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1

Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China. PMID:23829426

2013-01-01

2

Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (?24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r?=?0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-01-01

3

Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Methods Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.125–2 g/kg) or SFO (0.3–5 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6–120 hours postdosing. Results Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (Emax) =45.77 U/L and affinity (KD) =1.25 g/kg at 48–96 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (Emax =2.30 nmol/mg protein and KD =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (Emax =1.42 nmol/mg protein and KD =2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%–60% (Emax =11.01, KD =0.68 g/kg) and 8%–32% (Emax =9.88, KD =4.47 g/kg) at 12–120 hours and 24–120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%–158% and 35%–85%, respectively, at 12–96 hours and 6–48 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of Emax and KD for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 ?mol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of Emax =5.50/4.60 mmol/L and KD =0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index. The Emax and affinity of Sch B on tissue/enzyme/receptor were larger than those of SFO. PMID:25278745

Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

2014-01-01

4

Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) Is Related to Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Levels, but Not to an Increased Risk for Vascular Events in Patients with Clinically Manifest Vascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex are associated with elevated plasma triglycerides and elevated vascular risk in healthy populations. In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome are frequently present, but the contribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms to plasma triglycerides, effect modification by obesity and risk of recurrent vascular events is unknown in these patients. Methods Prospective cohort study of 5547 patients with vascular disease. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex) was genotyped, and we evaluated the relation with plasma lipid levels, presence of metabolic syndrome and the risk for new vascular events. Results The minor allele of rs964184 was strongly associated with log plasma triglycerides (? 0.12; 95%CI 0.10-0.15, p?=?1.1*10?19), and was also associated with 0.03 mmol/L lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.01–0.04), and 0.14 mmol/L higher non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.09–0.20). The minor allele frequency increased from 10.9% in patients with plasma triglycerides <1 mmol/L to 24.6% in patients with plasma triglycerides between 4 and 10 mmol/L. The relation between rs964184 and plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index in patients with one minor allele (? 0.02; (95%CI ?0.04–0.09) if body mass index <24 kg/m2, ? 0.17 (95%CI 0.12–0.22) if body mass index >27 kg/m2, p for interaction?=?0.02). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased from 52% for patients with two copies of the major allele to 62% for patients with two copies of the minor allele (p?=?0.01). Rs964184 was not related with recurrent vascular events (HR 0.99; 95%CI 0.86–1.13). Conclusion The single nucleotide polymorphism rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides concentrations in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. In carriers of one minor allele, the effect on plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index. There is no relation between rs964184 and recurrent vascular events in these patients. PMID:24979386

van de Woestijne, Anton P.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Spiering, Wilko; Visseren, Frank L. J.

2014-01-01

5

Inhibition of intestinal bile acid transporter Slc10a2 improves triglyceride metabolism and normalizes elevated plasma glucose levels in mice.  

PubMed

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2-/- mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. PMID:22662222

Lundåsen, Thomas; Andersson, Eva-Marie; Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Östlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

2012-01-01

6

CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid  

SciTech Connect

Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2013-01-15

7

Olanzapine-induced triglyceride and aminotransferase elevations without weight gain or hyperglycemia normalized after switching to aripiprazole.  

PubMed

Olanzapine induced a marked elevation in triglyceride and cholesterol levels and in liver transaminase enzymes after 12 weeks of treatment in a patient with schizophrenia. These changes were not seen in an earlier 10-week course of treatment with risperidone, and improved substantially 1 week after the patient stopped olanzapine and began treatment with aripiprazole. The patient did not exhibit weight gain or hyperglycemia with any of the medications. This case and a review of the literature suggest that olanzapine may have unique properties that affect hepatic enzyme pathways, independent of any effects on weight and glucose, that may lead to hyperlipidemia and transaminitis in some patients. PMID:25036587

Pawelczyk, Tomasz; Pawelczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jablonska, Jolanta

2014-07-01

8

A Report of High Triglyceride Level in Cord Blood of Iranian Newborns  

PubMed Central

Background: Since cord blood triglyceride level have been reported very different in recent articles, the purpose of this study is determination of triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns and compare it with other reports. Methods: In this study, cord blood of 174 healthy term newborn infants (97 girls, 77 boys) born from healthy mothers have been used. Triglyceride level has been measured by calorie metric method Statistical analysis was performed by independent t test, Mann-Whitney regression test and Spearman correlation coefficient method using SPSS 16 .0 software (SPSS, USA). Results: The mean of cord blood triglyceride was 1.37 ± 4.81 mg /dl and there was no statistical difference between two sexes. There was not exist linear relationship between triglyceride and weight, height, head circumference, body mass index and sex of the babies. In 8.6% of our new born infants, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in Iranian population. In 33.9% of our cases, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in the Nelson text book of Pediatrics. In this study, the 95th percentile of triglyceride level in cord blood was 132.5 mg /dl. Conclusion: The mean and 95th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24049593

Kazemi, Seyed Ali Naghi; Mousavinasab, Nooreddin; Mellati, Ali Awsat; Sadeghzadeh, Mansour

2013-01-01

9

High-fat diet elevates resting intramuscular triglyceride concentration and whole body lipolysis during exercise.  

PubMed

This study determined the role of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) and adipose lipolysis in the elevated fat oxidation during exercise caused by a high-fat diet. In four separate trials, six endurance-trained cyclists exercised at 50% peak O2 consumption for 1 h after a two-day control diet (22% fat, CON) or an isocaloric high-fat diet (60% fat, HF) with or without the ingestion of acipimox, an adipose lipolysis inhibitor, before exercise. During exercise, HF elevated fat oxidation by 72% and whole body lipolysis [i.e., the appearance rate of glycerol in plasma (Ra glycerol)] by 79% compared with CON (P < 0.05), and this was associated with a 36% increase (P < 0.05) in preexercise IMTG concentration. Although acipimox lowered plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability, HF still increased fat oxidation and Ra glycerol to the same magnitude above control as the increase caused by HF without acipimox (i.e., both increased fat oxidation 13-14 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1)). In conclusion, the marked increase in fat oxidation after a HF diet is associated with elevated IMTG concentration and whole body lipolysis and does not require increased adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma FFA concentration during exercise. This suggests that altered substrate storage in skeletal muscle is responsible for increased fat oxidation during exercise after 2 days of an HF diet. PMID:14559721

Zderic, Theodore W; Davidson, Christopher J; Schenk, Simon; Byerley, Lauri O; Coyle, Edward F

2004-02-01

10

Insulin resistance and elevated triglyceride in muscle: more important for survival than 'thrifty' genes?  

PubMed Central

Elevated intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) is strongly associated with insulin resistance, though a cause and effect relationship has not been fully described. Insulin sensitivity and IMTG content are both dynamic and can alter rapidly in response to dietary variation, physical activity and thermoregulatory response. Physically active humans (athletes) display elevated IMTG content, but in contrast to obese persons, are insulin sensitive. This paradox has created confusion surrounding the role of IMTG in the development of insulin resistance. In this review we consider the modern athlete as the physiological archetype of the Late Palaeolithic hunter–gatherer to whom the selection pressures of food availability, predation and fluctuating environmental conditions applied and to whom the genotype of modern man is virtually identical. As food procurement by the hunter–gatherer required physical activity, ‘thrifty’ genes that encouraged immediate energy storage upon refeeding after food deprivation (Neel, 1962) must have been of secondary importance in survival to genes that preserved physical capacity during food deprivation. Similarly genes that enabled survival during cold exposure whilst starved would be of primary importance. In this context, we discuss the advantage afforded by an elevated IMTG content, and how under these conditions, a concomitant muscle resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake would also be advantageous. In sedentary modern man, adiposity is high and skeletal muscle appears to respond as if a state of starvation exists. In this situation, elevated plasma lipids serve to accrue lipid and induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Reversal of this physiological state is primarily dependant on adequate contractile activity, however, in modern Western society, physical inactivity combined with abundant food and warmth has rendered IMTG a redundant muscle substrate. PMID:14608009

Stannard, S R; Johnson, N A

2004-01-01

11

Changes in Triglyceride Levels Over Time and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The association between changes in triglyceride concentrations over time and diabetes is unknown. We assessed whether two triglyceride determinations obtained 5 years apart can predict incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Triglyceride levels at baseline (time 1) and 5 years later (time 2), followed by subsequent follow-up of 5.5 years, were measured in 13,953 apparently healthy men (age 26–45 years) with triglycerides <300 mg/dl (<3.39 mmol/l). RESULTS—During 76,742 person-years, 322 cases of diabetes occurred. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, total cholesterol–to–HDL cholesterol ratio, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, blood pressure, physical activity, and smoking status revealed a continuous independent rise in incident diabetes with increasing time 1 triglyceride levels (Ptrend < 0.001). Men in the lowest tertile of time 1 triglyceride levels who progressed to the highest tertile over follow-up (low-high) exhibited a hazard ratio (HR) of 12.62 (95% CI 3.52–31.34) compared with those remaining in the lowest tertile at both time points (reference group: low-low). Whereas men who were at the top triglyceride level tertile throughout follow-up (high-high) had a HR for diabetes of 7.08 (2.52–14.45), those whose triglyceride level decreased to the lowest tertile (high-low) exhibited a HR of 1.97 (0.67–6.13). Alterations in triglyceride levels during follow-up were associated with changes in BMI, physical activity, and eating breakfast habit (P < 0.05), but remained an independent modifier of diabetes risk even after adjustment for such changes. CONCLUSIONS—Two measurements of fasting triglyceride levels obtained 5 years apart can assist in identifying apparently healthy young men at increased risk for diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors and of associated changes in BMI and lifestyle parameters. PMID:18591400

Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Bitzur, Rafael; Kochba, Ilan; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Shochat, Tzippora; Rudich, Assaf

2008-01-01

12

The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.  

PubMed

Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam. PMID:20503603

Maimanee, Tahia A

2010-04-01

13

Genetic risk score and adiposity interact to influence triglyceride levels in a cohort of Filipino women  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Individually, genetic variants only moderately influence cardiometabolic (CM) traits, such as lipid and inflammatory markers. In this study we generated genetic risk scores from a combination of previously reported variants influencing CM traits, and used these scores to explore how adiposity levels could mediate genetic contributions to CM traits. Subjects/Methods: Participants included 1649 women from the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Three genetic risk scores were constructed for C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs). We used linear regression models to assess the association between each genetic risk score and its related trait. We also tested for interactions between each score and measures of adiposity. Results: Each genetic risk score explained a greater proportion of variance in trait levels than any individual genetic variant. We found an interaction between the TG genetic risk score (2.29–14.34 risk alleles) and waist circumference (WC) (Pinteraction=1.66 × 10?2). Based on model predictions, for individuals with a higher TG genetic risk score (75th percentile=12), having an elevated WC (?80?cm) increased TG levels from 1.32 to 1.71?mmol?l?1. However, for individuals with a lower score (25th percentile=7), having an elevated WC did not significantly change TG levels. Conclusions: The TG genetic risk score interacted with adiposity to synergistically influence TG levels. For individuals with a genetic predisposition to elevated TG levels, our results suggest that reducing adiposity could possibly prevent further increases in TG levels and thereby lessen the likelihood of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. PMID:24932782

Zubair, N; Mayer-Davis, E J; Mendez, M A; Mohlke, K L; North, K E; Adair, L S

2014-01-01

14

[Incidental finding: elevated TSH level].  

PubMed

The use of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) testing in routine laboratory screening and testing of TSH before administration of contrast medium, resulted in an increased number of incidentally detected elevated TSH levels. In the case of slightly increased values in asymptomatic patients, repeated measurement of TSH is recommended for confirmation. Confirmed elevated TSH levels should lead to additional measurements of the peripheral thyroid hormones, determination of thyroid autoantibodies and performance of thyroid gland ultrasound examination. The most common reasons for acquired subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland and in many cases substitution therapy with levothyroxine is then necessary. In subclinical hypothyroidism it remains unclear at which TSH levels the initiation of substitution therapy makes sense. In the case of simultaneously elevated peripheral thyroid hormones rare diseases, such as secondary hyperthyroidism and thyroid hormone resistance should be considered. PMID:25204533

Faust, M; Krone, W

2014-10-01

15

The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on serum and liver triglyceride levels in rats.  

PubMed

Effects of three different varieties (Koimidori, Powerful-Reishi, and Hyakunari) of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and those of methanol fraction extract of Koimidori variety on serum and liver triglycerides were studied in rats. Feeding of diets containing either bitter melon or various fractions isolated by organic solvents caused no adverse effects on food intake or growth of rats. When the effect of three different varieties of bitter melon was compared, the Koimidori variety was found to be the most effective in lowering hepatic triglyceride levels as compared to the other two varieties, suggesting a variety-dependent difference in their activity. Furthermore, the active component(s) responsible for the liver triglyceride lowering activity of Koimidori variety was assumed to be concentrated in the methanol fraction, but not in other fractions such as the n-hexane, the acetone, or the residual fraction. The triglyceride lowering activity was furthermore confirmed by the dose-dependent reduction of hepatic triglyceride, resulting the lowest level in rats fed 3.0% supplementation. In these experiments, the effects on serum lipids were marginal. The results of the present and previous studies clearly show that bitter melon, especially Koimidori variety, exhibits a potent liver triglyceride-lowering activity. PMID:15120448

Senanayake, Gamarallage V K; Maruyama, Mitsuru; Shibuya, Kei; Sakono, Masanobu; Fukuda, Nobuhiro; Morishita, Toshiro; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Kawano, Mikio; Ohta, Hideaki

2004-04-01

16

Triglyceride level  

MedlinePLUS

... different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.

17

Effects of KRN4884, a novel pyridinecarboxamidine type KATP channel opener, on serum triglyceride levels in rats  

PubMed Central

The effects of KRN4884, a novel pyridinecarboxamidine type KATP channel opener, on serum triglyceride levels were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats.Oral administration of KRN4884 (3?mg kg?1) for 10 days caused a significant reduction in serum triglyceride levels, which was comparable to that of clofibrate (160?mg kg?1). Reduction in serum triglyceride levels by KRN4884 and clofibrate were accompanied by a reduction in triglyceride levels both in chylomicron and in very low density lipoprotein. KRN4884 treatment did not affect serum concentrations of total cholesterol and phospholipid, but did increase free fatty acid levels. Clofibrate reduced total cholesterol, phospholipid and free fatty acid levels.Administration of clofibrate significantly decreased triglyceride secretion rate as measured by the Triton WR-1339 injection procedure, while KRN4884 did not.Rats receiving KRN4884 exhibited an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity both in adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle. There was an inverse correlation between serum triglyceride levels and tissue LPL activities. KRN4884 did not change hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activity. Clofibrate affected neither LPL nor HTGL activities.It is concluded that administration of KRN4884 results in reduced serum triglyceride levels which may be due to the enhancement of LPL activity in peripheral tissues. PMID:9113367

Yokoyama, Takashi; Izumi, Hideakira; Endoh, Megumi; Izawa, Toshio; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Okada, Yuji

1997-01-01

18

Glucuronic Acid Epimerase Is Associated with Plasma Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Turks  

PubMed Central

Summary We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in atherogenic dyslipidemic Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with plasma HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (non-permuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n = 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n = 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions on chromosome 15 resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce+/–apoe–/– mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism. PMID:21488854

Hodoglugil, Ugur; Williamson, David W.; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Mahley, Robert W.

2011-01-01

19

Human triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impair glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in L6 skeletal muscle cells independently of non-esterified fatty acid levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Elevated fasting and postprandial plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs), i.e. VLDL\\/remnants and chylomicrons\\/remnants, are a characteristic feature of insulin resistance and are considered a consequence of this state. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intact TGRL particles are capable of inducing insulin resistance.Methods  We studied the effect of highly purified TGRLs on glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase activity,

M. T. Pedrini; M. Kranebitter; A. Niederwanger; S. Kaser; J. Engl; P. Debbage; L. A. Huber; J. R. Patsch

2005-01-01

20

Chronic Family Stress Moderates the Association between a TOMM40 Variant and Triglyceride Levels in Two Independent Caucasian Samples  

PubMed Central

TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p = 0.004) and marginally significant (p = 0.075) in the Danish sample. The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls. Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580 variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into account for disease risk assessment and potential intervention. PMID:23435269

Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Babyak, Michael A.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Singh, Abanish; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holst, Claus; S?rensen, Thorkild I.A.; Williams, Redford B.

2013-01-01

21

Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

2013-01-01

22

Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

23

Chronic vagus nerve stimulation reduces body fat, blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) exerts a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that VNS with high-frequency (10 Hz) electrical impulses decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of VNS with a low frequency (1 Hz) on the serum lipid concentrations, feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet. The levels of appetite-regulating peptides were also assessed. Adult male Wistar rats were subcutaneously implanted with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated subdiaphragmatically by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 1 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. The daily food intake and body weight were measured each morning. At the end of the experiments, the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 concentrations were measured. The adipose tissue content was evaluated by the assessment of the weight of the epididymal fat pads. Chronic VNS significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight. VNS also lowered the total plasma cholesterol concentrations and triglyceride levels. Finally, the serum concentrations of nesfatin-1 were elevated, leptin levels were decreased, and ghrelin levels remained unchanged after VNS. The study demonstrates that chronic electrical VNS exerts anorexigenic effects, lowering the blood concentration of lipids. Increased nesfatin-1 levels may contribute to these effects. PMID:24852689

Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, Andrzej; Kurnik, Magdalena; Thor, Piotr

2012-01-01

24

Atypical antipsychotic medications increase postprandial triglyceride and glucose levels in male rats: relationship with stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity.  

PubMed

Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects. PMID:21474290

McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W

2011-06-01

25

Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families.  

PubMed

Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

Rees, Matthew G; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R; Davis, Mindy I; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S; Hegele, Robert A; Gloyn, Anna L

2014-10-15

26

Passive smoking elevates neurotrophin levels in tears.  

PubMed

The effect of passive smoking on levels of neurotrophin in tears was studied in normal subjects or patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Basal levels of neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NT-4, in tears were significantly higher in AKC patients than those in normal subjects. Passive smoking had no effect on levels of neurotrophin in tears of normal subjects, while it elevated levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 in tears of AKC patients. These results indicate that passive smoking elevates levels of neurotrophin in tears, which in turn may aggravate AKC. PMID:15222398

Kimata, Hajime

2004-05-01

27

Triglycerides Test  

MedlinePLUS

... such as type 2 diabetes or kidney disease Hypothyroidism Genetic factors When triglycerides are very high (greater ... these conditions, the strategy is to treat the primary cause. When high triglycerides are not caused by ...

28

A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans.  

PubMed

The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10(-8))) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (-1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10(-9)). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5?mmol?l(-1) dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

Timpson, Nicholas J; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R B; Ring, Susan M; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole

2014-01-01

29

A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans  

PubMed Central

The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (?1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10?8)) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (?1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10?9). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5?mmol?l?1 dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

Timpson, Nicholas J.; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R. B.; Ring, Susan M.; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Al Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, Maria; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Davey Smith, George; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N. M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quail, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shihab, Hasheem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Tim; St Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; St Pourcian, Beate; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Timpson, Nicholas; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T. R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou-Feng

2014-01-01

30

Male gender, increased blood viscosity, body mass index and triglyceride levels are independently associated with systemic relative hypertension in sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

Lamarre, Yann; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

2013-01-01

31

Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n?=?10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10?8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10?8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]?=?1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p?=?0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR?=?0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p?=?0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR?=?1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p?=?0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR?=?0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p?=?0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

2014-01-01

32

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in â16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare

Len A. Pennacchio; Michael Olivier; Jaroslav A. Hubacek; Ronald M. Krauss; Edward M. Rubin; Jonathan C. Cohen

2002-01-01

33

Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-02-09

34

Influences of APOA5 Variants on Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Uyghur Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene are associated with triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibriums (LDs) of the SNPs in addition to their effects on TG levels vary greatly between Caucasians and East Asians. The distributions of the SNPs/haplotypes and their associations with TG levels in Uyghur population, an admixture population of Caucasians and East Asians, have not been reported to date. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to address these. Methods Genotyping of four SNPs in APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) was performed in 1174 unrelated Uyghur subjects. SNP/haplotype and TG association analyses were conducted. Results The frequencies of the SNPs in Uyghurs were in between those in Caucasians and East Asians. The LD between rs662799 and rs2266788 in Uyghurs was stronger than that in East Asians but weaker than that in Caucasians, and the four SNPs resulted in four haplotypes (TGGT, CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT arranged in the order of rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) representing 99.2% of the population. All the four SNPs were significantly associated with TG levels. Compared with non-carriers, carriers of rs662799-C, rs3135506-C, rs2075291-T, and rs2266788-C alleles had 16.0%, 15.1%, 17.1%, and 12.4% higher TG levels, respectively. When haplotype TGGT was defined as the reference, the haplotypes CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT resulted in 16.1%, 19.0%, and 19.8% higher TG levels, respectively. The proportions of variance in TG explained by APOA5 locus were 2.5%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 1.9% for single SNP rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788, respectively, and 3.0% for the haplotypes constructed by them. Conclusions The association profiles between the SNPs and haplotypes at APOA5 locus and TG levels in this admixture population differed from those in Caucasians and East Asians. The functions of these SNPs and haplotypes need to be elucidated comprehensively. PMID:25313938

Wang, Yi; Wu, Di; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

35

Increase in triglyceride blood level in patients treated with capecitabine: a retrospective survey.  

PubMed

According to registry studies of capecitabine, grade 3-4 hypertriglyceridemia can occur in 0.1-1% of patients, unexplained by the drug's mechanism of action. This retrospective study aimed at estimating the incidence of capecitabine-induced hypertriglyceridemia (CIH) and attempted to identify the risk factors for its occurrence. In a retrospective survey, the files of 289 patients treated with capecitabine as a single agent or combined with other drugs were reviewed. A total of 102 patients without grade 2 or more hypertriglyceridemia at baseline and with at least one test of triglyceride blood level (TGBL) at least 2 months from the start of capecitabine were eligible for the study. The mean TGBL was 149±80 mg/dl at the onset of treatment and the mean maximal level after two or more cycles of capecitabine was 236±137 mg/dl (P<0.001; average increase 93 mg/dl). Nineteen (19%) patients developed grade?2 CIH, four (4%) of whom had grade 3-4. The median time to developing grade?2 CIH was 79 days (range, 16-243 days). A high rate of grade?2 CIH, without statistical significance, was observed on the basis of several risk factors: pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia grade 1 (11/45; 24%), diabetes (7/25; 37%), hypertension (10/60; 17%), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (5/14; 36%). The only identified risk factor for grade?3 CIH was IHD (2/14; P=0.02). Increased capecitabine-induced TGBL is common and grade?2 was detected in 19% of patients in this series. Close monitoring of lipid profile is recommended in patients on capecitabine treatment. IHD may be a risk factor for development of severe hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24595094

Bar-Sela, Gil; Cohensius-Kent, Dorit; Vornikova, Olga; Haim, Nissim

2014-07-01

36

The effects of bitter melon ( Momordica charantia) on serum and liver triglyceride levels in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of three different varieties (Koimidori, Powerful-Reishi, and Hyakunari) of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and those of methanol fraction extract of Koimidori variety on serum and liver triglycerides were studied in rats. Feeding of diets containing either bitter melon or various fractions isolated by organic solvents caused no adverse effects on food intake or growth of rats. When the effect

Gamarallage V. K Senanayake; Mitsuru Maruyama; Kei Shibuya; Masanobu Sakono; Nobuhiro Fukuda; Toshiro Morishita; Chizuko Yukizaki; Mikio Kawano; Hideaki Ohta

2004-01-01

37

Comparative effectiveness of fish oil versus fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and atorvastatin on lowering triglyceride levels among HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and atorvastatin on reducing triglyceride (TG) levels among a large cohort of HIV-infected patients in clinical care. Design Retrospective observational cohort study Methods The primary endpoint was absolute change in TG levels measured using the last TG value pre-treatment and the first TG value post-treatment. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was used to estimate the change in TG due to initiating fish oil. Linear regression models examined the comparative effectiveness of treatment with fish oil versus gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, or atorvastatin for TG reduction. Models were adjusted for baseline differences in age, sex, race, CD4+ cell count, diabetes, body mass index, protease inhibitor use, and time between TG measures. Results A total of 493 patients (mean age 46 years; 95% male) were included (46 receiving gemfibrozil, 80 fenofibrate, 291 atorvastatin, 76 fish oil) with a mean baseline TG of 347 mg/dL. New use of fish oil decreased TG (?TG -45 mg/dL 95% Confidence interval (CI):-80 to -11) in the pre-post study. Compared with fish oil (reference), fibrates were more effective (?TG -66; 95% CI:-120 to -12) in reducing TG levels, whereas atorvastatin was not (?TG -39; 95% CI:-86 to 9). Conclusion In HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care, fish oil is less effective than fibrates (but not atorvastatin) at lowering triglyceride values. Fish oil may still represent an attractive alternative for patients with moderately elevated triglycerides particularly among patients who may not want or tolerate fibrates. PMID:23892238

Muñoz, Monica A; Liu, Wei; Delaney, Joseph AC; Brown, Elizabeth; Mugavero, Michael J; Mathews, W Chris; Napravnik, Sonia; Willig, James H; Eron, Joseph J; Hunt, Peter W; Kahn, James O; Saag, Michael S; Kitahata, Mari M; Crane, Heidi M

2014-01-01

38

Elevated suicide levels associated with legalized gambling.  

PubMed

There has been no systematic, large-scale statistical investigation of the link between gambling and suicide, despite the suggestion of such a link from small-scale case studies. This article examines whether gamblers or those associated with them are prone to suicide and whether gaming communities experience atypically high suicide rates. Las Vegas, the premier U.S. gambling setting, displays the highest levels of suicide in the nation, both for residents of Las Vegas and for visitors to that setting. In general, visitors to and residents of major gaming communities experience significantly elevated suicide levels. In Atlantic City, abnormally high suicide levels for visitors and residents appeared only after gambling casinos were opened. The findings do not seem to result merely because gaming settings attract suicidal individuals. PMID:9444732

Phillips, D P; Welty, W R; Smith, M M

1997-01-01

39

Plasma triglyceride and beta-hydroxybutyric acid levels in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at emergence from hibernation.  

PubMed

Measurement of plasma levels of triglycerides and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in females and males of the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) suggest that the former may provide a useful physiological marker of condition. Levels of triglycerides at emergence from hibernation during a month of natural aphagia were significantly greater in females than in males and she-males, a subset of the male population that mimics females. Higher levels of triglycerides in the females may be attributed to their greater body mass per unit length, which was correlated with the level of triglycerides. Plasma triglyceride levels declined in females within one month of emergence, at the onset of feeding, and were unrelated to mating. PMID:8608816

Whittier, J M; Mason, R T

1996-02-15

40

Effects of atorvastatin 10 mg and simvastatin 20 mg on serum triglyceride levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some reports suggest that atorvastatin is more effective than other statins in decreasing serum triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia.Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the hypotriglyceridemic activity of atorvastatin and simvastatin at doses that elicit similar hypocholesterolemic effects.Methods: Outpatients with primary hypercholesterolemia that was not adequately controlled with a stable low-fat, low-cholesterol diet were

Adriana Branchi; Anna Maria Fiorenza; Adriana Torri; Fulvio Muzio; Angelo Rovellini; Cristina Berra; Domenico Sommariva

2001-01-01

41

Higher Serum Triglyceride Level in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke Is Associated with Lower Infarct Volume on CT Brain Scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between serum triglyceride level and acute ischemic stroke severity using infarct volume on CT brain scans as a marker. A total of 121 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (53 males and 68 females, age 47–93 years) with anterior circulation (75%), posterior circulation (9%) or lacunar infarcts (16%) were examined. All patients were admitted within 24 h

Slaven Pikija; Vladimir Trkulja; Nedeljko Sokol

2006-01-01

42

[Pathophysiology of NAsh/NAFLD associated with high levels of serum triglycerides].  

PubMed

The patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepa-titis(NASH) often have dyslipidemia along with other features of metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. The dyslipidemia in NAFLD is characterized by increased serum triglycerides, increased small dense low-density lipoprotein, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The pathogenesis of dyslipidemia in NAFLD is not well understood, but it is likely related to hepatic overproduction of the very low-density lipoprotein 1 and decreasing clearance of lipoproteins from the circulation. Recently it is showed that free fatty acids induce hepatocyte lipoapoptosis in vitro. In this manuscript we discuss about "hypertriglyceridemia and NASH/NAFLD". PMID:24205725

Ogawa, Yuji; Imajo, Kento; Yoneda, Masato; Nakajima, Atsushi

2013-09-01

43

Beta-conglycinin lowers very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride levels by increasing adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in rats.  

PubMed

The relationship between insulin sensitivity and the plasma triglyceride-lowering effect induced by beta-conglycinin was investigated. Male Wistar rats (19 weeks old) were fed diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, or beta-conglycinin for 4 weeks. In oral glucose administration, the beta-conglycinin-fed rats showed a significant decrease in the area under the glucose curve (0-60 min) as compared with the casein-fed rats. The hypoglycemic effect was significantly higher in the beta-conglycinin-fed rats than in the casein-fed rats at 30 min after intraperitoneal insulin injection. The liver sterol regulatory element-binding-protein-1 mRNA expression level was significantly lower and the plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly higher in the beta-conglycinin-fed rats than in the casein-fed rats. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of beta-conglycinin depended on a significant decrease in the concentration of very-low-density-lipoprotein triglycerides. These results indicate that beta-conglycinin increases adiponectin levels and improves glucose tolerance. The ability of beta-conglycinin to lower plasma lipid levels might be due to increased insulin sensitivity of the liver. PMID:20530915

Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Iwaoka, Yasue; Hirotsuka, Motohiko; Horio, Fumihiko; Kohno, Mitsutaka

2010-01-01

44

Reduction of plasma triglyceride level and enhancement of plasma albumin concentration by Oren-gedoku-to administration.  

PubMed

Oren-gedoku-to (Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang, OGT) has been used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, gastritis and liver disease in Japan. The present study was to test whether ingestion of OGT extract (TJ-15) would affect the metabolism of fatty acids and the usual antioxidant molecule (such as albumin, uric acid and bilirubin) levels in human plasma. After the administration of TJ-15, plasma total cholesterol and the triglyceride level significantly decreased, and lipoprotein lipase mass increased. Significant enhancement of plasma albumin level and reduction of the total plasma protein level resulted in an increment of the albumin/globulin ratio. Plasma fibrinogen, an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, declined considerably, but the reduction was not statistically significant. The findings of this study suggest that ingestion of TJ-15 improves the microcirculation through lipid and protein metabolisms, and is useful for the treatment of cerebral vascular attack in human. PMID:12222668

Sekiya, N; Kogure, T; Kita, T; Kasahara, Y; Sakakibara, I; Goto, H; Shibahara, N; Shimada, Y; Terasawa, K

2002-07-01

45

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

46

A functional polymorphism affecting the APOA5 gene expression is causally associated with plasma triglyceride levels conferring coronary atherosclerosis risk in Han Chinese Population.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene plays a key role in plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and shows the involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD). A set of single nucleotide polymorphisms around the APOA5 gene was identified to be associated with plasma TG levels. It is of biological and clinical importance to discern the genuine genetic determinants. A polymorphism in 3' untranslated region of the APOA5 gene, rs2266788, is deserving of investigation for suggestive clues from the association in multiple independent studies. In this study, rs2266788 was genotyped in 3222 unrelated subjects consisting of 2062 CAD cases and 1160 controls. The statistical analyses indicated that the minor C allele of rs2266788 was significantly associated with elevated plasma TG levels and higher CAD risk. In normal human liver tissues, comparison of global APOA5 mRNA levels among genotypes and allelic expression imbalance analysis showed the decreased gene expression for the C allele. Luciferase assays confirmed a concordant result that transcriptional activity was lowered for the C allele compared with the T allele in four cell lines. Multiple lines of evidence in our study supported that rs2266788 was causally associated with plasma TG levels conferring CAD risk in Han Chinese population owing to a cis-acting effect to the APOA5 gene expression. PMID:25151233

Shou, Weihua; Wang, Ying; Xie, Fang; Wang, Beilan; Yang, Lin; Wu, Hong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Shi, Jinxiu; Huang, Wei

2014-11-01

47

High serum phosphate and triglyceride levels in smoking women and men with CVD risk and type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Both low and high serum phosphate levels may be associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. As smoking increases risk for type 2 diabetes (as shown by dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia), we wanted to study whether smoking and type 2 diabetes were associated with serum phosphate and triglyceride levels independently from other CVD risk factors. Methods Upon admittance to the Vindeln Health Education Centre (VHE-centre) for a four-week comprehensive lifestyle intervention, the participants (1408 women and 1096 men) completed a questionnaire that included their smoking habits – current smoker or non-smoker. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the association between smoking and other CVD risk factors with S-P and S-TG levels. Results In the non-type 2 diabetes populations, the smokers, compared to the non-smokers, had higher S-P and higher serum triglycerides (S-TG). In women, serum-TG in smokers with type 2 diabetes was higher than in smokers with non-type 2 diabetes. Non-type 2 diabetes patients exhibited an inverse relation between S-Glucose (S-Glu) and S-P and a positive association with S-TG. For men only, an association was seen between age (-) and S-Crea (-) and S-P. For women only, an association was seen between BMI (-) and S-Cholesterol (+) (S-Chol) and S-P. Conclusions Compared to non-smokers, smoking women with non-type 2 diabetes and smoking men with type 2 diabetes had a higher level of S-P and S-TG. The association between smoking and S-P and S-TG levels still existed after adjusting for age and CVD risk factors in the multiple linear regression analyses. Trial registration The study has been registered as a sub-study to the Lifestyle Intervention Trial no. ISRCTN79355192. PMID:24636522

2014-01-01

48

View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

49

Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Williams, T. D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Bishop, M. A.

2007-01-01

50

A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD) is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players. METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml) for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001), whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl). Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl) between before and after the match. CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid profiles, the lower rate of LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride as well as the higher level of HDL in players suggest a beneficial effect of regular soccer training on arthrosclerosis and perhaps on CHD risk as well. PMID:21772906

Rahnama, Nader; Younesian, Ali; Mohammadion, Morteza; Bambaeichi, Effat

2009-01-01

51

Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels.  

PubMed

Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most often used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate levels can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion may be the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The present review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search between the dates of January 1, 1960, to April 30, 2013, using the search term lactate or lactic acidosis combined with known associations, such as shock, sepsis, cardiac arrest, trauma, seizure, ischemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, thiamine, malignancy, liver, toxins, overdose, and medication. We provide an overview of the pathogenesis of lactate level elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical end point of resuscitation are discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on the management of patients with elevated lactate levels. PMID:24079682

Andersen, Lars W; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C; Berg, Katherine M; Cocchi, Michael N; Donnino, Michael W

2013-10-01

52

Elevated Serum Levels of IL-21 in Kawasaki Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose The serum level of immunoglobulin (Ig)E has been reported to be elevated in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated whether interleukin (IL)-21, rather than IL-4, could be related to elevated serum levels of IgE in KD. Methods Sera from 48 patients with KD and 12 controls with high fever were collected to determine the level of IgE using an immunoassay system and the levels of IL-4 and IL-21 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results The median IL-21 level of KD patients was significantly elevated, at 499.5 pg/mL (range: <62.5-1,544 pg/mL), whereas that of controls was <62.5 pg/mL (<62.5-825 pg/mL; P<0.001). The median IL-4 level of KD patients was not elevated (4.0 pg/mL; 2.1-7.6 pg/mL). The median level of total IgE in KD patients was 58.0 IU/mL (5-1,109 IU/mL). No statistically significant correlation was found between IL-21 and total IgE levels (Spearman's R=0.2; P=0.19). Conclusions Patients with KD have elevated levels of IL-21 in the serum. IL-21 may play a role in the pathogenesis of KD. PMID:23115732

Bae, Yon Jung; Kim, Mi Hyun; Uh, Young; Namgoong, Mee Kyung; Cha, Byung Ho

2012-01-01

53

Triglyceride Levels Are Closely Associated with Mild Declines in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese with Normal Serum Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. Design and Methods In this study, we included 2647 participants who were ?40 years old and had normal serum lipid levels. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to estimate the GFR. A mildly reduced eGFR was defined as 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2. First, multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association of lipid profiles with the eGFR. Then, the levels of each lipid component were divided into four groups, using the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles as cut-off points. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of different lipid components with the risk of mildly reduced eGFR. Results In the group with a mildly reduced eGFR, TG and LDL-C levels were significantly increased, but HDL-C levels were significantly decreased. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), smoking and drinking, only TC and TG were independently related to the eGFR. Additionally, only TG showed a linear relationship with an increased risk of a mildly reduced eGFR, with the highest quartile group (TG: 108–150 mg/dl [1.22–1.70 mmol/L]) having a significantly increased risk after adjusting for the above factors. Conclusions Triglyceride levels are closely associated with a mildly reduced eGFR in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. Dyslipidemia with lower TG levels could be used as new diagnostic criteria for subjects with mildly reduced renal function. PMID:25275610

Zhang, Xiuping; Zhao, Xiangmin; Wang, Yulian; Li, Chengqiao; Li, Mei; Wang, Shaoyuan; Yang, Weifang; Ma, Zeqiang; Ma, Aixia; Zheng, Huizhen; Wu, Jiahui; Sun, Yu; Song, Jun; Lin, Peng; Liang, Kai; Gong, Lei; Wang, Meijian; Liu, Fuqiang; Li, Wenjuan; Xiao, Juan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Junpeng; Wang, Lingshu; Tian, Meng; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Ruxing; Chen, Shihong; Chen, Li

2014-01-01

54

Genomewide Scan for Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia Genes in Finnish Families, Suggesting Multiple Susceptibility Loci Influencing Triglyceride, Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein B Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The disease is characterized by increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), or both. We recently localized the first locus for FCHL, on chromosome 1q21-q23. In the present study, a genomewide screen for additional FCHL loci was per- formed. In stage 1,

Päivi Pajukanta; Joseph D. Terwilliger; Markus Perola; Tero Hiekkalinna; Ilpo Nuotio; Pekka Ellonen; Maija Parkkonen; Jaana Hartiala; Kati Ylitalo; Jussi Pihlajamäki; Kimmo Porkka; Markku Laakso; Jorma Viikari; Christian Ehnholm; Marja-Riitta Taskinen; Leena Peltonen

1999-01-01

55

Evidence for a role of tumor necrosis factor ? in disturbances of triglyceride and glucose metabolism predisposing to coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired fibrinolytic function frequently aggregate in patients with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Experimetnal studies suggest that the cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) produced by adipocytes plays a part in the regulation of triglyceride and glucose metabolism. The present study examined whether TNF? is

Stefan Jovinge; Anders Hamsten; Per Tornvall; Anthony Proudler; Peter Båvenholm; Carl-Göran Ericsson; Ian Godsland; Ulf de Faire; Jan Nilsson

1998-01-01

56

Elevated thrombopoietin serum levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Elevated platelet count is a well recognized marker of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a critical cytokine in the physiological regulation of thrombopoiesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of endogenous TPO in patients with IBD, the relationship between platelet counts and TPO levels, and the correlation of TPO with the clinical

Andreas N Kapsoritakis; Spiros P Potamianos; Aekaterini I Sfiridaki; Michael I Koukourakis; Ioannis E Koutroubakis; Maria I Roussomoustakaki; Orestes N Manousos; Elias A Kouroumalis

2000-01-01

57

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

2009-01-01

58

[Effect of halofenate on triglyceride and uric acid levels, coagulation and platelet behaviour in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia type IV and hyperuricemia (author's transl)].  

PubMed

From experimental work, an influence of a drug with hypolipidemic and hypouricemic acition on blood coagulability and platelet function may be expected. Consequently, if these effects were demonstrable in man the drug could be assumed to reduce the tendency to develop thrombosis and atherosclerosis in patients with hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia. In the study reported, the effect of 2-acetamidoethyl-(p-chlorophenyl)-(m-trifluoro-methylphenoxy)-acetate (halofenate) was investigated in 14 patients suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia type IV and hyperuricemia. Platelet aggregation and adhesiveness, plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, and clotting factors were regularly examined during a three-month double blind trial. While uric acid and triglyceride levels decreased, no influence of the drug treatment could be observed on platelet function and blood coagulability by the laboratory methods used. PMID:227420

Kuntzen, O; Hehl, F J; Walter, E; Zimmermann, R

1978-01-01

59

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

60

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

61

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

2010-01-01

62

Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain  

SciTech Connect

The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. (Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, (India))

1992-02-01

63

9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH THE MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-42 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

64

42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST. THE LEVELS OF THE MILL CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN HERE. THE UPPER MOST LEVEL CONSISTS OF A CONVEORY THAT BROUGHT ORE TO A JAW CRUSHER. THE CRUSHED ORE WAS CHANNELED DIRECTLY INTO A LARGE ORE BIN LOCATED BEHIND THE COVERED WALL (CENTER). THE NEXT LEVEL SHOWS THE BULL (DRIVE) WHEEL ON THE UPPER PART OF THE STAMP BATTERIES THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (STAIRS) IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE STAMP BATTERIES WITH MORTAR BLOCKS AND APRONS. THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (LOWER RIGHT) HELD CONCENTRATION (SHAKING) TABLES AND A CLASSIFIER. MOST EXTERIOR WALL COVERING, TIMBERS, AND ROOF IS MISSING FROM THE MILL. SEE CA-290-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

65

Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (?1.605; range, ?3.095 to ?0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were ?1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ?4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ?3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (? = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Elevated serum DDE levels are associated with an increased risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ?4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ?4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD. PMID:24473795

Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

2014-01-01

66

Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.  

PubMed

Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney. PMID:842643

Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

1977-02-01

67

Low dose of the liver X receptor agonist, AZ876, reduces atherosclerosis in APOE*3Leiden mice without affecting liver or plasma triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists are atheroprotective but often induce hypertriglyceridaemia and liver steatosis. We investigated the effect of a novel high-affinity LXR activator, AZ876, on plasma lipids, inflammation and atherosclerosis, and compared the effects with another LXR agonist, GW3965. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH APOE*3Leiden mice were fed an atherogenic diet alone or supplemented with either AZ876 (5 or 20 µmol·kg?1·day?1) or GW3965 (17 µmol·kg?1·day?1) for 20 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured using commercial kits. Plasma cytokines were determined by using bead-based multiplex suspension array kits with the Luminex technology. Atherosclerosis was assessed histochemically and lesion composition was assessed by immunohistochemical methods. KEY RESULTS Low-dose AZ876 had no effect on plasma or liver lipids, whereas high-dose AZ876 increased plasma triglycerides (+110%) and reduced cholesterol (?16%) compared with controls. GW3965 increased plasma triglycerides (+70%). Low-dose AZ876 reduced lesion area (?47%); and high-dose AZ876 strongly decreased lesion area (?91%), lesion number (?59%) and severity. In either dose, AZ876 did not affect lesion composition. GW3965 reduced atherosclerosis and collagen content of lesions (?23%; P < 0.01). High-dose AZ876 and GW3965, but not low-dose AZ876, reduced inflammation as reflected by lower cytokine levels and vessel wall activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We have identified a novel LXR agonist that when given in a low dose inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis without inducing anti-inflammatory effects, liver steatosis or hypertriglyceridaemia. Therefore, the primary protective action of a low-dose AZ876 is likely to be an increased reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:21175581

van der Hoorn, JWA; Linden, D; Lindahl, U; Bekkers, MEA; Voskuilen, M; Nilsson, R; Oscarsson, J; Lindstedt, EL; Princen, HMG

2011-01-01

68

Influence of obesity and body fat distribution on postprandial lipemia and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in adult women.  

PubMed

We know that upper body obesity is associated with metabolic complications, but we don't know how regional body fat distribution influences postprandial lipemia in obese adults. Thus, this study explored the respective effects of android or gynoid types of obesity and fasting triglyceridemia on postprandial lipid metabolism and especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Twenty-four obese and 6 lean normotriglyceridemic women (control), age 24-57 yr, were enrolled. Among obese women with an android phenotype, 9 exhibited normal plasma triglyceride levels (mean: 1.38 mmol/L) (NTAO), and 7 displayed a frank hypertriglyceridemia (mean: 2.40 mmol/L) (HTAO). The 8 patients with a gynoid phenotype had normal triglyceride levels (mean: 1.00 mmol/L) (GO). All were given a mixed test meal providing 40 g triglycerides. Serum and incremental chylomicron triglycerides 0-7 h areas under the curve (AUCs) as well as triglyceride levels in apoB-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRLs) or chylomicrons were significantly higher in HTAOs and NTAOs than in GOs and controls postprandially. The size of chylomicron particles was bigger in controls and GOs than in HTAOs and NTAOs postprandially. Android obese subjects showed abnormally elevated fasting apoB-48 and apoB-100 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) levels. Most abnormalities that were found correlated to plasma levels of insulin and apoC-III. In conclusion, an abnormal postprandial lipid pattern is a trait of abdominal obesity even without fasting hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:9920081

Mekki, N; Christofilis, M A; Charbonnier, M; Atlan-Gepner, C; Defoort, C; Juhel, C; Borel, P; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Vialettes, B; Lairon, D

1999-01-01

69

Elevated circulating levels of tissue factor in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have coagulation disturbances and inflammation, which increases the risk of atherothrombosis. We evaluated the status of circulating tissue factor (TF), the receptor for coagulation factor VII involved in atherothrombosis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status and weight class on TF and other parameters. The TF levels were significantly higher in lean women with PCOS compared to lean controls. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in obese participants compared to lean participants after controlling for PCOS status. The TF levels directly correlated with percentage of truncal fat and plasma levels of PAI-1, testosterone, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate; and inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index-OGTT(IS(OGTT)). Circulating TF is elevated in PCOS independent of obesity, but both PCOS and obesity contribute to a prothrombotic state. In PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherothrombosis. PMID:22327820

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

2013-01-01

70

Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project  

PubMed Central

We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

2013-01-01

71

Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6??g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6??g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Beatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

2010-01-01

72

Elevated adiponectin serum levels in women with systemic autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 ?g/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 ?g/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

Toussirot, Eric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

2010-01-01

73

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides as therapeutic targets for preventing and treating coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic and clinical trials show that elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, adjustment for covariates frequently weakens or abolishes the predictive significance of triglycerides, whereas the evidence for HDL-C is more consistently strong. Data indicate that there is a 2% to 3% decrease in coronary risk

Antonio M. Gotto

2002-01-01

74

Cholesterol, Oxysterol, Triglyceride, and Coenzyme Q Homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the Hypothesis That Elevated 27-Hydroxycholesterol Is a Pathogenic Factor  

PubMed Central

High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M.; Björkhem, Ingemar

2014-01-01

75

Pathophysiology of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in atherothrombosis: cellular aspects.  

PubMed

Elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLP), including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), chylomicrons, and their remnants, are now acknowledged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Interactions of TGRLP with lipoprotein receptors on monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells may be mechanistically linked to this risk. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) subjects have the abnormal ability to bind to low-denisty lipoprotein receptors via apoE, and plasma chylomicrons from all subjects bind to a new, distinct receptor for apoB48 that is expressed specifically by monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Receptor binding and uptake of TGRLP by these cells are likely mechanisms involved in the formation of lipid-filled, macrophage-derived "foam cells" of atherosclerotic lesions and for defective fibrinolysis due to endothelial dysfunction. Recognition of the atherothrombogenic potential of TGRLP may lead to improved interventions to lessen or prevent the often fatal sequelae of coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels. PMID:10376191

Gianturco, S H; Bradley, W A

1999-06-01

76

Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereospecific analysis determines how the fatty acids of triglycerides are distributed over the three different positions\\u000a of the glycerol. The special problem is the differentiation of position I-1 and L-3 of glycerol. In the presently known methods,\\u000a triglycerides are first degraded to mixtures of diglycerides, either by the action of a lipase or by degradation with a Grignard\\u000a reagent. The

H. Brockerhoff

1971-01-01

77

Influence of Moderately Elevated Levels of Carboxyhemoglobin on the Course of Acute Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this prospective study in 66 patients with acute ischemic heart disease was to analyze the possible effects of moderately elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) on the early course of this disease. Thirty-one patients presented with a level of COHb ?2% and 35 with a level of > 2%. In the group with elevated COHb, more patients developed

Th. Mall; M. Grossenbacher; A. P. Perruchoud; R. Ritz

1985-01-01

78

Palmitic acid follows a different metabolic pathway than oleic acid in human skeletal muscle cells; lower lipolysis rate despite an increased level of adipose triglyceride lipase.  

PubMed

Development of insulin resistance is positively associated with dietary saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with monounsaturated fatty acids. To clarify aspects of this difference we have compared the metabolism of oleic (OA, monounsaturated) and palmitic acids (PA, saturated) in human myotubes. Human myotubes were treated with 100?M OA or PA and the metabolism of [(14)C]-labeled fatty acid was studied. We observed that PA had a lower lipolysis rate than OA, despite a more than two-fold higher protein level of adipose triglyceride lipase after 24h incubation with PA. PA was less incorporated into triacylglycerol and more incorporated into phospholipids after 24h. Supporting this, incubation with compounds modifying lipolysis and reesterification pathways suggested a less influenced PA than OA metabolism. In addition, PA showed a lower accumulation than OA, though PA was oxidized to a relatively higher extent than OA. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that 24h of PA treatment upregulated lipogenesis and fatty acid ?-oxidation and downregulated oxidative phosphorylation compared to OA. The differences in lipid accumulation and lipolysis between OA and PA were eliminated in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid). In conclusion, this study reveals that the two most abundant fatty acids in our diet are partitioned toward different metabolic pathways in muscle cells, and this may be relevant to understand the link between dietary fat and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. PMID:22796147

Bakke, Siril S; Moro, Cedric; Nikoli?, Nataša; Hessvik, Nina P; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Lauvhaug, Line; Fredriksson, Katarina; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Boekschoten, Mark V; Kersten, Sander; Gaster, Michael; Thoresen, G Hege; Rustan, Arild C

2012-10-01

79

Hepatic ABCA1 and VLDL triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma TG concentrations and a near absence of HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which facilitates the efflux of cellular phospholipid and free cholesterol to assemble with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), forming nascent HDL particles. In this review, we summarize studies focused on the regulation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG production, with particular attention on recent evidence connecting hepatic ABCA1 expression to VLDL, LDL, and HDL metabolism. Silencing ABCA1 in McArdle rat hepatoma cells results in diminished assembly of large (>10nm) nascent HDL particles, diminished PI3 kinase activation, and increased secretion of large, TG-enriched VLDL1 particles. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout (HSKO) mice have a similar plasma lipid phenotype as Tangier disease subjects, with a twofold elevation of plasma VLDL TG, 50% lower LDL, and 80% reduction in HDL concentrations. This lipid phenotype arises from increased hepatic secretion of VLDL1 particles, increased hepatic uptake of plasma LDL by the LDL receptor, elimination of nascent HDL particle assembly by the liver, and hypercatabolism of apoA-I by the kidney. These studies highlight a novel role for hepatic ABCA1 in the metabolism of all three major classes of plasma lipoproteins and provide a metabolic link between elevated TG and reduced HDL levels that are a common feature of Tangier disease, MS, and T2D. PMID:22001232

Liu, Mingxia; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S.

2011-01-01

80

Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol\\/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)\\/HDL-C are still associated with an increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. BACKGROUND: Although LDL-C is considered to be the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, other

B. J. Arsenault; J. S. Rana; E. S. G. Stroes; J. P. Després; P. K. Shah; J. J. P. Kastelein; N. J. Wareham; S. M. Boekholdt; K. T. Khaw

2009-01-01

81

Triglycerides and gallstone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gallbladder function are critical factors in the pathogenesis of gallstones. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) – often overweight and insulin resistant – are at risk for gallstone disease. The question arises whether HTG itself contributes to gallstone formation or whether gallstone disease only associates with this disorder.Triglycerides are formed in response to fluxes of

A. H. M. Smelt

2010-01-01

82

Lactate response to short term exercise with elevated starting levels.  

PubMed

A model that describes the blood lactate concentration (BLC) dynamics [BLC(t)] of a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) as a function of (a) BLC at the start of exercise (BLC(0)), (b) extra-vascular increase in lactate (A), (c) two corresponding velocity constants of appearance (k (1)) and disappearance (k (2)) of lactate into and out of the blood requires that BLC(0) is equal to resting BLC (BLC(rest)). We developed a model that considers an elevated BLC(0). 19 males performed WAnTs with warm-ups increasing (p < 0.001) BLC(0). The goodness of each individual fit improved (p < 0.05) if the difference between BLC(rest) and BLC(0) (DeltaBLC) was higher than 1.0 mmol l(-1). All differences between old and new model (p < 0.05) in A, k (1) and k (2) were interrelated with and increased with DeltaBLC (p < 0.05). The new model well describes BLC(t) and prevents substantial errors concerning lactate generation and dynamics if BLC(0) is elevated by more than 1.0 mmol l(-1). PMID:20414670

Beneke, Ralph; Wittekind, Anna; Mühling, Monika; Bleif, Imogen; Leithäuser, Renate M

2010-09-01

83

Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk  

E-print Network

Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide

Garfunkel, Eric

84

Investigation of variants identified in Caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples  

PubMed Central

Background Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased predisposition to low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglyceride (TG) levels in the Mexican population, Mexicans have not been included in any of the previously reported genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for lipids. Results We investigated six SNPs associated with TGs, seven with HDL-C and one with both TGs and HDL-C in recent Caucasian GWAS in Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia families and hypertriglyceridemia case-control study samples. These variants were within or near the genes ABCA1, ANGPTL3, APOA5, APOB, CETP, GALNT2, GCKR, LCAT, LIPC, LPL (2), MMAB-MVK, TRIB1 and XKR6-AMAC1L2. We performed a combined analysis of the family-based and case-control studies (n=2,298) using the Z-method to combine statistics. Ten of the SNPs were nominally significant and five were significant after Bonferroni correction (P = 2.20 × 10-3 – 2.6 × 10-11) for the number of tests performed (APOA5, CETP, GCKR and GALNT2). Interestingly, our strongest signal was obtained for TGs with the minor allele of rs964184 (P=2.6 × 10-11) in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region that is significantly more common in Mexicans (27%) than in Caucasians (12%). Conclusions It is important to confirm whether known loci have a consistent effect across ethnic groups. We show replication of five Caucasian GWAS lipid associations in Mexicans. The remaining loci will require a comprehensive investigation to exclude or verify their significance in Mexicans. We also demonstrate that rs964184 has a large effect (OR=1.74) and is more frequent in the Mexican population, and thus it may contribute to the high predisposition to dyslipidemias in Mexicans. PMID:20160193

Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Riba, Laura; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Ordonez-Sanchez, Maria L.; Rodriguez-Guillen, Rosario; Cantor, Rita M.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Paivi

2010-01-01

85

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

86

Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level  

SciTech Connect

Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

Freidus, D. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1993-06-01

87

Rhizodeposition under ambient and elevated CO2 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global CO2 levels rise, can soils store more carbon and so buffer atmospheric CO2 levels? Answering this question requires a knowledge of the rates of C inputs to soil and of CO2 outputs via decomposition. Below-ground inputs from roots are a major component of the C flow into soils but are still poorly understood. In this article, new techniques

Peter R. Darrah

1995-01-01

88

[Diagnostic value of blood myoglobin level elevation in patient in intensive care unit].  

PubMed

The goal of the study was assessment of clinical value of myoglobin level elevation in patients in neurointensive care unit. 15 healthy volunteers and 60 patients of neuroICU (40 postoperative patients and 20 patients with prolonged consciousness disorders of different states) were involved in the study. Myoglobin level was assessed immunologically. Episodes of arterial hypotension (< or = 50% from baseline) for 10-15 minutes were the cause of myoglobin level elevation in 11 from 40 postoperative patients. Association of myoglobin level elevation with type of pathology (tumor or aneurism), localization and surgery duration wasn't found. Severe hemodynamic disturbances with hypotension in 3-4 days before measurement were noted also in patients with hypermyoglobinemia in the group with prolonged consciousness disorders. Correlation of myoglobin level and duration of polyneuromyopathy, sepsis, MODS wasn't noted. Authors conclude that myoglobin level elevation is associate with hemodynamic instability and isn't specific marker of polyneuromyopathy or its duration. PMID:23082653

2012-01-01

89

Species-level effects more important than functional group-level responses to elevated CO2: evidence from simulated turves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Using mixtures of 14 calcareous grassland plant species drawn from three func- tional groups, we looked at the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on contrasting levels of ecosystem performance (species, functional group and community). Experimental communities were subjected to ambient ( ? 350 µ mol mol ? 1 ) or elevated CO 2 ( ? 600 µ

M. E. HANLEY; S. TROFIMOV; G. TAYLOR

2004-01-01

90

Changes in Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Triglyceride/High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratios among Patients Randomized to Aripiprazole versus Olanzapine  

PubMed Central

Objective Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C) are predictors of cardiovascular risk. This post-hoc analysis assessed changes in these parameters during treatment with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine or aripiprazole using pooled data from three randomized, long-term clinical studies in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Data were pooled from one open-label and two double-blind (26- or 52-week) studies in patients randomized to olanzapine (5–20 mg/day) or aripiprazole (15–30 mg/day). Change from baseline in non-HDL-C levels between groups was analyzed in the Observed Case (OC) dataset at each time point and Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) dataset at endpoint using analysis of covariance, with treatment as main effect and baseline non-HDL-C as covariate. Differences between groups in median changes from baseline in TG:HDL-C were assessed with Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results This analysis included 546 patients (olanzapine, n=274; aripiprazole, n=272). Mean changes from baseline in non-HDL-C levels were significantly different (p<0.0001) with olanzapine versus aripiprazole at Weeks 26 (+13.0 vs. ?7.5 mg/dL) and 52 (+12.2 vs. ?8.1 mg/dL). Baseline TG:HDL-C was high in the olanzapine (3.73) and aripiprazole (3.79) groups. Differences in median changes from baseline in TG:HDL-C were significant with olanzapine versus aripiprazole at Weeks 26 (+0.22 vs. ?0.54; p<0.0001) and 52 (+0.24 vs. ?0.62; p=0.004). Conclusions Long-term aripiprazole treatment is associated with improvements in lipid profiles of schizophrenia patients versus no improvement or worsening during olanzapine treatment. Consideration of cardiovascular risk is needed when prescribing antipsychotics, as is close monitoring for metabolic changes during treatment. PMID:18973991

Newcomer, John W.; Meyer, Jonathan M.; Baker, Ross A.; Eudicone, James M.; Pikalov, Andrei; Vester-Blokland, Estelle; McQuade, Robert D.; Crandall, David T.; Carson, William H.; Marcus, Ronald N.; L'Italien, Gilbert

2013-01-01

91

MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

92

Enhanced Metabolic Flexibility Associated with Elevated Adiponectin Levels  

PubMed Central

Metabolically healthy individuals effectively adapt to changes in nutritional state. Here, we focus on the effects of the adipocyte-derived secretory molecule adiponectin on adipose tissue in mouse models with genetically altered adiponectin levels. We found that higher adiponectin levels increased sensitivity to the lipolytic effects of adrenergic receptor agonists. In parallel, adiponectin-overexpressing mice also display enhanced clearance of circulating fatty acids and increased expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue with chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding. These adaptive changes to the HFD were associated with increased mitochondrial density in adipocytes, smaller adipocyte size, and a general transcriptional up-regulation of factors involved in lipid storage through efficient esterification of free fatty acids. The physiological response to adiponectin overexpression resembles in many ways the effects of chronic exposure to ?3-adrenergic agonist treatment, which also results in improvements in insulin sensitivity. In addition, using a novel computed tomography-based method for measurements of hepatic lipids, we resolved the temporal events taking place in the liver in response to acute HFD exposure in both wild-type and adiponectin-overexpressing mice. Increased levels of adiponectin potently protect against HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and preserve insulin sensitivity. Given these profound effects of adiponectin, we propose that adiponectin is a factor that increases the metabolic flexibility of adipose tissue, enhancing its ability to maintain proper function under metabolically challenging conditions. PMID:20093494

Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Scherer, Philipp E.

2010-01-01

93

Elevated CO2 levels affect development, motility, and fertility and extend life  

E-print Network

Elevated CO2 levels affect development, motility, and fertility and extend life span August 5, 2008) Hypercapnia (high CO2 levels) occurs in a number of lung diseases and it is associated the response to nonanesthetic CO2 levels and show that levels exceeding 9% induce aberrant motility

Morimoto, Richard

94

The effects of the ? -glucosidase inhibitor BAY g 5421 (Acarbose) on postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, and triglyceride levels: Dose-time-response relationships in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a double-blind quadruple cross-over study the effect of a newa-glucosidase inhibitor (BAY g 5421) on postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum triglyceride increases was tested in 24 male healthy volunteers. They received before a standardized breakfast 50, 100, or 200 mg of BAY g 5421 or a placebo per os. The dose-time-response relationships were calculated and the

I. Hillebrand; K. Boehme; G. Frank; H. Fink; P. Berchtold

1979-01-01

95

Echo-Lucency of Computerized Ultrasound Images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Are Associated With Increased Levels of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as Well as Increased Plaque Lipid Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results—The study included 137 patients with neurological

Marie-Louise M. Grønholdt; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Britt M. Wiebe; Jens E. Wilhjelm; Henrik Sillesen

96

Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center  

SciTech Connect

Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

2002-05-14

97

Elevated blood selenium levels in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Contaminated fish poses a difficult challenge throughout the world, on the one hand, fish is a very nutritious food source, while on the other hand it accumulates many toxic substances, including mercury (Hg). As part of our efforts in the Brazilian Amazon to maximize nutritional input from fish consumption, a dietary mainstay, and minimize toxic risk, we have been studying the role of selenium (Se), an essential element, that may influence the distribution of Hg in the body and influence Hg neurotoxicity. Se, which is naturally present in the soil, is ingested through consumption of various foods, notably fish, mammals and certain plants. The objectives of the present study were: (i) evaluate whole blood Se (B-Se) and Hg (B-Hg); (ii) characterize B-Se variations with respect to socio-demographic and dietary variables; and (iii) examine the relation between B-Se and B-Hg. A total of 236 persons from six riparian communities of the Tapajós River Basin, a tributary of the Amazon, participated in this study. Whole blood Se and Hg were measured and interview administered questionnaires were used to obtain data on socio-demographic variable, smoking and drinking habits, and fish and fruit consumption. The results show that B-Se are in the upper normal range (median=284.3 microg/L, range=142.1-2029.3 microg/L). No individuals presented B-Se deficiency, but 9 participants from the same extended family had relatively high B-Se levels, potentially a threat to their health. B-Se varied between communities, was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers and farmers, but not associated with age, sex or tobacco consumption. A significant positive relation between B-Se and B-Hg was noted, independently of the overall fish consumption. B-Se increased with consumption of Peacock bass (Cichla sp.), a piscivorous fish species, and coconut pulp (Cocos nucifera L.). The B-Se intercommunity variations may reflect geographic differences in local soil Se levels as well as traditional land use practices in the different ecosystems of the Tapajós River Basin. In this population with relatively high exposure to Hg, Se may play an important role. Further studies should examine, in this region, the sources of Se, its transmission through the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem and its role with respect to human health. PMID:16289298

Lemire, Mélanie; Mergler, Donna; Fillion, Myriam; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc

2006-07-31

98

Elevated Tribbles homolog 2-specific antibody levels in narcolepsy patients.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle atonia triggered by strong emotions (cataplexy). Narcolepsy is caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, paralleled by a dramatic loss in hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons. It is believed that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, although definitive proof of this, such as the presence of autoantibodies, is still lacking. We engineered a transgenic mouse model to identify peptides enriched within hypocretin-producing neurons that could serve as potential autoimmune targets. Initial analysis indicated that the transcript encoding Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), previously identified as an autoantigen in autoimmune uveitis, was enriched in hypocretin neurons in these mice. ELISA analysis showed that sera from narcolepsy patients with cataplexy had higher Trib2-specific antibody titers compared with either normal controls or patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, multiple sclerosis, or other inflammatory neurological disorders. Trib2-specific antibody titers were highest early after narcolepsy onset, sharply decreased within 2-3 years, and then stabilized at levels substantially higher than that of controls for up to 30 years. High Trib2-specific antibody titers correlated with the severity of cataplexy. Serum of a patient showed specific immunoreactivity with over 86% of hypocretin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus. Thus, we have identified reactive autoantibodies in human narcolepsy, providing evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. PMID:20160349

Cvetkovic-Lopes, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Maret, Stéphanie; Pradervand, Sylvain; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lecendreux, Michel; Lammers, Gert-Jan; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Du Pasquier, Renaud A; Pfister, Corinne; Petit, Brice; Hor, Hyun; Mühlethaler, Michel; Tafti, Mehdi

2010-03-01

99

Photosynthetic acclimation of maize to growth under elevated levels of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on the photochemistry, biochemistry and physiology of C4 photosynthesis were studied in maize (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown at ambient (350??L?L?1) or ca. 3 times ambient (1100??L?L?1) CO2 levels under high light conditions in a greenhouse for 30?d. Relative to plants grown at ambient CO2 levels, plants grown under elevated CO2 accumulated

João P. Maroco; Gerald E. Edwards; Maurice S. B. Ku

1999-01-01

100

Triglycerides: how much credit do they deserve?  

PubMed

In the modern era of statin therapy, major advances have been made in treating coronary heart disease. However, despite intensive treatment with statin therapy, residual cardiovascular risk persists and has been attributed to the persistence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and, in part, elevated triglycerides (TGs). In this review, the authors focus on the mechanism of elevated TGs and provide a discussion of the challenges of measuring TGs as a biomarker, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic heart disease, and results of several recent studies that have elucidated the relationship between TGs and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:22391250

Kohli, Payal; Cannon, Christopher P

2012-01-01

101

Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

1997-01-01

102

Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, Andre; Meyer, Jobst

2014-01-01

103

Syndecan-1 is the primary heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediating hepatic clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in mice  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma triglyceride levels represent a risk factor for premature atherosclerosis. In mice, accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins can occur if sulfation of heparan sulfate in hepatocytes is diminished, as this alters hepatic lipoprotein clearance via heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). However, the relevant HSPG has not been determined. In this study, we found by RT-PCR analysis that mouse hepatocytes expressed the membrane proteoglycans syndecan-1, -2, and -4 and glypican-1 and -4. Analysis of available proteoglycan-deficient mice showed that only syndecan-1 mutants (Sdc1–/– mice) accumulated plasma triglycerides. Sdc1–/– mice also exhibited prolonged circulation of injected human VLDL and intestinally derived chylomicrons. We found that mice lacking both syndecan-1 and hepatocyte heparan sulfate did not display accentuated triglyceride accumulation compared with single mutants, suggesting that syndecan-1 is the primary HSPG mediating hepatic triglyceride clearance. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that syndecan-1 was expressed specifically on the microvilli of hepatocyte basal membranes, facing the space of Disse, where lipoprotein uptake occurs. Abundant syndecan-1 on wild-type murine hepatocytes exhibited saturable binding of VLDL and inhibition by heparin and facilitated degradation of VLDL. Furthermore, adenovirus-encoded syndecan-1 restored binding, uptake, and degradation of VLDL in isolated Sdc1–/– hepatocytes and the lipoprotein clearance defect in Sdc1–/– mice. These findings provide the first in vivo genetic evidence that syndecan-1 is the primary hepatocyte HSPG receptor mediating the clearance of both hepatic and intestinally derived triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. PMID:19805913

Stanford, Kristin I.; Bishop, Joseph R.; Foley, Erin M.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2009-01-01

104

Elevated Second-Trimester Serum Homocyst(e)ine Levels and Subsequent Risk of Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. In late gestation, levels of homocyst(e)ine are higher in preeclamptics, as compared with normotensive pregnant women. Our objective was to determine whether homocyst(e)ine elevations precede the development of preeclampsia. Study Design: We used a prospective nested case-control study design to compare second trimester maternal serum homocyst(e)ine

Tanya K. Sorensen; M. Rene Malinow; Michelle A. Williams; Irena B. King; David A. Luthy

1999-01-01

105

[Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

Lincoln, D.E.

1995-10-01

106

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

107

Wound Fluid from Chronic Leg Ulcers Contains Elevated Levels of Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to

Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell

1993-01-01

108

Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which

Sriharsha Damera; Kalani L Raphael; Bradley C Baird; Alfred K Cheung; Tom Greene; Srinivasan Beddhu

2011-01-01

109

Elevation of Intracellular Glucosylceramide Levels Results in an Increase in Endoplasmic Reticulum Density and in Functional  

E-print Network

the endoplasmic reticulum in re- sponse to caffeine were detected in these cells. There was a direct relationshipElevation of Intracellular Glucosylceramide Levels Results in an Increase in Endoplasmic Reticulum hippocampal neurons accumulate GlcCer. Surprisingly, increased levels of tu- bular endoplasmic reticulum

Segal, Menahem

110

Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Cherry, J. A.; McKee, K. L.; Grace, J. B.

2009-01-01

111

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

PubMed

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

2013-05-01

112

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a novel rare cause of elevated plasma troponin T levels.  

PubMed

In this article, we report on a patient with chronic and modestly elevated plasma troponin T (TnT) levels and frequent hospitalizations following the first admission until his death one year later. The patient was initially admitted for dyspnea and discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Coronary angiography and echocardiography were normal, but the patient received the (false) diagnosis of AMI at two further admissions, based purely on elevated TnT. Shortly thereafter, severe respiratory failure with restrictive-type spirometry pattern became the predominant clinical symptom, with constantly elevated TnT levels at frequent re-admissions. Due to inconsistent follow-up by primarily junior and non-specialist staff at a number of different wards, pulmonary function tests and previous smoking history were mis-interpreted as typical of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patient received standard COPD treatment without any improvement. After a year of gradually worsening respiratory failure and repeated hospitalizations, thorough assessment by a pulmonologist and neurologist established the final diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The patient died shortly thereafter. While progressive respiratory failure is well-known to determine morbidity and mortality in patients with ALS, chronically elevated TnT levels in the absence of coronary artery disease have, to our best knowledge, not been described so far. We suggest that chronic myocardial hypoxia due to ALS-related hypoxic respiratory failure was the most likely underlying etiology for the elevated TnT levels seen here but other mechanism such as immune-mediated myocardial injury cannot be excluded. PMID:21888026

Von Lueder, Thomas G; Melsom, Morten Nissen; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan

2011-01-01

113

False in vitro and in vivo elevations of uric acid levels in mouse blood.  

PubMed

Uric acid (UA) levels in mouse blood have been reported to range widely from 0.1 ?M to 760 ?M. The aim of this study was to demonstrate false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA levels in mouse blood. Male ICR mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital (breathing mice) or sacrificed with overdose ether (non-breathing mice). Collected blood was dispensed into MiniCollect® tubes and incubated in vitro for 0 or 30 min at room temperature. After separation of plasma or serum, the levels of UA and hypoxanthine were determined using HPLC. From the non-incubated plasma of breathing mice, the true value of UA level in vivo was 13.5±1.4 ?M. However, UA levels in mouse blood increased by a factor of 3.9 following incubation in vitro. This "false in vitro elevation" of UA levels in mouse blood after blood sampling was inhibited by allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Xanthine oxidase was converted to UA in mouse serum from hypoxanthine which was released from blood cells during incubation. Plasma UA levels from non-breathing mice were 19 times higher than those from breathing mice. This "false in vivo elevation" of UA levels before blood sampling was inhibited by pre-treatment with phentolamine, an ?-antagonist. Over-anesthesia with ether might induce ?-vasoconstriction and ischemia and thus degrade intracellular ATP to UA. For the accurate measurement of UA levels in mouse blood, the false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA level must be avoided by immediate separation of plasma after blood sampling from anesthetized breathing mice. PMID:24940669

Watanabe, Tamaki; Tomioka, Naoko H; Watanabe, Shigekazu; Tsuchiya, Masao; Hosoyamada, Makoto

2014-01-01

114

Does Plant Litter Become More Recalcitrant Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Levels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration exert several positive and negative effects on litter dynamics, but the net impact of climate change on litter decomposition and the carbon balance of the terrestrial ecosystem is yet unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on litter dynamics under elevated CO2 levels with a view to using

B. Mohan KUMAR; Kikuo HAIBARA; Hiroto TODA

115

Impact of Elevated Levels of Atmospheric CO2 and Herbivory on Flavonoids of Soybean  

E-print Network

Linnaeus) Bridget F. O'Neill & Arthur R. Zangerl & Orla Dermody & Damla D. Bilgin & Clare L. Casteel Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus

DeLucia, Evan H.

116

Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community  

PubMed Central

The current knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on rice-paddy methane (CH4) emissions is incomplete, partly because information is limited concerning the mechanism of the microbial response to elevated ground-level ozone (O3). A field experiment was conducted in the China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment facility in a rice–wheat rotation system to investigate the responses of methanogenic archaeal communities to elevated ground-level O3 by culture-independent and -reliant approaches. We found that elevated ground-level O3 inhibited methanogenic activity and influenced the composition of paddy methanogenic communities, reducing the abundance and diversity of paddy methanogens by adversely affecting dominant groups, such as aceticlastic Methanosaeta, especially at the rice tillering stage. Our results indicated that continuously elevated ground-level O3 would negatively influence paddy methanogenic archaeal communities and its critical ecological function. These findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the responses and feedbacks of paddy ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:24217205

Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhang, Huayong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jianguo

2013-01-01

117

A case-control study of persons with elevated blood levels of dieldrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven pesticide workers with elevated blood levels of dieldrin (?15 ppb) were involved in a case-control study which included history and physical examination, comprehensive neurological evaluation, laboratory tests, and psychological and psychomotor testing. No clinically important differences were found on history, physical, specialized neurological tests, or laboratory examination. The exposed group showed a statistically significant difference in five out of

S. Hope Sandifer; Claude M. Cupp; R. Terrell Wilkins; Boyd Loadholt; S. H. Schuman

1981-01-01

118

Inhibition of Stabilin-2 elevates circulating hyaluronic acid levels and prevents tumor metastasis  

E-print Network

Inhibition of Stabilin-2 elevates circulating hyaluronic acid levels and prevents tumor metastasis, and also suppressed spontaneous metastasis of mammary tumor and human breast tumor cells inoculated to lung endothelial cells. These results suggest that blocking Stab2 function prevents tumor metastasis

Gleeson, Joseph G.

119

late with the presence of acetaminophen-induced elevation of serum ALT levels in the  

E-print Network

late with the presence of acetaminophen- induced elevation of serum ALT levels in the humans adverse drug reactions are in part genetically deter- mined, and a major goal of pharmacogenomics research of acetaminophen and found that there were large strain-dependent variations in drug-induced liver injury

Fischlin, Andreas

120

SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

121

There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

122

There is no elevation of immunoglobulin e levels in Albanian patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases.  

PubMed

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

123

Elevated levels of serum mucin-associated antigen in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Previous studies using the CA 19-9 antibody have demonstrated that serum mucin levels in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are elevated and that the degree of elevation relates to the age of the patient and possibly to his or her clinical status. However, CA 19-9 only recognizes the mucin-associated blood group sialyl Le(a+) antigen, so mucin levels cannot be measured in patients without Lewis antigens. The present study used the 17B1 monoclonal antibody to measure serum mucin levels in normal subjects, and in patients with CF, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and patients with lung transplants. Serum mucin levels were 25 ng/ml (+/- 1 SEM, n = 8) in normal subjects, 13,853 ng/ml (+/- 1,281, n = 25) in patients with CF, and 25.5 ng/ml (+/- 1.9, n = 17) in patients with COPD. Patients with CF who were sialyl Le(a-b-) also had elevated serum mucin levels (715 +/- 152, n = 2). Serum mucin levels of six lung transplant recipients with CF were elevated compared with those in normal subjects (4,621 +/- 765 ng/ml), but they were not different from serum mucin levels in six lung transplant recipients without CF (5,307 +/- 1.677 ng/ml). Preliminary characterization of the serum mucin antigen showed that: (1) in CF sera, the antigen is polydisperse and smaller than the antigen in normal sera; (2) the mucin antigen is distinct from ABO blood group antigens. Serum mucin levels may be a useful marker to follow a specific patient's response to therapy. PMID:8342902

Robinson, C B; Martin, W R; Ratliff, J L; Holland, P V; Wu, R; Cross, C E

1993-08-01

124

Elevated CSF levels of interleukin-2 in neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Levels of CSF fluid interleukin-2, but not interleukin-1 alpha, were found to be higher in 10 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients than in 10 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. Because interleukin-2 increases dopaminergic neurotransmission and participates in autoimmunity and cell growth, the authors postulate that elevated levels of central interleukin-2 might contribute to the increased dopaminergic neurotransmission, autoimmune phenomena, and abnormal brain morphology described in some patients with schizophrenia. PMID:8102512

Licinio, J; Seibyl, J P; Altemus, M; Charney, D S; Krystal, J H

1993-09-01

125

The effects of the ? -glucosidase inhibitor BAY g 5421 (Acarbose) on meal-stimulated elevations of circulating glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In blind studies the effects of a newa-glucosidase inhibitor (BAY g 5421) were tested in normal weight and overweight male volunteers after oral application of 75, 150, or 300 mg of BAY g 5421 or placebo per os before three standardized main meals of one day. Before and three hours after each meal blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum

I. Hillebrand; K. Boehme; G. Frank; H. Fink; P. Berchtold

1979-01-01

126

Pressor doses of vasopressin result in only transient elevations in plasma peptide levels  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that neuronostatin, a novel neuropeptide, biphasically increased mean arterial pressure, first through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system followed by the release of vasopressin. In those experiments, we found that centrally administered neuronostatin increased plasma vasopressin levels only 2–3 times greater than levels observed in saline-treated controls, and that the increase in mean arterial pressure (approximately 15 mm Hg) could be blocked by pretreatment with a V1-vasopressin antagonist. Here we report the relationship between two to three fold elevations in plasma vasopressin levels and concomitant changes in mean arterial pressure in conscious, unrestrained male rats. We injected increasing doses of vasopressin (5, 20, and 100 ng/kg, intra-arterially) and measured both changes in plasma vasopressin levels and the elevation in mean arterial pressure achieved. At five minutes post injection, plasma levels of vasopressin and mean arterial pressures were similar to those observed following central neuronostatin administration in our earlier study. Thus we conclude that small increases in circulating vasopressin levels can result in significant elevations in mean arterial pressure at least in the conscious rat. PMID:22227112

Yosten, Gina L.C.; Samson, Willis K.

2012-01-01

127

Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group  

SciTech Connect

No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

Friedman, Lee S. [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Kundiev, Yuri I. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Chislovska, Nataliya V. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Mucha, Amy [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Zvinchuk, Alexander V. [Data Management Center, Kyiv University of Illinois (United States); Oliynyk, Irene [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Hryhorczuk, Daniel [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)

2006-09-15

128

Hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels later in life  

PubMed Central

Objectives We assessed if hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated CRP levels in later life, possibly reflecting an increased risk of CVD. Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been associated with hypertension in pregnancy and with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We studied 2463 women from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. Subjects were categorized as nulliparous women (n=219), women with a history of normotensive pregnancies (n=1839), or women with a history of a hypertensive pregnancy (n=405). Using multiple linear regression models we compared mean CRP levels among the groups after adjusting for age, race, education, smoking, hypertension, personal history of CHD or stroke, diabetes, dyslipidemia, statins, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of CHD or stroke. As CRP levels may be influenced by body mass index (BMI), the model was fit both with and without adjusting for BMI. Results There was no significant difference in CRP levels between nulliparous women and those with a history of normotensive pregnancies, either with (p=0.82) or without (p=0.46) adjusting for BMI. In contrast, women with hypertensive pregnancies, compared to those with normotensive pregnancies, had higher CRP levels, both with (p=0.009) and without (p<0.001) adjusting for BMI. Conclusions A history of hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated CRP levels later in life, independent of traditional CVD risk factors and BMI. An elevated CRP may reflect an inflammatory state in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders who are at increased risk for CVD. PMID:24029867

BROWN, Catherine M.; TURNER, Stephen T.; BAILEY, Kent R.; MOSLEY, Thomas H.; KARDIA, Sharon L.R.; WISTE, Heather J.; KULLO, Iftikhar J.; GAROVIC, Vesna D.

2014-01-01

129

Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease: FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... their physicians, dietitians and nutritionists. 5. Do high-carbohydrate diets increase triglycerides and risk for cardiovascular disease? ... ATP III), suggests that very high intakes of carbohydrates (CHO) (greater than 60 percent of total calories) ...

130

Associates of an Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Level in Stable Heart Failure Patients: Implications for Targeted Management  

PubMed Central

Background. Persistently elevated natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in heart failure (HF) patients are associated with impaired prognosis. Recent work suggests that NP-guided therapy can improve outcome, but the mechanisms behind an elevated BNP remain unclear. Among the potential stimuli for NP in clinically stable patients are persistent occult fluid overload, wall stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and ischemia. The purpose of this study was to identify associates of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a stable HF population. Methods. In a prospective observational study of 179 stable HF patients, the association between BNP and markers of collagen metabolism, inflammation, and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI), and E/e prime (E/e?) was measured. Results. Univariable associates of elevated BNP were age, LVEF, LAVI, E/e?, creatinine, and markers of collagen turnover. In a multiple linear regression model, age, creatinine, and LVEF remained significant associates of BNP. E/e? and markers of collagen turnover had a persistent impact on BNP independent of these covariates. Conclusion. Multiple variables are associated with persistently elevated BNP levels in stable HF patients. Clarification of the relative importance of NP stimuli may help refine NP-guided therapy, potentially improving outcome for this at-risk population. PMID:24453873

Dawkins, Ian; Murphy, Niamh; Collier, Patrick; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris J.

2013-01-01

131

Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change. PMID:24198270

Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

132

Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of circulating casomorphins (CM), the exogenous opioid peptides from milk casein, may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism in children. Because several mass spectrometry studies failed to detect casomorphins in autistic children, it was questioned whether these peptides can be detected in body fluids by mass spec. Here we demonstrated, using a novel high sensitivity ELISA method, that autistic children have significantly higher levels of urine CM-7 than control children. The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders. PMID:24657283

Sokolov, Oleg; Kost, Natalya; Andreeva, Olga; Korneeva, Ekaterina; Meshavkin, Viktor; Tarakanova, Yulia; Dadayan, Aleksander; Zolotarev, Yurii; Grachev, Sergei; Mikheeva, Inna; Varlamov, Oleg; Zozulya, Andrey

2014-06-01

133

Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration  

PubMed Central

We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n?=?18) or 24 IU (n?=?10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n?=?18), and each hour after administration, for 7?h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1?h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7?h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 or 24 IU) did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7?h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed. PMID:23233832

van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

2012-01-01

134

Abnormally elevated serum transcobalamin II levels in patients with cerebral malaria.  

PubMed

Transcobalamin II (TCII) levels have been reported to be elevated in patients with many clinical conditions including proliferative reticuloendothelial system. As reactive macrophage hyperplasia frequently occurs in patients with malaria, the objective of the present study was to determine TCII in patients with Plasmodium falciparum with cerebral symptoms. The studies were performed on 14 cerebral malaria patients as well as 60 normal subjects. The mean values of serum vitamin B12 and TCII levels were significantly higher in the patient group and 6 and 7 patients had serum vitamin B12 and TCII levels higher than the normal values. There was direct relationship between serum TCII levels and BUN or creatinine levels. These findings indicated that raised serum TCII level occurred only in patients with renal insufficiency. A decreased glomerular fiLtration rate reduced the amount of vitamin B12 and TCII-B12 that filtered through the glomeruli resulting in the reduced proximal tubular cells uptake and its degradation of TCII. This reduced lysosomal enzyme activity, therefore, prolongs the intravascular TCII survival and increased secretion of TCII into the circulation. Therefore, serum TCII levels were elevated in these cerebral malaria patients. PMID:7759977

Areekul, S; Churdchu, K; Thanomsak, W; Cheeramakara, C; Wilairatana, P; Charoenlarp, P

1994-12-01

135

Elevated Salt and Nitrate Levels in Drinking Water Cause an Increase of Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To assess the influence on blood pressure in schoolchildren, of elevated sodium (Na+) and nitrate (NO–3) levels in the drinking water. Methods: The blood pressure was recorded in three groups of age- and weight-matched schoolchildren (fourth and fifth graders) ingesting differing Na+ and NO–3 concentrations with their drinking water. Group 1 (n = 452) imbibed high-Na+, high-NO–3 water (196

Avishalom Pomeranz; Ze’ev Korzets; Daniel Vanunu; Haim Krystal; Baruch Wolach

2000-01-01

136

Elevated Circulating Free Fatty Acid Levels Impair Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that insulin-resistant obese sub- jects exhibit impaired endothelial function. Here, we test the hypothesis that elevation of circulating FFA to levels seen in insulin-resistant subjects can impair endothelial function. We studied leg blood flow responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (Mch) or the endothelium-indepen- dent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside during the

Helmut O. Steinberg; Manal Tarshoby; Robert Monestel; Ginger Hook; Jessica Cronin; Ann Johnson; Basel Bayazeed; Alain D. Baron

137

Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group  

Microsoft Academic Search

No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case–control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression

Lee S.. Friedman; Elena M. Lukyanova; Yuri I. Kundiev; Zoreslava A. Shkiryak-Nizhnyk; Nataliya V. Chislovska; Amy Mucha; Alexander V. Zvinchuk; Irene Oliynyk; Daniel Hryhorczuk

2006-01-01

138

Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that

Cesare Mondadori; Thomas Ducret; Albert Hiiusler

1992-01-01

139

Rapid and sensitive enzymatic-radiochemical assay for the determination of triglycerides  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic-radiochemical method suitable for the determination of triglyceride levels of cells in culture is described. The method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids which then complex with /sup 63/Ni. The method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. The procedure extends the sensitivity of triglyceride measurement to as low as 0.25 nanomoles.

Khoo, J.C.; Miller, E.; Goldberg, D.I.

1987-07-01

140

Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity  

PubMed Central

Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Methods: Serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were measured in 101 obese children and in 40 controls. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 51 obese children and in 15 controls. Results: Serum TSH level was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (2.78 vs. 1.99 mIU/L, p<0.001), while no difference was found in fT4, fT3, rT3 levels and in fT3/rT3 ratio. In the obese group, fT3 level positively correlated with fT4 (r=0.217, p=0.033) and inversely with rT3 (r=-0.288, p=0.045). However, thyroid hormone levels and TSH levels were not correlated. Conclusion: In obese children, normal fT4, fT3 and rT3 levels suggest an undisturbed peripheral hormone metabolism. These levels show no correlation with elevated TSH levels. PMID:24932603

Lobotkova, Denisa; Stanikova, Daniela; Stanik, Juraj; Cervenova, Ol'ga; Bzduch, Vladimir; Ticha, L'ubica

2014-01-01

141

Heparanase Levels Are Elevated in the Urine and Plasma of Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Associate with Blood Glucose Levels  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Utilizing an ELISA method capable of detection and quantification of heparanase, we examined heparanase levels in the plasma and urine of a cohort of 29 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 14 T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, and 47 healthy volunteers. We provide evidence that heparanase levels in the urine of T2DM patients are markedly elevated compared to healthy controls (1162±181 vs. 156±29.6 pg/ml for T2DM and healthy controls, respectively), increase that is statistically highly significant (P<0.0001). Notably, heparanase levels were appreciably decreased in the urine of T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, albeit remained still higher than healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Increased heparanase levels were also found in the plasma of T2DM patients. Importantly, urine heparanase was associated with elevated blood glucose levels, implying that glucose mediates heparanase upregulation and secretion into the urine and blood. Utilizing an in vitro system, we show that insulin stimulates heparanase secretion by kidney 293 cells, and even higher secretion is observed when insulin is added to cells maintained under high glucose conditions. These results provide evidence for a significant involvement of heparanase in diabetic complications. PMID:21364956

Shafat, Itay; Ilan, Neta; Zoabi, Samih; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nakhoul, Farid

2011-01-01

142

Predictors of elevated blood lead levels among 3-year-old Ukrainian children: A nested case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Lead is common in the general population. However, data are lacking for the Ukraine and many other countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU). In this study we evaluate the level of blood lead among 212 Ukrainian children and determine predictors of elevated lead levels. We also describe the health effects associated with elevated blood lead.Methods: A nested case-control

L. S. Friedman; O. M. Lukyanova; Y. I. Kundiev; Z. A. Shkiryak-Nizhnyk; N. V. Chislovska; A. Mucha; A. V. Zvinchuk; I. Oliynyk; D. Hryhorczuk

2005-01-01

143

Elevation of intracellular Zn2+ level by nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban in rat thymocytes.  

PubMed

It was recently reported that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent, were detected in human blood after the use of soap containing triclocarban. Due to the widespread use of triclocarban in adult and infant personal care products, the report prompted us to study its cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of triclocarban was examined in rat thymocytes by using a cytometric technique with propidium iodide for examining cell lethality, FluoZin-3-AM for monitoring the intracellular Zn(2+) level, and 5-chloromethylfluorescencein diacetate for estimating the cellular content of non-protein thiol. The incubation with triclocarban at nanomolar concentrations (50-500nM) for 1h did not affect cell lethality but significantly elevated the intracellular Zn(2+) level. The elevation of the intracellular Zn(2+) level by triclocarban was not significantly dependent on external Zn(2+) level. There was a negative correlation (r=-0.9225) between the effect on the intracellular Zn(2+) level and that on the cellular content of non-protein thiol. These results suggest that nanomolar concentrations of triclocarban decrease the cellular content of non-protein thiol, leading to intracellular Zn(2+) release. Since zinc plays physiological roles in mammalian cells, the percutaneous absorption of triclocarban from soap may, therefore, affect some cellular functions. PMID:23099084

Morita, Junpei; Teramachi, Aoi; Sanagawa, Yosuke; Toyson, Saramaiti; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Oyama, Yasuo

2012-12-17

144

Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

2012-01-01

145

Enhanced glycogen metabolism in adipose tissue decreases triglyceride mobilization.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a primary site for lipid storage containing trace amounts of glycogen. However, refeeding after a prolonged partial fast produces a marked transient spike in adipose glycogen, which dissipates in coordination with the initiation of lipid resynthesis. To further study the potential interplay between glycogen and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, the aP2-PTG transgenic mouse line was utilized since it contains a 100- to 400-fold elevation of adipocyte glycogen levels that are mobilized upon fasting. To determine the fate of the released glucose 1-phosphate, a series of metabolic measurements were made. Basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lactate production in vitro was significantly increased in adipose tissue from transgenic animals. In parallel, basal and isoproterenol-induced release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) was significantly reduced in transgenic adipose tissue vs. control. Interestingly, glycerol release was unchanged between the genotypes, suggesting that enhanced triglyceride resynthesis was occurring in the transgenic tissue. Qualitatively similar results for NEFA and glycerol levels between wild-type and transgenic animals were obtained in vivo during fasting. Additionally, the physiological upregulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic isoform (PEPCK-C) expression in adipose upon fasting was significantly blunted in transgenic mice. No changes in whole body metabolism were detected through indirect calorimetry. Yet weight loss following a weight gain/loss protocol was significantly impeded in the transgenic animals, indicating a further impairment in triglyceride mobilization. Cumulatively, these results support the notion that the adipocyte possesses a set point for glycogen, which is altered in response to nutritional cues, enabling the coordination of adipose glycogen turnover with lipid metabolism. PMID:20424138

Markan, Kathleen R; Jurczak, Michael J; Allison, Margaret B; Ye, Honggang; Sutanto, Maria M; Cohen, Ronald N; Brady, Matthew J

2010-07-01

146

Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms. PMID:23043271

2012-01-01

147

[Gallbladder cancer with elevated serum ?-fetoprotein, ?-fetoprotein-L3, and human chorionic gonadotropin levels].  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman presented with fever and was diagnosed with choledocholithiasis, which was removed endoscopically. Incidentally, a markedly elevated serum ?-fetoprotein(AFP)level was detected(1,951 ng/mL), but computed tomography( CT)showed only diffuse gallbladder wall thickening. Subsequently, markedly elevated serum AFP-L3 and human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)levels were detected(99.6%and 2,867mIU/mL, respectively). Fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)- positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated high FDG uptake only in the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer was suspected and the patient was scheduled for a cholecystectomy. However, CT just prior to surgery revealed multiple liver metastases. Percutaneous gallbladder biopsy revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma positive for AFP but not HCG. The patient underwent chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine and cisplatin. A CT scan obtained 12 weeks later showed disease progression and AFP and HCG levels were found to have increased to 4,021 ng/mL and 66,000mIU/mL, respectively. Although immunohistochemistry of biopsy specimen did not demonstrate HCG production, increased serum HCG level on disease progression definitely suggested HCG production of gallbladder cancer. We believe the biopsy specimen was very small and therefore did not prove HCG production. Gallbladder cancer with simultaneous production of AFP and HCG is rare, and we therefore report this case together with a review of the literature. PMID:25132038

Goto, Akira; Ishimine, Yu; Hirata, Tsubasa; Naito, Takafumi; Yabana, Takashi; Adachi, Takeya; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Kiyoshi

2014-08-01

148

Effects of elevated CO(2) levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO(2) levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO(2) levels (360 and 1 000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO(2) increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2), especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO(2) under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO(2). The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2). Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO(2) may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

2011-04-01

149

Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

2011-01-01

150

Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level anomaly. No significant increase in wave height was observed during this period, suggesting that the increase in beach erosion resulted from the sea-level anomaly. The sites that were strongly impacted by the sea-level anomaly did not fully recover from the beach erosion and consequently experienced large amounts of erosion in response to Hurricane Irene in 2011. These results suggest that long duration (weeks to months) high water levels cause changes to the beach similar to those generally thought to occur only during large storms. Dune erosion from higher sea levels weakens a beaches defense to storms, leading to increased beach erosion and overwash if a storm occurs before the beach can recover. It is likely that similar high water events will increase in duration and magnitude with future climate change, leading to increased "fair-weather" beach erosion and priming the system for devastating hurricane impacts.

Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

2012-12-01

151

Prediction of assisted reproductive technique outcome in elevated early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone with Mullerian inhibiting substance level  

PubMed Central

Background: Detection of best predictor of ovarian reserve in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH is one of the most important goals in assisted reproductive technique (ART). Objective: To evaluate whether high level of anti-mullerian hormone level is related to success of ART in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH. Materials and Methods: Sixty three women underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with GnRH-agonist long protocol or intrauterine insemination (IUI) in a prospective cohort study. FSH, inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured in these women whom were divided to three groups (persistently elevated FSH, variably elevated FSH and, normal FSH level). Basal characteristics, stimulation parameters, and pregnancy occurrence were evaluated. Results: AMH was significantly higher in women with persistently elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy. Women with normal FSH did not have significant difference in AMH level between conceived and non conceived cycles. Women with only one elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy did not have significant difference in AMH level with non pregnant women. Response to gonadotropin stimulation, recommendation to oocyte donation significantly differed between the groups. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that relatively young women with persistently or intermittently elevated day 3 FSH levels have diminished ovarian reserve and lower ART success. However, in women whose FSH levels were constantly elevated, AMH (not inhibin B) concentrations were significantly higher in ART cycles resulting in pregnancy. Therefore, AMH level is a good predictor of ART outcome in patients with elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH. PMID:25242994

Safdarian, Leili; Khayatzadeh, Zahra; Djavadi, Ebrahim; Mahdavi, Atossa; Aghahosseini, Marzieh; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Fallahi, Parvin; Khayatzadeh, Sima; Ahmadzadeh, Arash; Larijani, Mohhamad Bagher

2012-01-01

152

Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n?=?91), TC (n?=?98), and CC (n?=?14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P?=?0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P?=?0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism. PMID:24775272

2014-01-01

153

Elevated blood lead levels among internationally adopted children--United States, 1998.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning has been reported recently among Chinese children adopted by U.S. citizens. However, little is known about the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among adoptees from China and other countries. Persistent sources of lead exposure outside the United States include leaded gasoline exhaust; industrial emissions; cottage industries (e.g., battery breaking and recycling plants); traditional medicines; and some cosmetics, ceramic ware, and foods. In 1998, approximately 15,000 orphans from countries outside the United States who were adopted abroad or were to be adopted in the United States by U.S. citizens were issued U.S. immigrant visas-a nearly two-fold increase over 1988 (L. Lewis, Immigrant and Visa Control and Reporting Division, VISA Office, Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. State Department, personal communication, August 1999). Some orphans have been abandoned for extended periods and have no obtainable medical history. Immigrants aged <15 years are not required to have serologic or blood tests either in their country of origin or on entry into the United States unless exposure to syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus is suspected. To obtain reports on the prevalence of elevated BLLs (> or =10 microg/dL) among international adoptees, CDC contacted 12 international adoption medical specialists identified through the Joint Council on International Children's Services and two collaborating medical specialists. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which suggest that international adoptees may arrive in the United States with elevated BLLs. PMID:10718094

2000-02-11

154

Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of particular importance for patients harbouring a myeloma clone which produces large amounts of HGF. PMID:24716444

2014-01-01

155

A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax.  

PubMed

A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians. Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four FIS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (<10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (>100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure. PMID:20158198

Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Westberg, Håkan; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

2010-03-15

156

Relationships between elevation, reproduction and the hematocrit level of brown-headed cowbirds.  

PubMed

Hematocrit, furcular fat level and oviducal egg presence were determined for 267 brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) at eight sites ranging from 15 to 2390 m above sea level in California. Near the end of the breeding season males at a mid-elevation site (1250 m) possessed higher hematocrits than females, but there was no difference between yearling and adult males. Birds were bled during three 11-day periods beginning 1 May 1984 at one montane site (2075 m). The percentage of females with oviducal eggs increased significantly from 0 to 10 to 67% and the mean female hematocrit increased from 0.54 to 0.56 and then decreased significantly to 0.52. The hematocrit of males increased significantly from 0.54 to 0.57 and then remained level during the final period. Correlations were calculated between mean hematocrit and elevation for males (r = 0.94, N = 8 sites, P less than 0.001), females (r = 0.96, N = 7 sites, P less than 0.001) and juveniles (r = 0.99, N = 4 sites, P less than 0.01). PMID:2870867

Keys, G C; Fleischer, R C; Rothstein, S I

1986-01-01

157

Elevated circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.  

PubMed

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare disorder predominantly affecting the skin, the eyes, and the cardiovascular system. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene and characterized by ectopic calcification and extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in the process of ECM remodeling. In the present study, we investigated matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PXE patients compared to healthy controls. We analyzed the serum concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a cohort of 69 German PXE patients and in 69 healthy, age-, and sex-matched control subjects using commercially available ELISA assays. We found elevated concentrations of both MMPs in the sera of PXE patients. MMP-2 levels were significantly higher in patients than controls (231 +/- 5.89 vs 202 +/- 5.17 ng/ml, p = 0.0002), as were MMP-9 levels (841 +/- 65.9 vs 350 +/- 30.8 ng/ml, p < 0.0001). Our findings point to an involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in PXE pathology. ECM remodeling in PXE is reflected by elevated levels of circulating MMP-2 and MMP-9. Those MMPs might, therefore, be applicable as serum markers for the matrix-degradative process in PXE. PMID:19575173

Diekmann, Ulf; Zarbock, Ralf; Hendig, Doris; Szliska, Christiane; Kleesiek, Knut; Götting, Christian

2009-10-01

158

Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein in Alzheimer's Disease Correlates with Brain A? 1–42 Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera obtained in the immediate postmortem from 100 individuals, 64 neuropathologically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases and 36 nondemented controls, were analyzed for cholesterol, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (Apo), and triglycerides. All individuals were ApoE genotyped, and the amounts of A? (N-40 and N-42) in cerebral cortex of AD and control subjects were determined. When compared to controls, AD individuals had significantly

Yu-Min Kuo; Mark R. Emmerling; Charles L. Bisgaier; Arnold D. Essenburg; Heather C. Lampert; Denise Drumm; Alex E. Roher

1998-01-01

159

Elevation of serum CXCL16 level correlates well with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Currently there are no reliable biological markers for ischemic stroke. The novel chemokine CXCL16 is known to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the real role of CXCL16 in atherosclerotic disorders remains uncertain. The goal of our study was to investigate the associations between serum-soluble CXCL16 level and atherosclerotic ischemic stroke, including large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small artery occlusion (SAO) subtypes, and to explore whether elevation in CXCL16 levels is correlated with the severity of large arterial stenosis. Material and methods The study recruited 227 subjects, including 74 controls and 153 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke from atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. The etiology of the acute ischemic strokes was classified into LAA (n = 86) subtype and SAO (n = 67) subtype according to the TOAST criteria, and the severity of carotid artery stenosis was assessed by the NASCET criteria. Serum-soluble CXCL16 concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum CXCL16 concentrations were significantly increased in both LAA (2.36 ng/ml) and SAO subtypes (2.13 ng/ml) when compared to that of the controls (2.04 ng/ml, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), and it was significantly elevated in LAA subtype than in SAO subtype (p < 0.05). However, significant differences in CXCL16 levels between the high-grade stenosis group (2.36 ng/ml) and moderate-grade stenosis group (2.24 ng/ml) of LAA subtype were not found (p > 0.05). A correlation of serum levels of CXCL16 with serum levels of hs-CRP, fibrinogen and lipid parameters was not observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions Increased serum level of soluble CXCL16 was independently associated with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke, particularly LAA subtype. PMID:24701213

Ma, Aijun; Xing, Yubo; Wu, Mei; Wang, Yuan; Ma, Cuiling

2014-01-01

160

Elevated levels of Dickkopf-related protein 3 in seminal plasma of prostate cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of Dkk-3, a secreted putative tumor suppressor, is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. We now investigated the suitability of Dkk-3 as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) in seminal plasma (SP). Methods SP samples were obtained from 81 patients prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on the basis of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; > 4 ng/mL) levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. A sensitive indirect immunoenzymometric assay for Dkk-3 was developed and characterized in detail. SP Dkk-3 and PSA levels were determined and normalized to total SP protein. The diagnostic accuracies of single markers including serum PSA and multivariate models to discriminate patients with positive (N = 40) and negative (N = 41) biopsy findings were investigated. Results Biopsy-confirmed PCa showed significantly higher SP Dkk-3 levels (100.9 ± 12.3 vs. 69.2 ± 9.4 fmol/mg; p = 0.026). Diagnostic accuracy (AUC) of SP Dkk-3 levels (0.633) was enhanced in multivariate models by including serum PSA (model A; AUC 0.658) or both, serum and SP PSA levels (model B; AUC 0.710). In a subpopulation with clinical follow-up > 3 years post-biopsy to ensure veracity of negative biopsy status (positive biopsy N = 21; negative biopsy N = 25) AUCs for SP Dkk-3, model A and B increased to 0.667, 0.724 and 0.777, respectively. Conclusions In multivariate models to detect PCa, inclusion of SP Dkk-3 levels, which were significantly elevated in biopsy-confirmed PCa patients, improved the diagnostic performance compared with serum PSA only. PMID:22071168

2011-01-01

161

Neonatal macrophages express elevated levels of interleukin-27 that oppose immune responses  

PubMed Central

Microbial infections are a major cause of infant mortality worldwide because of impaired immune defences in this population. The nature of this work was to further understand the mechanistic limitations of the neonatal and infant immune response. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a heterodimeric cytokine of the IL-12 family that is produced primarily by antigen-presenting cells and is immunosuppressive toward a variety of immune cell types. We show that IL-27 gene expression is elevated in cord blood-derived macrophages relative to macrophages originating from healthy adults. We also evaluated the duration over which elevated IL-27 gene expression may impact immune responses in mice. Age-dependent analysis of IL-27 gene expression indicated that levels of IL-27 remained significantly elevated throughout infancy and then declined in adult mice. Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular cytokine-stained splenocytes further confirmed these results. Interleukin-27 may be induced during pregnancy to contribute to the immunosuppressive environment at the fetal–maternal interface because we demonstrate dose-responsive gene expression to progesterone in macrophages. Neutralization of IL-27 in neonatal macrophages improved the ability of these cells to limit bacterial replication. Moreover, neutralization of IL-27 during incubation with the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine augmented the level of interferon-? elicited from allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes. This suggests that blocking IL-27 during vaccination and infection may improve immune responses in newborn and infant populations. Furthermore, mice will be a suitable model system to further address these possibilities. PMID:23464355

Kraft, Jennifer D; Horzempa, Joseph; Davis, Celestia; Jung, Joo-Yong; Pena, Maria Marjorette O; Robinson, Cory M

2013-01-01

162

The Earliest Stages of Ecosystem Succession in High-Elevation (5000 Metres above Sea Level), Recently Deglaciated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of 'new' soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse

S. K. Schmidt; Sasha C. Reed; Diana R. Nemergut; A. Stuart Grandy; Cory C. Cleveland; Michael N. Weintraub; Andrew W. Hill; Elizabeth K. Costello; A. F. Meyer; J. C. Neff; A. M. Martin

2008-01-01

163

COMMENT Elevated Free IGF-I Levels in Prepubertal Hispanic Girls with Premature Adrenarche: Relationship with Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls with premature adrenarche (PA) (the onset of pubic hair before the age of 8 yr associated with elevated levels of adrenal androgens and no evidence of true puberty or adrenal dys- function) may be at increased risk for development of poly- cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Alterations in the IGF sys- tem, including elevated free IGF-I, have been demonstrated in

MIRIAM E. SILFEN; ALEXANDRA M. MANIBO; MICHEL FERIN; DONALD J. MCMAHON; LENORE S. LEVINE; SHARON E. OBERFIELD

164

Long-term Surface Elevation Change in Salt Marshes: a Prediction of Marsh Response to Future Sea-Level Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accretion rates and surface elevation changes were measured in three natural salt marshes in the Wadden Sea. Derived from these measurements, a simple predictive model was made which describes changes in surface elevation during more than 100 years of salt-marsh development at several sea-level rise scenarios. The model was tested with data on long-term surface elevation changes at several successional stages in the salt marsh of Schiermonnikoog (The Netherlands), where sites differ in age from a few years to more than 100 years. The model predicts in all scenarios a fast increase in surface elevation during the first 100 years of marsh development. Results showed a very high similarity between the prediction of the model and field-data. A scenario without sea-level rise revealed a stabilization of surface elevation and inundation frequency after approximately 100 years. In a scenario with a rise in mean sea-level, however, marsh surface elevation continues to increase after 100 years, although at a slower pace. Previous studies expected marsh surface elevation on coastal barrier marshes to keep pace with sea-level rise, if sea-level rise was lower than 5 mm yr -1. We found that inundation frequency starts to increase after 100 years of marsh development, even if sea-level rise is lower than 5 mm yr -1. Shrinkage of the clay layer during summer probably caused an elevation deficit in older marshes. This means that in the long run (more than 500 years) marshes will probably degenerate on these islands, especially at a low elevation. New marshes may develop at sites with a higher elevation, if these sites are available.

van Wijnen, H. J.; Bakker, J. P.

2001-03-01

165

Elevated level of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with atrial septal defect  

PubMed Central

Background The study aimed to assess the level of plasma Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in patients before and after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) and to evaluate the usefulness of measuring ET-1 levels for the diagnosis and selection of candidates for ASD closure. Methods 80 patients (55 F, 25 M), mean age 42,2?±?11,5 years were enrolled for an attempt at ASD closure. A group of 19 healthy volunteers, (12 F, 7 M) mean age 39.2?±?9.15 served as controls. All ASD patients underwent: clinical and echocardiographic study and cardiopulmonary exercise test. ET-1 levels were measured before and after closure. Whole blood was collected from femoral artery and vein and from pulmonary artery during cardiac catheterization. Results ET-1 levels at peripheral artery and vein in ASD patients were significantly higher than in the volunteers (p?level presented the larger area of right ventricle and right atrium and higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure(p?level demonstrated longer time of exercise and higher peak oxygen consumption (p?level was observed. Conclusions 1. The level of ET-1 in ASD patients is elevated in compare to healthy subject. 2. The significant reduction of ET-1 level is observed after percutaneous closure of ASD. 3. Elevated level of ET-1 in patients with ASD is associated with right heart enlargement. 4. Measurements of ET-1 may be a supplemental diagnostic tool and may be helpful in establishing indications for defect closure. PMID:25099217

2014-01-01

166

Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?  

PubMed Central

Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p?=?0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

2014-01-01

167

Elevated Urine Heparanase Levels Are Associated with Proteinuria and Decreased Renal Allograft Function  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endo-?-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome. PMID:23028487

Shafat, Itay; Agbaria, Amir; Boaz, Mona; Schwartz, Doron; Baruch, Ronny; Nakash, Richard; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Weinstein, Talia

2012-01-01

168

Elevated VEGF Levels in Pulmonary Edema Fluid and PBMCs from Patients with Acute Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is characterized by vascular permeability, hypoxia, and acute pulmonary edema. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced by hypoxia, potently induces vascular permeability, and is associated with high-altitude-induced pulmonary edema. Hantaviruses alter the normal regulation of ?3 integrins that restrict VEGF-directed permeability and hantavirus infected endothelial cells are hyperresponsive to the permeabilizing effects of VEGF. However, the role of VEGF in acute pulmonary edema observed in HPS patients remains unclear. Here we retrospectively evaluate VEGF levels in pulmonary edema fluid (PEF), plasma, sera, and PBMCs from 31 HPS patients. VEGF was elevated in HPS patients PEF compared to controls with the highest levels observed in PEF samples from a fatal HPS case. VEGF levels were highest in PBMC samples during the first five days of hospitalization and diminished during recovery. Significantly increased PEF and PBMC VEGF levels are consistent with acute pulmonary edema observed in HPS patients and HPS disease severity. We observed substantially lower VEGF levels in a severe HPS disease survivor after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These findings suggest the importance of patients' VEGF levels during HPS, support the involvement of VEGF responses in HPS pathogenesis, and suggest targeting VEGF responses as a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:22956954

Gavrilovskaya, Irina; Gorbunova, Elena; Koster, Frederick; Mackow, Erich

2012-01-01

169

Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

2014-01-01

170

Elevation of rat brain tyrosine levels by phenelzine is mediated by its active metabolite ?-phenylethylidenehydrazine.  

PubMed

Phenelzine, a non-selective irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), has been used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders for several decades. It is a unique inhibitor of MAO as it is also a substrate for MAO, with one of the metabolites being ?-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), and it also inhibits several transaminases (e.g. GABA transaminase) in the brain when administered i.p. to rats. Administration of either phenelzine or PEH to rats has been reported to produce dramatic increases in rat brain levels of GABA and alanine while reducing levels of glutamine; these effects are abolished for phenelzine, but not for PEH, when the animals are pre-treated with another MAO inhibitor, suggesting that they are mediated by the MAO-catalyzed formation of PEH from phenelzine. In the present report, we have found that phenelzine and E- and Z-geometric isomers of PEH significantly increased rat whole brain concentrations of L-tyrosine. In a time-response study, acute administration of phenelzine, E-PEH and Z-PEH (30 mg/kg i.p.) elevated rat whole brain L-tyrosine levels at 3 and 6h following injection, reaching approximately 265-305% of vehicle-treated controls at 3h. To determine whether the effect on L-tyrosine is MAO-dependent, animals were pre-treated with the non-selective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine (1mg/kg i.p.) prior to administration of phenelzine, racemic PEH or vehicle controls. This pre-treatment reversed the effects of phenelzine, but not of PEH, on brain L-tyrosine levels, suggesting that the tyrosine-elevating property of phenelzine is largely the result of its active metabolite PEH. These results are discussed in relation to possible therapeutic applications of these drugs. PMID:24607770

Matveychuk, Dmitriy; Nunes, Emerson; Ullah, Nasir; Aldawsari, Fahad S; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A; Baker, Glen B

2014-08-01

171

Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

2014-01-01

172

Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute interstitial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. We hypothesized that HSP47 could be a useful marker for fibrotic lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of HSP47 in patients with various idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods Subjects comprised 9 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), 12 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), 16 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 19 healthy adult volunteers. Results Patients with AIP had serum HSP47 levels that were significantly higher than those of COP, NSIP or IPF patients and those of healthy volunteers. In contrast, serum levels of HSP47 among patients with COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between AIP and COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy controls was 859.3 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that, among patients with various IIPs, serum levels of HSP47 were elevated specifically in patients with AIP. PMID:24650086

2014-01-01

173

Elevated Levels of Serum IgA Against Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mannan in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to investigate whether levels of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCMA) in human sera, a marker for several autoimmune diseases, correlate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ASCMA-IgA, -IgG and -IgM levels were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in patients with RA (n = 30) and 152 healthy adult controls. ASCMA-IgA prevalence was significantly higher in RA patients (40%) than in healthy subjects (5.3%). A strong correlation between levels of ASCMA-IgA and CRP (r = 0.695; p < 0.01) and ESR (r = 0.708; p < 0.01) in RA patients was observed. No significant differences in ASCMA-IgG or IgM levels were noted between RA patients and healthy control subjects in the present study. This result differs from previous reports. It remains to be evaluated whether elevated ASCMA-levels are common to all rheumatic disorders. PMID:19887049

Dai, Hui; Li, Zhanguo; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Ping; Gao, Xiao-Ming

2009-01-01

174

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.  

SciTech Connect

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

1998-05-01

175

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in ?-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of ?-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol. PMID:21548801

Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

2011-09-01

176

Triglycerides-based diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are under way in many countries, including India, to search for suitable alternative diesel fuels that are environment friendly. The need to search for these fuels arises mainly from the standpoint of preserving the global environment and the concern about long-term supplies of conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. Among the different possible sources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils\\/animal

Anjana Srivastava; Ram Prasad

2000-01-01

177

Elevated miR-499 Levels Blunt the Cardiac Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Background The heart responds to myriad stresses by well-described transcriptional responses that involve long-term changes in gene expression as well as more immediate, transient adaptations. MicroRNAs quantitatively regulate mRNAs and thus may affect the cardiac transcriptional output and cardiac function. Here we investigate miR-499, a microRNA embedded within a ventricular-specific myosin heavy chain gene, which is expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed miR-499 expression in human tissue to confirm its potential relevance to human cardiac gene regulation. Using a transgenic mouse model, we found that elevated miR-499 levels caused cellular hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. Global gene expression profiling revealed altered levels of the immediate early stress response genes (Egr1, Egr2 and Fos), ß-myosin heavy chain (Myh7), and skeletal muscle actin (Acta1). We verified the effect of miR-499 on the immediate early response genes by miR-499 gain- and loss-of-function in vitro. Consistent with a role for miR-499 in blunting the response to cardiac stress, asymptomatic miR-499-expressing mice had an impaired response to pressure overload and accentuated cardiac dysfunction. Conclusions Elevated miR-499 levels affect cardiac gene expression and predispose to cardiac stress-induced dysfunction. miR-499 may titrate the cardiac response to stress in part by regulating the immediate early gene response. PMID:21573063

Shieh, Joseph T. C.; Huang, Yu; Gilmore, Jacqueline; Srivastava, Deepak

2011-01-01

178

Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

Ahluwalia, A.

1996-08-01

179

Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ?100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer. PMID:24624890

Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

2014-05-01

180

Elevated Ground-Level O 3 Changes the Diversity of Anoxygenic Purple Phototrophic Bacteria in Paddy Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the impact of elevated ground-level O3 below ground the agro-ecosystem is limited. A field experiment in China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE-O3) facility on a rice–wheat rotation system was carried out to investigate responses of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria\\u000a (AnPPB) to elevated ground-level O3. AnPPB community structures and sizes in paddy soil were monitored by molecular approaches

Youzhi Feng; Xiangui Lin; Yongchang Yu; Jianguo Zhu

181

beta-Alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.  

PubMed

Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output. PMID:19543795

Ericson, Mia; Clarke, Rhona B C; Chau, PeiPei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

2010-04-01

182

Elevated Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. Methods We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40%) and 47 non-PGD subjects (59%) received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p?=?0.03). The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p?=?0.02); there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p?=?0.9). Conclusions Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated. PMID:23284823

Cantu, Edward; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shah, Rupal J.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2012-01-01

183

Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics.  

PubMed

Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that these substances have a common site of action. In the light of new observations showing increased cortisol concentrations in Alzheimer patients, this steroid dependency of the effects of memory enhancers might explain why only a limited number of these patients respond to therapy with nootropics or cholinomimetics. PMID:1410129

Mondadori, C; Ducret, T; Häusler, A

1992-01-01

184

Growth hormone releasing factor infusion does not sustain elevated GH-levels in normal subjects.  

PubMed

To evaluate the dynamics of GH-secretion after infusion of growth hormone releasing factor, human pancreatic growth hormone releasing factor (hpGRF1-44) was infused over 2 and 5 h at a dosage of 100 micrograms hpGRF1-44/h into 11 healthy subjects. The infusion was started and terminated with a 50 micrograms hpGRF1-44 bolus injection. In 5 subjects 200 micrograms TRH was given 4 h after starting the infusion. In addition, 4 healthy subjects received 50 micrograms hpGRF1-44 bolus injection every 2 h. GRF, somatostatin, GH, Prl, and TSH were measured by radioimmunoassay. The initial 50 micrograms GRF bolus increased GH-levels in all 11 subjects with a maximum at 30 min (24.1 +/- 5.1 ng/ml +/- SE). However, though hpGRF1-44 was continuously infused and GFR-levels remained elevated, GH decreased to a minimum 270 min after start of infusion (2.6 +/- 0.6 ng/ml). The GH-response to the second bolus at the end of the infusion was lower compared to the first response (14.6 +/- 3.4 ng/ml after 2 h and 7.6 +/- 2.5 ng/ml after 5 h). TRH did not lead to a GH-increase during hpGRF1-44 infusion though Prl and TSH rose normally. The intermittent bolus injection of 50 micrograms hpGRF1-44 led to continuously decreasing GH-responses to the same GRF-dosage (I. bolus: 16.5 +/- 1.6 ng/ml; II. bolus: 4.2 +/- 0.8 ng/ml; III. bolus: 3.4 +/- 0.5 ng/ml). No change in somatostatin levels was observed. These findings show that GRF infusion or bolus injection in short intervals does not sustain elevated GH-levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6440392

Losa, M; Bock, L; Schopohl, J; Stalla, G K; Müller, O A; von Werder, K

1984-12-01

185

Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

Gesch, Dean B.

2013-01-01

186

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

187

A Case of Levofloxacin-Induced Anaphylaxis With Elevated Serum Tryptase Levels  

PubMed Central

Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone and L-isomer of the racemate ofloxacin, has been approved for the treatment of acute and chronic bacterial infections. Gastrointestinal complaints are the most frequently reported adverse drug reactions to fluoroquinolones. Other adverse events include headache, dizziness, increased liver enzyme levels, photosensitivity, tachycardia, QT prolongation, and eruptions. Anaphylaxis has been documented as a rare adverse drug reaction to levofloxacin; however, diagnostic tests are needed to evaluate whether these reactions are the result of levofloxacin treatment. While the results of skin tests are considered unreliable due to false-positive responses, the oral provocation test is currently considered to be the most reliable test. Tryptase, a neutral protease, is the dominant protein component of secretory granules in human mast cells, and an increased serum concentration of tryptase is a highly sensitive indicator of anaphylaxis. Herein, we report a case of levofloxacin-induced anaphylaxis in which the patient exhibited elevated serum tryptase levels and a positive oral levofloxacin challenge test result. As anaphylaxis is potentially life-threatening, the administration of fluoroquinolones to patients who have experienced a prior reaction to this type of agent should be avoided. PMID:23450078

Lee, Ji-Ho; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Shin, Kye Chul; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Kim, Chong Whan

2013-01-01

188

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

189

miR-886-3p levels are elevated in Friedreich ataxia.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common inherited ataxia caused primarily by an intronic GAA.TTC triplet repeat expansion in the frataxin (FXN) gene. FXN RNA and protein levels are reduced in patients leading to progressive gait and limb ataxia, sensory loss, reduced tendon reflexes, dysarthria, absent lower limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Neurological manifestations ensue from primary loss of dorsal root ganglia neurons and their associated axons ascending centrally in the spinal cord and peripherally in large myelinated nerves. Small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs have been shown to be dysregulated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Here we report that hsa-miR-886-3p (miR-886-3p) was increased in patient cells as well as peripheral patient blood samples. Selective reduction in miR-886-3p by an anti-miR led to elevation of FXN message and protein levels without associated changes in histone marks at the FXN locus. Nevertheless, derepression of frataxin by a histone deacetylase inhibitor leads to a decrease in miR-886-3p. These results outline involvement of a small RNA, miR-886-3p in FRDA and a novel therapeutic approach to this disease using an anti-miR-886-3p. PMID:22764244

Mahishi, Lata H; Hart, Ronald P; Lynch, David R; Ratan, Rajiv R

2012-07-01

190

Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating ?3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/?mol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r?=?0.287, P?=?0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/?mol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated with the urine of patients with FSGS at presentation, and the signal could be reduced by a blocking antibody specific to uPAR. Conclusions Urinary suPAR was specifically elevated in patients with primary FSGS and was associated with disease severity. The elevated urinary suPAR could activate ?3 integrin on human podocytes. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/82. PMID:24884842

2014-01-01

191

Experimental study of vane heat transfer and aerodynamics at elevated levels of turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

Ames, Forrest E.

1994-11-01

192

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

Ames, Forrest E.

1994-01-01

193

Elevated ground-level O(3) changes the diversity of anoxygenic purple phototrophic bacteria in paddy field.  

PubMed

The knowledge of the impact of elevated ground-level O(3) below ground the agro-ecosystem is limited. A field experiment in China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE-O(3)) facility on a rice-wheat rotation system was carried out to investigate responses of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria (AnPPB) to elevated ground-level O(3). AnPPB community structures and sizes in paddy soil were monitored by molecular approaches including PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR based upon the pufM gene on three typical rice growth stages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) in combination with culture-reliant method was conducted to reveal changes in genotypic diversity. Elevated ground-level O(3) statistically reduce AnPPB abundance and percentage in total bacterial community in flooded rice soil via decreasing their genotypic diversity and metabolic versatility. Concomitantly, their community composition changed after rice anthesis stage under elevated ground-level O(3). Our results from AnPPB potential responses imply that continuously elevated ground-level O(3) in the future would eventually harm the health of paddy ecosystem through negative effect on soil microorganisms. PMID:21698401

Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhu, Jianguo

2011-11-01

194

Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients’ mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

2014-01-01

195

Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

2014-01-01

196

Brain BDNF levels elevation induced by physical training is reduced after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the contribution of blood flow elevation in the cerebrovasculature to physical training-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels elevation in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were measured in the motor cortex 24?h after the last session of a forced treadmill walking (30?minutes a day, 18?m/minute for 7 consecutive days). Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and modulation of exercise intensity (0 versus -10% inclination of the treadmill) were used as strategies to reduce the (normal) elevation of flow in the cerebrovasculature occurring during exercise. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60?mg/kg before each exercise sessions) and genetic hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were used as approaches to reduce stimulation of nitric oxide production in response to shear stress elevation. Vascular occlusion totally and partially abolished the effect of physical training on BDNF levels in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to occlusion, respectively. BDNF levels were higher after high than low exercise intensity. In addition, both genetic hypertension and L-NAME treatment blunted the effects of physical training on BDNF. From these results, we propose that elevation of brain BDNF levels elicited by physical training involves changes in cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:25052557

Banoujaafar, Hayat; Hoecke, Jacques Van; Mossiat, Claude M; Marie, Christine

2014-10-01

197

Elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid ?-synuclein oligomers in healthy asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson’s disease (PD). To assess the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ?-synuclein oligomers in symptomatic and asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to investigate total and oligomeric forms of ?-synuclein in CSF samples. The CSF samples were collected from 33 Norwegian individuals with leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations: 13 patients were clinically diagnosed with PD and 20 patients were healthy, asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers. We also included 35 patients with sporadic PD (sPD) and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Levels of CSF ?-synuclein oligomers were significantly elevated in healthy asymptomatic individuals carrying leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations (n = 20; P < 0.0079) and in sPD group (n = 35; P < 0.003) relative to healthy controls. Increased ?-synuclein oligomers in asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers showed a sensitivity of 63.0% and a specificity of 74.0%, with an area under the curve of 0.66, and a sensitivity of 65.0% and a specificity of 83.0%, with an area under the curve of 0.74 for sPD cases. An inverse correlation between CSF levels of ?- synuclein oligomers and disease severity and duration was observed. Our study suggests that quantification of ?-synuclein oligomers in CSF has potential value as a tool for PD diagnosis and presymptomatic screening of high-risk individuals.

Aasly, Jan O.; Johansen, Krisztina K.; Br?nstad, Gunnar; War?, Bj?rg J.; Majbour, Nour K.; Varghese, Shiji; Alzahmi, Fatimah; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Amer, Dena A. M.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

2014-01-01

198

Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

199

Elevated Circulating Levels and Tissue Expression of Pentraxin 3 in Uremia: A Reflection of Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Elevated systemic pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels appear to be a powerful marker of inflammatory status and a superior outcome predictor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As previous data imply that PTX3 is involved in vascular pathology and that adipose tissue mass may influence circulating PTX3 levels, we aimed to study the importance of adipose tissue expression of PTX3 in the uremic milieu and its relation to endothelial dysfunction parameters. Plasma PTX3 and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) PTX3 mRNA levels were quantified in 56 stage 5 CKD patients (median age 57 [range 25–75] years, 30 males) and 40 age and gender matched controls (median age 58 [range 20–79] years, 27 males). Associations between PTX3 measures and an extensive panel of clinical parameters, including surrogate markers of endothelial function, were assessed. Functional ex vivo studies on endothelial status and immunohistochemical staining for PTX3 were conducted in resistance subcutaneous arteries isolated from SAT. SAT PTX3 mRNA expression correlated with plasma PTX3 concentrations (rho?=?0.54, p?=?0.0001) and was increased (3.7 [0.4–70.3] vs. 1.2 [0.2–49.3] RQ, p?=?0.02) in CKD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but was not significantly different between patients and controls. The association to CVD was lost after adjustments. SAT PTX3 mRNA levels were independently correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine and basal resistance artery tone developed after inhibition with nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (rho?=??0.58, p?=?0.002). Apparent positive PTX3 immunoreactivity was observed in both patient and control arteries. In conclusion, fat PTX3 mRNA levels are associated with measures of endothelial cell function in patients with CKD. PTX3 may be involved in adipose tissue-orchestrated mechanisms that are restricted to the uremic milieu and modify inflammation and vascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:23658833

Witasp, Anna; Rydén, Mikael; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Nordfors, Louise; Näslund, Erik; Hammarqvist, Folke; Arefin, Samsul; Kublickiene, Karolina; Stenvinkel, Peter

2013-01-01

200

Depletion of Bhmt elevates sonic hedgehog transcript level and increases ?-cell number in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) is a key enzyme in the methionine cycle and is highly expressed in the liver. Despite its important biochemical function, it is not known whether BHMT plays a role during organ development. In this report, we showed that early in development of zebrafish before endoderm organogenesis, bhmt is first expressed in the yolk syncytial layer and then after liver formation becomes a liver-enriched gene. By using the anti-bhmt morpholinos that deplete the Bhmt, we found that in morphant embryos, several endoderm-derived organs, including liver, exocrine pancreas, and intestine are hypoplastic. Strikingly, the number of ?-cells in the pancreatic islet was increased rather than reduced in the morphant. Additional studies showed that Bhmt depletion elevates the sonic hedgehog (shh) transcript level in the morphant, whereas Bhmt-depletion in the Shh-deficient mutant syu failed to rescue the isletless phenotype. These molecular and genetic data strongly suggest that Shh functions downstream of Bhmt to promote ?-cell development. Therefore, although there are still many intriguing questions to be answered, our finding may identify a novel function for Bhmt involving modulation of Shh signaling to control ?-cell development. PMID:21952238

Yang, Shu-Lan; Aw, Sharon Siqi; Chang, Changqing; Korzh, Svetlana; Korzh, Vladimir; Peng, Jinrong

2011-12-01

201

Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W  

PubMed Central

Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, S?ren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Kramer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

2012-01-01

202

Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

203

Elevated levels of somatic mutation in a manifesting BRCA1 mutation carrier.  

PubMed

Homozygous loss of activity at the breast cancerpredisposing genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (FANCD1) confers increased susceptibility to DNA double strand breaks, but this genotype occurs only in the tumor itself, following loss of heterozygosity at one of these loci. Thus, if these genes play a role in tumor etiology as opposed to tumor progression, they must manifest a heterozygous phenotype at the cellular level. To investigate the potential consequences of somatic heterozygosity for a BRCA1 mutation demonstrably associated with breast carcinogenesis on background somatic mutational burden, we applied the two standard assays of in vivo human somatic mutation to blood samples from a manifesting carrier of the Q1200X mutation in BRCA1 whose tumor was uniquely ascertained through an MRI screening study. The patient had an allele-loss mutation frequency of 19.4 x 10(-6) at the autosomal GPA locus in erythrocytes and 17.1 x 10(-6) at the X-linked HPRT locus in lymphocytes. Both of these mutation frequencies are significantly higher than expected from age-matched disease-free controls (P < 0.05). Mutation at the HPRT locus was similarly elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from three other BRCA1 mutation carriers with breast cancer. Our patient's GPA mutation frequency is below the level established for diagnosis of homozygous Fanconi anemia patients, but consistent with data from obligate heterozygotes. The increased HPRT mutation frequency is more reminiscent of data from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, a disease characterized by UV sensitivity and deficiency in the nucleotide excision pathway of DNA repair. Therefore, this BRCA1-associated breast cancer patient manifests a unique phenotype of increased background mutagenesis that likely contributed to the development of her disease independent of loss of heterozygosity at the susceptibility locus. PMID:18158561

Grant, Stephen G; Das, Rubina; Cerceo, Christina M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Latimer, Jean J

2007-01-01

204

Vector Percolation Analysis of Triglyceride-based Thermoset Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermosetting Acrylated triglycerides (ATG) were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The distribution of acrylate groups was calculated from the distribution of unsaturation sites on unmodified oils, assuming a binomial distribution of acrylate groups. The ATG were both homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link density v, of the polymers was calculated using the recursive method of Miller and Macosko from a knowledge of the acrylate distribution. The cross-link density was found to increase with the level of acrylation A, in a vector percolation manner, and the trends in the cross-link density predictions matched the experimental results. The deviation in the experimental results and model predictions were the result of intramolecular cross-linking. Approximately 0.5 and 0.8 acrylates per triglyceride were lost to intramolecular cyclization for homopolymerized acrylated triglycerides and triglycerides copolymerized with styrene, respectively. Equations for the level of perfection p, of the triglyceride networks and the percolation threshold pc, were developed using the calculated number of acrylates lost to cyclization. Polymers with p < 0.1 without styrene, and p < 0.39 with styrene did not have mechanical integrity, validating the definition of the level of perfection and percolation threshold pc. The tensile strength, S ˜ [p-p]^1/2 and modulus E ˜ [p-pc]^3 , were in accord with vector percolation theory, where p could be derived experimentally via A ˜ [p-pc] , v ˜ A and FTIR analysis of the extent of reaction of the C=C groups. These results also indicated how mechanical properties were controlled by the fatty acid distribution function of the plant oils, and which oil would give the best particular property. Supported by EPA and DoE.

Lascala, John J.; Wool, Richard P.

2003-03-01

205

Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

2010-02-01

206

Flight and running induce elevated levels of FMRFamide-related peptides in the haemolymph of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in the haemolymph of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), during flight or running\\/righting behaviour was investigated using radioimmunoassay and reverse phase-HPLC. Both flight and running\\/righting behaviours caused an increase in the level of FaRPs measured in the haemolymph within the first minute of activity. Elevated levels (up to 18 times greater than control levels)

A. J. Elia; Tomas G. A. Money; I. Orchard

1995-01-01

207

Elevated level of anterior gradient-2 in pancreatic juice from patients with pre-malignant pancreatic neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) are precursors of malignant pancreatic cancer, an ideal stage for early cancer detection. We applied quantitative proteomics to identify aberrantly elevated proteins in pancreatic juice samples derived from patients with PanIN3. Results Twenty proteins were found elevated in all three PanIN juices by at least two-fold. Among these proteins, anterior gradient-2 (AGR2) was found to be 2-10 fold elevated in PanIN3 juice samples analyzed by quantitative proteomics. An ELISA assay was developed to evaluate AGR2 levels in 51 pancreatic juice samples and 23 serum samples from patients with pancreatic cancer, pre-malignant lesions (including PanIN3, PanIN2, Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs)) and benign disease controls (including chronic pancreatitis). AGR2 levels in the pancreatic juice samples were found significantly elevated in patients with pre-malignant conditions (PanINs and IPMNs) as well as pancreatic cancer compared to control samples (p ? 0.03). By ROC analysis, the AGR2 ELISA achieved 67% sensitivity at 90% specificity in predicting PanIN3 juice samples from the benign disease controls. Conclusions These results suggest that elevation of AGR2 levels in pancreatic juice occurs in early pancreatic cancer progression and could be further investigated as a potential candidate juice biomarker for early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:20550709

2010-01-01

208

The effect of institutionalisation on elevated IgD and IgG levels in patients with Down's syndrome.  

PubMed

Serum levels of IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM and levels of secretory IgA (S-IgA) in nasal specimens were quantitated by radial immunodiffusion in a group of forty-one institutionalised patients with Down's syndrome (all non-disjunctive trisomy-G karyotype) and their age, sex and race matched controls, consisting of institutionalised non-mongols and normal non-institutionalised subjects. Analysis of levels of all immunoglobulins by age and sex showed no differences within the populations. However, levels of IgA, IgD and IgG were found significantly higher in mongols than in the other two populations. The concentrations of IgM were lower in mongols than in other institutionalised retardates but higher than non-institutionalised normal controls. Levels of S-IgA or IgE were similar in all populations. It was shown that the length of institutionalisation was associated with elevated levels of IgA and depressed levels of IgM in mongols. However, elevated IgG levels in mongols did not appear to be associated with their length of institutionalisation. Similarly, elevated levels of IgD in mongols were not associated with their length of institutionalisation. PMID:129572

McMillan, B C; Hanson, R P; Golubjatnikov, G; Sinha, S K

1975-01-01

209

Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0.016 to 0.19 +/- 0.10 microg/g). This was confirmed in one of these villages where we sampled manioc paste (just before roasting) and the roasted farinha (0.05 microg/g vs 0.20 microg/g). While there may be other sources (ammunition, sinkers for fishing nets), the high concentrations in farinha, a dietary staple, assuredly makes an important contribution. Further action needs to reduce Pb sources in this region. PMID:19389665

Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

2009-07-01

210

Direct Antidiabetic Effect of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from

Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger

1997-01-01

211

Reduced Right Frontal Fractional Anisotropy Correlated with Early Elevated Plasma LDL Levels in Obese Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. Materials and Methods A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n?=?22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years) and normal weight (n?=?27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years) Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. Results In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. Conclusions Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies. PMID:25279729

Lou, Baohui; Chen, Min; Luo, Xiaojie; Dai, Yongming

2014-01-01

212

Ethological endophenotypes are altered by elevated stress hormone levels in both Huntington's disease and wildtype mice.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive, psychiatric, motor, neuroendocrine and peripheral dysfunctions. Symptom onset and progression can be closely modeled in HD transgenic mice, which facilitate the search for therapeutics and environmental modulators. In the first investigation of chronic stress in HD, we have previously shown that administering a moderate dose of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT) had no effect on short-term memory in wildtype (WT) mice but accelerated the onset of the impairment in male R6/1 HD mice. We now extend this investigation to ethological dysfunctions in HD, which we hypothesized to be more susceptible to CORT treatment compared to the same functions in WT littermates. Both genotypes consumed similar doses of CORT dissolved in drinking water across 6-14 weeks of age and were assessed for olfactory sensitivity, nest-building, saccharin preference as well as vocal responses to sociosexual stimuli. In female HD and WT mice, olfactory sensitivity and saccharin preference were reduced by 2 and 4 weeks of CORT, respectively. In males, there was no effect of CORT on saccharin preference, however the number of vocalizations to a female mouse was transiently increased by CORT-drinking, regardless of genotype. Nest-building was severely impaired in HD mice at an early age, but was unaffected by CORT. Our results suggest that the presence of the HD mutation had no bearing on CORT-induced effects at this dose, suggesting that even moderately elevated stress hormone levels can impair ethological behaviors in both the HD and healthy brain. PMID:25101541

Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

2014-11-01

213

Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

Gesch, D.B.

2009-01-01

214

Plasma levels of progastrin but not amidated gastrin or glycine extended gastrin are elevated in patients with colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The relationship between plasma gastrin levels and colorectal cancer is controversial. When confounding factors which increase plasma gastrin levels are taken into account, it has been shown that gastrin levels are not elevated in patients with colorectal cancer. However, these studies only measured amidated gastrin. Total gastrin (which includes unprocessed, partially processed, and mature forms of gastrin) has been shown to be elevated in patients with colorectal cancer.?AIMS—The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting plasma levels of progastrin, amidated gastrin, or glycine extended gastrin are elevated in patients with colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps compared with controls.?METHODS—Progastrin, amidated gastrin, and glycine extended gastrin were estimated by radioimmunoassay using the following antibodies: L289, 109-21, and L2. Blood samples were analysed for Helicobacter pylori by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.?RESULTS—Median progastrin levels were significantly higher in the cancer group (27.5 pmol/l) than in the polyp (?15 pmol/l) or control (?15 pmol/l) group (p=0.0001). There was no difference in median levels of amidated gastrin between groups. Median levels of amidated gastrin were significantly higher in H pylori positive patients (19 pmol/l) than in H pylori negative patients (8 pmol/l) (p=0.0022). Median plasma progastrin levels were significantly higher for moderately dysplastic polyps (38 pmol/l) compared with mildly dysplastic (15 pmol/l) and severely dysplastic (15 pmol/l) polyps (p=0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—Plasma levels of progastrin, but not amidated gastrin or glycine extended gastrin, are significantly elevated in patients with colorectal cancer compared with those with colorectal polyps or controls, irrespective of their H pylori status. We conclude that measuring plasma progastrin levels in patients with colorectal cancer is warranted.???Keywords: progastrin; glycine extended gastrin; colorectal carcinoma PMID:11115822

Siddheshwar, R; Gray, J; Kelly, S

2001-01-01

215

Effects of tissue factor, thrombomodulin and elevated clotting factor levels on thrombin generation in the calibrated automated thrombogram.  

PubMed

Elevated procoagulant levels have been correlated with increased thrombin generation in vitro and with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in epidemiological studies. Thrombin generation tests are increasingly being employed as a high throughput method to provide a global measure of procoagulant activity in plasma samples. The objective of this study was to distinguish the effects of assay conditions [tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, platelets/lipids] and factor levels on thrombin generation parameters, and determine the conditions and parameters with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated factor levels. Thrombin generation was measured using calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) in corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated platelet-free plasma (PFP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical analysis was performed using logarithms of observed values with analysis of variance that accounted for experiment and treatment. The relative sensitivity of lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak height and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) to elevated factors XI, IX, VIII, X, and prothrombin was as follows: PFP initiated with 1 pM TF > PFP initiated with 5 pM TF > PRP initiated with 1 pM TF. For all conditions, inclusion of thrombomodulin prolonged the LT and decreased the peak and ETP; however, addition of thrombomodulin did not increase the ability of CAT to detect elevated levels of individual procoagulant factors. In conclusion, CAT conditions differentially affected the sensitivity of thrombin generation to elevated factor levels. Monitoring the peak height and/or ETP following initiation of clotting in PFP with 1 pM TF was most likely to detect hypercoagulability due to increased procoagulant factor levels. PMID:19888532

Machlus, Kellie R; Colby, Emily A; Wu, Jogin R; Koch, Gary G; Key, Nigel S; Wolberg, Alisa S

2009-11-01

216

The effect of elevated levels of thyroxine on the aerobic capacity of locomotor muscles of the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following extended periods of relative inactivity, or prior to migration, birds are able to increase the aerobic capacity of their locomotory muscles. Thyroid hormones may influence this process. A preliminary study was undertaken to assess the ability of elevated levels of thyroxine to increase the aerobic capacity of the locomotory and cardiac muscles of adult tufted ducks. Administration of thyroxine

C. M. Bishop; P. J. Butler; N. M. Atkinson

1995-01-01

217

Elevated blood selenium levels in the Brazilian Amazon Melanie Lemire a,d,*, Donna Mergler a,d  

E-print Network

Elevated blood selenium levels in the Brazilian Amazon Me´lanie Lemire a,d,*, Donna Mergler a of selenium (Se), an essential element, that may influence the distribution of Hg in the body and influence Hg.V. Keywords: Selenium; Mercury; Blood; Geographic differences; Fish and fruit consumption 1. Introduction

Long, Bernard

218

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

219

Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer. PMID:24474564

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2014-05-01

220

Maps of lands vulnerable to sea level rise: modeled elevations along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the broad-scale ramifications of accelerated sea level rise requires maps of the land that could be inundated or eroded. Producing such maps requires a combination of elevation information and models of shoreline erosion, wetland accretion, and other coastal processes. Assessments of coastal areas in the United States that combine all of these factors have focused on relatively small areas,

James G. Titus; Charlie Richman

2001-01-01

221

Assessment of Elevated Radionuclide Levels in Soils Associated with an Avian Colony in a High Arctic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an investigation into the occurrence of elevated levels of radionuclides in soils associated with a seabird colony in the Arctic. Soils and other materials were collected from a seabird colony (primarily composed of kittiwakes) in Kongsfjorden, located in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The samples were analyzed for a suite of gamma emitting

M. DOWDALL; J. P. GWYNN; G. W. GABRIELSEN; B. LIND

2005-01-01

222

Reassessing triglyceride synthesis in adipose tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue and muscle is a crucial element of energy metab- olism because it ensures that adequate fuel is available during starvation. Triglyceride turnover determines the availability of fatty acids for utilization by mammalian tissues, and any dysfunction in this process can lead to alterationsinglucosemetabolism,insulinresistanceand type 2 diabetes. Our understanding of the reactions

Colleen Nye; Jaeyeon Kim; Satish C. Kalhan; Richard W. Hanson

2008-01-01

223

Lipid levels in sickle-cell disease associated with haemolytic severity, vascular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in sickle cell disease (SCD) is an emerging and important clinical problem. In a single-institution adult cohort of 365 patients, we investigated lipid and lipoprotein levels and their relationship to markers of intravascular haemolysis, vascular dysfunction and PH. In agreement with prior studies, we confirm significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in SCD versus ethnically-matched healthy controls. Several cholesterol parameters correlated significantly with markers of anaemia, but not endothelial activation or PH. More importantly, serum triglyceride levels were significantly elevated in SCD compared to controls. Elevated triglyceride levels correlated significantly with markers of haemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase and arginase; both P < 0.0005), endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin, P < 0.0001; soluble P-selectin, P = 0.02; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P = 0.01), inflammation (leucocyte count, P = 0.0004; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, P = 0.02) and PH (amino-terminal brain natriuretic peptide, P = 0.002; prevalence of elevated tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV), P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, triglyceride levels correlated independently with elevated TRV (P = 0.002). Finally, forearm blood flow studies in adult patients with SCD demonstrated a significant association between increased triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and endothelial dysfunction (P < 0.05). These results characterize elevated plasma triglyceride levels as a potential risk factor for PH in SCD. PMID:20230401

Zorca, Suzana; Freeman, Lita; Hildesheim, Mariana; Allen, Darlene; Remaley, Alan T; Taylor, James G; Kato, Gregory J

2010-05-01

224

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

2013-11-01

225

Overexpression of D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase leads to elevated levels of inositol in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the generation of transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing elevated levels of the gene product encoding the enzyme catalysing the first committed step in inositol biosynthesis, D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate (Ins3P) synthase. These plants exhibit both an increase in Ins3P synthase activity and an increase in the level of free inositol of over four-fold compared to wild-type plants. Despite

Susan Flores

1997-01-01

226

Elevated Levels of G-Quadruplex Formation in Human Stomach and Liver Cancer Tissues  

PubMed Central

Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, we show that BG4, a G-quadruplex-specific antibody, can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a significantly elevated number of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our results suggest that G-quadruplex formation can be detected and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers. PMID:25033211

Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; Miller, Jodi; Howat, William J.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

2014-01-01

227

Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration is reemerging as an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. More complete understanding of the genes and variants that modulate plasma TG should enable development of markers for risk prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies and might help specify new directions for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified both known and novel loci associated with plasma TG concentration. However, genetic variation at these loci explains only ?10% of overall TG variation within the population. As the GWAS approach may be reaching its limit for discovering genetic determinants of TG, alternative genetic strategies, such as rare variant sequencing studies and evaluation of animal models, may provide complementary information to flesh out knowledge of clinically and biologically important pathways in TG metabolism. Herein, we review genes recently implicated in TG metabolism and describe how some of these genes likely modulate plasma TG concentration. We also discuss lessons regarding plasma TG metabolism learned from various genomic and genetic experimental approaches. Treatment of patients with moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia with existing therapies is often challenging; thus, gene products and pathways found in recent genetic research studies provide hope for development of more effective clinical strategies. PMID:21041806

Johansen, Christopher T.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A.

2011-01-01

228

Ecosystem response to elevated CO2 levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). The extent to which the biosphere can act as a buffer against rising atmospheric CO2 concentration in global climate change projections remains uncertain at the present stage. Biogeochemical theory predicts that soil nitrogen (N) scarcity may limit natural ecosystem response to elevated CO2

J. Adam Langley; J. Patrick Megonigal

2010-01-01

229

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management  

PubMed Central

Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (?1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Boren, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

2011-01-01

230

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

SciTech Connect

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

1993-12-01

231

COMPARISON OF DNA ADDUCT LEVELS IN HUMAN PLACENTA FROM POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSED WOMEN AND SMOKERS IN WHICH CYP 1A1 LEVELS ARE SIMILARLY ELEVATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Cigarette smoking is associated with high elevations in levels of both cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and DNA adducts in human placenta. he identity of the smoking related adducts is not known. he DNA adducts identified in placenta of smokers could result from chemicals resent in ...

232

Mutations of the Microsomal Triglyceride-Transfer-Protein Gene in Abetalipoproteinemia  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)–containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. ImagesFigure 1p1304-aFigure 3Figure 4 PMID:8533758

Narcisi, Teresa M. E.; Shoulders, Carol C.; Chester, S. Ann; Read, Jacqueline; Brett, David J.; Harrison, Georgina B.; Grantham, Tamsin T.; Fox, Margaret F.; Povey, Sue; de Bruin, Tjerk W. A.; Erkelens, D. Willem; Muller, David P. R.; Lloyd, June K.; Scott, James

1995-01-01

233

Ca2+ oscillations in plant cells: initiation by rapid elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels.  

PubMed

Temporal increases in intracellular [Ca2+] are now recognized to be key triggers for a wide range of important physiological events in eukaryotic cells. In mammalian cells, signal-induced Ca2+-elevations have been found to be of a pulsatile nature and Ca2+ spikes display a high degree of spatiotemporal complexity. In plant cells a similar picture is beginning to emerge. To investigate the occurrence of pulsatile Ca2+ signals in plant cells we studied alterations of [Ca2+] in the tip region of pollen tubes from poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Time-Resolved Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of pollen tubes microinjected with the Dextran-linked Ca2+-indicator dyes Calcium Green or Indo-1 revealed that highly regular Ca2+ oscillations occur in these cells. We further demonstrate that artificial elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ by photolysis of caged-Ca2+ (Nitr-5) can trigger the onset of oscillations. PMID:9175777

Calder, G M; Franklin-Tong, V E; Shaw, P J; Drøbak, B K

1997-05-29

234

Elevated serum alpha-linolenic acid levels are associated with decreased chance of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To analyze relationships between serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and pregnancy. Design Prospective cohort Setting University hospital Patients 91 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) Interventions Serum was analyzed for total and specific serum FFAs including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids. Main outcome measures Univariate analyses were used to identify specific FFAs and other factors associated with pregnancy after IVF. Logistic regression was performed modeling relationships between identified factors and chance of pregnancy. Results In unadjusted analyses, women with elevated serum ?-linolenic (ALA) levels (highest quartile) demonstrated a decreased chance of pregnancy compared to women with the lowest levels (OR:0.24, 95% CI:0.052–0.792, p=0.022). No associations between other FFAs and pregnancy were identified. In a multivariable regression model, associations between elevated serum ALA levels and decreased chance of pregnancy remained after adjusting for patient age, body mass index, and history of endometriosis or previous live birth (adjusted OR:0.139, 95% CI:0.028–0.686, p=0.015). Conclusions Elevated serum ALA levels are associated with decreased chance of pregnancy in women undergoing IVF. Further work is needed to determine if ALA is involved in early reproductive processes and if the relationship between ALA and pregnancy is associated with excess ALA intake, impaired ALA metabolism or both. PMID:21840520

Jungheim, Emily S.; Macones, George A.; Odem, Randall R.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Moley, Kelle H.

2011-01-01

235

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units\\/liter (U\\/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe retrospectively studied

Linda K. Lee; Victor C. Gan; Vernon J. Lee; Adriana S. Tan; Yee Sin Leo; David C. Lye

2012-01-01

236

Ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift.  

PubMed

Terrestrial ecosystems gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). The extent to which the biosphere can act as a buffer against rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration in global climate change projections remains uncertain at the present stage. Biogeochemical theory predicts that soil nitrogen (N) scarcity may limit natural ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) concentration, diminishing the CO(2)-fertilization effect on terrestrial plant productivity in unmanaged ecosystems. Recent models have incorporated such carbon-nitrogen interactions and suggest that anthropogenic N sources could help sustain the future CO(2)-fertilization effect. However, conclusive demonstration that added N enhances plant productivity in response to CO(2)-fertilization in natural ecosystems remains elusive. Here we manipulated atmospheric CO(2) concentration and soil N availability in a herbaceous brackish wetland where plant community composition is dominated by a C(3) sedge and C(4) grasses, and is capable of responding rapidly to environmental change. We found that N addition enhanced the CO(2)-stimulation of plant productivity in the first year of a multi-year experiment, indicating N-limitation of the CO(2) response. But we also found that N addition strongly promotes the encroachment of C(4) plant species that respond less strongly to elevated CO(2) concentrations. Overall, we found that the observed shift in the plant community composition ultimately suppresses the CO(2)-stimulation of plant productivity by the third and fourth years. Although extensive research has shown that global change factors such as elevated CO(2) concentrations and N pollution affect plant species differently and that they may drive plant community changes, we demonstrate that plant community shifts can act as a feedback effect that alters the whole ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) concentrations. Moreover, we suggest that trade-offs between the abilities of plant taxa to respond positively to different perturbations may constrain natural ecosystem response to global change. PMID:20596018

Langley, J Adam; Megonigal, J Patrick

2010-07-01

237

Response of the floating aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides to elevated CO 2 , temperature, and phosphorus levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azolla filiculoides is a floating aquatic fern growing in tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. As A. filiculoides has symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena azollae) within its leaf cavities, it is cultivated in rice paddies to improve N availability and suppress other wetland weeds. To\\u000a understand how C assimilation and N accumulation in A. filiculoides respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

Weiguo Cheng; Hidemitsu Sakai; Miwa Matsushima; Kazuyuki Yagi; Toshihiro Hasegawa

2010-01-01

238

Effects of elevated growth temperature and carbon dioxide levels on some physicochemical properties of wheat starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops of winter wheat (cv. Hereward) were grown in the field under double-skinned polyethylene tunnels in two consecutive seasons (1991–92 and 1992–93). Air containing ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) concentrations of carbon dioxide was circulated through the tunnels, and temperature gradients, typically from 1°C below ambient to 4–7°C above ambient, were maintained within each tunnel. Despite a shorter

R. F. Tester; W. R. Morrison; R. H. Ellis; J. R. Piggo; G. R. Batts; T. R. Wheeler; J. I. L. Morison; P. Hadley; D. A. Ledward

1995-01-01

239

Imperforate hymen: a new benign reason for highly elevated serum CA 19.9 and CA 125 levels.  

PubMed

Imperforate hymen is a urogenital tract anomaly that represents the most frequent congenital malformation of the female genital tract. CA 19-9 and CA 125 are widely used as tumor markers, however several benign conditions are also known to increase serum CA 19-9 and CA 125 levels. According to classical textbook knowledge, imperforate hymen is not listed under the benign conditions that increase serum CA 19-9 and CA 125 levels. In this case report we describe a relation between imperforate hymen and elevated serum CA 19-9 and CA 125 levels. PMID:17987307

Buyukbayrak, Esra Esim; Ozyapi, Ayse Gul; Karsidag, Yasemin Karageyim; Pirimoglu, Zehra Meltem; Unal, Orhan; Turan, Cem

2008-05-01

240

Vaccenic acid in serum triglycerides is associated with markers of insulin resistance in men.  

PubMed

Serum triglyceride levels are associated with metabolic disorders; however, it remains unclear whether the fatty acid (FA) composition of triglycerides is also changed. Although there were no differences in circulating triglyceride levels between normoglycaemic-normoinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic men, inspection of individual FA revealed that vaccenic acid was enriched with hyperglycaemia-hyperinsulinaemia. Moreover, vaccenic acid levels were positively correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR. This reinforces that examination of individual FA in the context of insulin resistance is warranted. PMID:22720879

Zulyniak, Michael A; Ralston, Jessica C; Tucker, Amy J; MacKay, Kathy A; Hillyer, Lyn M; McNicholas, Paul D; Graham, Terry E; Robinson, Lindsay E; Duncan, Alison M; Ma, David W L; Mutch, David M

2012-10-01

241

Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study?  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L). Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ?4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs), and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years) entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD) serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo) from 3.57 (0.30) mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41) mmol/L (change, ?19.9%). Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%]) achieved a ?15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%]) (P<0.001). Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD) serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22) mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44) mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo) (change, ?12.3%); the mean (SD) triglyceride (TG) level decreased significantly, from 1.59 (0.57) mmol/L to 1.48 (0.57) mmol/L (P<0.01 vs baseline; P<0.05 vs placebo) (change, ?6.9%); and the mean (SD) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level increased significantly from 1.05 (0.18) mmol/L to 1.16 (0.21) mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo) (change, +10.5%). The percentage changes were significantly different between the policosanol and placebo groups for serum LDL-C, TC, and HDL-C levels (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.05, respectively), but not for TG. In the placebo group, changes in lipid profile variables from baseline were not significant. Policosanol did not significantly impair any safety indicator and was well tolerated. Three patients (3%) (1 patient [2%] in the policosanol group; 2 patients [4%] in the placebo group) withdrew from the trial, none because of AEs. Two patients (1 patient [2%] each in the policosanol and placebo groups) withdrew from the study because of an unwillingness to return for follow-up; 1 patient (2%) in the placebo group had a change of address and could not be followed up. Overall, 4 patients (4%) (1 patient [2%] in the policosanol group; 3 [6%], placebo) reported AEs; all were mild. Of the patients who received placebo and reported AEs, all 3 (6%) experienced heartburn, and 1 (2%) also experienced dry skin, while the policosanol-treated patient (2%) who reported an AE experienced headache. Conclusions In this study of patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels, based on the criterion that ?70% of policosanol-treated patients reached the LDL-C goal of a decrease ?15% from baseline whenever this proportion was different with respect to placebo, 8 weeks of treatment with policosanol 5 mg/d was effective. The decreased LDL-C, TC, and TG levels, increased HDL-C level, and good tolerability found with this treatment support its use in such patients. PMID:24944402

Castano, Gladys; Mas, Rosa; Fernandez, Julio; Lopez, Ernesto; Illnait, Jose; Fernandez, Lilia; Mesa, Meylin

2003-01-01

242

PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)  

EPA Science Inventory

Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the F...

243

Impact of Elevated Levels of Atmospheric CO 2 and Herbivory on Flavonoids of Soybean ( Glycine max Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability\\u000a as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf\\u000a palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid

Bridget F. O’Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Orla Dermody; Damla D. Bilgin; Clare L. Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

2010-01-01

244

Aberrant differentiation of fibroblast progenitors contributes to fibrosis in the aged murine heart: role of elevated circulating insulin levels  

PubMed Central

With age, the collagen content of the heart increases, leading to interstitial fibrosis. We have shown that CD44pos fibroblasts derived from aged murine hearts display reduced responsiveness to TGF-? but, paradoxically, have increased collagen expression in vivo and in vitro. We postulated that this phenomenon was due to the defect in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation in a setting of elevated circulating insulin levels and production that we observed in aging mice. We discovered that cultured fibroblasts derived from aged but not young cardiac MSCs of nonhematopoietic lineage displayed increased basal and insulin-induced (1 nM) collagen expression (2-fold), accompanied by increased farnesyltransferase (FTase) and Erk activities. In a quest for a possible mechanism, we found that a chronic pathophysiologic insulin concentration (1 nM) caused abnormal fibroblast differentiation of MSCs isolated from young hearts. Fibroblasts derived from these MSCs responded to insulin by elevating collagen expression as seen in untreated aged fibroblast cultures, suggesting a causal link between increased insulin levels and defective MSC responses. Here we report an insulin-dependent pathway that specifically targets collagen type I transcriptional activation leading to a unique mechanism of fibrosis that is TGF-? and inflammation-independent in the aged heart.—Cieslik, K. A., Trial, J., Carlson, S., Taffet, G. E., Entman, M. L. Aberrant differentiation of fibroblast progenitors contributes to fibrosis in the aged murine heart: role of elevated circulating insulin levels. PMID:23303205

Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Trial, JoAnn; Carlson, Signe; Taffet, George E.; Entman, Mark L.

2013-01-01

245

[Elevated serum NSE level in locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC predispose to better response to chemotherapy but worse survival].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic values of elevated serum levels of selected cancer markers (NSE, Cyfra 21-1, CEA, ferritin, free beta-hCG, LDH) in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated a group of 79 patients (49 men and 30 women) with NSCLC. Multivariate regression analysis showed response in patients with NSE > 12.5 ng/ml (p = 0.002), good performance status (p = 0.007) and elderly patients (p = 0.005). However, elevated NSE adversely affected the prognosis. Median survival in patients with NSE < 12.5 ng/ml, 12.5-20.0 ng/ml and > 20.0 ng/ml was 13.3, 11.3 and 6.7 months, respectively (p = 0.004). The negative effect of elevated NSE was independent of the response category. Univariate regression analysis showed that the following factors had a significantly negative effect on the prognosis: performance status, stage IIIB or IV, weight loss of > 10%, NSE > 20 ng/ml, Cyfra 21-1 > 10 ng/ml, CEA > 3 ng/ml, ferritin ratio > 1 and LDH > 480 IU/l. Multivariate analysis showed an independent adverse prognostic effect of stage IIIB or IV and elevated ferritin. PMID:20162514

Za?eska, Monika; Szturmowicz, Monika; Zych, Jacek; Roszkowska-Sliz, Barbara; Demkow, Urszula; Langfort, Renata; Roszkowski-Sliz, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

246

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP). Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism. PMID:25383314

Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kaai; Ando, Midori; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

2014-01-01

247

Quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine optimum operating conditions, an extensive study was made of the variables affecting quantitative recovery and\\u000a resolution of model triglyceride mixtures. Parameters investigated included: flash heater temperature, carrier gas flow rate,\\u000a type of carrier gas, column length, glass and metal columns, temperature program rate, linearity of detector response, physical\\u000a design of gas chromatograph, and molecular species of triglyceride.\\u000a \\u000a Results

Carter Litchfield; R. D. Harlow; Raymond Reiser

1965-01-01

248

Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO. PMID:25293445

Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

2014-11-01

249

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10?8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayse; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tonu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkila, Kauko; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Ines; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Doring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Goran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindstrom, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, Francois; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Muller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancakova, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrieres, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kahonen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesaniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Marz, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nj?lstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.

2013-01-01

250

PIGO mutations in intractable epilepsy and severe developmental delay with mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase levels.  

PubMed

Aberrations in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway constitute a subclass of congenital disorders of glycosylation, and mutations in seven genes involved in this pathway have been identified. Among them, mutations in PIGV and PIGO, which are involved in the late stages of GPI-anchor synthesis, and PGAP2, which is involved in fatty-acid GPI-anchor remodeling, are all causative for hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS). Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous PIGO mutations (c.389C>A [p.Thr130Asn] and c.1288C>T [p.Gln430*]) in two siblings, one of them having epileptic encephalopathy. GPI-anchored proteins (CD16 and CD24) on blood granulocytes were slightly decreased compared with a control and his mother. Our patients lacked the characteristic features of HPMRS, such as facial dysmorphology (showing only a tented mouth) and hypoplasia of distal phalanges, and had only a mild elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our findings therefore expand the clinical spectrum of GPI-anchor deficiencies involving PIGO mutations to include epileptic encephalopathy with mild elevation of ALP. PMID:24417746

Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Osaka, Hitoshi; Murakami, Yoshiko; Anzai, Rie; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Kodera, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Kinoshita, Taroh; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

2014-02-01

251

Children's elevated cortisol levels at daycare: A review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home setting. Diurnal patterns revealed significant increases from morning to afternoon,

Harriet J. Vermeer; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn

2006-01-01

252

ELEVATED SPERMIDINE AND SPERMINE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD OF PSORIASIS PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of blood, anticoagulated with EDTA, from 11 patients with psoriasis and 11 individuals without psoriasis were analyzed for their polyamine content. The average spermidine level in patients with psoriasis was approximately twice that of the controls and the average spermine level was three times that of the controls. The levels of spermidine and spermine in the skin of two

Michael Scott Proctor; Howard Vance Fletcher Jr.; Jayesh B. Shukla; Owen M. Rennert

1975-01-01

253

Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure the neuropsychologic effects of unidentified childhood exposure to lead, the performance of 58 children with high and 100 with low dentine lead levels was compared. Children with high lead levels scored significantly less well on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) than those with low lead levels. This difference was also apparent on verbal subtests, on three

H. L. Needleman; C. Gunnoe; A. Leviton; R. Reed; H. Peresie; C. Maher; P. Barrett

1979-01-01

254

Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?  

PubMed

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet. PMID:15091467

Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

1995-01-01

255

Central Nervous System Neuropeptide Y Signaling Modulates VLDL Triglyceride Secretion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Elevated triglyceride (TG) is the major plasma lipid abnormality in obese and diabetic patients and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity in these disorders. We sought to identify novel mechanisms leading to hypertriglyceridemia. Resistance to negative feedback signals from adipose tissue in key central nervous system (CNS) energy homeostatic circuits contributes to the development of obesity. Because triglycerides both represent the largest energy depot in the body and are elevated in both the plasma and adipose in obesity and diabetes, we hypothesized that the same neural circuits that regulate energy balance also regulate the secretion of TGs into plasma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In normal fasting rats, the TG secretion rate was estimated by serial blood sampling after intravascular tyloxapol pretreatment. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling in the CNS was modulated by intracerebroventricular injection of NPY, receptor antagonist, and receptor agonist. RESULTS A single intracerebroventricular injection of NPY increased TG secretion by 2.5-fold in the absence of food intake, and this was determined to be VLDL by fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC). This effect was recapitulated by activating NPY signaling in downstream neurons with an NPY-Y5 receptor agonist. An NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist decreased the elevated TGs in the form of VLDL secretion rate by 50% compared with vehicle. Increased TG secretion was due to increased secretion of VLDL particles, rather than secretion of larger particles, because apolipoprotein B100 was elevated in FPLC fractions corresponding to VLDL. CONCLUSIONS We find that a key neuropeptide system involved in energy homeostasis in the CNS exerts control over VLDL-TG secretion into the bloodstream. PMID:18332095

Stafford, John M.; Yu, Fang; Printz, Richard; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Swift, Larry L.; Niswender, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

256

Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was more in DHM117 than HQPM1. This suggests that DHM117 utilized more assimilates in maintaining the homeostasis against imposed oxidative stress, causing less translocation of assimilates to reproductive parts and thus affecting the final yield. In terms of yield it is suggested that performance of HQPM1 (quality protein maize) was better than the DHM117 (non quality protein maize). PMID:25023387

Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2014-10-01

257

Elevated blood levels of inflammatory monocytes (CD14+ CD16+ ) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder. Although its pathophysiology is not completely understood, neurogenic inflammation is thought to play a significant role. Microglia and astrocytes are activated following tissue injury or inflammation and have been reported to be both necessary and sufficient for enhanced nociception. Blood-borne monocytes/macrophages can infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and differentiate into microglia resulting in hypersensitivity and chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of the proinflammatory CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes as well as plasma cytokine levels in blood from CRPS patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy control individuals. Forty-six subjects (25 CRPS, 21 controls) were recruited for this study. The percentage of monocytes, T, B or natural killer (NK) cells did not differ between CRPS and controls. However, the percentage of the CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte/macrophage subgroup was elevated significantly (P<0·01) in CRPS compared to controls. Individuals with high percentage of CD14(+) CD16(+) demonstrated significantly lower (P<0·05) plasma levels on the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Our data cannot determine whether CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes became elevated prior to or after developing CRPS. In either case, the elevation of blood proinflammatoty monocytes prior to the initiating event may predispose individuals for developing the syndrome whereas the elevation of blood proinflammatory monocytes following the development of CRPS may be relevant for its maintenance. Further evaluation of the role the immune system plays in the pathogenesis of CRPS may aid in elucidating disease mechanisms as well as the development of novel therapies for its treatment. PMID:21303362

Ritz, B W; Alexander, G M; Nogusa, S; Perreault, M J; Peterlin, B L; Grothusen, J R; Schwartzman, R J

2011-04-01

258

Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

2003-08-15

259

Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

2011-01-01

260

Lower incidence of M2/ANXA5 carriage in recurrent pregnancy loss patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) levels.  

PubMed

This study compared the incidence of M2/ANXA5 haplotype carriage, a documented repeated miscarriage risk factor, in patient groups with normal and elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels. A total of 138 women with ?2 consecutive, idiopathic recurrent miscarriages, categorized in patients with elevated (?30 mg/dL, n = 44) and normal Lp(a) level (<30 mg/dL, n = 94) were recruited at the recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) clinic of Munich Großhadern University Hospital. A total of 500 fertile women served as controls. All patients were genotyped for ANXA5 promoter haplotypes, genetic frequencies were compared, and odds ratios (ORs) and relative risks of M2 carriers were calculated. Women with M2 haplotype had an almost 2 times higher relative risk of RPL (OR 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.6, P = .001) than fertile controls. Furthermore, risk rises to 2.47 in patients having normal Lp(a) levels (OR 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.7-5.9, P = .001), whereas women with high Lp(a) levels exhibit notably lower apparent RPL risk of 1.39 (OR 1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.5-4.1, P = .659). PMID:24335248

Rogenhofer, Nina; Engels, Laura; Bogdanova, Nadja; Tüttelmann, Frank; Thaler, Christian J; Markoff, Arseni

2014-10-01

261

Elevated Vascular Level of ortho-Tyrosine Contributes to the Impairment of Insulin-Induced Arterial Relaxation.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that in diabetes mellitus, insulin-induced relaxation of arteries is impaired and the level of ortho-tyrosine (o-Tyr), an oxidized amino acid is increased. Thus, we hypothesized that elevated vascular level of o-Tyr contributes to the impairment of insulin-induced vascular relaxation. Rats were fed with o-Tyr for 4 weeks. Insulin-induced vasomotor responses of isolated femoral artery were studied using wire myography. Vascular o-Tyr content was measured by HPLC, whereas immunoblot analyses were preformed to detect eNOS phosphorylation. Sustained oral supplementation of rats with o-Tyr increased the content of o-Tyr in the arterial wall and significantly reduced the relaxations to insulin. Sustained supplementation of cultured endothelial cells with o-Tyr increased the incorporation of o-Tyr and mitigated eNOS Ser (1?177) phosphorylation to insulin. Increasing arterial wall o-Tyr level attenuates insulin-induced relaxation - at least in part - by decreasing eNOS activation. Elevated level of o-Tyr could be an underlying mechanism for vasomotor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. PMID:25208272

Szijártó, I A; Molnár, G A; Mikolás, E; Fisi, V; Cseh, J; Laczy, B; Kovács, T; Böddi, K; Takátsy, A; Gollasch, M; Koller, A; Wittmann, I

2014-10-01

262

Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is required for the biosynthesis of oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1). These monounsaturated fatty acids are the major components of phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters, and cholesterol es- ters. Mice with a targeted disruption of the SCD1 gene have very low levels of VLDL and impaired triglyceride and

Alan D. Attie; Ronald M. Krauss; Mark P. Gray-Keller; Alison Brownlie; Makoto Miyazaki; John J. Kastelein; Aldons J. Lusis; Anton F. H. Stalenhoef; Jonathan P. Stoehr; Michael R. Hayden; James M. Ntambi

2002-01-01

263

The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p?=?0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Conclusion The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01634256 PMID:23497020

2013-01-01

264

Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

2011-01-01

265

Health of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) with elevated tissue levels of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were collected in 1996 from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Histologic examination was performed on major organs of 497 specimens and on the liver of 48 additional individuals. Preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatic changes consisted of vacuolated cell (n = 65), clear cell (n = 17), and acidophilic (n = 16) foci of altered hepatocyte, hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 12), cholangioma (n = 5), and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 28). Six fish were intersexes (1.2%), and 11.7% of the ovaries (26/223) had ducts containing spermatogonia or more differentiated cells of the male germ cell line. Asynchronous nodular maturation of the testes was present in 8.2% of the male fish (22/267). The mean hepatic concentrations of various contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes, pesticides, and trace metals, were 6 to 8 times higher in lake whitefish than in three other fish species (Ictalurus punctatus, Catostomus commersoni, and Stizostedion vitreum) collected at the same site. Condition factor of lake whitefish from this study was lower than that previously reported 40 to 50 years ago at this site and from contemporary pristine sites in the Great Lakes, USA. The presence of liver neoplasms, gonadal lesions, and a decreased condition factor in lake whitefish from the St. Lawrence River may be etiologically related to elevated tissue concentrations of toxic chemical contaminants. PMID:11883413

Mikaelian, Igor; de Lafontaine, Yves; Harshbarger, John C; Lee, Lucy L J; Martineau, Daniel

2002-03-01

266

Early childhood stress is associated with elevated antibody levels to herpes simplex virus type 1  

PubMed Central

It is well known that children need solicitous parenting and a nurturing rearing environment to ensure their normal behavioral development. Early adversity often negatively impacts emotional and mental well-being, but it is less clearly established how much the maturation and regulation of physiological systems is also compromised. The following research investigated the effect of 2 different types of adverse childhood experiences, early deprivation through institutionalization and physical abuse, on a previously unexplored outcome: the containment of herpes simplex virus (HSV). The presence of HSV-specific antibody in salivary specimens was determined in 155 adolescents, including 41 postinstitutionalized, 34 physically-abused, and 80 demographically-similar control youth. Across 4 school and home days, HSV antibody was higher in both postinstitutionalized and physically-abused adolescents when compared with control participants. Because the prevalence of HSV infection was similar across the groups, the elevated antibody was likely indicative of viral recrudescence from latency. Total secretory Ig-A secretion was associated with HSV, but did not account for the group differences in HSV-specific antibody. These findings are likely caused by a failure of cellular immune processes to limit viral reactivation, indicating a persistent effect of early rearing on immune functioning. The fact that antibody profiles were still altered years after adoption into a more benevolent setting with supportive families suggests these results were not caused by contemporaneous factors, but rather reflect a lingering influence of earlier life experiences. PMID:19188604

Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Coe, Christopher L.; Pollak, Seth D.

2009-01-01

267

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-07-01

268

Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus Growth and Product Yield from Elevated Levels of Xylose or Glucose in Continuous Cultures  

PubMed Central

The performance of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus was evaluated in continuous culture with media containing concentrations of xylose (8 to 20 g/liter) greater than those previously reported. The ethanol yield declined from to 0.42 to 0.29 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed when input xylose was increased from 4 to 20 g/liter. Yields of both total C2 and C3 products from consumed xylose and of cell biomass from ATP produced declined as the input xylose concentration was increased, which was not the case when glucose was the substrate. This suggested that yeast extract functioned as a significant energy and carbon source for cells in fermentations of xylose but not of glucose. The feasibility of this interpretation was confirmed by (i) the calculation of the products theoretically obtainable from yeast extract and (ii) the observation of significant quantities of fermentation products in inoculated sugar-free media. Markedly different patterns of metabolism for the two sugar substrates were also evidenced by the cell yield for glucose being twice that of xylose at elevated sugar concentrations. It was noted that caution must be exerted when results obtained at low xylose concentrations are extrapolated to predict those which can be obtained at higher concentrations. PMID:16348422

Lacis, Lynda S.; Lawford, Hugh G.

1991-01-01

269

Maintenance of elevated fetal hemoglobin levels by decitabine during dose interval treatment of sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (decitabine) aug- ments fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels in patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) who did not respond to hydroxyurea (HU). The present study was designed to determine the effect of repeated decitabine dosing on HbF levels and hematologic toxicity over a 9-month treatment period. Seven patients (5 HU nonresponders) were en- tered. One

Joseph DeSimone; Mabel Koshy; Louise Dorn; Donald Lavelle; Linda Bressler; Robert Molokie; Nasrin Talischy

270

The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils  

PubMed Central

Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of ‘new’ soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4–5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4–5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth. PMID:18755677

Schmidt, S.K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Stuart Grandy, A; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A.F; Neff, J.C; Martin, A.M

2008-01-01

271

The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils.  

PubMed

Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of 'new' soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4-5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4-5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth. PMID:18755677

Schmidt, S K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Grandy, A Stuart; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A F; Neff, J C; Martin, A M

2008-12-22

272

Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike. PMID:18198937

Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T

2008-06-01

273

Elevated Plasma Stromal-Cell-Derived Factor-1 Protein Levels Correlate with Severity in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate differential changes in plasma levels of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) before and after antibiotic treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and observe the association between the severity of CAP and the plasma SDF-1 level. Methods. We gathered blood specimens from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls to measure the plasma concentrations of SDF-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The plasma SDF-1 concentration was elevated significantly in patients with CAP before receiving treatment compared with the controls and decreased significantly after the patients received treatment. Leukocyte (WBC) and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels decreased significantly after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, differences in the plasma concentration of SDF-1 were significantly correlated with PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores (r = 0.389, P = 0.002, and n = 61; r = 0.449, P < 0.001, and n = 61; and r = 0.363, P = 0.004, and n = 61, resp.). Conclusions. An elevated plasma SDF-1 concentration can be used as a biological marker for the early diagnosis of CAP and for the early detection of its severity. PMID:25371597

Tsai, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wang, Hsiang-Ling; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Shun-Fa

2014-01-01

274

Elevated levels of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins in plasma from human cancers detected by C. septicum alpha toxin.  

PubMed

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a glycan and lipid posttranslational modification added to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Certain enzymes within the GPI biosynthetic pathway, particularly the subunits of the GPI transamidase, are elevated in various human cancers. Specific GPI anchored proteins, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and mesothelin, have been described as potential biomarkers for certain cancers; however, the overall levels of GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from cases of human cancers have not been evaluated. We have developed the use of a bacterial toxin known as alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum to detect GPI anchored proteins in vitro. In this study, we use alpha toxin to detect GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from cases of several types of human cancers. Our data indicate that human cancers with previously documented elevations of GPI transamidase subunits show increased alpha toxin binding to plasma from patients with these cancers, indicating increased levels of GPI anchored proteins. Furthermore, our results reveal very low levels of alpha toxin binding to plasma from patients with no malignant disease indicating few GPI anchored proteins are present. These data suggest that GPI anchored proteins present in plasma from these cancers represent biomarkers with potential use for cancer detection. PMID:24643042

Dolezal, Samuel; Hester, Shanterian; Kirby, Pamela S; Nairn, Allison; Pierce, Michael; Abbott, Karen L

2014-01-01

275

Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food  

SciTech Connect

When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

1988-01-01

276

Single-item screens identified patients with elevated levels of depressive and somatization symptoms in outpatient physical therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Develop efficient and accurate screening tools to identify elevated levels of depressive or somatization symptoms, which can\\u000a adversely affect functional status outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a secondary analysis of prospectively collected depressive and somatization symptoms (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised)\\u000a data from 10,920 patients receiving outpatient physical therapy for a variety of neuromusculoskeletal diagnoses. Item response\\u000a theory methods were used to analyze data,

Dennis L. HartMark; Mark W. Werneke; Steven Z. George; Daniel Deutscher

277

CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and {beta}-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further.

Ogino, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan)]. E-mail: ogino@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Takanaka, Tsuyoshi [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Suzuki, Kazunori [Department of Radiology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ishihara, Shun-Ichi [Department of Radiology, Toyohashi Municipal Hospital, Toyohashi (Japan); Yamada, Tetsuya [Department of Radiology, Handa City Hospital, Handa (Japan); Sugie, Chikao [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Nomoto, Yoshihito [Department of Radiology, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Mimura, Mikio [Department of Radiology, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

2005-07-01

278

Experimentally elevated levels of testosterone at independence reduce fitness in a territorial bird.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions and individual strategies in early life may have a profound effect on fitness. A critical moment in the life of an organism occurs when an individual reaches independence and stops receiving benefits from its relatives. Understanding the consequences of individual strategies at the time of independence requires quantification of their fitness effects. We explored this period in the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). In this system, testosterone and parasite (Trichostrongylus tenuis) levels are known to influence survival and reproduction, the two key components of individual fitness. We experimentally and simultaneously manipulated testosterone and parasites at three levels (high, intermediate, and control levels for both factors) in 195 young males in five populations using a factorial experimental design. We explored the effects of our treatments on fitness by monitoring reproduction and survival throughout the life of all males and estimating lambda(ind), a rate-sensitive index of fitness. Parasite challenges increased the number of worms with a time lag, as previously found. However, we did not find significant effects of parasite manipulations on fitness, possibly because parasite abundance did not increase to harmful levels. Our hormone manipulation was successful at increasing testosterone at three different levels. Such increases in hormone levels decreased overall fitness. This was caused by reduced offspring production in the first breeding attempt rather than by any effect of the treatment on bird survival. Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels at independence, a strategy that might enhance short-term recruitment probability in territorial species such as Red Grouse, has a fitness cost, and can influence the resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and survival later in life. PMID:24933821

Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S C; Redpath, S M

2014-04-01

279

Relation of plasma adiponectin levels and aortic stiffness after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulse wave velocity is a measure of aortic stiffness and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is involved in atherosclerosis and inflammation. In the present study we aimed to explore the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and pulse wave velocity in the acute phase after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Forty-six consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 57±11 years) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma adiponectin was measured 2 days after index event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was calculated by the transit-time method with the use of a velocity-encoded, phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance protocol. Results: Median plasma adiponectin concentration was 2385 ng/ml (interquartile range 1735–5403). Males had lower plasma adiponectin values than females and current smokers had lower values than non-smokers (all p<0.02). Adiponectin was significantly associated with PWV (r=0.505, p<0.001), age (r=0.437, p=0.002), and total cholesterol (r=0.468, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin as a predictor of PWV independently of age, sex, smoking status, total cholesterol, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p=0.027). Conclusions: Plasma adiponectin concentrations are strongly associated with aortic stiffness in patients after acute STEMI treated with primary PCI. Our data support a possible role for adiponectin as an independent risk marker for increased aortic stiffness in STEMI patients. PMID:24337918

Reinstadler, SJ; Klug, G; Feistritzer, HJ; Mayr, A; Bader, K; Mair, J; Esterhammer, R; Schocke, M

2014-01-01

280

Elevated platelet microparticle levels after acute ischemic stroke with concurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.  

PubMed

We report a 60-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who experienced acute infarction of the middle cerebral artery. She was treated with an antiplatelet agent and prednisolone to limit platelet activation and destruction. In parallel with clinical amelioration, levels of plasma platelet microparticles (PMPs), a procoagulant factor in platelet activation, decreased after treatment but increased after reduction of the prednisolone dose, resulting in progression of vascular stenosis. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine normalized plasma PMP levels, and no additional vascular events occurred during the 3-month follow-up period. Immunosuppressive therapy to decrease plasma PMP levels is warranted after acute ischemic stroke in the context of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. PMID:23747179

Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ohkubo, Takuya; Nomura, Shosaku; Sanjo, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2014-03-01

281

Elevated serum levels of interleukin-18 in patients with overt diabetic nephropathy: effects of miglitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is a predictor of cardiovascular and renal disease in diabetic patients.\\u000a Postprandial hyperglycemia is one of the important factors contributing to an increase in the circulating pro-inflammatory\\u000a cytokine levels. This study investigated the effect of miglitol, an ?-glucosidase inhibitor, on postprandial hyperglycemia\\u000a and IL-18 levels in diabetic patients with nephropathy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifteen Japanese diabetic patients with

Takashi UzuHiroki; Hiroki Yokoyama; Hirofumi Itoh; Daisuke Koya; Atsushi Nakagawa; Makoto Nishizawa; Hiroshi Maegawa; Yukiyo Yokomaku; Shin-ichi Araki; Atsuko Abiko; Masakazu Haneda

2011-01-01

282

High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO 2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood.

M. Langenbuch; H. O. Pörtner

2004-01-01

283

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF AN ELEVATED GASEOUS RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the development of a screening technique to determine the maximum 1 hour ground level concentration of a gaseous emission from a stack located in flat terrain. The method does not require the use of a computer and eliminates the usual trial and error calculati...

284

Circulating levels of the anti-angiogenic thrombospondin 2 are elevated in pre-eclampsia.  

PubMed

An imbalance of maternal circulating pro- and anti-angiogenic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Thrombospondin 2 (TSP-2) is a protein expressed mainly by activated endothelial cells, which acts as a potent anti-angiogenic agent. Our aim was to determine whether serum TSP-2 levels are altered in pre-eclampsia. We enrolled 35 pre-eclamptic patients and 35 healthy pregnant women in the study. Thrombospondin 2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. In patients with PE, we demonstrated 1.7-fold higher TSP-2 [13.2 (9.4-18.1) vs. 7.9 (7.2-11.2) ng/ml, p<0.001], 3.8-fold higher sFlt-1 and 4.3-fold lower PlGF levels compared with the control group. There were no associations between TSP-2 and sFlt-1 or PlGF concentrations. We suggest that circulating TSP-2 levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of PE via its anti-angiogenic properties, but in a distinct way from sFlt-1 and PlGF. PMID:21682699

Stenczer, Balázs; Molvarec, Attila; Veresh, Zoltán; Gullai, Nóra; Nagy, Gyula Richárd; Walentin, Szilvia; Szijártó, János; Rigó, János

2011-11-01

285

Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Microvesicles (MV) have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a) to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b) to determine their cellular origin; and (c) to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL) was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation). Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55), median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27). Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18%) had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

Curry, Nicola; Raja, Amber; Beavis, James; Stanworth, Simon; Harrison, Paul

2014-01-01

286

Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges  

SciTech Connect

The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

1999-07-01

287

Relation of elevated serum uric acid levels to incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and atrial fibrillation (AF) is currently poorly known. We examined the association between SUA levels and risk of incident AF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We followed for 10 years a random sample of 400 type 2 diabetic outpatients, who were free from AF at baseline. A standard 12-lead electrocardiography was undertaken annually and a diagnosis of incident AF was confirmed in affected participants by a single cardiologist. Over 10 years, there were 42 incident AF cases (cumulative incidence of 10.5%). Elevated SUA level was associated with an increased risk of incident AF (odds ratio 2.43, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 3.4, p <0.0001 for each 1-SD increase in SUA level). Adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, electrocardiographic features (left ventricular hypertrophy and PR interval), and use of diuretics and allopurinol did not attenuate the association between SUA and incident AF (adjusted odds ratio 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.9, p <0.0001). Further adjustment for variables that were included in the 10-year Framingham Heart Study-derived AF risk score did not appreciably weaken this association. Results remained unchanged even when SUA was modeled as a categorical variable (stratifying by either SUA median or hyperuricemia), and when patients with previous coronary heart disease or heart failure were excluded from analysis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated SUA levels are strongly associated with an increased incidence of AF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus even after adjustment for multiple clinical risk factors for AF. PMID:23672990

Valbusa, Filippo; Bertolini, Lorenzo; Bonapace, Stefano; Zenari, Luciano; Zoppini, Giacomo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher D; Targher, Giovanni

2013-08-15

288

A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. Methods We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic), TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt). Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm3. For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. Results TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65). Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23). There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas) between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands. Conclusion Using the first transgenic animal model to elevate circulating levels of IGF-I to those comparable to women at increased risk of breast cancer, we showed that moderately high levels of systemic IGF-I have no effect on pubertal mammary gland development, initiating mammary tumorigenesis or promoting ErbB2 driven mammary carcinogenesis. Our work suggests that ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis is independent of the normal variation in circulating levels of IGF-I. PMID:21867536

2011-01-01

289

Impaired synaptogenesis and long-term modulation of behavior following postnatal elevation of GABA levels in mice.  

PubMed

Antiepileptic drugs acting through the potentiation of GABAergic pathways have adverse effects on brain development. Increased risk of impaired intellectual development has been reported in children born to women treated for epilepsy during pregnancy. We have previously shown, in mice, that treatment with the antiepileptic drug vigabatrin (GVG) on postnatal days 4-14 delays reflex development in the newborn and impairs learning and memory in the adult. Here, we report the time course in which postnatal GVG treatment induced behavioral changes in an open field test and had a detrimental developmental effect on recognition memory in mice. Furthermore, GVG treatment significantly modulated the expression of synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) II and synaptotagmin (Synt) I. A short-term decrease in the expression of these proteins was followed by a long-term elevation in their expression in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. In contrast, no changes were detected in the levels of Synt II or in the vesicular GABA transporter. The over-expression of VAMP II and Synt I in the GVG-treated mice was associated with a significant decrease in the basal field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and modulated the response to repeated stimulation. The changes observed in synaptogenesis may explain the behavioral impairment induced by postnatal GVG treatment and may suggest a possible mechanism for the detrimental effect of antiepileptic drugs acting through elevation of GABA levels. PMID:18063001

Levav, Tamar; Wirthaim, Orly; Weiss, Reut; Grossman, Yoram; Golan, Hava

2008-02-01

290

Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine  

PubMed Central

Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP) display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg) was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg) was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands. PMID:21172011

2010-01-01

291

Rapidly Progressed Primary Intestinal Follicular Lymphoma with Elevation of Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor Levels  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed with primary intestinal follicular lymphoma involving the duodenum, jejunum, and rectum without lymph node involvement. The patient was classified as low risk by the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) system. Treatment was deferred because he had no symptoms. Eleven months after the diagnosis, his soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels had risen from 383 to 617?U/mL. Lymphoma progression involving an enlarged perigastric lymph node was also documented. This report illustrates a case of rapidly progressed intestinal follicular lymphoma, suggesting the possible usefulness of sIL-2R levels as an indicator of lymphoma progression. PMID:24876980

Iwamuro, Masaya; Takenaka, Ryuta; Mori, Atsushi; Fujiki, Shigeatsu; Miyake, Takayoshi; Asakura, Shoji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2014-01-01

292

Elevated levels of members of the STAT family of transcription factors in breast carcinoma nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, milk protein binding factor (MPBF/Stat5), is a member of the STAT family of signalling molecules which mediates prolactin signal transduction in lactating mammary gland by binding to GAS (gamma-interferon activation site) DNA elements. We have determined the levels of STAT factors in nuclear extracts from a variety of human breast tissues including carcinoma and normal 'resting' breast by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The results show that the level of STAT binding activity is low in normal 'resting' breast and benign lesions while carcinoma samples have significantly higher (P < 0.01) amounts of STAT binding activity. Supershift analysis suggests that Stat1 and possibly other members of the STAT family of signalling factors, including Stat3, are activated in breast cancer tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7710952

Watson, C. J.; Miller, W. R.

1995-01-01

293

Elevated CA 19-9 levels observed in association with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour and amyloid.  

PubMed

Investigations completed in a 77-year-old ex-smoker presenting with weight loss showed raised CA 19-9 levels. The findings of chest radiograph, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations were all normal. On follow-up, the patient developed left upper lobe collapse on chest radiograph with increasing CA 19-9 levels. Chest CT findings suggested the presence of a left upper lobe tumour. The results of a biopsy of the left upper lobe nodule seen on bronchoscopy suggested a diagnosis of amyloidosis; however, this was not the only diagnosis. The left upper lobe mass comprised a neuroendocrine tumour with amyloid deposition just beneath the bronchial epithelium and focally between the nests of the tumour cells. We report and discuss this uncommon association and presentation. PMID:23291683

Faruqi, Shoaib; Gumparthy, Krishna; Wahbi, Zaroug

2013-01-01

294

Plasma Cell-Free DNA Levels Are Elevated in Acute Puumala Hantavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPuumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease.MethodsTotal plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20

Tuula K. Outinen; Taru Kuparinen; Juulia Jylhävä; Sonja Leppänen; Jukka Mustonen; Satu Mäkelä; Ilkka Pörsti; Jaana Syrjänen; Antti Vaheri; Mikko Hurme

2012-01-01

295

Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.  

PubMed

Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ? 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl) at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low). To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001) and insulin clearance (P = 0.006) after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02) in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia. PMID:24194886

Marini, Maria Adelaide; Frontoni, Simona; Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

2013-01-01

296

Decreased Insulin Clearance in Individuals with Elevated 1-h Post-Load Plasma Glucose Levels  

PubMed Central

Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ?8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl) at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low). To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001) and insulin clearance (P?=?0.006) after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P?=?0.02) in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia. PMID:24194886

Marini, Maria Adelaide; Frontoni, Simona; Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

2013-01-01

297

Elevated prolactin levels in human aqueous humor of patients with anterior uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is accumulating that prolactin (PRL) may play a physiological role in the regulation of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. On the basis of these observations, we measured levels in the serum and aqueous humor of 28 patients with cataract or anterior uveitis with concomitant cataract. Intraocular concentrations were measured in a range from 0.1 to 3.4 ng\\/ml. whereas serum

U. Pleyer; D. Gupta; E. G. Weidle; W. Lisch; M. Zierhut; H. J. Thiel

1991-01-01

298

Elevated serum IL8 levels are associated with disease activity in idiopathic intermediate uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo find a laboratory indicator for systemic involvement in intermediate uveitis.METHODSInterleukin 8 (IL-8) and C reactive protein (CRP) serum levels were measured in patients with idiopathic intermediate uveitis (n=61), uveitis controls (n=143), and normal controls (n=29). The records of those with intermediate uveitis were reviewed with the emphasis on disease activity and severity as characterised by the presence of cystoid

Anne-Marie Klok; Leny Luyendijk; Michel J W Zaal; Aniki Rothova; C Erik Hack; Aize Kijlstra

1998-01-01

299

Responses to elevated c-di-GMP levels in mutualistic and pathogenic plant-interacting bacteria.  

PubMed

Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

2014-01-01

300

Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

Perez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragon, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramirez, Harold A.; Romero-Jimenez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, Maria-Trinidad; Sanjuan, Juan

2014-01-01

301

Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.  

PubMed

Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 ?Acm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 ?. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose. PMID:24779948

Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

2014-04-01

302

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Film Cooling at Elevated Levels of Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of an experimental study on the influence of high level turbulence on vane film cooling and the influence of film cooling on vane heat transfer. Three different cooling configurations were investigated which included one row of film cooling on both pressure and suction surfaces, two staggered rows of film cooling on both suction and pressure surfaces, and a shower-head cooling array. The turbulence had a strong influence on film cooling effectiveness, particularly on the pressure surface where local turbulence levels were the highest. For the single row of holes, the spanwise mixing quickly reduced centerline effectiveness levels while mixing in the normal direction was more gradual. The film cooling had a strong influence on the heat transfer in the laminar regions of the vane. The effect of film cooling on heat transfer was noticeable in the turbulent regions but augmentation ratios were significantly lower. In addition to heat transfer and film cooling, velocity profiles were taken downstream of the film cooling rows at three spanwise locations. These profile comparisons documented the strong spanwise mixing due to the high turbulence. Total pressure exit measurements were also documented for the three configurations.

Ames, Forrest E.

1996-01-01

303

Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Regulated Chemokines Are Biomarkers for Active Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a serious systemic autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by unpredictable flares of disease. Recent evidence indicates a role for type I interferon (IFN) in SLE pathogenesis; however, the downstream effects of IFN pathway activation are not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that type I IFN-regulated proteins are present in the serum of SLE patients and correlate with disease activity. Methods and Findings We performed a comprehensive survey of the serologic proteome in human SLE and identified dysregulated levels of 30 cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and soluble receptors. Particularly striking was the highly coordinated up-regulation of 12 inflammatory and/or homeostatic chemokines, molecules that direct the movement of leukocytes in the body. Most of the identified chemokines were inducible by type I IFN, and their levels correlated strongly with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity. Conclusions These data suggest that severely disrupted chemokine gradients may contribute to the systemic autoimmunity observed in human SLE. Furthermore, the levels of serum chemokines may serve as convenient biomarkers for disease activity in lupus. PMID:17177599

Bauer, Jason W; Baechler, Emily C; Petri, Michelle; Batliwalla, Franak M; Crawford, Dianna; Ortmann, Ward A; Espe, Karl J; Li, Wentian; Patel, Dhavalkumar D; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W

2006-01-01

304

The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

Aschengrau, A. [Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics] [Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D. [Office of Environmental Health, Boston, MA (United States). Boston Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program] [Office of Environmental Health, Boston, MA (United States). Boston Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

1998-10-01

305

Elevated Levels of High-Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) in Patients with Severe or Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria  

PubMed Central

Severe malaria is characterized by a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines in the context of sequestration of parasitized and normal red cells (RBCs). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA- and heparin-binding protein that also acts as a cytokine when released from cells in the extracellular milieu after a proinflammatory stimulus. In this study, we have measured the circulating levels of HMGB1 in 76 children with severe or uncomplicated malaria. Sera from both severe (P = 0.0022) and uncomplicated (P = 0.0049) patients had significantly higher circulating HMGB1 levels compared with healthy controls. Elevated HMGB1 in patients with ongoing Plasmodium falciparum infections might prolong inflammation and the febrile state of malaria and could offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23400574

Angeletti, Davide; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Byarugaba, Justus; Kironde, Fred; Wahlgren, Mats

2013-01-01

306

Is elevation of the serum ?-d-glucan level a paradoxical sign for trichosporon fungemia in patients with hematologic disorders?  

PubMed

The detection of serum 1,3-?-d-glucan (BDG) has been reported to be useful for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of various invasive fungal infections. Although Trichosporon fungemia is increasingly recognized as a fatal mycosis in immunocompromised patients, the utility of this assay for Trichosporon fungemia is still unknown. In our experience (28 cases), the level of BDG rose in about half of the patients with hematologic disorders who developed Trichosporon fungemia. Among them, early death from this infection was more frequently seen in BDG-negative patients than in BDG-positive patients. In addition, overall survival was also significantly worse in BDG-negative patients than in BDG-positive patients. There were no significant differences between these two patient groups in terms of clinical background. Unlike for other invasive fungal infections, elevation of BDG level may indicate a paradoxical sign for Trichosporon fungemia in patients with hematologic disorders. PMID:22071235

Nakase, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kei; Kyo, Taiichi; Kohara, Tadahiro; Sugawara, Yumiko; Katayama, Naoyuki

2012-01-01

307

Serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (?-HB) predicts elevated 1?h glucose levels and early-phase ?-cell dysfunction during OGTT  

PubMed Central

Objective Serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (?-HB) is elevated in insulin resistance and diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that the ?-HB level predicts abnormal 1?h glucose levels and ?-cell dysfunction inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75?g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Research design and methods This cross-sectional study included 217 patients at increased risk for diabetes. 75?g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30–120?min period. OGTT responses were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict 1?h glucose ?155?mg/dL with ?-HB added to traditional risk factors. Results Mean±SD age was 51±15?years (44% male, 25% with impaired glucose tolerance). Fasting glucose and insulin levels, but not age or body mass index (BMI), were significantly higher in the second/third ?-HB tertiles (>3.9?µg/mL) than in the first tertile. Patients in the second/third ?-HB tertiles exhibited a higher glucose area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and reduced initial slope of insulin response during OGTT. The AUC for predicting 1?h glucose ?155?mg/dL was 0.82 for a base model that included age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin, and increased to 0.86 with ?-HB added (p=0.015), with a net reclassification index of 52% (p<0.0001). Conclusions Fasting serum ?-HB levels predicted elevated 1?h glucose during OGTT, potentially due to impaired insulin secretion kinetics. This association persisted even in patients with an otherwise normal insulin–glucose homeostasis. Measuring serum ?-HB could thus provide a rapid, inexpensive screening tool for detecting early subclinical hyperglycemia, ?-cell dysfunction, and increased risk for diabetes.

Varvel, Stephen A; Pottala, James V; Thiselton, Dawn L; Caffrey, Rebecca; Dall, Tara; Sasinowski, Maciek; McConnell, Joseph P; Warnick, G Russell; Voros, Szilard; Graham, Timothy E

2014-01-01

308

Elevated levels of the endogenous retrovirus ERV3 in human sebaceous glands.  

PubMed

ERV3 (HERV-R) is a complete human endogenous retrovirus located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Long terminal repeat-envelope (env) gene spliced mRNAs of 9 and 3.5 kb are widely expressed in human tissues and cells, but gag-pol mRNAs have not been found. Furthermore, the env gp70 gene contains an open reading frame throughout its length. The highest expression of ERV3 mRNA detected so far is in placenta and the lowest in choriocarcinoma cell lines. We have previously shown that the human monoblastic cell line U-937 and some normal and neoplastic tissues also express high levels of ERV3 env message by Northern blot analysis; however, this method does not distinguish between mRNA expression in different cell types in tissues. In this report, we have studied the ERV3 mRNA expression in specific cell types of human skin by in situ hybridization. We found high levels expression of ERV3 env mRNA in human sebaceous glands in normal skin and dermoid cysts of the ovary. In all glands, the expression is maximal in the periphery of the lobule and ceases towards the center in the region of characteristic holocrine secretion. Since it is known that the regulation of sebaceous glands is primarily via steroid hormones, particularly androgens, it is possible that expression of ERV3 is hormone dependent. PMID:8592062

Andersson, A C; Merza, M; Venables, P; Pontén, F; Sundström, J; Cohen, M; Larsson, E

1996-01-01

309

Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

J. Edward Hunter

2001-01-01

310

Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed at answering the question why feeding rats an oligofructose (OFS) supplemented diet could cause\\u000a a significant reduction in plasma lipid levels. Daily administration of a 10% (w\\/w) OFS-containing diet to normolipidemic\\u000a male rats resulted in a decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect\\u000a was observed after one week and lasted for at

Maria Fiordaliso; Nadine Kok; Jean-Pierre Desager; Fabienne Goethals; Dominique Deboyser; Marcel Roberfroid; Nathalie Delzenne

1995-01-01

311

Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been adequately examined. Methods We conducted this cohort study using population-based Danish medical registries. Patients referred for Cbl measurement with levels greater than the lower reference limit (?200 pmol/L) were identified from the population of Northern Denmark during the period of 1998 to 2009 using a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998–2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (?601 pmol/L). Cancer risk increased with higher Cbl levels and was highest during the first year of follow-up (Cbl 601–800 pmol/L: SIR = 3.44, 95% CI = 3.14 to 3.76; Cbl >800 pmol/L: SIR = 6.27, 95% CI = 5.70 to 6.88; both P < .001). The risks were particularly elevated for hematological and smoking- and alcohol-related cancers for persons with high Cbl levels. Conclusions High Cbl levels were associated with the risk of subsequently diagnosed cancer, mostly within the first year of follow-up. This may have clinical implications for the interpretation of high Cbl levels. PMID:24249744

2013-01-01

312

Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach ridge plains are a common feature of prograding coastlines and they have in the past been widely used as geomorphological archives for the reconstruction of past coastal dynamics, event chronologies or late quaternary sea-level change. The most critical parameters for sea-level related research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time-consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60° N and 56° S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) with the SRTM elevation model along a cross-ridge transect. An average vertical deviation of 0,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM data acquisition and our GPS measurement. This interpretation is supported by a multi-decadal sequence of Landsat false-color composites. Vegetation cover and rounding errors are further possible factors in explaining vertical deviation. The consistency of data quality was confirmed by a comparison study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) to extract surface elevations on an extensive beach ridge plain on the island of Anholt, Denmark. The relatively high accuracy of the SRTM data in near-coastal environments is probably owed to the correction of the original dataset for a fixed value of 0 m along the coastlines of the world (SRTM Water Body Data). Our findings indicate that, at certain scales, a spatial integration of linear GPS data can be attempted using the SRTM dataset. However, the process must be aided by adequate surface information (e.g. Landsat images from close to the date of SRTM acquisition). The fixed reference datum allows a contextualization of distant field sites and thus can help to reduce bias measurement and interpretation. In our case, the SRTM data set has proven to be a valuable tool for the preparation of field work and facilitated a more accurate appraisal of the Holocene marine sedimentary record.

Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariel; Alberdi, Ernesto; Pejrup, Morten

2014-05-01

313

Lipoprotein production by the heart: a novel pathway of triglyceride export from cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

The current knowledge on lipoprotein secretion from the heart is examined in this article. The ability of cells to secrete apolipoprotein B (apo-B) containing lipoproteins depends on expression of the apo-B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) genes. Initially, it was shown that both genes are expressed in cardiac myocytes of mice and humans. Electron microscopy of human cardiac myocytes revealed lipoproteins in the secretory pathway and metabolic labelling studies demonstrated the secretion of LDL-like lipoproteins from minced heart biopsies. To examine the role of lipoprotein formation in the heart, we tested whether overexpression of a human apo-B transgene in the heart affects cardiac triglyceride accumulation. In wild-type mice, diabetes conferred an increase in heart triglycerides. In apo-B transgenic mice, diabetes did not affect heart triglycerides. Also, apo-B overexpression prevents fasting-induced heart triglyceride accumulation, whereas inhibition of MTP expression increases heart triglycerides in mice. In hypoxic human hearts, MTP mRNA expression was negatively associated with triglyceride contents. These findings suggest that lipoprotein formation rates affect cardiac triglyceride stores. The MTP mRNA levels are approximately 2-fold higher in hypoxic compared with normoxic human myocardium and in diabetic compared with non-diabetic mouse hearts. In both hypoxia and diabetes, the delivery of triglycerides to the heart exceeds their utilization for beta-oxidation. Thus, endogenous lipoprotein secretion rates might be upregulated to remove surplus fat from the heart. Diabetes negatively affected indexes of systolic and diastolic function in wild-type mice. However, the diabetogenic effects on the heart were absent or much less pronounced in apo-B transgenic mice. This suggests that accelerated lipoprotein formation by the heart attenuates development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice. In conclusion, current evidence suggests that lipoprotein secretion from the heart plays an integrated role in cardiac lipid homeostasis and that it can affect the biomechanical function of the heart. PMID:12570165

Nielsen, L B

2002-01-01

314

Elevation of Proteasomal Substrate Levels Sensitizes Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Inhibition of Proteasomal Deubiquitinases  

PubMed Central

Inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the 20S proteasome are cytotoxic to tumor cells and are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma, whilst the deubiquitinase activity associated with the 19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome is also a valid target for anti-cancer drugs. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs and their selective toxicity towards cancer cells are not known. Here, we show that increasing the cellular levels of proteasome substrates using an inhibitor of Sec61-mediated protein translocation significantly increases the extent of apoptosis that is induced by inhibition of proteasomal deubiquitinase activity in both cancer derived and non-transformed cell lines. Our results suggest that increased generation of misfolded proteasome substrates may contribute to the mechanism(s) underlying the increased sensitivity of tumor cells to inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:25286379

Sun, Chao; Roboti, Peristera; Puumalainen, Marjo-Riitta; Fryknas, Marten; Wang, Xin; D'Arcy, Padraig; Hult, Malin; High, Stephen; Linder, Stig; Swanton, Eileithyia

2014-01-01

315

Elevated fat skatole levels in immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs with acute dysentery.  

PubMed

Boar taint is due to androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole) accumulation in fat tissues. During a study to investigate the effect of immunocastration on fattening pigs, an outbreak of acute dysentery occurred caused by Lawsonia intracellularis and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and resulted in cachexia and high mortality. Low androstenone levels in the immunocastrates (0.25 ± 0.04 ?g/g liquid fat) suggested that the immunocastration had been effective, but unusually high skatole concentrations in fat tissues were found not only in entire males, but also in surgical castrates and immunocastrates (0.22 ± 0.15, 0.14 ± 0.08 and 0.18 ± 0.14 ?g/g liquid fat, respectively). The findings suggest that boar taint can arise in cases of intestinal infections, even in castrated pigs. PMID:22613221

Skrlep, Martin; Batorek, Nina; Bonneau, Michel; Fazarinc, Gregor; Segula, Blaž; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta

2012-12-01

316

Elevated Epidermal Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Levels Establish an Anti-Tumor Environment in the Skin  

PubMed Central

Summary Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine implicated in induction of T helper 2 (Th2)-mediated allergic inflammation, has recently been shown to stimulate solid tumor growth and metastasis. Conversely, studying mice with clonal loss of Notch signaling in their skin revealed that high levels of TSLP released by barrier-defective skin caused a severe inflammation, resulting in gradual elimination of Notch-deficient epidermal clones and resistance to skin tumorigenesis. We found CD4+ T cells to be both required and sufficient to mediate these effects of TSLP. Importantly, TSLP overexpression in wild-type skin also caused resistance to tumorigenesis, confirming that TSLP functions as a tumor suppressor in the skin. PMID:23079659

Demehri, Shadmehr; Turkoz, Ahu; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Yockey, Laura J.; Turkoz, Mustafa; Kopan, Raphael

2012-01-01

317

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

318

Serum Proteomic Analysis Reveals High Frequency of Haptoglobin Deficiency and Elevated Thyroxine Level in Heroin Addicts  

PubMed Central

Heroin addiction is a chronic, complex disease, often accompanied by other concomitant disorders, which may encumber effective prevention and treatment. To explore the differences in expression profiles of serum proteins in control and heroin addicts, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF, and identified 4 proteins of interest. Following validation of the increase in serum transthyretin, we assessed serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4), and observed a robust increase in T4 in heroin addicts compared to controls. In addition, we performed haptoglobin (Hp) phenotyping, and showed that the frequency of Hp0 (serum devoid of haptoglobin) was significantly higher in heroin addicts. Altogether, these findings indicated that: (1) thyroid hormone imbalance is present in heroin addicts; (2) anhaptoglobinemia (Hp0) might a risk factor or a deleterious effect of heroin abuse. PMID:24743330

Zhou, Bing-Ying; Yan, Shi-Yan; Shi, Wan-Lu; Qu, Zhi; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Min; Pu, Xiao-Ping

2014-01-01

319

Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234  

PubMed Central

Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-?: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1?: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1?: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p<0.0001, and IL-1?: 218.2 vs. 169.5, p=0.02). We focused our analysis on the following cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, and MIP-1? due to high fold change (>10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-?, MIP-1? levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

2010-01-01

320

Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.  

PubMed

Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24059726

Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

2013-10-01

321

Does short-term exposure to elevated levels of natural gamma radiation in Ramsar cause oxidative stress?  

PubMed Central

Background: Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, has areas with some of the highest recorded levels of natural radiation among inhabited areas measured on the earth. Aims: To determine whether short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation induce oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: In this study, 53 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10-12 animals. Animals in the 1st group were kept for 7 days in an outdoor area with normal background radiation while the 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th groups were kept in four different outdoor areas with naturally elevated levels of gamma radiation in Ramsar. A calibrated RDS-110 survey meter, mounted on a tripod approximately 1 m above the ground, was used to measure exposure rate at each location. On days 7 and 9 blood sampling was performed to assess the serum levels of catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On day 8, all animals were exposed to a lethal dose of 8 Gy gamma radiations emitted by a Theratron Phoenix (Theratronics, Canada) Cobalt-60 (55 cGy/min) at Radiotherapy Department of Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran. Results: Findings obtained in this study indicate that high levels of natural radiation cannot induce oxidative stress. CAT and MDA levels in almost all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.69 and P = 0.05, respectively). After exposure to the lethal dose, CAT and MDA levels in all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.054 and P = 0.163, respectively). Conclusions: These findings indicate that short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation (up to 196 times higher than the normal background) does not induce oxidative stress. PMID:25143879

Mortazavi, SMJ; Niroomand-Rad, A; Roshan-Shomal, P; Razavi-Toosi, SMT; Mossayeb-Zadeh, M; Moghadam, M

2014-01-01

322

Elevated Levels of Interferon-? Production by Memory T Cells Do Not Promote Transplant Tolerance Resistance in Aged Recipients  

PubMed Central

Immunosenescence predisposes the elderly to infectious and autoimmune diseases and impairs the response to vaccination. We recently demonstrated that ageing also impedes development of transplantation tolerance. Unlike their young counterparts (8-12 weeks of age) aged male recipients (greater than 12 months of age) transplanted with a full MHC-mismatched heart are resistant to tolerance mediated by anti-CD45RB antibody. Surprisingly, either chemical or surgical castration restored tolerance induction to levels observed using young recipients. Based on the strong impact of endocrine modulation on transplant tolerance, we explored the impact of ageing and castration on the immune system. Here we report a significant increase in the percentage of T cells that produce interferon-? (IFN-?) in aged male versus young male animals and that the overall increase in IFN-? production was due to an expansion of IFN-?-producing memory T cells in aged animals. In contrast to IFN-? production, we did not observe differences in IL-10 expression in young versus old male mice. We hypothesized that endocrine modulation would diminish the elevated levels of IFN-? production in aged recipients, however, we observed no significant reduction in the percentage of IFN-?+ T cells upon castration. Furthermore, we neutralized interferon-? by antibody and did not observe an effect on graft survival. We conclude that while elevated levels of interferon-? serves as a marker of tolerance resistance in aged mice, other as yet to be identified factors are responsible for its cause. Defining these factors may be relevant to design of tolerogenic strategies for aged recipients. PMID:24340063

Kim, James I.; Stott, Ryan T.; Soohoo, Julie; Lee, Kang Mi; Zhao, Gaoping; Yeh, Heidi; Deng, Shaoping; Markmann, James F.

2013-01-01

323

An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

1994-06-01

324

Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns  

PubMed Central

Perinatal hypoxia results in neuronal and endothelial cell damage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) expression and peripheral blood changes in perinatal asphyxia with neuronal injury markers in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. We compared the concentrations of serum sICAM-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibodies specific for NR2 glutamate receptors in 29 asphyxiated and 20 control infants using standard enzyme immunoassay procedures. The mean total concentrations of sICAM-1 and neuron-specific proteins (NSE and NR2-specific antibodies) were higher in the asphyxiated infants than in the control infants. The serum sICAM-1 concentrations significantly correlated with Apgar scoring and with the pH and lactate data from capillary or arterial cord blood. No significant correlation between serum concentrations of neuron specific proteins and blood changes of asphyxia was found. Therefore, endothelial sICAM-1 expression levels might be accepted as an indicator of the severity of perinatal asphyxia in LBW infants. PMID:25358349

Huseynova, Saadat; Panakhova, Nushaba; Orujova, Pusta; Hasanov, Safikhan; Guliyev, Mehman; Orujov, Agil

2014-01-01

325

Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-06-01

326

Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (5.0–6.0 mmol\\/L). Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to

Gladys Castaño; Rosa Más; Julio Fernández; Ernesto López; José Illnait; Lilia Fernández; Meylin Mesa

2003-01-01

327

Effect of elevated CO 2 levels on leaf starch, nitrogen and photosynthesis of plants growing at three natural CO 2 springs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant communities around natural CO2 springs have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels over many generations and give us a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of long-term elevated CO2 levels on wild plants. We searched for natural CO2 springs in cool temperate climate regions in Japan and found three springs that were suitable for studying long-term responses\\u000a of plants

Yusuke Onoda; Tadaki Hirose; Kouki Hikosaka

2007-01-01

328

Bleed of and biologic response to triglyceride filler used in radiolucent breast implants.  

PubMed

Radiolucent breast implants filled with triglyceride oil have recently entered limited clinical trials. To investigate the questions of oil bleed and the fate of triglycerides that might escape from ruptured breast implants, experiments reported here used peanut oil labeled with radioisotopes so that it could be traced in the urine, feces, and organs of two groups of rabbits. In one experiment, 18 rabbits were implanted with peanut oil-filled implants labeled with tritium to determine whether triglycerides diffuse across silicone elastomer shells. In another experiment, 19 rabbits were injected with 14C-labeled peanut oil to study what might happen to the oil if an implant ruptures. At the end of the follow-up period, we measured radioisotope levels in tissue samples taken from the periprosthetic capsule or injection site of each rabbit, as well as from major organs and the subcutaneous fat on the dorsum opposite the experimental site. One experiment revealed that triglycerides do bleed across the implant shells. Tritium levels were highest in the implant capsule, the omentum, the aorta, and the subcutaneous fat on the nonexperimental side. In the experiment simulating implant rupture, 14C levels were above the background radiation count at the injection site and in the same tissue sites as in the bleed experiment. Both in vivo radiolabeling studies indicate that triglycerides freed from implants by means of bleed or rupture would be absorbed, metabolized, and either excreted or redistributed to the body's normal fat storage sites if they are not needed for energy. In a third in vitro experiment, triglyceride oil specimens were inoculated with various microorganisms associated with wound infections: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and diphtheroids. The data demonstrate that neutral triglycerides used as a breast implant filler do not support growth of common infection-producing bacteria and suggest that triglycerides may have bactericidal properties. PMID:8628800

Young, V L; Lund, H; Ueda, K; Pidgeon, L; Schorr, M W; Kreeger, J

1996-05-01

329

Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.  

PubMed

Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation. PMID:18497821

Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

2008-05-22

330

Dietary polyphenols suppress elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland of obese mice.  

PubMed

In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity-induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-?B activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-?B resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators [TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, COX-2] in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of aromatase. Several polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate) blocked these inductive effects of stearic acid. Zyflamend, a widely used polyherbal preparation that contains numerous polyphenols, possessed similar suppressive effects. In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with Zyflamend suppressed levels of phospho-Akt, NF-?B binding activity, proinflammatory mediators, and aromatase in the mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that targeting the activation of NF-?B is a promising approach for reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in inflamed mouse mammary tissue. Further investigation in obese women is warranted. PMID:23880231

Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sue, Erika; Bhardwaj, Priya; Du, Baoheng; Hudis, Clifford A; Giri, Dilip; Kopelovich, Levy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Dannenberg, Andrew J

2013-09-01

331

Dietary Polyphenols Suppress Elevated Levels of Proinflammatory Mediators and Aromatase in the Mammary Gland of Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-?B activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-?B resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-1?, COX-2) in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of aromatase. Several polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, EGCG) blocked these inductive effects of stearic acid. Zyflamend®, a widely used polyherbal preparation that contains numerous polyphenols, possessed similar suppressive effects. In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with Zyflamend® suppressed levels of phospho-Akt, NF-?B binding activity, proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that targeting the activation of NF-?B is a promising approach for reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in inflamed mouse mammary tissue. Further investigation in obese women is warranted. PMID:23880231

Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sue, Erika; Bhardwaj, Priya; Du, Baoheng; Hudis, Clifford A.; Giri, Dilip; Kopelovich, Levy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

332

Overexpression of Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Cassava Roots Elevates Protein and Free Amino Acids while Reducing Residual Cyanogen Levels  

PubMed Central

Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2–20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels. PMID:21799761

Narayanan, Narayanan N.; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T.

2011-01-01

333

Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.  

PubMed

Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels. PMID:21799761

Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

2011-01-01

334

Chronic elevation of brain GABA levels beginning two days after status epilepticus does not prevent epileptogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

Vigabatrin (VGB) treatment is neuroprotective in various models of status epilepticus (SE) and delays the development of kindling via mechanisms that are assumed to relate to the elevation of GABA levels in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a chronic elevation of brain GABA levels obtained by VGB treatment prevents the development of spontaneous seizures (i.e. epilepsy) following SE in rats. Self-sustained SE (SSSE) was induced by stimulating the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. Two days later, chronic VGB (75 mg/kg/day) or saline treatment was started via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps. The development of spontaneous seizures was monitored once a week (24 h at a time) using video-EEG recording. Rats were perfused for histology either at the end of the 10-week drug treatment, or later at the end of an 8-week drug-free follow-up period. Before perfusion for histology, spatial learning and memory perform was tested in the Morris water-maze. Spontaneous seizures were observed in 55% (6/11) of the saline-treated and 73% (8/11) of the VGB-treated rats during the 10-week treatment period. Seizure frequency, severity, and duration were similar in VGB-treated rats and controls during and after the drug-treatment period. VGB treatment did not decrease neuronal damage in various temporal lobe regions or mossy fiber sprouting. VGB treatment also did not attenuate spatial learning or memory impairments. These findings indicate that the augmentation of GABAergic neurotransmission by VGB does not prevent the development of epilepsy when treatment is started 2 days after SE. PMID:11249963

Halonen, T; Nissinen, J; Pitkänen, A

2001-03-01

335

Increasing atrial pressure during cardiac tamponade does not elevate plasma levels of the peptide ANP in conscious dogs.  

PubMed Central

1. Factors influencing the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are not well understood. We chose a conscious euvolaemic canine model of cardiac tamponade to investigate the roles played by atrial blood pressure, transmural atrial pressure, atrial size, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) on ANP release since during cardiac tamponade the atrial transmural pressure and size decrease as atrial pressure increases. The haemodynamic response to acute cardiac tamponade in conscious dogs differs from that in anaesthetized or convalescent animals. 2. Eighteen mongrel dogs were prepared for the chronic measurement of: ascending aortic blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter); intrapericardial, right atrial and aortic blood pressures, and the evaluation of right atrial size (two-dimensional echocardiography). After the animals had recovered from surgery, data were collected during progressive cardiac tamponade induced by intrapericardial infusion of warmed saline (20 ml/min) to the point of haemodynamic decompensation. Decompensated cardiac tamponade (DCT) was defined as a decline in mean aortic blood pressure to 70% of the level present when the pericardial space was drained of fluid (baseline) and was produced in all animals within 25 min. Plasma ANP and AVP levels were measured at selected intervals. 3. Cardiac output decreased progressively as intrapericardial pressure, right atrial blood pressure and heart rate increased. Mean aortic blood pressure was well maintained until late in tamponade when it declined rapidly, while atrial transmural pressure and atrial size decreased continuously. These haemodynamic changes were associated with stable ANP plasma levels. There was no significant change in AVP plasma levels from the baseline level of 2.5 +/- 0.4 pg/ml until the point of DCT when they abruptly increased to 117 +/- 36.4 pg/ml. 4. The ability to increase ANP plasma levels was confirmed in a subgroup of animals by noting the response to AVP injection. Although the animals were able to increase plasma ANP levels in response to AVP injection (when intrapericardial pressure was normal) and the plasma AVP level was markedly increased late in tamponade, the time course of plasma AVP elevation could not explain why plasma ANP levels did not decrease as atrial transmural pressure and atrial size declined. 5. Thus, although atrial distention and not simply atrial blood pressure must play a dominant role in stimulating ANP release from the atria, decreased atrial size does not result in lowering of plasma ANP levels below baseline levels in this conscious euvolaemic canine model. PMID:2140860

Klopfenstein, H S; Mathias, D W; Bernath, G A; Cogswell, T L

1990-01-01

336

Loss of both phospholipid and triglyceride transfer activities of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in abetalipoproteinemia  

PubMed Central

Mutations in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) cause abetalipoproteinemia (ABL), characterized by the absence of plasma apoB-containing lipoproteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of various MTP missense mutations found in ABL patients with respect to their expression, subcellular location, and interaction with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In addition, we characterized functional properties by analyzing phospholipid and triglyceride transfer activities and studied their ability to support apoB secretion. All the mutants colocalized with calnexin and interacted with PDI. We found that R540H and N780Y, known to be deficient in triglyceride transfer activity, also lacked phospholipid transfer activity. Novel mutants S590I and G746E did not transfer triglycerides and phospholipids and did not assist in apoB secretion. In contrast, D384A displayed both triglyceride and phospholipid transfer activities and supported apoB secretion. These studies point out that ABL is associated with the absence of both triglyceride and phospholipid transfer activities in MTP. PMID:23475612

Khatun, Irani; Walsh, Meghan T.; Hussain, M. Mahmood

2013-01-01

337

Elevated serum levels of macrophage-derived chemokine and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children  

PubMed Central

Background In some autistic children, there is an imbalance of T helper (Th)1/Th2 lymphocytes toward Th2, which may be responsible for the induction of the production of autoantibodies in these children. Th2 lymphocytes express CCR4 receptors. CCR4 ligands include macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC). They direct trafficking and recruitment of Th2 cells. We are the first to measure serum levels of CCR4 ligands in relation to the degree of the severity of autism. Methods Serum concentrations of MDC and TARC were measured, by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique, in 56 autistic children and 32 healthy matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly higher serum levels of MDC and TARC than healthy controls (P <0.001 and P <0.001, respectively). Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum levels of MDC and TARC than patients with mild to moderate autism (P <0.001 and P?=?0.01, respectively). In addition, there were significant positive correlations between CARS and serum levels of both MDC (P <0.001) and TARC (P <0.001) in children with autism. There were significant positive correlations between serum levels of MDC and TARC in autistic children (P <0.001). Conclusions Serum levels of CCR4 ligands were elevated in autistic children and they were significantly correlated to the degree of the severity of autism. However, further research is warranted to determine the pathogenic role of CCR4 ligands in autism and to shed light on the therapeutic role of CCR4-ligand antagonism in autistic children. PMID:23782855

2013-01-01

338

Elevated levels of serum sCXCL16 in systemic lupus erythematosus; potential involvement in cutaneous and renal manifestations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the levels and clinical significance of serum soluble chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (sCXCL16) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as the sCXCL16 molecule's associations with disease activity and organ damage. Thirty-five patients with SLE, 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. The demographic and clinical features of the patients were recorded. The serum levels of sCXCL16 were determined. Disease activity was assessed using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and organ damage was evaluated with the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index (SDI). The serum levels of sCXCL16 in the patients with SLE were higher than those in the patients with RA (P?=?0.002) or healthy controls (P?levels in the patients with active SLE were higher than those in the disease inactive patients (P?=?0.008). Positive correlations were identified between serum sCXCL16 concentrations and both SLEDAI (r?=?0.564; P?levels of CXCL16 (P?=?0.023) decreased after conventional treatment in 12 initial onset cases of SLE patients. Elevated serum sCXCL16 levels were discovered in the SLE patients with cutaneous (P?=?0.006) and renal involvement (P?=?0.032). Soluble CXCL16 may become a useful serological marker of disease activity and skin and renal involvement in SLE patients; thus, it may be used for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25015061

Qin, Muting; Guo, Yun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xiaofei

2014-11-01

339

Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at ~ 330 and ~ 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

2014-06-01

340

Elevated RANTES Level Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Correlated With Activated Platelets Associated Markers in Healthy Younger Men.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship of regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) and activated platelets-associated markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 210 healthy Japanese male volunteers (mean age 41 years old) who did not take any medications and were free of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. The RANTES is correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure, and fast glucose by multivariate analysis using the cardiovascular risk factors (R (2) = .396, P < .001). The plasma RANTES level is significantly associated with MS after adjusting for age (P = .040). Once plasma interleukin 6, an activator of platelets, and plasma platelet-derived microparticles, a marker for activated platelets, are put into the equation, plasma RANTES level is significantly correlated with the activated platelet-associated markers (R (2) = .396, P < .001). These suggest the possible role of elevated RANTES in the forerunner of atherosclerosis in healthy younger men. PMID:25301871

Ueba, Tetsuya; Nomura, Shosaku; Inami, Norihito; Yokoi, Takashi; Inoue, Tooru

2014-11-01

341

Can elevated CO2 modify regeneration from seed banks of floating freshwater marshes subjected to rising sea-level?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2 can offset the negative effects of flooding or salinity on plant species, but previous studies have focused on mature, rather than regenerating vegetation. This study examined how interacting environments of CO2, water regime, and salinity affect seed germination and seedling biomass of floating freshwater marshes in the Mississippi River Delta, which are dominated by C3 grasses, sedges, and forbs. Germination density and seedling growth of the dominant species depended on multifactor interactions of CO2 (385 and 720 ?l l-1) with flooding (drained, +8-cm depth, +8-cm depth-gradual) and salinity (0, 6% seawater) levels. Of the three factors tested, salinity was the most important determinant of seedling response patterns. Species richness (total = 19) was insensitive to CO2. Our findings suggest that for freshwater marsh communities, seedling response to CO2 is species-specific and secondary to salinity and flooding effects. Elevated CO2 did not ameliorate flooding or salinity stress. Consequently, climate-related changes in sea level or human-caused alterations in hydrology may override atmospheric CO2 concentrations in driving shifts in this plant community. The results of this study suggest caution in making extrapolations from species-specific responses to community-level predictions without detailed attention to the nuances of multifactor responses.

Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen L.

2012-01-01

342

Elevated Levels of MYB30 in the Phloem Accelerate Flowering in Arabidopsis through the Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO), the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time. PMID:24587042

Adrian, Jessika; Gissot, Lionel; Coupland, George; Yu, Diqiu; Turck, Franziska

2014-01-01

343

Elevated Levels of Uterine Anti-Apoptotic Signaling May Activate NFKB and Potentially Confer Resistance to Caspase 3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death During Pregnancy in Mice1  

PubMed Central

Preserving the uterus in a state of relative quiescence is vital to the maintenance of a successful pregnancy. Elevated cytoplasmic levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy have been proposed as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence through direct targeting and disabling of the uterine contractile architecture. However, despite highly elevated levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy, there is minimal evidence of apoptosis. This current study defines the mechanism whereby the pregnant uterine myocyte may harness the tocolytic activity of active caspases while avoiding apoptotic cell death. Using the pregnant mouse model, we have analyzed the uterus for changes in pro- and antiapoptotic signaling patterns associated with the advancing stages of pregnancy. Briefly, we have found that members of the IAP family, such as SURVIVIN and XIAP, and the Bcl2 family members, such as MCL1, are elevated in the uterine myocyte during late gestation. The IAP family members are the only endogenous inhibitors of active caspase 3, and MCL1 limits activation of caspase 3 by suppressing proapoptotic signaling. Elevated XIAP levels partner with SURVIVIN, resulting in increased levels of the antiapoptotic MCL1 via NFKB activation; these together have the potential to limit both the activity and level of active caspase 3 in the pregnant uterus as term approaches. We propose that modification of these antiapoptotic signaling partners allows the pregnant uterus to escape the apoptotic action of elevated active caspase 3 levels but also functions to limit the levels of active uterine caspase 3 near term. PMID:21566000

Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Subedi, Kalpana; Suresh, Arvind; Condon, Jennifer C.

2011-01-01

344

Verification of association of elevated serum IDO enzyme activity with acute rejection and low CD4 ATP levels with infection  

PubMed Central

Introduction Both acute rejection (AR) and major infection events (MIE) can reduce long-term allograft survival. We assessed the simultaneous efficacy of serum and urine biomarker indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity and peripheral blood CD4-ATP levels for AR and MIE association, respectively. Methods We prospectively tested 217 blood and 167 urine serial samples, collected monthly for twelve months post-transplant from 29 consecutive children receiving a kidney transplant. The IDO activity was assessed by mass spectrometry assays using the ratio of product L-kynurenine (kyn) to substrate tryptophan (trp). Kyn/trp ratios and blood CD4 T-cell ATP levels were correlated with AR or MIE or stable group (no events) in the next 30 days. Results Using absolute cutoffs and allocating to samples to AR, MIE or stable group, mean serum kyn/trp ratios were significantly elevated in the group that experienced AR (p = 0.0007). Similarly, peripheral blood CD4-ATP levels were significantly lower in the group experiencing MIE (p = 0.0351). Urine kyn/trp ratios and blood tacrolimus levels were not different between AR and stable groups. Within-subject analyses, accounting for repeated measures in subjects, also showed that over time, serum kyn/trp ratios were higher prior to acute rejection (p = 0.031) and blood CD4-ATP levels were lower prior to MIE (p = 0.008). Conclusions These results from our pilot discovery group suggest that a panel of biomarkers together can predict over- or under-immunosuppression. Further independent validation in a multi-center cohort is suggested. PMID:23823655

Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Al Khasawneh, Eihab; Gupta, Sushil; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Garrett, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

345

Elevated Serum Interleukin-18 Level Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Stable Hemodialysis Patients Independently of Cardiac Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background High circulating interleukin (IL)-18 level predicts a higher hospitalization rate among dialysis patients, possibly through cardiovascular mechanisms; however, whether higher IL-18 level is associated with mortality in dialysis patients is less clear. In addition, its impacts on left ventricular (LV) function are also unknown. We conducted a cohort study to examine the impacts of IL-18 level on LV function and prognosis among clinically stable hemodialysis patients. Methods Clinically stable patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (?3 months) were prospectively enrolled from December 2008 to January 2009, and were followed up for 31 months. The enrolled patients (41% male, 66.4±10.9 years of age) received 2-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation (strain) analysis, including LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) and circumferential strain (CS). Laboratory measurements were also performed. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate prognostic factors. Results Seventy-five patients were stratified into 2 groups by the median value of IL-18 (654.2 pg/ml). Between these 2 groups, there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics including LV ejection fraction. The high IL-18 group had a worse LV systolic function as demonstrated by reduced GLS and CS. Seventeen patients (22.7%) died during the follow-up period. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low serum albumin, the presence of hypertension, high serum IL-18, and less negative GLS (>?15%) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. No significant interaction between IL-18 and less negative GLS was noted in the final Cox model. Conclusion Hemodialysis patients with high IL-18 levels tend to have worse LV systolic function and higher mortality rate. However, elevated serum IL-18 level is predictive of poor prognosis among stable hemodialysis patients, independently of LV dysfunction. This suggests an additional value of IL-18 to echocardiographic study in predicting all-cause mortality, and IL-18 may be helpful in early risk stratification of hemodialysis patients. PMID:24599060

Liu, Yen-Wen; Su, Chi-Ting; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Su, Yu-Ru; Wang, Saprina P. H.; Yang, Chun-Shin; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Sung, Junne-Ming

2014-01-01

346

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

347

Nucleation kinetics of emulsified triglyceride mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine character istic nucleation parameters such as the surface free energy for nucleus\\u000a formation in mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF). These parameters will be used to model the\\u000a bulk crystallization kinetics of the same mixtures. This was achieved by determining the crystallization kinetics in emulsified\\u000a triglyceride mixtures

William Kloek; Pieter Walstra; Ton van Vliet

2000-01-01

348

Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are an essential component of our body composition and necessary in our daily food intake. Conventional fats and oils\\u000a are composed of glycerides of long chain fatty acids and are designated as long chain triglycerides (LCT). Body fat as well\\u000a as the fats and oils in our daily intake fall into this category. In enteral and parenteral hyperalimentation, we

Vigen K. Babayan

1987-01-01

349

Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.  

PubMed

Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety. PMID:21770376

Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

2011-08-15

350

Elevated levels of the serum endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and metabolic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the relationship between elevated levels of the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and metabolic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Serum levels of ADMA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at 8 weeks after diabetes was induced. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was tested in aortic rings from nondiabetic age-matched control, untreated diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats to evaluate endothelial function. Serum concentrations of glucose, glycosylated serum protein, and malondialdehyde were examined to estimate metabolic control. Serum levels of ADMA increased dramatically in untreated diabetic rats compared with control rats. This elevation in ADMA levels was accompanied by impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in aortic rings. Long-term insulin treatment not only prevented the elevation of serum ADMA levels, but also improved the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, glycosylated serum protein, and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in parallel with the elevation of ADMA in untreated diabetic rats compared with control rats. These parameters were normalized after diabetic rats received insulin treatment for 8 weeks. These results provide the first evidence that an elevation in the concentration of ADMA in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes is closely related to metabolic control of the disease. PMID:12883321

Xiong, Yan; Fu, Yun-feng; Fu, Si-hai; Zhou, Hong-hao

2003-08-01

351

HspBP1 levels are elevated in breast tumor tissue and inversely related to tumor aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

HspBP1 is a co-chaperone that binds to and regulates the chaperone Hsp70 (Hsp70 is used to refer to HSPA1A and HSPA1B). Hsp70 is known to be elevated in breast tumor tissue, therefore the purpose of these studies was to quantify the expression of HspBP1 in primary breast tumors and in serum of these patients with a follow-up analysis after 6 to 7 years. Levels of HspBP1, Hsp70, and anti-HspBP1 antibodies in sera of breast cancer patients and healthy individuals were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of HspBP1 was quantified from biopsies of tumor and normal breast tissue by Western blot analysis. The data obtained were analyzed for association with tumor aggressiveness markers and with patient outcome. The levels of HspBP1 and Hsp70 were significantly higher in sera of patients compared to sera of healthy individuals. HspBP1 antibodies did not differ significantly between groups. HspBP1 levels were significantly higher in tumor (14.46 ng/?g protein, n?=?51) compared to normal adjacent tissue (3.17 ng/?g protein, n?=?41, p?levels were also significantly lower in patients with a higher incidence of metastasis and death following a 6 to 7-year follow-up. The HspBP1/Hsp70 molar ratio was not associated with the prognostic markers analyzed. Our results indicate that low HspBP1 expression could be a candidate tumor aggressiveness marker. PMID:18987994

Souza, Ana Paula; Albuquerque, Caroline; Torronteguy, Carolina; Frasson, Antonio; Maito, Fabio; Pereira, Luciana; Duval da Silva, Vinicius; Zerwes, Felipe; Raynes, Deborah; Guerriero, Vince

2008-01-01

352

Elevated Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR)-2 in Human Malaria  

PubMed Central

In cerebral malaria, the binding of parasitized erythrocytes to the cerebral endothelium and the consequent angiogenic dysregulation play a key role in pathogenesis. Because vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is widely regarded as a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, edema, inflammation, and vascular remodeling, the plasma levels of VEGF and the soluble form of the VEGF receptor (sVEGFR)-1 and -2 in uncomplicated malaria patients and healthy adults were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine their roles in malaria. The results showed that VEGF and sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly elevated in malaria patients compared with healthy adults. Moreover, it was confirmed that malarial parasite antigens induced VEGF secretion from the human mast cell lines HMC-1 or KU812 cell. This is the first report to suggest that the interaction of VEGF and sVEGFR-2 is involved in the host immune response to malarial infection and that malarial parasites induce VEGF secretion from human mast cells. PMID:20065009

Furuta, Takahisa; Kimura, Mikio; Watanabe, Naohiro

2010-01-01

353

Elevated CO2 Levels do not Affect the Shell Structure of the Bivalve Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic  

PubMed Central

Shells of the bivalve Arctica islandica are used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions (e.g. temperature) via biogeochemical proxies, i.e. biogenic components that are related closely to environmental parameters at the time of shell formation. Several studies have shown that proxies like element and isotope-ratios can be affected by shell growth and microstructure. Thus it is essential to evaluate the impact of changing environmental parameters such as high pCO2 and consequent changes in carbonate chemistry on shell properties to validate these biogeochemical proxies for a wider range of environmental conditions. Growth experiments with Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic Sea kept under different pCO2 levels (from 380 to 1120 µatm) indicate no affect of elevated pCO2 on shell growth or crystal microstructure, indicating that A. islandica shows an adaptation to a wider range of pCO2 levels than reported for other species. Accordingly, proxy information derived from A. islandica shells of this region contains no pCO2 related bias. PMID:23922922

Stemmer, Kristina; Nehrke, Gernot; Brey, Thomas

2013-01-01

354

Acute hypoxia induces hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing plasma triglyceride clearance in mice  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep and is associated with elevated triglycerides (TG). We previously demonstrated that mice exposed to chronic IH develop elevated TG. We now hypothesize that a single exposure to acute hypoxia also increases TG due to the stimulation of free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization from white adipose tissue (WAT), resulting in increased hepatic TG synthesis and secretion. Male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to FiO2 = 0.21, 0.17, 0.14, 0.10, or 0.07 for 6 h followed by assessment of plasma and liver TG, glucose, FFA, ketones, glycerol, and catecholamines. Hypoxia dose-dependently increased plasma TG, with levels peaking at FiO2 = 0.07. Hepatic TG levels also increased with hypoxia, peaking at FiO2 = 0.10. Plasma catecholamines also increased inversely with FiO2. Plasma ketones, glycerol, and FFA levels were more variable, with different degrees of hypoxia inducing WAT lipolysis and ketosis. FiO2 = 0.10 exposure stimulated WAT lipolysis but decreased the rate of hepatic TG secretion. This degree of hypoxia rapidly and reversibly delayed TG clearance while decreasing [3H]triolein-labeled Intralipid uptake in brown adipose tissue and WAT. Hypoxia decreased adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in brown adipose tissue and WAT. In addition, hypoxia decreased the transcription of LPL, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, and fatty acid transporter CD36. We conclude that acute hypoxia increases plasma TG due to decreased tissue uptake, not increased hepatic TG secretion. PMID:22621867

Shin, Mi-Kyung; Yao, Qiaoling; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Poole, James; Drager, Luciano F.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

2012-01-01

355

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of the Triglycerides Present in Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of supercritical carbon dioxide to extract the triglycerides present in vegetable oils was studied over a temperature range of 40 to 80°C and at pressures of 100 to 300 bar. The solubility of the triglycerides was found to be dependent upon the solvent density and the solute volatility. Minimal selectivity for the different molecular weight triglycerides was observed

K. D. Tilly; R. P. Chaplin; N. R. Foster

1990-01-01

356

The effect of elevated UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation levels on Silene vulgaris: A comparison between a highland and a lowland population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highland (altitude 1600 m above sea level) and lowland (altitude ?2 m below sea level) populations of the perennial herb Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, were tested on their response to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Highland populations typically receive high natural UV-B fluxes, whereas lowland populations receive a lower natural UV-B dose. Adaptation to high UV-B levels of the highland

R. Huijsmans; W. H. O. Ernst; J. Rozema

1995-01-01

357

Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ?15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI ?0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=?0.003, 95% CI ?0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ?15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood and paint. • Regressions gave significance for isotopic measures of blood/dust and dust/soil.

Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia) [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia) [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-10-15

358

Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation.  

PubMed

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; D'Costa, Ninadh Malrina; Akhter, Farjana; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J M A

2014-01-01

359

Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation  

PubMed Central

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.

2014-01-01

360

Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance elevation feedback in the MAR regional climate model with five ice sheet models (ISMs) to climate projections for 2000-2199 forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs) under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. In all results, the elevation feedback is positive: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs) have larger sea level contributions than the 'no feedback' cases. We compare the feedback responses for the two GCMs from three of the ISMs: without elevation feedback, the mean GrIS sea level contributions at 2100 are 58 mm (ECHAM5) and 66 mm (HadCM3); with feedback, these increase by 3 mm (5%). At 2200, the mean sea level contributions without feedback are 167 mm (ECHAM5) and 179 mm (HadCM3); the feedback contributes an additional 17 mm (10%) and 19 mm (11%) respectively. Our projections propagate three types of model uncertainty (GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameter uncertainty) along the causal chain from SRES scenario to sea level within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. We find that the relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM and ISM ensemble spreads are two and half times greater than the elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty. By 2200, the ISM spread and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty are larger than the difference between the two GCMs. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution. Our results indicates that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions. These results begin the process of determining where it is most important to focus computational resources and model development for making sea level mitigation and adaptation decisions at different timescales.

Edwards, Tamsin; Fettweis, Xavier; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Goelzer, Heiko; Gregory, Jonathan; Hoffman, Matthew; Huybrechts, Philippe; Payne, Antony; Perego, Mauro; Price, Stephen; Quiquet, Aurélien; Ritz, Catherine

2013-04-01

361

A New Model to Construct Ice Stream Surface Elevation Profiles and Calculate Contributions to Sea-Level Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-level rise is a problem that affects regions worldwide - from the marshlands of the San Francisco Bay Area to the farmlands in coastal Bangladesh. Three-dimensional ice sheet models are the principle tools to evaluate mass loss from ice sheets that contribute to sea-level rise. We recognize that given the current limitations in representing the full extent of dynamical processes that affect ice sheet mass loss in 3-D ice sheet models, we cannot make reliable forecasts of sea-level rise from melting polar land ice. Thus, we take a completely different approach to gaining insight about the potential effects of climate change-induced perturbations on ice sheets. We build a flowline model that resolves the fast-flowing portions of ice sheets (i.e., ice streams). We express the dynamics along the flowline with (a) vertical shear deformation, (b) horizontal shear deformation, and (c) basal slip. Knowledge accumulated from prior force balance analyses performed on some polar ice streams allows us to form relations between (a) and ( c), and between (a) and (c) combined and (b). Based on these relationships, we numerically construct surface elevation profiles along flowlines centered on ten select ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica, by prescribing three climate change-induced perturbations: grounding line retreat, ice stream widening, and surface mass balance increase. Comparing these constructed profiles to the current observed ones allows us to quantify the effect of these perturbations on the various characteristics that these ten ice streams possess. Pine Island Glacier, which flows over a long overdeepening, will lose more than half of its stored ice volume that is contributable to sea-level rise before it reaches a possible steady state. Recovery Ice Stream, with its slippery base, long stretch of streaming-flow, and longest flowline among those we examined, loses the most mass (812 km3/km width). Jutulstraumen, which has little room to widen and a short stretch of streaming-flow, experiences more mass gain due to surface mass balance increase than mass loss due to grounding line retreat and widening. The broad range of ice streams and their diverse responses to prescribed perturbations is a convincing message that an accurate assessment of the contribution of ice sheets to future sea-level rise can only be obtained by raising the resolution of models to resolve the fast-flowing features and looking at their mass changes individually over time.

Adachi, Yosuke

362

Spontaneously Ruptured Giant Splenic Cyst with Elevated Serum Levels of CA 19-9, CA 125 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen.  

PubMed

Splenic cyst is a relatively rare disease; however, the occurrence of complications associated with its rupture is even more rare. A 20-year-old female patient who had severe abdominal and left shoulder pain was admitted to our hospital. The patient's abdomen was hard and tender to the touch and she presented with a high fever. The patient's serum levels of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen were high. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen showed an 11-cm multilocular cystic lesion in the spleen and the presence of free intraperitoneal fluid. Peritonitis with ruptured splenic cyst was diagnosed, and the patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. The abdominal cavity was filled with purulent fluid. The cyst was localized to the spleen and had already ruptured. Total splenectomy and cyst resection were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on day 9 following surgery. The histological findings showed the lesion to be a benign epidermoid cyst completely lined with inner stratified squamous epithelium with a capsule of connective tissue. In the immunostaining analyses, the squamous epithelium was positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. A ruptured splenic cyst causes sudden onset of severe peritonitis and elevation of serous tumor markers. An emergency operation is indicated as the treatment for a ruptured splenic cyst with peritonitis, after which a favorable outcome can be expected. PMID:20805943

Inokuma, Takamitsu; Minami, Shigeki; Suga, Kazuo; Kusano, Yoshiteru; Chiba, Kenya; Furukawa, Masato

2010-01-01

363

Massive peritoneal fluid and markedly elevated serum CA125 and CA19-9 levels associated with an ovarian endometrioma.  

PubMed

Endometriosis associated with ascites is an uncommon condition, but nevertheless important because it mimics the presentation of ovarian malignancy. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted with the acute onset of abdominal pain and distension. A pelvic sonogram showed a large amount of peritoneal fluid with echogenic material and a 10-cm complex cystic structure, which appeared to be an enlarged left ovary. The concentrations of CA125 and CA19-9 were 548.1 and 7604 IU/mL, respectively. On the second day of admission, an exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed a ruptured left ovarian cyst consistent with an endometrioma. A laparoscopic left adnexectomy was therefore performed. The histological examination of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of an endometrioma. After a 12-month follow-up period, the patient showed no recurrence of the endometrioma or peritoneal fluid accumulation. In most instances, the presence of massive ascites is associated with malignancies, tuberculosis, or a perforated viscus. The information provided in the present report is important to both gynecologists and oncologists because it shows that an ovarian cyst with ascites and highly elevated CA125 and CA19-9 levels might be benign. PMID:20149044

Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Tae-Eung; Kim, Yong-Wook

2009-10-01

364

Elevated Serum Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Are Associated with Progressive Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease occur in around 30% of the individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and are characterized by heart inflammation and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not completely understood yet, partially because disease evolution depends on complex host-parasite interactions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that promotes numerous pathophysiological processes. In the current study, we investigated the link between MIF and CCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated MIF overexpression in the hearts from chronically T. cruzi-infected mice, particularly those showing intense inflammatory infiltration. We also found that MIF exogenously added to parasite-infected murine macrophage cultures is capable of enhancing the production of TNF-? and reactive oxygen species, both with pathogenic roles in CCC. Thus, the integrated action of MIF and other cytokines and chemokines may account for leukocyte influx to the infected myocardium, accompanied by enhanced local production of multiple inflammatory mediators. We further examined by ELISA the level of MIF in the sera from chronic indeterminate and cardiomyopathic chagasic patients, and healthy subjects. CCC patients displayed significantly higher MIF concentrations than those recorded in asymptomatic T. cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals. Interestingly, increased MIF levels were associated with severe progressive Chagas heart disease, in correlation with elevated serum concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and also with several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular dysfunction, one of the hallmarks of CCC. Our present findings represent the first evidence that enhanced MIF production is associated with progressive cardiac impairment in chronic human infection with T. cruzi, strengthening the relationship between inflammatory response and parasite-driven pathology. These observations contribute to unravel the elements involved in the pathogenesis of CCC and may also be helpful for the design of novel therapies aimed to control long-term morbidity in chagasic patients. PMID:23451183

Cutrullis, Romina A.; Petray, Patricia B.; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Sánchez, Rubén; Postan, Miriam; González, Mariela N.; Martín, Valentina; Corral, Ricardo S.

2013-01-01

365

Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Yield and Fruit Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) at Two Levels of Nitrogen Application  

PubMed Central

We investigated if elevated CO2 could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on fruit yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Toyonoka) at different levels of nitrogen and also tested the combined effects of CO2, temperature and nitrogen on fruit quality of plants cultivated in controlled growth chambers. Results show that elevated CO2 and high temperature caused a further 12% and 35% decrease in fruit yield at low and high nitrogen, respectively. The fewer inflorescences and smaller umbel size during flower induction caused the reduction of fruit yield at elevated CO2 and high temperature. Interestingly, nitrogen application has no beneficial effect on fruit yield, and this may be because of decreased sucrose export to the shoot apical meristem at floral transition. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the levels of dry matter-content, fructose, glucose, total sugar and sweetness index per dry matter, but decreased fruit nitrogen content, total antioxidant capacity and all antioxidant compounds per dry matter in strawberry fruit. The reduction of fruit nitrogen content and antioxidant activity was mainly caused by the dilution effect of accumulated non-structural carbohydrates sourced from the increased net photosynthetic rate at elevated CO2. Thus, the quality of strawberry fruit would increase because of the increased sweetness and the similar amount of fruit nitrogen content, antioxidant activity per fresh matter at elevated CO2. Overall, we found that elevated CO2 improved the production of strawberry (including yield and quality) at low temperature, but decreased it at high temperature. The dramatic fluctuation in strawberry yield between low and high temperature at elevated CO2 implies that more attention should be paid to the process of flower induction under climate change, especially in fruits that require winter chilling for reproductive growth. PMID:22911728

Sun, Peng; Mantri, Nitin; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Sun, Dan; Zhu, Yueqing