytokines, only IL-10 and IL-17 had a significant association with CHI3L1 levels, and this association was negative. Conclusions Serum CHI3L1 levels differ between infected and uninfected people before and after antihelminthic treatment. The greatest difference occurs in the youngest age group, in keeping with the period when schistosome-related pathological processes are initiated. Following from previous studies in non-infectious diseases showing that CHI3L1 is a biomarker for the inflammatory process, this study suggests that the potential for CHI3L1 as a biomarker for schistosome-related pathology should be explored further.

Appleby, Laura J.; Nausch, Norman; Bourke, Claire D.; Rujeni, Nadine; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Allen, Judith E.; Mutapi, Francisca

2012-01-01

323

Lack of toxicity by medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in canines during a 90-day feeding study.  

PubMed

Dietary fats in food are natural energy sources to animals and are included in the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) manual as a requirement for dog food. Medium chain triglycerides are comprised of a glycerol backbone esterified to medium chain length (8-12 carbon) fatty acids (FA) and, in the context of this report, are all saturated FA. Unlike esterified long chain (>12 carbons) FA (long chain triglycerides or LCT), MCT are lower in caloric value, and are eliminated from the body more quickly than LCT. The objective of this study was to determine the safety of MCT when fed to beagles for 90 days at levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% MCT added to conventional feed. The beagles were monitored for signs of toxicity by clinical observations, body weight measurements, food consumption level, physical examinations, hematology and serum chemistry, ophthalmic examinations, and urinalysis. There were no signs of toxic effects observed in any of the animals that were related to feed, and the animal viability was 100% at the end of the study. Some animals exhibited significant increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and cholesterol levels in the 10% and 15% MCT-fed groups. Also, in the same groups with elevated nitrogen, there were concomitant reductions in total blood protein and urine volumes. These changes in serum chemistry may be the result of protein sparing effects due to the high levels of MCT intake, and are not deemed to be pathological in nature. Animals receiving 15% MCT in feed had lower levels of food intake due to palatability issues. From the other examination parameters, there were no significant changes noted between groups receiving MCT and vehicle feed. No safety concerns were noted at any dose level, although an issue with palatability precluded identifying 15% as the highest dose level tested. PMID:19135768

Matulka, Ray A; Thompson, D V M Larry; Burdock, George A

2009-01-01

324

The prevalence of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels in inflammatory and noninflammatory thyroid disease.  

PubMed

C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have not been routinely used to diagnose thyroid disease, although many thyroid conditions involve inflammation. This study was intended to determine whether CRP levels could differentiate between inflammatory and noninflammatory thyroid conditions, especially between type II inflammatory amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and type I iodine-induced AIT. Serum high-sensitivity CRP levels were measured in 100 euthyroid controls (7 taking amiodarone) and 353 patients with one of the following thyroid conditions: AIT, subacute thyroiditis, toxic diffuse goiter, nodular goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, shortterm hypothyroidism, or postpartum thyroiditis. No patients with nontoxic multinodular goiter (n = 34), toxic nodular goiter (n = 23), or toxic diffuse goiter, either untreated (n = 49) or euthyroid while taking methimazole (n = 33), had positive CRP levels (>10 mg/L). The occurrence of positive CRP levels among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 35), short-term hypothyroidism (n = 38), and postpartum thyroiditis (n = 70) did not differ significantly from controls. The occurrence of positive CRP values did not differ significantly between patients with type I and type II AIT and controls. Six of 7 patients (86%) with untreated subacute thyroiditis had positive CRP levels (p < 0.00001). These results indicate that there is only a limited role for measurement of CRP levels in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases other than subacute thyroiditis. PMID:12964969

Pearce, Elizabeth N; Bogazzi, Fausto; Martino, Enio; Brogioni, Sandra; Pardini, Enia; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Parkes, Arthur B; Lazarus, John H; Pinchera, Aldo; Braverman, Lewis E

2003-07-01

325

Is elevated serum ceruloplasmin level associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: An imbalance between the lipid peroxidation process and antioxidative protection is associated with the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD). The authors aimed to determine the relationship between the contributors of antioxidant protection, such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, albumin, vitamin C and ceruloplasmin (CP) levels, and lipid peroxidation indicators. METHODS: In the present study, the activity of PON1 was measured, together with serum concentrations of a variety of lipid constituents, albumin, vitamin C and CP levels, and lipid peroxidation indicators (conjugated dienes [CDs] and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]). Data were gathered from 26 nondiabetic, angiographically proven, Turkish CAD patients and 26 healthy controls living in the Antalya region (Turkey). RESULTS: CAD patients had significantly lower PON1 activity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin C and albumin concentrations, and higher CP, CD and TBARS concentrations than the controls. In the entire study population (n=52), serum CP levels were positively correlated with TBARS and CD levels, and negatively correlated with albumin and vitamin C levels, as well as with PON1 activity. On multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with CAD included high CP and low albumin levels. CONCLUSIONS: CAD patients and controls were matched for age and sex, and high CP and low albumin levels were found to be independent risk factors for CAD. The present data gathered from the study group living in the Antalya region verifies that in CAD patients, CP impairs the oxidant-antioxidant balance in favour of the oxidants.

Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Sahin, Emel; Semiz, Ender; Gumuslu, Saadet

2008-01-01

326

Early childhood stress is associated with elevated antibody levels to herpes simplex virus type 1  

PubMed Central

It is well known that children need solicitous parenting and a nurturing rearing environment to ensure their normal behavioral development. Early adversity often negatively impacts emotional and mental well-being, but it is less clearly established how much the maturation and regulation of physiological systems is also compromised. The following research investigated the effect of 2 different types of adverse childhood experiences, early deprivation through institutionalization and physical abuse, on a previously unexplored outcome: the containment of herpes simplex virus (HSV). The presence of HSV-specific antibody in salivary specimens was determined in 155 adolescents, including 41 postinstitutionalized, 34 physically-abused, and 80 demographically-similar control youth. Across 4 school and home days, HSV antibody was higher in both postinstitutionalized and physically-abused adolescents when compared with control participants. Because the prevalence of HSV infection was similar across the groups, the elevated antibody was likely indicative of viral recrudescence from latency. Total secretory Ig-A secretion was associated with HSV, but did not account for the group differences in HSV-specific antibody. These findings are likely caused by a failure of cellular immune processes to limit viral reactivation, indicating a persistent effect of early rearing on immune functioning. The fact that antibody profiles were still altered years after adoption into a more benevolent setting with supportive families suggests these results were not caused by contemporaneous factors, but rather reflect a lingering influence of earlier life experiences.

Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Coe, Christopher L.; Pollak, Seth D.

2009-01-01

327

Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 ?atm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 ?atm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 ?atm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 ?atm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and fracture toughness of the shells) were negatively affected by elevated CO2 alone or in combination with low salinity, which may have important implications for protection against predators or environmental stressors. Our data indicate that environmental salinity can strongly modulate responses to ocean acidification in hard-shell clams and thus should be taken into account when predicting the effects of ocean acidification on estuarine bivalves. PMID:23531824

Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

2013-03-26

328

Mutations of the Microsomal Triglyceride-Transfer-Protein Gene in Abetalipoproteinemia  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)–containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. ImagesFigure 1p1304-aFigure 3Figure 4

Narcisi, Teresa M. E.; Shoulders, Carol C.; Chester, S. Ann; Read, Jacqueline; Brett, David J.; Harrison, Georgina B.; Grantham, Tamsin T.; Fox, Margaret F.; Povey, Sue; de Bruin, Tjerk W. A.; Erkelens, D. Willem; Muller, David P. R.; Lloyd, June K.; Scott, James

1995-01-01

329

Genetically elevated fetuin-a levels, fasting glucose levels, and risk of type 2 diabetes: the cardiovascular health study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetic variation, fetuin-A levels, and fasting glucose were assessed in 2,893 Caucasian and 542 African American community-living individuals 65 years of age or older in 1992-1993. RESULTS Common AHSG variants (rs4917 and rs2248690) were strongly associated with fetuin-A concentrations (P < 0.0001). In analyses of 259 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not associated with diabetes risk during follow-up and similar null associations were observed when 579 prevalent cases were included. As expected, higher fetuin-A levels were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (1.9 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.2-2.7] higher per SD in Caucasians), but Mendelian randomization analyses using both SNPs as unbiased proxies for measured fetuin-A did not support an association between genetically predicted fetuin-A levels and fasting glucose (-0.3 mg/dL [95% CI, -1.9 to 1.3] lower per SD in Caucasians). The difference between the associations of fasting glucose with actual and genetically predicted fetuin-A level was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Results among the smaller sample of African Americans trended in similar directions but were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS Common variants in the AHSG gene are strongly associated with plasma fetuin-A concentrations, but not with risk of type 2 diabetes or glucose concentrations, raising the possibility that the association between fetuin-A and type 2 diabetes may not be causal. PMID:23801724

Jensen, Majken K; Bartz, Traci M; Djoussé, Luc; Kizer, Jorge R; Zieman, Susan J; Rimm, Eric B; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Ix, Joachim H; Mukamal, Kenneth J

2013-06-25

330

Rhode Island Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal salt marsh is especially sensitive to deterioration due to the effects of accelerated sea level rise when combined with other anthropogenically linked stressors, including crab herbivory, changes in tidal hydrology, nutrient loading, dam construction, changes in temperature...

331

Best Value, Inc., Recalls PRAN Bran Turmeric Powder Due to Elevated Levels of Lead  

NASA Website

BEST VALUE, INC. of Detroit, MI is voluntarily recalling PRAN TURMERIC POWDER because it was found to contain high levels of lead that could cause health problems to consumers, particularly infants, small children, and pregnant women if consumed. The ...

332

PLASMA SELENIUM LEVELS CORRELATE WITH ELEVATED IMMUNOCOMPETENCE OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS LARVAE AGAINST BACULOVIRUS INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary selenium supplementation boosts larval lepidopteran immunocompetence against a baculoviral challenge. To begin dissecting the mechanism of this Se-dependent immunostimulatory effect we have determined the plasma Se levels in larvae of the lepidopteran pest the budworm, Heliothis virescens. ...

333

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent in...

F. E. Ames

1994-01-01

334

Elevated iron levels in hair from steel mill workers in Karachi, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Over the last two decades, much interest has been focused on the use of trace metals in human hair to diagnose nutritional deficiencies of these metals or toxicities of metals such as lead or organic mercury. Although the diagnostic value of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead and mercury levels in human hair have been well established, little information is available on the significance of iron (Fe) levels in hair to diagnose nutritional deficiency or toxicity of this metal. The present study was conducted to determine if occupational exposure in the steel industry resulted in alterations i the levels of Fe, Zn, and Cu in hair and could thus serve as a simple tool for monitoring exposure to potentially hazardous levels of these metals.

Jamall, I.S.; Jaffer, R.A.

1987-10-01

335

Serum Levels of Pigmentation Markers Are Elevated in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diffuse hyperpigmentation is common among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD). We have examined serum levels of 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5SCD, a pheomelanin precursor), pheomelanin, eumelanin, and protein-bound (PB-) 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and PB-5SCD in HD patients. Methods: Pheomelanin and eumelanin were assayed by chemical degradation methods. Results: Serum levels of free 5SCD in HD patients (n = 16) were

Kazutaka Murakami; Kazumasa Wakamatsu; Yukiko Nakanishi; Hiroki Takahashi; Satoshi Sugiyama; Shosuke Ito

2007-01-01

336

Highly elevated levels of prostaglandin D synthase in the serum of patients with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To investigate whether prostaglandin D (PGD) synthase levels differ in the serum of patients with or without renal dysfunction. PGD synthase or beta-trace protein is a major constituent (approximately 3% of total protein) of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We previously reported that PGD synthase levels in serum are approximately 40- to 60-fold lower than those in CSF.Methods. We measured

DIMITRIOS N. MELEGOS; Linda Grass; Andreas Pierratos; ELEFTHERIOS P. DIAMANDIS

1999-01-01

337

Down syndrome patients with pulmonary hypertension have elevated plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome (DS) patients have an increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH). Increased plasma levels of asymmetric\\u000a dimethylarginine (ADMA) may contribute to vascular dysfunction in adults with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Our goal\\u000a was to test the hypothesis that DS patients with PH have higher plasma levels of ADMA than DS patients without PH. DS patients\\u000a with definitive PH (n?=?6)

Clifford L. Cua; Lynette K. Rogers; Louis G. Chicoine; Molly Augustine; Yi Jin; Patricia L. Nash; Leif D. Nelin

2011-01-01

338

Serum Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) Levels in Acute Leukemia: Marked Elevations in Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum total lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were examined in 42 patients with acute leukemia. 9 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. 6 of them in blastic crisis, and 53 patients with lymphoma and other lymphoproliferative disorders. The mean range of serum LDH levels in Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 402 ± 210 lU\\/liter and 313 ± 1 13 lU\\/liter, while that

Abraham Kornberg; Aaron Polliack

1980-01-01

339

Folic acid treatment reduces elevated plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects.  

PubMed

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, has been suggested to be a novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. It has previously been reported that hyperhomocysteinaemia may be associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and reduced plasma level of NO-derived endproducts (NOx). In the present study, plasma levels of arginine and ADMA were measured in twenty-one healthy control subjects, and in twenty-one hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects before and after 6 weeks and 12 months of folic acid supplementation, and compared with previously measured plasma NOx values in the hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. Compared with control subjects, hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects had higher plasma levels of arginine and ADMA. More importantly, folic acid therapy significantly reduced plasma levels of arginine and ADMA. Furthermore, plasma levels of arginine and ADMA were positively correlated with plasma homocysteine levels and negatively correlated with plasma folate, as well as negatively correlated with plasma NOx. Our results suggest that ADMA may be a mediator of the atherogenic effects of homocysteine. PMID:12628031

Holven, Kirsten B; Haugstad, Tor S; Holm, Torbjørn; Aukrust, Pål; Ose, Leiv; Nenseter, Marit S

2003-03-01

340

Elevated Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in the Placenta Are Associated With in utero HIV-1 Mother-To-Child Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if there is an association between cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma isolated from the placenta and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Design We designed a case-control study of HIV-infected, pregnant women enrolled in the Malaria and HIV in Pregnancy cohort. Participants were recruited in Blantyre, Malawi from 2000-04. Cases were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-positive at birth (in utero MTCT) or HIV-1 DNA-negative at birth and HIV-1 DNA-positive at 6-weeks post-partum (intrapartum MTCT); controls were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-negative both at birth and 6-weeks post-partum. Methods After delivery, blood was isolated from an incision on the basal plate of the placenta. We used a Luminex assay to simultaneously quantify 27 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in placental plasma. HIV-1 RNA copies were quantified with the Roche Amplicor kit. Results Levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, eotaxin, IL1Ra and IP-10 were significantly elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of in utero HIV-1 MTCT. In contrast, only GCSF was elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of intrapartum MTCT. After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age, and peripheral CD4+ T cell count, every log10 increase in placental IP-10 was associated with a three-fold increase in the prevalence of in utero HIV-1 MTCT. Conclusions Elevated cytokine and chemokine levels in placental plasma were associated with in utero and not intrapartum MTCT. IP-10, which is both a T-cell chemokine and potentiator of HIV-replication, was robustly and independently associated with prevalent, in utero MTCT.

Kumar, Surender B.; Rice, Cara E.; Milner, Danny A.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ackerman, William E.; Mwapasa, Victor; Turner, Abigail Norris; Kwiek, Jesse J.

2012-01-01

341

The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils  

PubMed Central

Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of ‘new’ soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4–5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4–5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth.

Schmidt, S.K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Stuart Grandy, A; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A.F; Neff, J.C; Martin, A.M

2008-01-01

342

Serum progranulin levels are elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, reflecting disease activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Progranulin (PGRN) is the precursor of granulin (GRN), a soluble cofactor for toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling evoked by oligonucleotide (CpG)-DNA. Because TLR9 signaling plays an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we investigated whether PGRN is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. Methods We measured concentrations of serum PGRN and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with SLE (n = 68) and in healthy controls (n = 60). We assessed the correlation between the serum PGRN levels and established disease-activity indexes. The sera from the patients with high PGRN titers (>80 ng/ml) at the initial evaluation were reevaluated after the disease was ameliorated by treatment. We also measured the IL-6 concentration secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) incubated with (a) oligonucleotide (CpG-B) in the presence or absence of recombinant human PGRN (rhPGRN); and (b) lupus sera in the presence or absence of a neutralizing anti-PGRN antibody. Results Serum PGRN levels were significantly higher in SLE patients than healthy controls. Their levels were significantly associated with activity of clinical symptoms. They also significantly correlated with values of clinical parameters, including the SLE Disease Activity Index and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody titers, and inversely with CH50, C3, and C4 levels. Moreover, serum PGRN levels significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. The rhPGRN significantly upregulated the production of IL-6 by PBMCs stimulated with CpG-B. Patients' sera stimulated production of IL-6 from PBMCs, which was significantly impaired by neutralization of PGRN. The serum PGRN levels significantly correlated with the serum IL-6 levels. Conclusions Serum PGRN could be a useful biomarker for disease activity of SLE. PGRN may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE partly by enhancing the TLR9 signaling.

2012-01-01

343

N-carbamoyloxyurea-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells with elevated levels of ribonucleotide reductase activity.  

PubMed

We describe the isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line selected for resistance to N-carbamoyloxyurea. Using the mammalian cell permeabilization assay developed in our laboratory, a detailed analysis of the target enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase (EC 1.17.4.1), was carried out. Both drug-resistant and parental wild-type cells required the same optimum conditions for enzyme activity. The Ki values for N-carbamoyloxyurea inhibition of CDP reduction were 2.0 mM for NCR-30A cells and 2.3 mM for wild-type cells, while the Ki value for ADP reduction was 2.3 mM for both cell lines. Although the Ki values remained essentially unchanged, the Vmax values for NCR-30A cells were 1.01 nmoles dCDP formed/5 X 10(6) cells/hour and 1.83 nmoles dADP/5 X 10(6) cells/hour, while those for the wild-type cells were 0.49 nmoles dCDP produced/5 X 10(6) cells/hour and 1.00 nmoles dADP/5 X 10(6) cells/hour. This approximate twofold increase in reductase activity as least partially accounts for a 2.6-fold increase in D10 value for cellular resistance to N-carbamoyloxyurea exhibited by NCR-30A cells. The NCR-30A cell line was also cross-resistant to the antitumor agents, hydroxyurea and guanazole. No differences in Ki values for inhibition of CDP and ADP reduction by these two drugs were detected and cellular resistance could be entirely accounted for by the elevation in activity of the reductase in the NCR-30A cell line. The properties of N-carbamoyloxyurea-resistance cells indicate they should be useful for further investigations into the regulation of mammalian enzyme activity. PMID:7012160

Hards, R G; Wright, J A

1981-02-01

344

Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike. PMID:18198937

Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T

2008-01-16

345

Elevation of cyclic AMP levels in HL-60 cells accumulated in G1 or G2 by transmethylation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Effects of the transmethylation inhibitors 3-deazaadenosine (c3Ado) and 3-deaza-(+/-)-aristeromycin (c3Ari) on cell cycle and cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were studied by flow cytometry and radioimmunoassay techniques. Previously described cell cycle accumulations, after incubation with drugs (25 microM) for two cell doublings (36 hr), were localized to G1 and G2 after incubation with c3Ado and c3Ari, respectively. cAMP levels were elevated in cells treated with c3Ado (35%) and c3Ari (92%) for 36 hr. Addition of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor theophylline, increased cAMP levels further, while cAMP responsiveness to the beta-adrenergic stimulator isoproterenol was attenuated after c3Ado and c3Ari incubation. Homocysteine thiolactone (Hcy) alone reduced cell growth slightly (5%) and increased cAMP levels (17%). Hcy increased the growth inhibitory effects of c3Ado, while no modulating effect was seen in combination with c3Ari, nor did Hcy counteract the effects on the cell cycle perturbations. The results suggest that c3Ado- and c3Ari-induced cell cycle accumulation is, at least in part, mediated through cAMP elevation, possibly due to PDE inhibition secondary to S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase inhibition and S-adenosyl-homocysteine build-up. PMID:1656997

Prytz, P S; Bang, B E; Endresen, P C; Møller, C; Aarbakke, J

1991-10-01

346

[An elevation in the level of autoantibodies to nerve-growth factor in the blood serum of schizophrenic children].  

PubMed

The level of autoantibodies (AAB) to nerve growth factor (NGF) was examined in blood of mentally healthy children, children with early children schizophrenia as well as with Kanner's and Asperger's syndromes too. The elevated titer of AAB to NGF was determined in blood of children with acute, active state of disease; meanwhile the same titer wasn't changed in the state of stable remission or steady defective state as compared with control group. The correlation was found between the level of AAB to NGF and the degree of disease progression. The correlations which were revealed between AAB to NGF level and peculiarities of the clinical state of patients permitted to use this index as the objective marker of both the acuteness and the severity of the patient's state. PMID:9163249

Bashina, V M; Kozlova, I A; Kliushnik, T P; Simashkova, N V; Danilovskaia, E V; Gorbachevskaia, N L; Turkova, I L; Iakupova, L P; Grachev, V V

1997-01-01

347

Single-item screens identified patients with elevated levels of depressive and somatization symptoms in outpatient physical therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Develop efficient and accurate screening tools to identify elevated levels of depressive or somatization symptoms, which can\\u000a adversely affect functional status outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a secondary analysis of prospectively collected depressive and somatization symptoms (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised)\\u000a data from 10,920 patients receiving outpatient physical therapy for a variety of neuromusculoskeletal diagnoses. Item response\\u000a theory methods were used to analyze data,

Dennis L. HartMark; Mark W. Werneke; Steven Z. George; Daniel Deutscher

348

The potential of FDG-PET\\/CT for detecting prostate cancer in patients with an elevated serum PSA level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential and limitation of FDG-PET\\/CT for detecting prostate cancer in subjects\\u000a with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Although [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has limited value in detecting prostate cancer, the potential\\u000a of PET\\/CT has not been precisely evaluated, since positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography (PET\\/CT) provides accurate\\u000a localization of

Ryogo MinamimotoHiroji; Hiroji Uemura; Futoshi Sano; Hideyuki Terao; Yoji Nagashima; Shoji Yamanaka; Kazuya Shizukuishi; Ukihide Tateishi; Yoshinobu Kubota; Tomio Inoue

2011-01-01

349

Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food  

SciTech Connect

When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

1988-01-01

350

Clinical correlates of arterial lactate levels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at admission: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Blood lactate measurements can be used as an indicator of hemodynamic impairment and relate to mortality in various forms\\u000a of shock. Little is known at the moment concerning the clinical correlates of systemic lactate in patients with ST-segment\\u000a elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  To assess the relation of systemic arterial lactate levels in STEMI patients with clinical correlates at presentation in

Robert P Vermeulen; Miriam Hoekstra; Maarten WN Nijsten; Iwan C van der Horst; L Joost van Pelt; Gillian A Jessurun; Tiny Jaarsma; Felix Zijlstra; Ad F van den Heuvel

2010-01-01

351

Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an established indicator of astrogliosis. Therefore, variable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of this protein might reflect disease-specific pathologic profiles. In patients with narcolepsy, a loss of hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) neurons in the brain and low concentrations of hcrt-1 in CSF have been reported. We performed a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate if GFAP also is altered in the CSF of these patients. Here we detected significantly higher CSF levels of GFAP in patients with low hcrt-1 levels, of which the majority had a diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy (NC); however, this finding was not observed in patients with hcrt-1 levels that were within reference range. In conclusion, GFAP may be useful as an additional disease biomarker in patients with narcolepsy, and this hypothesis should be investigated in larger studies. PMID:23746601

Feneberg, Emily; Steinacker, Petra; Lehnert, Stefan; Böhm, Bernhard; Mayer, Geert; Otto, Markus

2013-06-05

352

Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.  

PubMed

We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L. PMID:17917695

Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

2007-10-05

353

The post-exercise recovery of triglycerides in rat tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Triglycerides (TG) recovery after exhaustive muscular exertion was investigated in tissues of fed rats and rats fasted for 24 h before exercise. In both groups the exercise caused reduction of TG level in the fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) muscle, in heart muscle, and in plasma and accumulation of TG in liver.In the fed group the level of TG in FOG muscle, in

Jan Górski; Tatiana Kiryluk

1980-01-01

354

Elevated chemerin levels in Pakistani men: an interrelation with metabolic syndrome phenotypes.  

PubMed

Chemerin is a novel protein linked to adipocyte differentiation and the development of metabolic imbalances. We sought to examine the relationship of chemerin with metabolic syndrome disturbances including body fat percentage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin levels and body fat percentage in lean and obese volunteers. A cross-sectional study of 90 randomly selected healthy males from Pakistan were divided into three groups as per Body Mass Index (BMI) criteria for South Asian Population. Anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage, while serum analyses were performed for fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile and serum chemerin. Associations between serum chemerin levels and body fat and other metabolic syndrome parameters were performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Data was presented as Mean±SD. In all statistical analyses p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Circulating chemerin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) compared with those with a BMI below 25 kg/m(2) (P?=?0.001). Serum chemerin levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with serum levels of cholesterol (P?=?0.0160; r?=?0.255), fasting glucose (P?=?0.002; r?=?0.323), HOMA-IR (P?=?0.004; r?=?0.300) and hip circumference (P?=?0.021; r?=?0.246). This demonstrates that chemerin levels are associated with obesity and dyslipidemia and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This data suggests that chemerin may serve as an independent marker in diagnosing these conditions even before they become clinically symptomatic. PMID:23468920

Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Rehman, Rehana; Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor

2013-02-28

355

Elevated Chemerin Levels in Pakistani Men: An Interrelation with Metabolic Syndrome Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Chemerin is a novel protein linked to adipocyte differentiation and the development of metabolic imbalances. We sought to examine the relationship of chemerin with metabolic syndrome disturbances including body fat percentage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin levels and body fat percentage in lean and obese volunteers. A cross-sectional study of 90 randomly selected healthy males from Pakistan were divided into three groups as per Body Mass Index (BMI) criteria for South Asian Population. Anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage, while serum analyses were performed for fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile and serum chemerin. Associations between serum chemerin levels and body fat and other metabolic syndrome parameters were performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Data was presented as Mean±SD. In all statistical analyses p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Circulating chemerin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (P?=?0.001). Serum chemerin levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with serum levels of cholesterol (P?=?0.0160; r?=?0.255), fasting glucose (P?=?0.002; r?=?0.323), HOMA-IR (P?=?0.004; r?=?0.300) and hip circumference (P?=?0.021; r?=?0.246). This demonstrates that chemerin levels are associated with obesity and dyslipidemia and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This data suggests that chemerin may serve as an independent marker in diagnosing these conditions even before they become clinically symptomatic.

Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Rehman, Rehana; Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor

2013-01-01

356

Elevated levels of CA 19-9 and CEA in pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been established by more than several decades of research. However,\\u000a serum levels of CEA and CA 19-9 in diabetic pancreatic cancer has not been shown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA 19-9 and clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively analyzed in 79 with\\u000a or 229 without diabetes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) patients.

Qingqu Guo; Muxing Kang; Bo Zhang; Ying Chen; Xin Dong; Yulian Wu

2010-01-01

357

Relationship of Insulin Sensitivity and ApoB Levels to Intra-abdominal Fat in Subjects With Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is one of the most common familial dyslipidemias associated with premature heart disease. Subjects with FCHL typically have elevated apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, variable elevations in cholesterol and\\/or triglycerides, and a predominance of small, dense, low density lipoprotein particles. It is thought that insulin resistance is important in the expression of the combined hyperlipidemia phenotype. To

Jonathan Q. Purnell; Steven E. Kahn; Robert S. Schwartz; John D. Brunzell

2010-01-01

358

Elevated Physical Activity and Low Leptin Levels Co-occur in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low leptin levels are an endocrinological hallmark of acute anorexia nervosa (AN); a subthreshold leptin secretion in adi- pocytes as a consequence of a reduced energy intake is pre- sumed to be the major trigger of the adaptation of an organism to semistarvation. The aim of the current study is to define symptoms of AN that are potentially linked to

KRISTIAN HOLTKAMP; BEATE HERPERTZ-DAHLMANN; CLAUDIA MIKA; MARTINA HEER; NICOLE HEUSSEN; MANFRED FICHTER; STEPHAN HERPERTZ; WERNER SENF; WERNER F. BLUM; ULRICH SCHWEIGER; ANDREAS WARNKE; ANNE BALLAUFF; HELMUT REMSCHMIDT; JOHANNES HEBEBRAND

359

PROLONGED FASTING AND CORTISOL REDUCE MYOSTATIN MRNA LEVELS IN TILAPIA LARVAE, SHORT-TERM FASTING ELEVATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indices in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA...

360

Elevated mercury levels in pregnant woman linked to skin cream from Mexico.  

PubMed

Mercury exposure during pregnancy can have serious health effects for a developing fetus including impacting the child's neurologic and cognitive development. Through biomonitoring in a low-income Latina population in California, we identified a patient with high levels of mercury and traced the source to face creams purchased in a pharmacy in Mexico. PMID:23685000

Dickenson, Carrie A; Woodruff, Tracey J; Stotland, Naomi E; Dobraca, Dina; Das, Rupali

2013-05-16

361

High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO 2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood.

M. Langenbuch; H. O. Pörtner

2004-01-01

362

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF AN ELEVATED GASEOUS RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the development of a screening technique to determine the maximum 1 hour ground level concentration of a gaseous emission from a stack located in flat terrain. The method does not require the use of a computer and eliminates the usual trial and error calculati...

363

Elevation of Intraocular Glutamate Levels in Rats With Partial Lesion of the Optic Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute partial lesion of the rat optic nerve, although not a model for glaucoma, mimics some of the features of the disease. Objective: To learn whether degeneration of rat optic nerve fibers and death of their retinal ganglion cells in- duced by an acute partial lesion are associated with el- evated levels of glutamate, known to occur in the

Eti Yoles; Michal Schwartz

1998-01-01

364

Elevated plasma gastrin, CEA, and CA 19-9 levels decrease after colorectal cancer resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims. Gastrin stimulates mucosal growth of much of the gastrointestinal tract and has also been implicated in promoting growth of colonic tumors, but its role in colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial. This study determined fasting serum gastrin levels before and after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) and the relationship to the clinical stage of the disease to investigate it

G. Bombski; A. Gasiorowska; D. Orszulak-Michalak; B. Neneman; J. Kotynia; J. Strzelczyk; A. Janiak; E. Malecka-Panas

2003-01-01

365

Elevation of Rat Erythrocyte Nucleotide Levels following Acute Renal Failure Induced by Glycerol or Mercuric Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical changes in the blood following induction of renal failure by glycerol or mercuric chloride have been studied in 16 rats. Plasma creatinine, urea and Pi levels indicated that renal impairment followed the same time course in both renal failure models, with the severest effects on day 3 and returning to normal by day 7. Erythrocyte ATP and guanine triphosphate

B. M. Dean; M. Sensi; D. Perrett

1978-01-01

366

Azimuthal and Elevation Localization Using InterChannel Phase and Level Differences for a Hemispheric Object  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency domain binaural model (FDBM) has been previously proposed to localize multiple sound sources. Since the method requires only two input signals and uses interaural phase and level differences caused by the diffraction generated by the head, flexibility in application is very high when the head is considered as an object. When an object is symmetric with respect to

Yoshifumi Chisaki; Toshimichi Takada; Masahiro Naganishi; Tsuyoshi Usagawa

2008-01-01

367

Serum Procalcitonin Levels Are Elevated in Esophageal Cancer Patients with Postoperative Infectious Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The normal systemic inflammatory response to surgical stimuli often makes early diagnosis of postoperative infections difficult. Purpose: We investigated whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels may be a useful marker of bacterial infections in patients after invasive surgery. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were 40 patients who had undergone radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma by a right thoracoabdominal approach. Nine

S. Ito; N. Sato; M. Kojika; Y. Yaegashi; Y. Suzuki; K. Suzuki; S. Endo

2005-01-01

368

Elevated serum alpha fetoprotein levels promote pathological progression of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the biological role of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and its clinical significance in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Clinical analysis of HCC patients and immunohistochemical examination were conducted to evaluate the relationship between serum AFP level and patient mortality. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, dimethylthiahzolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to explore the possible mechanism. RESULTS: Among the 160 HCC patients enrolled in this study, 130 patients survived 2 years (81.25%), with a survival rate of 86.8% in AFP < 2 0 ?g/L group, 88.9% in AFP 20-250 ?g/L group, and 69.6% in AFP > 250 ?g/L group, demonstrating a higher mortality rate in HCC patients with higher AFP levels. Surgical treatment was beneficial only in patients with low AFP levels. The mortality rate of HCC patients with high AFP levels who were treated surgically was apparently higher than those treated with conservative management. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that AFP and AFP receptor were merely expressed in tissues of HCC patients with positive serum AFP. Consistently, in vitro analysis showed that AFP and AFPS were expressed in HepG2 but not in HLE cells. AFP showed a capability to promote cell growth, and this was more apparent in HepG2 cells, in which the proliferation was increased by 3.5 folds. Cell cycle analysis showed that the percentage of HepG2 cells in S phase after exposure to AFP was modestly increased. CONCLUSION: HCC patients with higher AFP levels show a higher mortality rate, which appears to be attributable to the growth promoting properties of AFP.

Li, Peng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Liu, Hui; Li, Ning; McNutt, Michael A; Li, Gang; Ding, Hui-Guo

2011-01-01

369

Wound fluids from human pressure ulcers contain elevated matrix metalloproteinase levels and activity compared to surgical wound fluids.  

PubMed

Fluid from acute surgical wounds and from nonhealing pressure ulcers was examined for the presence of several matrix metalloproteinases. Gelatin zymography demonstrated the presence of two major gelatinases with apparent molecular masses of 72 kDa and 92 kDa and two minor gelatinases with apparent mobilities of 68 kDa and 125 kDa. Antigen-specific sera identified the 72-kDa protein as matrix melloproteinase-2. The same sera also reacted with the 68-kDa protein, which is consistent with it being an activated form of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Antigen-specific sera identified the 92-kDa and 125-kDa proteins as matrix metalloproteinase-9. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were elevated more than 10-fold and 25-fold, respectively, in fluids from pressure ulcers compared with fluids from healing wounds. Examination of total potential and actual collagenolytic activity revealed that fluid from pressure ulcers contained significantly greater levels of both total and active collagenase compared with that of acute surgical wounds. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that fluids from pressure ulcers contained significantly more collagenase complexed with the inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Together, these observations suggest that an imbalance exists between levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the fluids of pressure ulcers and that this is primarily the result of elevated levels of the matrix metalloproteinases. The presence of excessive levels of activated forms of matrix-degrading enzymes at the wound surface of pressure ulcers may impede the healing of these wounds and may be relevant to the development of new rationales for treatment. PMID:8875960

Yager, D R; Zhang, L Y; Liang, H X; Diegelmann, R F; Cohen, I K

1996-11-01

370

Ethanol-induced urticaria: elevated tryptase levels after double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge.  

PubMed

We present a 48-year-old patient who complained for 1 year about urticarial reactions which appeared always when he ingested alcoholic beverages. Skin prick tests with ethanol were negative but positive with 10% acetic acid in the patient. Normal controls tested negative with acetic acid. Skin prick tests to common immediate-type allergens were negative. The patient underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge test. A few minutes after challenge with ethanol but not with placebo, the patient developed erythema and wheals on the chest and the upper arms. The tryptase serum level rose from undetectable (0.1 U/ml) before challenge to 3.8 U/ml after skin lesions had appeared. This case demonstrates that increased tryptase serum levels can help in the diagnosis of ethanol-induced urticaria. PMID:9732172

Emonet, S; Hogendijk, S; Voegeli, J; Eigenmann, P A; Roux, N; Hauser, C

1998-01-01

371

Sleep loss results in an elevation of cortisol levels the next evening.  

PubMed

Sleep curtailment constitutes an increasingly common condition in industrialized societies and is thought to affect mood and performance rather than physiological functions. There is no evidence for prolonged or delayed effects of sleep loss on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We evaluated the effects of acute partial or total sleep deprivation on the nighttime and daytime profile of cortisol levels. Plasma cortisol profiles were determined during a 32-hour period (from 1800 hours on day 1 until 0200 hours on day 3) in normal young men submitted to three different protocols: normal sleep schedule (2300-0700 hours), partial sleep deprivation (0400-0800 hours), and total sleep deprivation. Alterations in cortisol levels could only be demonstrated in the evening following the night of sleep deprivation. After normal sleep, plasma cortisol levels over the 1800-2300-hour period were similar on days 1 and 2. After partial and total sleep deprivation, plasma cortisol levels over the 1800-2300-hour period were higher on day 2 than on day 1 (37 and 45% increases, p = 0.03 and 0.003, respectively), and the onset of the quiescent period of cortisol secretion was delayed by at least 1 hour. We conclude that even partial acute sleep loss delays the recovery of the HPA from early morning circadian stimulation and is thus likely to involve an alteration in negative glucocorticoid feedback regulation. Sleep loss could thus affect the resiliency of the stress response and may accelerate the development of metabolic and cognitive consequences of glucocorticoid excess. PMID:9415946

Leproult, R; Copinschi, G; Buxton, O; Van Cauter, E

1997-10-01

372

Elevated Serum Creatine Kinase BB Levels in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical tumor specimens and cultures of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) produce 10- to 100-fold higher quantities of the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-BB) (EC 2.7.3.2) than did other types of lung cancer. Serum CK-BB levels were evaluated in 105 newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with SCLC. All patients were thoroughly staged, including 42 patients with limited-stage and 63

Desmond N. Carney; Mark H. Zweig; Martin H. Cohen; Robert W. Makuch; Adi F. Gazdar

1984-01-01

373

Elevated Levels of Human Collagenase Inhibitor in Blister Fluids of Diverse Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blister fluids from a variety of bullous disorders were examined for the presence of human collagenase inhibitor. A protein immunologically identical to the collagenase inhibitor produced by human skin fibroblasts was found in high concentrations within bullae of diverse etiologies. Levels of collagenase inhibitor in blister fluids ranged from 0.9-12.5 ?g\\/ml, averaging 4.9?\\/ml. The mean values were 3- to 4-fold

Howard G. Welgus; Eugene A. Bauer; George P. Stricklin

1986-01-01

374

Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ  

PubMed Central

Background In animal models, there is evidence to suggest a causal link between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and offspring outcomes; however, evidence for this relationship in humans is inconclusive. We address important confounders of this association by estimating the relationship between maternal cortisol levels in late pregnancy and childhood IQ in a birth cohort and in a subsample of siblings. Methods This study included 832 children who were members of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Maternal serum collected between 1959 and 1966 during the third trimester of pregnancy was analysed for free cortisol. We investigated the relationship between maternal cortisol in quintiles and full, verbal and performance scale scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7 years, adjusting for prenatal and family characteristics. We repeated this analysis among 74 discordant sibling pairs using a fixed effects approach, which adjusts for shared family characteristics. Results Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to full-scale IQ, an effect driven by verbal IQ scores. Compared with those in the lowest quintile of cortisol exposure, the verbal IQ of children in the highest quintile of exposure was 3.83 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): ?6.44 to ?1.22]. Within sibling pairs, being in the highest quintile of exposure was associated with verbal IQ scores 5.5 points lower (95% CI: ?11.24 to 0.31) compared with the other quintiles. Conclusion These findings are consistent with prior human and animal studies, and suggest that exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol during pregnancy may be negatively related to offspring cognitive skills independently of family attributes that characterize the postnatal environment.

LeWinn, Kaja Z; Stroud, Laura R; Molnar, Beth E; Ware, James H; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

2009-01-01

375

Elevated Serum Lipase Levels in Patients with Dyspepsia of Unknown Cause in General Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the cause(s) of chronic dyspepsia among patients with no findings on general practice screening tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 272 consecutive patients at a general practice in Japan (125 males and 147 females, aged 14–89 years) who underwent abdominal ultrasound (US) and who had serum pancreatic enzyme (lipase or p-amylase) levels measured, were included in

Rieko Okada; Akira Okada; Takashi Okada; Tohru Okada; Nobuyuki Hamajima

2009-01-01

376

Elevated Blood-lead Levels in First Nation People of Northern Ontario Canada: Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian “non-toxic” shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds,\\u000a by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major\\u000a source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds

L. J. S. Tsuji; B. C. Wainman; I. D. Martin; J.-P. Weber; C. Sutherland; E. N. Liberda; E. Nieboer

2008-01-01

377

AStreptococcus mutansMutant That Synthesizes Elevated Levels of Intracellular Polysaccharide Is Hypercariogenic In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the streptococcal transposon, Tn916 to identify and isolate mutants of Streptococcus mutans with altered intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) accumulation. We report on the isolation and characterization ofS. mutansSMS202, a transposon mutant which accumulated the glycogen-like IPS in excess of wild-type levels. Southern blot analysis confirmed a single Tn916insertion into the SMS202 chromosome. Moreover, quanti- tative ultrastructural analysis revealed significantly

GRACE SPATAFORA; KELLIE ROHRER; DARON BARNARD; ANDSUZANNE MICHALEK

1995-01-01

378

Assessment of Rapid Morphological Changes Associated with Elevated cAMP Levels in Human Orbital Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital fibroblasts exhibit a phenotype distinct from that of other types of fibroblasts. Addition of prostaglandin E2(PGE2) to culture medium elicits a dramatic change in orbital fibroblast morphology. That response is mediated through the generation of cAMP. Orbital fibroblasts can generate high levels of PGE2through induction by proinflammatory cytokines of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 (PGHS-2). Here we compare the influence

Lavanya Reddy; Hwai-Shi Wang; Charles R. Keese; Ivar Giaever; Terry J. Smith

1998-01-01

379

In vitro study of PET tumor tracers at normal and elevated media glucose levels  

SciTech Connect

FDG uptake in tumors is decreased by hyperglycemia. Little is known about the effect of hyperglycemia on non-FDG PET tracer uptake in tumors. This study was designed to determine if PET tumor tracers are affected by chronic exposure of tumor cells to high media glucose levels. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma (HTB77IP3) cells normally grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose were grown in media with 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. At 20, 26 and 38 days after initial culture (6-7 days after subculture), uptakes of 3H-labeled FDG, Thymidine (Thy), Methionine (Met) and Leucine (Leu) into the cells (n=4) were determined at the same glucose level as growth media. Tracer uptake per 1 million cells was measured after a 60 min uptake period. Presented are percentage of tracer uptake of cells grown at 300 mg/dl of glucose relative to uptake of cells grown at 100 mg/dl of glucose (mean {plus_minus} SD of 20, 26, and 38 days culture). Paired t-tests were used to compare tracer uptake of cells grown and assayed at both glucose levels. P values <0.05 were considered significant. FDG uptake of cells grown and assayed at 300 mg/dl of glucose was significantly decreased, compared with uptake of cells grown and assayed at 100 mg/dl of glucose. By contrast, uptake of Thy, Met and Leu were not different between cells grown and assayed at 100 or 300 mg/dl of glucose. These results indicate that tumor uptake of Thy, Met and Leu do not depend on media glucose level and suggest that these tracers labeled with C-11 are suitable for hyperglycemic patients, in whom tumor FDG uptake is expected to be impaired.

Torizuka, T.; Clavo, A.C.; Wahl, R.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-05-01

380

Elevation of intracellular calcium levels in neurons by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition that intracellular free calcium serves as a ubiquitous intracellular signal has motivated efforts to elucidate\\u000a mechanisms by which cells regulate calcium influx. One route of entry that may offer both spatial and temporal fine resolution\\u000a for altering calcium levels is that provided by cation-permeable, ligand-gated ion channels. Biophysical measurements as well\\u000a as calcium imaging techniques demonstrate that neuronal

Margaret M. Rathouz; Sukumar Vijayaraghavan; Darwin K. Berg

1996-01-01

381

Plasma Kynurenine Levels are Elevated in Suicide Attempters with Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation has been linked to depression and suicide risk. One inflammatory process that has been minimally investigated in this regard is cytokine-stimulated production of kynurenine (KYN) from tryptophan (TRP). Recent data suggest that KYN increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with depressive symptoms secondary to immune activation. KYN may alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic tone, thereby contributing to increased arousal, agitation and impulsivity - important risk factors in suicide. We hypothesized that patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and a history of suicide attempt would have higher levels of KYN than depressed nonattempters, who in turn would have higher levels than healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma KYN, TRP, and neopterin were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography in three groups: healthy volunteers (n=31) and patients with MDD with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of suicide attempt. Analysis of variance tested for group differences in KYN levels. Results KYN levels differed across groups (F=4.03, df=(2,58), p=0.023): a priori planned contrasts showed that KYN was higher in the MDD suicide attempter subgroup compared with MDD non-attempters (t=2.105, df=58, p=0.040), who did not differ from healthy volunteers (t=0.418, df=58, p=0.677). In post-hoc testing, KYN but not TRP was associated with attempt status, and only suicide attempters exhibited a positive correlation of the cytokine activation marker neopterin with the KYN:TRP ratio, suggesting that KYN production may be influenced by inflammatory processes among suicide attempters. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that KYN and related molecular pathways may be implicated in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior.

Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Lapidus, Manana; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Postolache, Teodor T.

2012-01-01

382

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation

J. R. Arrell; M. T. Zuber

2000-01-01

383

Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in the Presence of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels: A Therapeutic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

The beneficial role of statins in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease has resulted in their frequent use in clinical practice. However, safety concerns, especially regarding hepatotoxicity, have driven multiple trials, which have demonstrated the low incidence of statin-related hepatic adverse effects. The most commonly reported hepatic adverse effect is the phenomenon known as transaminitis, in which liver enzyme levels are elevated in the absence of proven hepatotoxicity. This class effect is usually asymptomatic, reversible, and dose-related. However, the increasing incidence of chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatitis C, has created a new challenge when initiating statin treatment in patients with high cardiovascular risk. These diseases result in abnormally high liver biochemistry values, discouraging statin use by clinicians, fostering treatment discontinuation, and leaving a large number of at-risk patients untreated. A PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature regarding statin safety (January 1, 1994-December 31, 2008) was performed, using the following search terms: statin safety, statin-related hepatotoxicity, and chronic liver disease and statin use, as well as the specific names of different statins and different liver diseases. Relevant clinical trials, review articles, panel discussions, and guideline recommendations were selected. This review supports the use of statin treatment in patients with high cardiovascular risk whose elevated aminotransferase levels have no clinical relevance or are attributable to known stable chronic liver conditions. For each patient, the decision should be based on an individual assessment of risks and benefits.

Calderon, Rossana M.; Cubeddu, Luigi X.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Schiff, Eugene R.

2010-01-01

384

Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine  

PubMed Central

Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP) display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg) was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg) was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

2010-01-01

385

Elevated serum IL-16 and RANTES levels in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and modulation by methimazole therapy.  

PubMed

Interleukine-16 (IL-16) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) are 2 cytokines with the function of T helper cell recruitment, which might play a key role in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). This study was aimed to evaluate the IL-16 and RANTES in patients with AITD. Serum IL-16 and RANTES levels were measured in patients with Graves' disease (GD; n=45), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT; n=68), nontoxic multinodular goiter (NTMNG; n=20), and healthy individuals (n=61). The results showed that serum IL-16 and RANTES levels were elevated both in HT and higher in untreated GD patients when compared to NTMNG patients and the healthy individuals, which were decreased after MMI therapy in untreated GD patients. However, in HT patients, serum IL-16 and RANTES levels were comparable among the conditions of hyperthyroid and euthyroid received by l-thyroxine therapy and untreated hypothyroid. Furthermore, serum IL-16 levels were correlated with FT3, FT4, TRAb in GD, but not in HT patients. The data did not show any correlation between RANTES levels and clinical factors. In conclusion, IL-16 and RANTES might be involved in the pathogenesis of GD and HT, and serum IL-16 levels in GD maybe a potential marker of disease activity and severity. PMID:22473756

Gu, X; Zheng, L; Chen, X; Ruan, L; Zhang, H; Ge, S; Zhu, H; Lin, X; Shen, F

2012-04-02

386

The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

Aschengrau, A. [Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D. [Office of Environmental Health, Boston, MA (United States). Boston Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

1998-10-01

387

Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.  

PubMed

To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:24072270

Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

2013-09-27

388

Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 gene transcript levels are elevated in maturating erythroid cells.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is abundant in developing monocyte/macrophage cells and may affect hematopoiesis by reducing formation of reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were to further characterize the involvement of UCP2 in hematopoiesis. In situ hybridization in mouse embryos identified UCP2-positive cells in liver and inside primitive blood vessels from 10.5 days of prenatal development. High UCP2 transcript levels were detected in reticulocytes and other maturating erythroid cells in peripheral blood of mice exposed to hypoxia, and in umbilical cord blood of human neonates and peripheral blood of adults. Our results suggest involvement of UCP2 in erythropoiesis. PMID:17316620

Flachs, Pavel; Sponarova, Jana; Kopecky, Pavel; Horvath, Ondrej; Sediva, Anna; Nibbelink, Maryse; Casteilla, Louis; Medrikova, Dasa; Neckar, Jan; Kolar, Frantisek; Kopecky, Jan

2007-02-15

389

Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc  

SciTech Connect

Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

Oji, L.N.

1999-02-17

390

Teratoma during Pregnancy with Positive Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors and Elevated Ca19-9 Antigen Levels  

PubMed Central

We present a 27-year-old female patient admitted with an anterior mediastinal mass. She complained of chest discomfort and hemoptysis which began seven months prior. She had given birth five months prior. Thoracic X-ray showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Thorax computed tomography (CT) confirmed a well-defined anterior mediastinal mass with 13 × 12?cm diameter, extending to the right hemithorax. It was composed of cystic spaces and discrete areas like soft tissue and fat. Serum Ca 19-9 level was elevated. CT features were consistent with a mature teratoma. During median sternotomy, the tumor revealed adhesions to the right lung and the right subclavian artery. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a mature teratoma. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected to be positive in the resected tissue. We conclude that alterations in hormone levels during pregnancy might be the cause of rapid tumor growth which leads to hemoptysis.

Kanlioglu Kuman, Nilgun; Cokpinar, Salih; Yaman, Ertan; Meteoglu, Ibrahim; Karadag, Fisun

2012-01-01