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1

Triglycerides  

MedlinePLUS

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

2

Glucokinase-activating GCKR polymorphisms increase plasma levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids, but do not elevate cardiovascular risk in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.  

PubMed

Two strongly correlated polymorphisms located within the gene of the glucokinase regulator protein (GKRP), rs780094 and rs1260326, are associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels and provide a genetic model for the long-term activation of hepatic glucokinase. Because pharmacological glucokinase activators are evaluated for the treatment of diabetes, the aim of the study was to assess if these polymorphisms could provide evidence for an increased cardiovascular risk of long-term glucokinase activation. Therefore, these polymorphisms were tested in 3 500 patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study, which was designed to assess cardiovascular risk factors. The two variants were associated with a significant increase of both plasma triglycerides (p<0.0001) and VLDL triglyceride levels (p<0.0001). Plasma free fatty acid concentrations were also significantly elevated (p<0.0078). LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were unchanged. No association was found with respect to coronary stenosis, myocardial infarction, left ventricular wall hypertrophy, and hypertension. In conclusion, long-term genetic glucokinase activation by the GKRP polymorphisms was not associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in the study population. PMID:20352598

Kozian, D H; Barthel, A; Cousin, E; Brunnhöfer, R; Anderka, O; März, W; Böhm, B; Winkelmann, B; Bornstein, S R; Schmoll, D

2010-06-01

3

Triglyceride level affecting shared susceptibility genes in metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is characterized primarily by abdominal obesity, high triglyceride- and low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and increased fasting glucose levels, which are often associated with coronary heart diseases. Several factors, such as physical inactivity, age, and several endocrine and genetic factors can increase the risk of the development of the disease. Gathered evidence shows, that metabolic syndrome is not only a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but often both of them have the same shared susceptibility genes, as several genetic variants have shown a predisposition to both diseases. Due to the spread of robust genome wide association studies, the number of candidate genes in metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease susceptibility increases very rapidly. From the growing spectrum of the genes influencing lipid metabolism (like the LPL; PPARA; APOE; APOAI/CIII/AIV genecluster and APOAS5), the current review focuses on shared susceptibility variants involved in triglyceride metabolism and consequently the effects on the circulating triglyceride levels. As the elevated levels of triglycerides can be associated with disease phenotypes, some of these SNPs can have susceptibility features in both metabolic syndrome and in coronary heart disease, thereby some of them can even represent a kind of susceptibility link between metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. PMID:20738247

Kisfali, P; Polgár, N; Sáfrány, E; Sümegi, K; Melegh, B I; Bene, J; Wéber, A; Hetyésy, K; Melegh, B

2010-01-01

4

CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid  

SciTech Connect

Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2013-01-15

5

Triglycerides Test  

MedlinePLUS

... high triglyceride levels. Some risk factors for heart disease include: Cigarette smoking Age (men 45 years or older or ... cholesterol Being physically inactive, overweight, and/or obese Cigarette smoking Increased alcohol ... factors When triglycerides are very high ( ...

6

FLYWAY-SCALE VARIATION IN PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS AS AN INDEX OF REFUELING RATE IN SPRING-MIGRATING  

E-print Network

886 FLYWAY-SCALE VARIATION IN PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS AS AN INDEX OF REFUELING RATE IN SPRING in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among

7

Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Summary Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild type and clock-disrupted mice, fed either ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (~17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g. PPAR?) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ~50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, however oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock. PMID:24506873

Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

2014-01-01

8

Effect of sesamin on serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels in LDL receptor-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Background Sesamin, a major lignan from sesame seeds has been associated with cholesterol reduction in previous reports, but recent studies suggested differences in the response to sesamin intake depending on the model studied as well as the nature of the sesamin preparation used. Aim The effect of pure sesamin epimer on serum lipids was studied in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor-knockout mice under cholesterol fed condition. Design Animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups, fed an atherogenic diet containing stanol ester, sesamin, combination of stanol ester and sesamin or a control diet with no additions. Results The control group showed an almost 3-fold increase in serum cholesterol levels due to the atherogenic diet but no effect was seen for triglyceride levels. Stanol ester alone or together with sesamin significantly attenuated the elevation of the cholesterol levels. Conclusion Sesamin alone did not affect the elevation of the diet-induced cholesterol level and it did not enhance the effect of stanol ester. PMID:17039285

Hopia, Anu; Adlercreutz, Herman

2006-01-01

9

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

SciTech Connect

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

2002-09-16

10

Glucuronic Acid Epimerase Is Associated with Plasma Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Turks  

PubMed Central

Summary We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in atherogenic dyslipidemic Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with plasma HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (non-permuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n = 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n = 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions on chromosome 15 resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce+/–apoe–/– mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism. PMID:21488854

Hodo?lugil, U?ur; Williamson, David W.; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Mahley, Robert W.

2011-01-01

11

Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apoE phenotype: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between apoE phenotype and plasma lipid levels was analyzed in the combined data of published studies. Accordingly, 45 population samples from 17 different countries were included in the analysis. The mean plasma values of cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-CH of the apoE 2\\/2, 3\\/2, 4\\/3, 4\\/4, and 4\\/2 groups were compared with the same

J. Dallongeville; S. Lussier-Cacan; J. Davignon

12

Fenofibrate Increases Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Production Despite Reducing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice*  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (?38%) and TG (?60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[3H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (?68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [3H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver. PMID:20501652

Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; Maas, Annemarie C. E.; van der Hoorn, José W. A.; van Erk, Marjan J.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Havekes, Louis M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M. G.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

2010-01-01

13

Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families  

PubMed Central

Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

2014-01-01

14

Male gender, increased blood viscosity, body mass index and triglyceride levels are independently associated with systemic relative hypertension in sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

Lamarre, Yann; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

2013-01-01

15

Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n?=?10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10?8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10?8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]?=?1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p?=?0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR?=?0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p?=?0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR?=?1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p?=?0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR?=?0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p?=?0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

2014-01-01

16

Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

SciTech Connect

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-02-09

17

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in â16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare

Len A. Pennacchio; Michael Olivier; Jaroslav A. Hubacek; Ronald M. Krauss; Edward M. Rubin; Jonathan C. Cohen

2002-01-01

18

Effect of dialysis on serum carnitine, free fatty acids, and triglyceride levels in man and the rat.  

PubMed

Serum free carnitine, free fatty acid and triglyceride values were followed in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis therapy. During dialysis a decrease in serum carnitine was documented. Whereas the elevated triglyceride concentration remained constant, there was a sharp rise in free fatty acids during the dialysis procedure. This pattern occurred whether patients were subjected to hemodialysis or intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis was performed in a rat model and produced results similar to those observed in human subjects. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that peritoneal dialysis initiated the hypertriglyceridemia in the otherwise normal animal within a short time period. Whereas the abnormalities observed in carnitine and fatty acid metabolism may or may not be causally related in rat or man, they both seem to result from dialysis therapy. PMID:7121265

Bartel, L L; Hussey, J L; Shrago, E

1982-09-01

19

The nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) regulates serum triglyceride levels under conditions of metabolic stress.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) (NR1I3) regulates hepatic genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification as well as genes involved in energy homeostasis. We provide data that extend the role of CAR to regulation of serum triglyceride levels under conditions of metabolic/nutritional stress. The typically high serum triglyceride levels of ob/ob mice were completely normalized when crossed onto a Car(-/-) (mice deficient for the Car gene) genetic background. Moreover, increases in serum triglycerides observed after a high-fat diet (HFD) regime were not observed in Car(-/-) animals. Conversely, pharmacological induction of CAR activity using the selective mouse CAR agonist TCPOBOP during HFD feeding resulted in a CAR-dependent increase in serum triglyceride levels. A major regulator of hepatic fatty oxidation is the nuclear receptor PPARalpha (NR1C1). The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) target genes was inversely related to the activity of CAR. Consistent with these observations, Car(-/-) animals exhibited increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Treatment of mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) significantly decreased expression of PPARalpha mRNA as well as Cyp4a14, CPT1alpha, and cytosolic Acyl-CoA thioesterase (CTE) in the liver. These data have implications in disease therapy such as for diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:18941143

Maglich, Jodi M; Lobe, David C; Moore, John T

2009-03-01

20

Multiscale characterization of the organization of triglycerides and phospholipids in emmental cheese: from the microscopic to the molecular level.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and properties of lipids, both triglycerides and phospholipids, play a major role in the functional and nutritional properties of food products. In this study, the suprastructure of fat, solid fat content, and crystallographic properties of triglycerides were investigated in hard-type cheeses from the microscopic scale to the molecular level using the combination of relevant techniques. Two industrial cheeses with different oiling off properties were compared with experimental cheeses manufactured in the laboratory. Microstructural analysis performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that milk processing led to the disruption of fat globules with the formation of nonglobular fat. For a similar fatty acid composition, oiling off was mainly related to the fat in dry matter content and to the suprastructure of fat in cheese. An exogenous fluorescent phospholipid permitted the localization of milk phospholipids in the cheese matrix, which mainly remain around fat inclusions after disruption of the milk fat globule membrane, and to show heterogeneities. We also showed using differential scanning calorimetry that the suprastructure of fat did not affect the solid fat content in cheese at 4 degrees C: 71.6 +/- 4.9%. The organization of triglyceride molecules in fat crystals, elucidated at a molecular level using X-ray diffraction, corresponded to the coexistence of 2 lamellar structures (2L 40.5 angstroms and 3L 54.6 angstroms) with four polymorphic forms: alpha, two beta' and beta. A schematic representation of the multiscale organization of triglycerides and phospholipids in cheese is proposed. PMID:18338865

Lopez, Christelle; Briard-Bion, Valerie; Beaucher, Eric; Ollivon, Michel

2008-04-01

21

Plasma triglyceride and beta-hydroxybutyric acid levels in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at emergence from hibernation.  

PubMed

Measurement of plasma levels of triglycerides and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in females and males of the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) suggest that the former may provide a useful physiological marker of condition. Levels of triglycerides at emergence from hibernation during a month of natural aphagia were significantly greater in females than in males and she-males, a subset of the male population that mimics females. Higher levels of triglycerides in the females may be attributed to their greater body mass per unit length, which was correlated with the level of triglycerides. Plasma triglyceride levels declined in females within one month of emergence, at the onset of feeding, and were unrelated to mating. PMID:8608816

Whittier, J M; Mason, R T

1996-02-15

22

Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Harrison, James; Rao, K. N.; Tamama, Kenichi

2008-12-11

23

Paradoxical Lower Serum Triglyceride Levels and Higher Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Susceptibility in Obese Individuals with the PNPLA3 148M Variant  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is highly associated with elevated serum triglycerides, hepatic steatosis and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The I148M (rs738409) genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) is known to modulate hepatic triglyceride accumulation, leading to steatosis. No association between PNPLA3 I148M genotype and T2D in Europeans has been reported. Aim of this study is to examine the relationship between PNPLA3 I148M genotypes and serum triglycerides, insulin resistance and T2D susceptibility by testing a gene-environment interaction model with severe obesity. Methods and Findings PNPLA3 I148M was genotyped in a large obese cohort, the SOS study (n?=?3,473) and in the Go-DARTS (n?=?15,448), a T2D case-control study. Metabolic parameters were examined across the PNPLA3 I148M genotypes in participants of the SOS study at baseline and at 2- and 10-year follow up after bariatric surgery or conventional therapy. The associations with metabolic parameters were validated in the Go-DARTS study. Serum triglycerides were found to be lower in the PNPLA3 148M carriers from the SOS study at baseline and from the Go-DARTS T2D cohort. An increased risk for T2D conferred by the 148M allele was found in the SOS study (O.R. 1.09, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.39, P?=?0.040) and in severely obese individuals in the Go-DARTS study (O.R. 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.13-1.66, P?=?0.001). The 148M allele was no longer associated with insulin resistance or T2D after bariatric surgery in the SOS study and no association with the 148M allele was observed in the less obese (BMI<35) individuals in the Go-DARTS study (P for interaction ?=?0.002). This provides evidence for the obesity interaction with I48M allele and T2D risk in a large-scale cross-sectional and a prospective interventional study. Conclusions Severely obese individuals carrying the PNPLA3 148M allele have lower serum triglyceride levels, are more insulin resistant and more susceptible to T2D. This study supports the hypothesis that obesity-driven hepatic lipid accumulation may contribute to T2D susceptibility. PMID:22724004

Pirazzi, Carlo; Burza, Maria Antonella; Adiels, Martin; Burch, Lindsay; Donnelly, Louise A.; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alexander S.; Dillon, John F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; McCarthy, Mark; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Frayling, Tim; Morris, Andrew D.; Peltonen, Markku; Svensson, Per-Arne; Jacobson, Peter; Borén, Jan; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena M. S.; Romeo, Stefano

2012-01-01

24

The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of signals for both Type 2 Diabetes and related quantitative traits. For the majority of loci, the transition from association signal to mutational mechanism has been difficult to establish. Glucokinase (GCK) regulates glucose storage and disposal in the liver where its activity is regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP; gene name GCKR). Fructose-6 and fructose-1 phosphate (F6P and F1P) enhance or reduce GKRP-mediated inhibition, respectively. A common GCKR variant (P446L) is reproducibly associated with triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational mechanism responsible for this genetic association. Recombinant human GCK and both human wild-type (WT) and P446L-GKRP proteins were generated. GCK kinetic activity was observed spectrophotometrically using an NADP(+)-coupled assay. WT and P446L-GKRP-mediated inhibition of GCK activity and subsequent regulation by phosphate esters were determined. Assays matched for GKRP activity demonstrated no difference in dose-dependent inhibition of GCK activity or F1P-mediated regulation. However, the response to physiologically relevant F6P levels was significantly attenuated with P446L-GKRP (n = 18; P elevating concentrations of malonyl-CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis, providing a mutational mechanism for the reported association of this variant with raised triglycerides and lower glucose levels. PMID:19643913

Beer, Nicola L; Tribble, Nicholas D; McCulloch, Laura J; Roos, Charlotta; Johnson, Paul R V; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gloyn, Anna L

2009-11-01

25

The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of signals for both Type 2 Diabetes and related quantitative traits. For the majority of loci, the transition from association signal to mutational mechanism has been difficult to establish. Glucokinase (GCK) regulates glucose storage and disposal in the liver where its activity is regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP; gene name GCKR). Fructose-6 and fructose-1 phosphate (F6P and F1P) enhance or reduce GKRP-mediated inhibition, respectively. A common GCKR variant (P446L) is reproducibly associated with triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational mechanism responsible for this genetic association. Recombinant human GCK and both human wild-type (WT) and P446L-GKRP proteins were generated. GCK kinetic activity was observed spectrophotometrically using an NADP+-coupled assay. WT and P446L-GKRP-mediated inhibition of GCK activity and subsequent regulation by phosphate esters were determined. Assays matched for GKRP activity demonstrated no difference in dose-dependent inhibition of GCK activity or F1P-mediated regulation. However, the response to physiologically relevant F6P levels was significantly attenuated with P446L-GKRP (n = 18; P ? 0.03). Experiments using equimolar concentrations of both regulatory proteins confirmed these findings (n = 9; P < 0.001). In conclusion, P446L-GKRP has reduced regulation by physiological concentrations of F6P, resulting indirectly in increased GCK activity. Altered GCK regulation in liver is predicted to enhance glycolytic flux, promoting hepatic glucose metabolism and elevating concentrations of malonyl-CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis, providing a mutational mechanism for the reported association of this variant with raised triglycerides and lower glucose levels. PMID:19643913

Beer, Nicola L.; Tribble, Nicholas D.; McCulloch, Laura J.; Roos, Charlotta; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gloyn, Anna L.

2009-01-01

26

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-03-01

27

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

PubMed Central

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter–enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose–response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16537411

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-01-01

28

Reduced Serum Levels of Triglyceride, Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in Parkinson’s Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown a lower incidence of stroke in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The role of the lipids and lipoproteins as risk factors for stroke is uncertain in the lower prevalence of stroke in PD patients. Objectives To explore the lipids and lipoproteins serum levels in PD patients. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 110 PD patients (PD group), 130 controls with non-cerebrovascular neurological diseases (OD group), 140 acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients (ICH group) and 140 acute cerebral infarction patients (CI group). The records about serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed. Results There were significant differences for the serum level of triglyceride (F = 5.031, p=0.002), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (F = 5.313, p=0.001), apolipoprotein B (F = 16.038, p<0.0001) in the four groups. PD group had a significantly lower serum level of triglyceride (TG) than the OD (p=0.032), ICH (p=0.00047) and CI (p=0.001) groups. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) serum level was significantly lower in PD group than in OD (p=0.039), ICH (p=0.00021) and CI (p=0.001) groups. There was a significantly lower serum level of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in PD group than in OD (p=0.002), ICH (p<0.0001) and CI (p<0.0001) groups. Conclusions There are reduced serum levels of TG, VLDL-C and apo B in PD patients, which may be related to the decreased prevalence of stroke in PD patients. PMID:24086623

Tian, Yanghua; Xu, Fangcheng; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai

2013-01-01

29

A functional polymorphism affecting the APOA5 gene expression is causally associated with plasma triglyceride levels conferring coronary atherosclerosis risk in Han Chinese Population.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene plays a key role in plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and shows the involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD). A set of single nucleotide polymorphisms around the APOA5 gene was identified to be associated with plasma TG levels. It is of biological and clinical importance to discern the genuine genetic determinants. A polymorphism in 3' untranslated region of the APOA5 gene, rs2266788, is deserving of investigation for suggestive clues from the association in multiple independent studies. In this study, rs2266788 was genotyped in 3222 unrelated subjects consisting of 2062 CAD cases and 1160 controls. The statistical analyses indicated that the minor C allele of rs2266788 was significantly associated with elevated plasma TG levels and higher CAD risk. In normal human liver tissues, comparison of global APOA5 mRNA levels among genotypes and allelic expression imbalance analysis showed the decreased gene expression for the C allele. Luciferase assays confirmed a concordant result that transcriptional activity was lowered for the C allele compared with the T allele in four cell lines. Multiple lines of evidence in our study supported that rs2266788 was causally associated with plasma TG levels conferring CAD risk in Han Chinese population owing to a cis-acting effect to the APOA5 gene expression. PMID:25151233

Shou, Weihua; Wang, Ying; Xie, Fang; Wang, Beilan; Yang, Lin; Wu, Hong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Shi, Jinxiu; Huang, Wei

2014-11-01

30

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

31

Adiponectin Reduces Plasma Triglyceride by Increasing VLDL Triglyceride Catabolism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. The main aims of this study are to investigate the effects of adiponectin on VLDL triglyceride (VLDL-TG) metabolism and the underlying mechanism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Adenoviruses were used to generate a mouse model with elevated circulating adiponectin. HepG2 and C2C12 cells were treated with recombinant human adiponectin. RESULTS—Three days after Ad-mACRP30 adenovirus injection, plasma adiponectin protein levels were increased 12-fold. All three main multimeric adiponectin molecules were proportionally elevated. Fasting plasma TG levels were significantly decreased (?40%) in the mice with elevated adiponectin in circulation, as were the plasma levels of large and medium VLDL subclasses. Although apolipoprotein B mRNA levels were robustly suppressed in the livers of adiponectin-overexpressing mice and in cultured HepG2 cells treated with recombinant human adiponectin, hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rates were not altered by elevated plasma adiponectin. However, Ad-mACRP30–treated mice exhibited a significant increase of postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity compared with mice that received control viral vector. Skeletal muscle LPL activity and mRNA levels of LPL and VLDL receptor (VLDLr) were also increased in Ad-mACRP30–treated mice. Recombinant human adiponectin treatment increased LPL and VLDLr mRNA levels in differentiated C1C12 myotubes. CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that adiponectin decreases plasma TG levels by increasing skeletal muscle LPL and VLDLr expression and consequently VLDL-TG catabolism. PMID:18375436

Qiao, Liping; Zou, Chenhui; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R.; Shao, Jianhua

2008-01-01

32

Influence of plasma triglyceride and plasma cholesterol levels on the clearance rate of fibrinogen.  

PubMed

Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that lipid levels may influence the fibrinogen levels by a mechanism other than the synthesis rate, for example a decreased clearance rate. We performed a pilot study to explore this possibility. Twelve male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks with a control low fat/low cholesterol diet, a high fat/high cholesterol diet, and a high fat/high cholesterol diet with an additional 0.5% cholic acid. Labeled 125I fibrinogen was injected, and blood was sampled repeatedly. From the plasma radioactivity of the samples, fibrinogen halflife time was calculated for each animal. Our results suggest that plasma lipids lengthen the fibrinogen halflife times, although the differences were not statistically significant in this small study. Our final conclusion from this study is that lipids may have an effect on the turnover rate of fibrinogen and possibly affect fibrinogen levels through this mechanism. PMID:11460525

Verschuur, M; Bekkers, M; Van Erck, M G; Emeis, J J; De Maat, M P

2001-01-01

33

Genomewide Scan for Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia Genes in Finnish Families, Suggesting Multiple Susceptibility Loci Influencing Triglyceride, Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein B Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The disease is characterized by increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), or both. We recently localized the first locus for FCHL, on chromosome 1q21-q23. In the present study, a genomewide screen for additional FCHL loci was per- formed. In stage 1,

Päivi Pajukanta; Joseph D. Terwilliger; Markus Perola; Tero Hiekkalinna; Ilpo Nuotio; Pekka Ellonen; Maija Parkkonen; Jaana Hartiala; Kati Ylitalo; Jussi Pihlajamäki; Kimmo Porkka; Markku Laakso; Jorma Viikari; Christian Ehnholm; Marja-Riitta Taskinen; Leena Peltonen

1999-01-01

34

Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice  

PubMed Central

Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

2014-01-01

35

Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.  

PubMed

Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

2014-09-01

36

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

2009-01-01

37

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels  

PubMed Central

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58–175% increase, P < 0.05–0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64–75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19–38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3–1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101–137% increase, P < 0.05–0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63–192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance. PMID:19237736

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-01-01

38

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels.  

PubMed

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58-175% increase, P < 0.05-0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64-75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19-38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3-1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101-137% increase, P < 0.05-0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63-192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance. PMID:19237736

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-06-01

39

THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand in folk medicine for natural sources that could help in the treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes. The rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa) is traditionally used as a functional food due to its high concentration of soluble and insoluble fiber. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on the metabolic and biochemical profile in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (2%). Design The passion fruit mesocarp fiber was dried in an oven with circulating air at 60°C and pulverized. We used 32 adult male rats, divided into 4 groups: Wistar group 1 control (GC), Wistar group 2, 15% fiber (GF15), Wistar group 3, 30% fiber (GF30), Wistar group 4, fiber disolved in water (GFH2O). The ratio of passion fruit was prepared according to the AIN 93M guidelines, varying only the source of dietary fiber. The corresponding diet for each group was offered to the animals for 60 days. Results There was a statically significant decrease in plasma glucose for GFH2O, GF15%, and GF30% groups with 27.0%, 37.4%, and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The use of mesocarp fiber of passion fruit at concentrations of 15% and 30% are an important dietary supplement for the treatment of DM due to its potential hypoglycemic effect, and its ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin. PMID:25346913

Corrêa, E.M.; Medina, L.; Barros-Monteiro, J.; Valle, N.O.; Sales, R.; Magalães, A.; Souza, F.C.A.; Carvalho, T.B.; Lemos, J.R.; Lira, E.F.; Lima, E.S.; Galeno, D.M.L.; Morales, L.; Ortiz, C.; Carvalho, R.P.

2014-01-01

40

Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2?=?0.214, P?levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

2013-01-01

41

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View of street level entrance to parking garage elevators and detail of aluminum and glass connection to brick from east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and parking garage. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

42

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

43

DETAIL VIEW ON THE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL OF ELEVATOR SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW ON THE MAIN ASSEMBLY LEVEL OF ELEVATOR SHOWING THE DOUBLED COLUMN FOR THE BUILDING EXPANSION JOINT AT COLUMN LINE AA-18. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

44

Effects of pioglitazone vs glibenclamide on postprandial increases in glucose and triglyceride levels and on oxidative stress in japanese patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance, postprandial hyperglycemia, postprandial hyperlipidemia, and oxidative\\u000a stress in type 2 diabetes, changes in postprandial glucose, triglyceride, and nitrotyrosine levels vs baseline after diet\\u000a loading were examined in type 2 diabetic patients given pioglitazone (PG) or glibenclamide (GB). Twenty-four outpatients with\\u000a type 2 diabetes treated with oral PG for 6 mo (BMI, 26.3±0.9; HbA1c,

Yutaka Mori; Yohta Itoh; Tohru Obata; Naoko Tajima

2006-01-01

45

LDL-apheresis in two patients with extremely elevated lipoprotein (a) levels.  

PubMed

Hyperlipidemia and elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels have been linked to the development and progression of premature atherosclerosis. Two male caucasian patients (36 and 42 years old) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and extremely elevated Lp(a) concentrations, resistant to diet regimen and lipid lowering drugs, were treated with LDL-apheresis for 55 months (liposorber system, Kaneka, Japan) and 15 months (immunoadsorption system, special Lp(a) columns, Lipopak, Pocard, Russia). Lp(a) dropped on average by 50%, total cholesterol by 27%, LDL-cholesterol by 42%, triglycerides by 43% and the fibrinogen concentration by 16%. Prior to treatment, both patients had suffered three myocardial infarctions. Four and six coronary angiographies with two and four percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTCA) were necessary. Since the treatment with LDL-apheresis neither myocardial infarctions nor cardiac complaints have been observed, and both patients have reported better performance. Available data suggest that LDL-apheresis may be effective in the treatment of patients with extremely high Lp(a) concentration. PMID:8567105

Bambauer, R; Schiel, R; Keller, H E; Latza, R

1995-05-01

46

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

2010-01-01

47

Association of Serum Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with Risk for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) levels (serum lipid profile) in subjects with chronic periodontitis and the possible association for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: Total of 80 participants (42 males and 38 females) who were in the age range of 30-65 years were divided into test group (group I- 40 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control group (group II- 40 subjects with healthy periodontium), based on their periodontal disease statuses. Three ml of venous blood samples were taken for measurement of parameters of lipid metabolism [serum cholesterol (chol); triglycerides (Tg); HDL and LDL. Results: Significant increase in serum cholesterol and LDL (P<0.05) were observed in test group (group I), whereas serum triglycerides and HDL (P>0.66) showed no significant increase in test group (group I) as compared to their values in the control group (group II). A P-value of < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Conclusions: Subjects with chronic periodontitis showed increased serum cholesterol and LDL levels. This may suggest that these subjects are potentially at a risk of getting CVD. PMID:24596778

Sandi, R.M.; Pol, K.G.; Basavaraj, P.; Khuller, Nitin; Singh, Shilpi

2014-01-01

48

Elevated Fasting Insulin Level Significantly Increases the Risk of Microalbuminuria.  

PubMed

Background:Microalbuminuria is significantly associated with long-term prognosis in the general population as well as in diabetic patients. It is well known that insulin resistance (IR) can induce microalbuminuria, but an elevated fasting insulin level, which is an early clinical manifestation of IR, as a risk factor for microalbuminuria has not been clarified, so we investigated the association between fasting insulin level and the development of microalbuminuria in a general population.Methods?and?Results:A total of 1,192 non-diabetic Korean men without microalbuminuria in 2005 were followed until 2010. They were categorized into 3 groups according to their fasting insulin levels and monitored for the development of microalbuminuria. The incidence of microalbuminuria was compared among groups, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios for microalbuminuria according to the fasting insulin levels. During 4,013.0 person-years of follow-up, 51 incident cases of microalbuminuria developed between 2006 and 2010. The incidence of microalbuminuria increased in proportion to the fasting insulin levels (tertile 1: 1.8%, tertile 2: 4.5%, tertile 3: 6.5%, P<0.001). Hazard ratios for microalbuminuria also increased in proportion to the fasting insulin levels [tertile 1: reference, tertile 2: 2.44 (1.01-5.89), tertile 3: 3.30 (1.40-7.78), respectively, P for trend 0.013].Conclusions:Elevated fasting insulin level was associated with the future development of microalbuminuria. PMID:25391257

Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Park, Sung Keun; Jung, Ju Young

2014-11-13

49

48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

50

Serum tryptase levels in acute coronary syndromes with ST elevation.  

PubMed

A patient with severe coronary disease, who underwent inguinal hernia repair, suffered a cardiovascular collapse after anaesthetic induction and died. He had Kounis syndrome, which is the concurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with conditions associated with mast cell activation. We measured the serum tryptase level in this patient and in a group of ten other patients admitted to hospital with the diagnosis of ACS with ST elevation in order to determine the origin of these events. PMID:17988753

Baldomà, Nuria; Cosmen, Cristina Rodríguez; Galinski, Susana Fernández; García, Luis Moltó; Gracia, Luis Recasens; Villén, Fernando Escolano

2009-01-24

51

Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop  

SciTech Connect

Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 {micro}mol/L, respectively. The father`s blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level. The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L, both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children. The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

Treble, R.G.; Thompson, T.S. [Saskatchewan Health, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Provincial Lab.] [Saskatchewan Health, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Provincial Lab.; Morton, D.N. [North Battleford Medical Clinic, Saskatchewan (Canada)] [North Battleford Medical Clinic, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1998-04-01

52

Reduced aortic lesions and elevated high density lipoprotein levels in transgenic mice overexpressing mouse apolipoprotein A-IV.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mouse lines carrying several copies of the mouse apo A-IV gene were produced. Lipoprotein composition and function, and aortic lesion development were examined. Apo A-IV levels in the plasma of transgenic mice were elevated threefold compared with nontransgenic littermates on a chow diet, and sixfold in mice fed an atherogenic diet. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were similar in transgenic and control mice fed a chow diet. However, with the atherogenic diet, male transgenic mice exhibited significantly higher levels of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001), and free fatty acids (P < 0.05), and lower levels of unesterified cholesterol (P < 0.05), than nontransgenic littermates. Expression of the apo A-IV transgene had a protective effect against the formation of diet-induced aortic lesions, with transgenics exhibiting lesion scores of approximately 30% those seen in control mice. HDL-sized lipoproteins isolated from transgenic mice fed the atherogenic diet promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded human monocytes more efficiently than comparable lipoproteins from nontransgenic counterparts. Plasma from transgenics also exhibited higher endogenous cholesterol esterification rates. Taken together, these results suggest that apo A-IV levels influence the metabolism and antiatherogenic properties of HDL. PMID:9109435

Cohen, R D; Castellani, L W; Qiao, J H; Van Lenten, B J; Lusis, A J; Reue, K

1997-01-01

53

Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare satellite altimetry from the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, 2003-2007) to older topographic maps and digital elevation models (1965-1990) to calculate long-term elevation changes of glaciers on the Svalbard Archipelago. Results indicate significant thinning at most glacier fronts with either slight thinning or thickening in the accumulation areas, except for glaciers that surged which show thickening in the ablation area and thinning in the accumulation areas. The most negative geodetic balances occur in the south and on glaciers that have surged, while the least negative balances occur in the northeast and on glaciers in the quiescent phase of a surge cycle. Geodetic balances are related to latitude and to the dynamical behavior of the glacier. The average volume change rate over the past 40 years for Svalbard, excluding Austfonna and Kvitøya is estimated to be -9.71 ± 0.55 km3 yr-1 or -0.36 ± 0.02 m yr-1 w. equivalent, for an annual contribution to global sea level rise of 0.026 mm yr-1 sea level equivalent.

Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; KääB, Andreas

2010-03-01

54

Effects of cysteine and antioxidants on the hepatic redox-state, acetaldehyde and triglyceride levels after acute ethanol dosing.  

PubMed

Cysteine and the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and N,N'-diphenyl-phenylenediamine (DPPD) have been found to protect against the increase in hepatic triglycerides caused by acute ethanol administration (2 g/kg/i.p.) in rats. None of these agents affected the ethanol-induced increase in the hepatic redox-state, measured as lactate/pyruvate and 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratios, and there was no influence of any of the compounds on ethanol metabolism. Of the three agents tested, only cysteine was found to lower the liver acetaldehyde concentration after ethanol administration, confirming reports that trapping of acetaldehyde can protect against ethanol hepatotoxicity. The protective action of the anti-oxidants suggests that lipid peroxidation (probably initiated by acetaldehyde) is an important event in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:3426693

Ryle, P R; Chakraborty, J; Thomson, A D

1987-01-01

55

Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy  

PubMed Central

We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving “ciclosporin A (CsA)-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone” antirejection therapy after combining one week's voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ?64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole) on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole's enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients’ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions. PMID:24250211

Caihong, Qu; Weimin, Liu; Jieming, Zhu

2013-01-01

56

Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project  

PubMed Central

We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

2013-01-01

57

Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise Christopher Nuth,1  

E-print Network

elevation models (1965­ 1990) to calculate long-term elevation changes of glaciers on the SvalbardSvalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise Christopher Nuth,1 Geir. Kohler, J. O. Hagen, and A. Ka¨a¨b (2010), Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea

Kääb, Andreas

58

BACE1 levels are elevated in congestive heart failure.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are known to have a negative impact on the brain and neurocognition, and contribute to the development of vascular dementia and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among CV diseases, congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI) is a condition where the ability of the left ventricle to eject blood to the circulation is impaired. As a consequence, CHF triggers inflammation and results in reduced cerebral blood flow which are considered among the risk factors for development of AD. However, biochemical alterations in the brain following MI and CHF remain unknown. To address this issue, we investigated microglia activation; levels of BACE1, the key rate-limiting enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of AD; and VEGF levels in the hippocampus and cortex following MI. We created MI by the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Sprague-Dawley male rats and collected brains either 3 days after MI (AMI) or 21 days after MI (CHF). We investigated microglia activation in AMI and CHF brains by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting using macrophage/microglia marker Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), and observed activated morphology of microglia in the cortex of rats in both AMI and CHF. We also showed the levels of BACE1 were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of CHF rats. To determine whether hypoxia occurs in the CHF brain, we assessed levels of VEGF in the hippocampus and cortex. Western blotting analysis showed up-regulation of VEGF in the hippocampus of CHF brains. These results suggest that neuroinflammation takes place secondary to myocardial infarction. In addition, CHF-induced hypoxia might play a role in the elevation of BACE1 and VEGF levels. PMID:23127855

Nural-Guvener, Hikmet F; Mutlu, Nezahet; Gaballa, Mohamed A

2013-01-01

59

Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALP) versus a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture (MCTo), which was designed to increase energy expenditure and to improve lipid profiles containing medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil. A total of 48 hamsters were fed a) hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, b) HC MCTo, c) HC ALP, or d) HC MCTo/ALP diet for 4 weeks. No differences were observed on food intake, body weight, total body water, lean and fat mass, and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). ALP alone had no effect on total cholesterol (TC); however, MCTo feeding increased TC with (P < 0.03) and without (P < 0.003) ALP when compared with control. ALP increased HDL levels compared with control (P < 0.04) and MCTo/ALP (P < 0.007) groups. MCTo, with (P < 0.0001) or without (P < 0.006) ALP, increased non-HDL cholesterol levels versus control. The non-HDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased by ALP compared with MCTo (45%) and MCTo/ALP (68%) (P < 0.0001), a similar trend was seen when compared with the HC control (22%) group (P < 0.14). Triglyceride levels were not altered by any dietary treatment. Liver and heart tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased (P < 0.05) by all three treatments when compared with control. Both tissues showed an increase (P < 0.05) in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) when fed ALP as compared with other treatments. Hamsters fed ALP had a lower (P < 0.05) GSH/GSSG ratio compared with other treatment groups. In conclusion, MCTo feeding does not elicit beneficial effects on circulating plasma lipids and measures of body composition. In addition, our results do not clearly support an improvement in oxidative status through supplementation of ALP. However, our results do support the existence of beneficial effects of ALP on circulating lipoprotein content in the hamster. PMID:15219925

Wollin, Stephanie D; Wang, Yanwen; Kubow, Stan; Jones, Peter J H

2004-07-01

60

Elevated Osteopontin Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory mediators are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the function of OPN in AD and MCI progression is not well defined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were obtained from 35 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 20 other noninflammatory neurologic diseases (OND). Concentrations of OPN in the CSF and plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During a 3-year clinical followup, 13 MCI patients converted to AD (MCI converters), and 18 were clinically stable (MCI nonconverters). CSF OPN concentrations were significantly increased in AD and MCI converters compared to OND, and increased levels of OPN in AD were associated with MMSE score; OPN protein levels both in the CSF and plasma of newly diagnosed AD patients were higher than that of chronical patients. In MCI converters individuals tested longitudinally, both plasma and CSF OPN concentrations were significantly elevated when they received a diagnosis of AD during followup. Further wide-scale studies are necessary to confirm these results and to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in AD. PMID:23576854

Sun, Yuan; Yin, Xue Song; Guo, Hong; Han, Rong Kun; He, Rui Dong; Chi, Li Jun

2013-01-01

61

Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:8450056

Karpe, F; Steiner, G; Olivecrona, T; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A

1993-01-01

62

Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare satellite altimetry from the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, 2003-2007) to older topographic maps and digital elevation models (1965-1990) to calculate long-term elevation changes of glaciers on the Svalbard Archipelago. Results indicate significant thinning at most glacier fronts with either slight thinning or thickening in the accumulation areas, except for glaciers that surged which show thickening

Christopher Nuth; Geir Moholdt; Jack Kohler; Jon Ove Hagen; Andreas Kääb

2010-01-01

63

Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare satellite altimetry from the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, 2003–2007) to older topographic maps and digital elevation models (1965–1990) to calculate long-term elevation changes of glaciers on the Svalbard Archipelago. Results indicate significant thinning at most glacier fronts with either slight thinning or thickening in the accumulation areas, except for glaciers that surged which show thickening

Christopher Nuth; Geir Moholdt; Jack Kohler; Jon Ove Hagen; Andreas Kääb

2010-01-01

64

Low-density lipoprotein-apheresis in two patients with extremely elevated lipoprotein (a) levels.  

PubMed

Two male caucasian patients (36 and 42 years old) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and extremely elevated lipoprotein Lp(a) concentrations, resistant to diet and lipid-lowering drugs, were treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis for 55 months (liposorber system, Kaneka, Japan) and 15 months (immunoadsorption system, special Lp(a) columns, Lipopak, Pocard, Russia). Lp(a) dropped on average by 50%, total cholesterol by 27%, LDL-cholesterol by 42%, triglycerides by 43%, and the fibrinogen concentration by 16%. PMID:8844436

Bambauer, R; Schiel, R; Klinkmann, J; Latza, R

1996-01-01

65

Cholesterol, oxysterol, triglyceride, and coenzyme Q homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the hypothesis that elevated 27-hydroxycholesterol is a pathogenic factor.  

PubMed

High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M; Björkhem, Ingemar

2014-01-01

66

Cholesterol, Oxysterol, Triglyceride, and Coenzyme Q Homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the Hypothesis That Elevated 27-Hydroxycholesterol Is a Pathogenic Factor  

PubMed Central

High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M.; Björkhem, Ingemar

2014-01-01

67

Global tectonic and climatic control of mean elevation of continents, and Phanerozoic sea level change  

E-print Network

Global tectonic and climatic control of mean elevation of continents, and Phanerozoic sea level continents, as well as mean elevation of individual continents, should be at the fundamental level controlled factors in controlling mean elevation of continents. The model is able to account for the positive

Zhang, Youxue

68

Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels.  

PubMed

Hyperprolactinaemia is suggested to be associated with metabolic and hormonal complications. No previous study has compared the effect of different dopamine agonists on plasma lipids, carbohydrate metabolism markers and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. The study included eight bromocriptine-resistant women with prolactinoma (group 1) and twelve matched women with hyperprolactinaemia unrelated to prolactinoma (group 2). Group 1 was then treated with cabergoline, while group 2 with bromocriptine. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed before and after 6 months of therapy. Both treatments normalized plasma prolactin levels. Cabergoline reduced triglycerides, 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and circulating levels of IGF-1, free fatty acids (FFA), uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. With the exception of a reduction in HOMA-IR, bromocriptine treatment produced no significant effect on the investigated biomarkers. Cabergoline was superior to bromocriptine in affecting 2-hr post-challenge plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR, as well as circulating levels of IGF-1, FFA, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Our results may suggest that cabergoline is superior to bromocriptine when it comes to affecting atherogenic dyslipidaemia, insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of cardiovascular risk factors in hyperprolactinaemic patients. These findings seem to support previous observations that cabergoline may be a better treatment for patients with elevated prolactin levels than bromocriptine. PMID:25123447

Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogus?aw

2015-03-01

69

Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to assess the impact of the association between elevated oestradiol (E2) and low testosterone (T) levels on erectile dysfunction (ED) severity. A total of 614 male patients with ED and a normal or low T level in association with normal or elevated E2 levels were enrolled. Patients underwent routine laboratory investigations in addition to measurements of total T, total E2, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin. We compared the responses to the erectile function domain, Q3 (achieving erection) and Q4 (maintaining erection) of the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) score in patients with the following: normal T and E2 levels; low T level; low T level and elevated E2 level; and elevated E2 level. Of the patients included, 449 (73.1%) had normal T and E2 levels, 110 (17.9%) had a low T level, 36 (5.9%) had a low T level and an elevated E2 level, and 19 (3.1%) had an elevated E2 level. Increased ED severity was significantly associated with low T levels, elevated E2 levels, and both a low T level and an elevated E2 level. Additionally, the mean values of the EF-domain, Q3 and Q4 were significantly lower in patients with both a low T level and an elevated E2 level compared to patients with any condition alone. In conclusion, a low T level had the primary effect on erectile function; however, a concomitantly elevated E2 level had an additive impairment effect. PMID:23644871

El-Sakka, Ahmed I

2013-01-01

70

Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereospecific analysis determines how the fatty acids of triglycerides are distributed over the three different positions\\u000a of the glycerol. The special problem is the differentiation of position I-1 and L-3 of glycerol. In the presently known methods,\\u000a triglycerides are first degraded to mixtures of diglycerides, either by the action of a lipase or by degradation with a Grignard\\u000a reagent. The

H. Brockerhoff

1971-01-01

71

Hyperosmotic stress stimulates phospholipase D activity and elevates the levels of phosphatidic acid and  

E-print Network

Hyperosmotic stress stimulates phospholipase D activity and elevates the levels of phosphatidic research on osmo-stress-induced lipid signalling implicated phospholipase C (PLC) activation. The potential

Hirt, Heribert

72

Effect of the APOC3 Sst I SNP on fasting triglyceride levels in men heterozygous for the LPL P207L deficiency.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a major role in triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein catabolism. A mutation at codon 207 (P207L) in the exon 5 of the LPL gene has been associated with 50% reduction in postheparin plasma LPL activity and significant increase in plasma TG levels in heterozygous individuals with low HDL. However, heterogeneity in fasting TG concentrations among these carriers suggests that other factors may be involved in the expression of this hypertriglyceridemic state. Indeed, previous studies have shown that the rare S2 allele of the APOC3 Sst I polymorphism was associated with higher concentrations of TG levels in noncarriers of LPL defect. Therefore, we investigated the association of the APOC3 Sst I variant on fasting lipoprotein-lipid levels in a sample of 35 heterozygous men bearing the LPL P207L mutation. Genetic association analyses were performed using the two-genotype groups S1/S1 and S1/S2. The genotype S1/S2 group was characterized by greater plasma cholesterol (plasma-C, P=0.02), plasma-TG (P=0.04), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)-C (P=0.004), VLDL-TG (P=0.01), VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P=0.001) levels and cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (P=0.008), as well as lower VLDL-TG/VLDL-apoB ratio compared to the S1/S1 genotype group. These results support an exacerbating effect of the APOC3 Sst I single-nucleotide polymorphism on fasting TG levels since a large number of smaller VLDL particles are observed in LPL-deficient men bearing the APOC3 S2 allele. PMID:16015281

Garenc, Christophe; Couillard, Charles; Laflamme, Nathalie; Cadelis, François; Gagné, Claude; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Bergeron, Jean

2005-10-01

73

Impact of Serum Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Normoglycemic and Prediabetic Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Increased triglycerides (TGs) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are established as diabetic risks for nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, and early-phase insulin secretion in normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects. Methods We evaluated 663 Japanese subjects who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. On the basis of these results, the subjects were divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=341), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG; n=211), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT; n=71), and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT; n=40). Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) (?insulin/?glucose [30 to 0 minutes]) and disposition index (DI) (IGI/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Results In prediabetic subjects (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG+IGT), linear regression analyses revealed that IGI and DI were positively correlated with HDL-C levels. Moreover, in subjects with i-IGT and (IFG+IGT), but not with i-IFG, the indices of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with the log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. In both the subjects with i-IGT, multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that DI was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively with log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. On the other hand, in subjects with NGT, there was no association between insulin secretion and lipid profiles. Conclusion These results revealed that serum TG and HDL-C levels have different impacts on early-phase insulin secretion on the basis of their glucose tolerance status. PMID:25215276

Niwa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Hanyu, Norinao; Nakayama, Tomohiro

2014-01-01

74

Protein S levels modulate the activated protein C resistance phenotype induced by elevated prothrombin levels.  

PubMed

Elevated plasma prothrombin levels, due to the prothrombin 20210 G/A mutation or to acquired causes, are a risk factor for venous thrombosis, partly because of prothrombin-mediated inhibition of the protein C anticoagulant pathway and consequent activated protein C (APC) resistance. We determined the effect of plasma prothrombin concentration on the APC resistance phenotype and evaluated the role of protein S levels as a modulating variable. The effect of prothrombin and protein S levels on APC resistance was investigated in reconstituted plasma systems and in a population of healthy individuals using both the aPTT-based and the thrombin generation-based APC resistance tests. In reconstituted plasma, APC resistance increased at increasing prothrombin concentration in both assays. Enhanced APC resistance was caused by the effect of prothrombin on the clotting time in the absence of APC in the aPTT-based test, and on thrombin formation in the presence of APC in the thrombin generation-based test. In plasma from healthy individuals prothrombin levels were highly correlated to protein S levels. Since prothrombin and protein S had opposite effects on the APC resistance phenotype, the prothrombin/protein S ratio was a better predictor of APC resistance than the levels of either protein alone. Prothrombin titrations in plasmas containing different amounts of protein S confirmed that protein S levels modulate the ability of prothrombin to induce APC resistance. These findings suggest that carriers of the prothrombin 20210 G/A mutation, who have a high prothrombin/protein S ratio, may experience a higher thrombosis risk than non-carriers with comparable prothrombin levels. PMID:16493484

Brugge, Jeroen M; Tans, Guido; Rosing, Jan; Castoldi, Elisabetta

2006-02-01

75

Testosterone Substitution Normalizes Elevated Serum Leptin Levels in Hypogonadal Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ob gene product leptin (OB) is a feedback signal from the adipocyte to the hypothalamus and is involved in regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents. A major determinant of serum OB levels is fat mass. Several studies suggest that men have lower OB levels than women even after adjustment for percent body fat. We, therefore, investigated

FRIEDRICH JOCKENHOVEL; WERNER F. BLUM; ELISABETH VOGEL; PIERA ENGLARO; DIRK MULLER-WIELAND; DANKWART REINWEIN; WOLFGANG RASCHER; WILHELM KRONE

76

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

77

4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

78

Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

1997-01-01

79

Riluzole elevates GLT-1 activity and levels in striatal astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Drugs which upregulate astrocyte glutamate transport may be useful neuroprotective compounds by preventing excitotoxicity. We set up a new system to identify potential neuroprotective drugs which act through GLT-1. Primary mouse striatal astrocytes grown in the presence of the growth-factor supplement G5 express high levels of the functional glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (also known as EAAT2) as assessed by Western blotting and 3H-glutamate uptake assay, and levels decline following growth factor withdrawal. The GLT-1 transcriptional enhancer dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 ?M) was able to prevent loss of GLT-1 levels and activity following growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, ceftriaxone, a compound previously reported to enhance GLT-1 expression, failed to regulate GLT-1 in this system. The neuroprotective compound riluzole (100 ?M) upregulated GLT-1 levels and activity, through a mechanism that was not dependent on blockade of voltage-sensitive ion channels, since zonasimide (1 mM) did not regulate GLT-1. Finally, CDP-choline (10 ?M – 1 mM), a compound which promotes association of GLT-1/EAAT2 with lipid rafts was unable to prevent GLT-1 loss under these conditions. This observation extends the known pharmacological actions of riluzole, and suggests that this compound may exert its neuroprotective effects through an astrocyte-dependent mechanism. PMID:22080156

Carbone, Marica; Duty, Susan; Rattray, Marcus

2012-01-01

80

Elevated serum neopterin levels in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Neopterin is synthesized in macrophage/Kupffer cells by interferon-gamma and other cytokines. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of using neopterin as a biomarker of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. Wistar rats, randomly divided into two groups (APAP and normal), received APAP (1.0 g/kg) and distilled water, respectively, by gastric tube. The APAP group had a higher degree of liver necrosis than the control group. The APAP group also had significantly higher serum neopterin levels than the normal group. Serum neopterin levels correlated with serum AST, ALT activities, and degree of necrosis. This study demonstrates the preclinical utility of neopterin as a biomarker for the animal model of APAP-induced liver injury. Further research studies are required to determine the preclinical opportunities of using neopterin as a marker of APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:21787682

Demirbas, Seref; Cakir, Erdinc; Akgul, Emin Ozgur; Seyrek, Melik; Cayci, Tuncer; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Uysal, Bulent; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kurt, Bulent; Yaman, Halil; Erbil, Mehmet Kemal

2011-01-01

81

Elevated cytokine levels in children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared production of IL-2, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 children with autism spectrum disorder to those from matched controls. Levels of all Th2 cytokines were significantly higher in cases after incubation in media alone, but the IFN-?\\/IL-13 ratio was not significantly different between cases and controls. Cases had significantly higher

Cynthia A. Molloy; Ardythe L. Morrow; Jareen Meinzen-Derr; Kathleen Schleifer; Krista Dienger; Patricia Manning-Courtney; Mekibib Altaye; Marsha Wills-Karp

2006-01-01

82

Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

1997-01-01

83

Echo-Lucency of Computerized Ultrasound Images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Are Associated With Increased Levels of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as Well as Increased Plaque Lipid Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results—The study included 137 patients with neurological

Marie-Louise M. Grønholdt; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Britt M. Wiebe; Jens E. Wilhjelm; Henrik Sillesen

84

Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

Righter, A.W.

1996-05-21

85

Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

86

Elevated blood selenium levels in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Contaminated fish poses a difficult challenge throughout the world, on the one hand, fish is a very nutritious food source, while on the other hand it accumulates many toxic substances, including mercury (Hg). As part of our efforts in the Brazilian Amazon to maximize nutritional input from fish consumption, a dietary mainstay, and minimize toxic risk, we have been studying the role of selenium (Se), an essential element, that may influence the distribution of Hg in the body and influence Hg neurotoxicity. Se, which is naturally present in the soil, is ingested through consumption of various foods, notably fish, mammals and certain plants. The objectives of the present study were: (i) evaluate whole blood Se (B-Se) and Hg (B-Hg); (ii) characterize B-Se variations with respect to socio-demographic and dietary variables; and (iii) examine the relation between B-Se and B-Hg. A total of 236 persons from six riparian communities of the Tapajós River Basin, a tributary of the Amazon, participated in this study. Whole blood Se and Hg were measured and interview administered questionnaires were used to obtain data on socio-demographic variable, smoking and drinking habits, and fish and fruit consumption. The results show that B-Se are in the upper normal range (median=284.3 microg/L, range=142.1-2029.3 microg/L). No individuals presented B-Se deficiency, but 9 participants from the same extended family had relatively high B-Se levels, potentially a threat to their health. B-Se varied between communities, was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers and farmers, but not associated with age, sex or tobacco consumption. A significant positive relation between B-Se and B-Hg was noted, independently of the overall fish consumption. B-Se increased with consumption of Peacock bass (Cichla sp.), a piscivorous fish species, and coconut pulp (Cocos nucifera L.). The B-Se intercommunity variations may reflect geographic differences in local soil Se levels as well as traditional land use practices in the different ecosystems of the Tapajós River Basin. In this population with relatively high exposure to Hg, Se may play an important role. Further studies should examine, in this region, the sources of Se, its transmission through the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem and its role with respect to human health. PMID:16289298

Lemire, Mélanie; Mergler, Donna; Fillion, Myriam; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc

2006-07-31

87

Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

2014-01-01

88

Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8%) had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140?mg/dL). IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4%) had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD. PMID:22693517

Ryu, Jay H.; Horie, Ryohei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Peikert, Tobias; Yi, Eunhee S.

2012-01-01

89

Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8%) had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140?mg/dL). IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4%) had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD. PMID:22693517

Ryu, Jay H; Horie, Ryohei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Peikert, Tobias; Yi, Eunhee S

2012-01-01

90

Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

2015-02-01

91

Schistosomiasis japonica during pregnancy is associated with elevated endotoxin levels in maternal and placental compartments.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis affects approximately 40 million women of reproductive age and has been linked to elevated levels of circulating endotoxin in nonpregnant individuals. We have evaluated endotoxin levels in maternal, placental, and newborn blood collected from women residing in Leyte, Philippines. Endotoxin levels in both maternal and placental compartments in pregnant women with schistosomiasis were 1.3- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, than in uninfected women. In addition, higher concentrations of endotoxin in placental blood were associated with premature birth, acute chorioamnionitis, and elevated proinflammatory cytokines. By promoting endotoxemia, schistosomiasis may exert additional, maladaptive influences on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23964108

McDonald, Emily A; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Jarilla, Blanca; Sagliba, Marianne J; Gonzal, Annaliza; Amoylen, Amabelle J; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Gundogan, Fusun; Ganley-Leal, Lisa M; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Friedman, Jennifer F

2014-02-01

92

Low-density lipoprotein apheresis in the treatment of two patients with coronary heart disease and extremely elevated lipoprotein (a) levels.  

PubMed

Hyperlipidemia and elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) levels have been linked to the development and progression of premature atherosclerosis. Our study concerned 2 white male patients (aged 36 and 42 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and extremely elevated Lp(a) concentrations that were resistant to diet regimens and lipid-lowering drugs. The patients were treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis for 59 months (Liposorber system, Kaneka, Japan) and 19 months (immunoadsorption system, special Lp(a) columns; Lipopak; Pocard, Russia), respectively. The concentration of Lp(a) decreased on average by 50%, total cholesterol by 27%, LDL cholesterol by 41%, triglycerides by 43%, and fibrinogen by 16%. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased by approximately 4%. Before treatment with LDL apheresis, each patient had suffered 3 myocardial infarctions, and had had 4 and 6 coronary angiographies with 2 and 4 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTCAs), respectively. Since treatment with LDL apheresis, no myocardial infarctions or cardiac complaints were observed. In the course of treatment, both patients reported an increased performance. Available data suggest that LDL apheresis may be effective in the treatment of patients, the only risk factor for premature atherosclerosis being extremely elevated Lp(a) concentrations. PMID:9139621

Bambauer, R; Schiel, R; Keller, H E; Klinkmann, J; Latza, R

1996-04-01

93

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

94

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, I.C.

2007-01-01

95

Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

2009-01-01

96

Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.  

PubMed

Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:23803162

Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

2014-05-01

97

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

PubMed

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

2013-05-01

98

Rare LPL gene variants attenuate triglyceride reduction and HDL cholesterol increase in response to fenofibric acid therapy in  

E-print Network

Rare LPL gene variants attenuate triglyceride reduction and HDL cholesterol increase in response t Objective: Individuals with mixed dyslipidemia have elevated triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipo reserved. 1. Introduction Multiple studies have shown that genetic variants can affect triglycerides (TG

Keinan, Alon

99

PLASMA SELENIUM LEVELS CORRELATE WITH ELEVATED IMMUNOCOMPETENCE OF HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS LARVAE AGAINST BACULOVIRUS INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have previously found that dietary Sodium Selenium (Se) impacted the growth and development of Trichoplusia ni reared for many generations on diet containing extremely low levels of Se. Larvae had an elevated resistance to per os infection with a baculovirus. In this study we examine how dietar...

100

Retained foreign body: associations with elevated lead levels, pica, and duodenal anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-month-old girl presented with elevated lead levels and a metallic foreign body was detected on abdominal radiograph. Subsequent evaluation, performed after the child failed to pass the foreign body with cathartics, revealed a bezoar proximal to a partial duodenal obstruction. The metallic foreign body was later removed and found to contain lead, however, the patient has subsequently had recurrent

J. D. Sprinkle; E. A. Hingsbergen

1995-01-01

101

Invertebrate Species with Nonpelagic Larvae Have Elevated Levels of Nonsynonymous Substitutions and Reduced Nucleotide Diversities  

E-print Network

Invertebrate Species with Nonpelagic Larvae Have Elevated Levels of Nonsynonymous Substitutions of reproduction, including mul- tiple lineages with pelagic and nonpelagic larvae. In both genera, lineages with nonpelagic larvae had significantly higher dN/dS ratios than lineages with pelagic larvae. The hypothesis

Foltz, David W.

102

PLANT ANIMAL INTERACTIONS Limited impact of elevated levels of polyphenol oxidase  

E-print Network

PLANT ANIMAL INTERACTIONS Limited impact of elevated levels of polyphenol oxidase on tree / Published online: 28 August 2007 � Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is commonly to test for a direct effect of PPO on insect performance. Keywords Polyphenol oxidase Á Plant defense Á

Constabel, Peter

103

15. BUILDING 312, INTERIOR, PENTHOUSE/ELEVATOR MACHINERY CONTROL ROOM (ROOF LEVEL) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. BUILDING 312, INTERIOR, PENTHOUSE/ELEVATOR MACHINERY CONTROL ROOM (ROOF LEVEL) AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, General Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, North of A Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

104

Significance of elevated levels of ozone on natural ecosystems of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper characterizes ozone (Oâ) climatology in natural ecosystems of North America and discusses the consequences of sustained elevatedlevels on the physiology and growth of pollutant-sensitive forest trees, population genetic structure of sensitive species, forest community dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. The analysis of Oâ air quality in the Shenandoah National park, a representative forested ecosystem in

G. E. Jr. Taylor; R. J. Norby

1984-01-01

105

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by man- groves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of

Karen L. McKee; Donald R. Cahoon; Ilka C. Feller

2007-01-01

106

Elevated circulating free fatty acid levels impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation.  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that insulin-resistant obese subjects exhibit impaired endothelial function. Here, we test the hypothesis that elevation of circulating FFA to levels seen in insulin-resistant subjects can impair endothelial function. We studied leg blood flow responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (Mch) or the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside during the infusion of saline and after raising systemic circulating FFA levels exogenously via a low- or high-dose infusion of Intralipid plus heparin or endogenously by an infusion of somatostatin (SRIF) to produce insulinopenia in groups of lean healthy humans. After 2 h of infusion of Intralipid plus heparin, FFA levels increased from 562+/-95 to 1,303+/-188 micromol, and from 350+/-35 to 3,850+/-371 micromol (P < 0.001) vs. saline for both low- and high-dose groups, respectively. Mch-induced vasodilation relative to baseline was reduced by approximately 20% in response to the raised FFA levels in both groups (P < 0.05, saline vs. FFA, ANOVA). In contrast, similar FFA elevation did not change leg blood flow responses to sodium nitroprusside. During the 2-h SRIF infusion, insulin levels fell, and FFA levels rose from 474+/-22 to 1,042+/-116 micromol (P < 0.01); Mch-induced vasodilation was reduced by approximately 20% (P < 0.02, saline vs. SRIF, ANOVA). Replacement of basal insulin levels during SRIF resulted in a fall of FFA levels from 545+/-47 to 228+/-61 micromol, and prevented the impairment of Mch-induced vasodilation seen with SRIF alone. In conclusion, (a) elevated circulating FFA levels cause endothelial dysfunction, and (b) impaired endothelial function in insulin-resistant humans may be secondary to the elevated FFA concentrations observed in these patients. PMID:9276741

Steinberg, H O; Tarshoby, M; Monestel, R; Hook, G; Cronin, J; Johnson, A; Bayazeed, B; Baron, A D

1997-01-01

107

There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

108

Cholecystokinin Elevates Mouse Plasma Lipids  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR?/?) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR?/? mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, Zhongmao

2012-01-01

109

Lymphocyte T subset counts in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine blood lymphocyte T subset counts in children with elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We studied 107 children, ages 2.0 to 15.9 years, from 79 families who were referred to our Lipid Research Clinic because total cholesterol serum levels higher than 200 mg\\/dl had been detected in at least one child. At

A. Sarría; L. A. Moreno; M. Mur; A. Lázaro; M. P. Lasierra; L. Roda; A. Giner; L. Larrad; M. Bueno

1995-01-01

110

Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group  

SciTech Connect

No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

Friedman, Lee S. [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Kundiev, Yuri I. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Chislovska, Nataliya V. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Mucha, Amy [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Zvinchuk, Alexander V. [Data Management Center, Kyiv University of Illinois (United States); Oliynyk, Irene [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Hryhorczuk, Daniel [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)

2006-09-15

111

Hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels later in life  

PubMed Central

Objectives We assessed if hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated CRP levels in later life, possibly reflecting an increased risk of CVD. Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been associated with hypertension in pregnancy and with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We studied 2463 women from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. Subjects were categorized as nulliparous women (n=219), women with a history of normotensive pregnancies (n=1839), or women with a history of a hypertensive pregnancy (n=405). Using multiple linear regression models we compared mean CRP levels among the groups after adjusting for age, race, education, smoking, hypertension, personal history of CHD or stroke, diabetes, dyslipidemia, statins, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of CHD or stroke. As CRP levels may be influenced by body mass index (BMI), the model was fit both with and without adjusting for BMI. Results There was no significant difference in CRP levels between nulliparous women and those with a history of normotensive pregnancies, either with (p=0.82) or without (p=0.46) adjusting for BMI. In contrast, women with hypertensive pregnancies, compared to those with normotensive pregnancies, had higher CRP levels, both with (p=0.009) and without (p<0.001) adjusting for BMI. Conclusions A history of hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated CRP levels later in life, independent of traditional CVD risk factors and BMI. An elevated CRP may reflect an inflammatory state in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders who are at increased risk for CVD. PMID:24029867

BROWN, Catherine M.; TURNER, Stephen T.; BAILEY, Kent R.; MOSLEY, Thomas H.; KARDIA, Sharon L.R.; WISTE, Heather J.; KULLO, Iftikhar J.; GAROVIC, Vesna D.

2014-01-01

112

Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group.  

PubMed

No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (0.25 microg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21 microg/L (range = 0.11-0.42 microg/L; SD = 0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21 microg/L; P = 0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P = 0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P = 0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR = 14.16; P < 0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR = 8.50; P = 0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR = 5.67; P = 0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries. PMID:16729996

Friedman, Lee S; Lukyanova, Elena M; Kundiev, Yuri I; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A; Chislovska, Nataliya V; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

2006-09-01

113

HDAC Inhibition Induces Increased Choline Uptake and Elevated Phosphocholine Levels in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable phosphocholine (PC) is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using 13C MRS to monitor [1,2-13C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by 31P MRS (129±7% of control). Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%), while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase ? increased (144% and 161%, respectively) relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18%) in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho)-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using 1H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow-up diagnostics of HDAC inhibitor treatment. PMID:23626839

Ward, Christopher S.; Eriksson, Pia; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L.; Brandes, Alissa H.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

2013-01-01

114

Plasma PCSK9 Levels Are Elevated with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Two Independent Retrospective Angiographic Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD) or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. Methods and Results Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (<30% coronary stenosis) and 3,273 cases of CAD (>50% stenosis in a major coronary artery) from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD). Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml) compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p?=?0.004) in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml) compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p?=?3.7×10?4). Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute) MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. Conclusion Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI. PMID:25180781

Almontashiri, Naif A. M.; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Dandona, Sonny; Roberts, Robert; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Chen, Hsiao-Huei; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.

2014-01-01

115

Particle Size Evidence of Intertidal Elevation: A Basis for Quantitative Sea-level Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame is controlled largely by hydroperiod and proximity to tidal ingress. Here, the upper part of the intertidal zone is characterised by poorly sorted, near symmetrical, platy- to mesokurtic, fine-grained particle size distributions due to particle settling from suspension as the tidal flow velocity decreases to high tide slack water. Indeed, an elevational or spatial gradient in particle size distribution can be observed whereby shorter hydroperiods (higher elevations) are accompanied by slower and more variable flow velocities. However, this gradient may become complicated by creek networks, whereby particle size can be observed to decrease away from creek margins, or extant vegetation that increases bed friction. Unvegetated, planar tidal flats in the Yangtze estuary offer an ideal test bed to explore evidence for a quantitative relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame. Such a relationship would then serve as an effective proxy for tidal level preserved within sediment cores, and thus a means for reconstructing past sea level. This principle is based largely on ecological transfer function-based reconstructions of Holocene sea level from foraminifera and diatoms. Surface sediment samples were collected along three transects extending eastwards from Chongming Island in South Branch channel of the Yangtze estuary. Sample positions relative to the high water mark were determined using RTK surveying, and particle size analysis was undertaken using laser granulometry. Unconstrained cluster analysis, based on unweighted Euclidean distance, was undertaken on the particle size classes at 0.25 phi intervals (up to 50 size bins) as well as Udden-Wentworth size classes (6-7 size bins). All three transects demonstrate a good clustering of particle size classes with distance and elevation, i.e. sites that are higher within the tidal frame and closer to the high water mark are characterised by higher percentages of clay and silt grades. Distance and elevation show a strong negative correlation for all transects (r2: -0.88 to -0.97), whilst cluster order is positively correlated with distance (r2: 0.41 to 0.80) and negatively correlated with elevation (r2: -0.68 to -0.75). A weighted average (WA) transfer function analysis of the relationship with elevation was then undertaken to examine how the predictability of elevation changes according to the number of data points and the number of size classes. For the largest dataset (middle transect), the WA elevation transfer function offers good predictability but limited precision (r2jack c.0.76, RMSEPjack c.0.60 m), both of which increase as the number of size classes is reduced. The smallest dataset (north transect) offers reduced predictability and precision (r2jack c.0.45, RMSEPjack c.0.60-0.90 m). Although the precision of these transfer functions is disappointing, due to the relatively widespread occurrence of size classes with elevation and distance, the r2jack values compare very well with ecological transfer functions used for reconstructing past tidal level. It is proposed that, in the absence or poor preservation of microfossils, particle size distributions offer a means for reconstructing trends in past sea level from dated sediment cores.

Plater, Andrew; Mills, Hayley; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin

2014-05-01

116

Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change. PMID:24198270

Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

117

Associates of an Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Level in Stable Heart Failure Patients: Implications for Targeted Management  

PubMed Central

Background. Persistently elevated natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in heart failure (HF) patients are associated with impaired prognosis. Recent work suggests that NP-guided therapy can improve outcome, but the mechanisms behind an elevated BNP remain unclear. Among the potential stimuli for NP in clinically stable patients are persistent occult fluid overload, wall stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and ischemia. The purpose of this study was to identify associates of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a stable HF population. Methods. In a prospective observational study of 179 stable HF patients, the association between BNP and markers of collagen metabolism, inflammation, and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI), and E/e prime (E/e?) was measured. Results. Univariable associates of elevated BNP were age, LVEF, LAVI, E/e?, creatinine, and markers of collagen turnover. In a multiple linear regression model, age, creatinine, and LVEF remained significant associates of BNP. E/e? and markers of collagen turnover had a persistent impact on BNP independent of these covariates. Conclusion. Multiple variables are associated with persistently elevated BNP levels in stable HF patients. Clarification of the relative importance of NP stimuli may help refine NP-guided therapy, potentially improving outcome for this at-risk population. PMID:24453873

Dawkins, Ian; Murphy, Niamh; Collier, Patrick; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris J.

2013-01-01

118

Isoprene synthase expression and protein levels are reduced under elevated O 3 but not under elevated CO 2 (FACE) in field-grown aspen trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission of hydrocarbons by trees has a crucial role in the oxidizingpotentialoftheatmosphere.Inparticular,isoprene oxidation leads to the formation of tropospheric ozone and othersecondarypollutants.Itisexpectedthatchangesinthe composition of the atmosphere will influence the emission rateofisoprene,whichmayinturnfeedbackontheaccumu- lation of pollutants and greenhouse gases. We investigated the isoprene synthase (ISPS) gene expression and the ISPS protein levels in aspen trees exposed to elevated ozone (O3) and\\/or elevated

CARLO CALFAPIETRA; AMY E. WIBERLEY; TANYA G. FALBEL; AUTUMN R. LINSKEY; GIUSEPPE SCARASCIA MUGNOZZA; DAVID F. KARNOSKY; FRANCESCO LORETO; THOMAS D. SHARKEY

2007-01-01

119

Rapid and sensitive enzymatic-radiochemical assay for the determination of triglycerides  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic-radiochemical method suitable for the determination of triglyceride levels of cells in culture is described. The method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids which then complex with /sup 63/Ni. The method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. The procedure extends the sensitivity of triglyceride measurement to as low as 0.25 nanomoles.

Khoo, J.C.; Miller, E.; Goldberg, D.I.

1987-07-01

120

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Prime Aortic Endothelium for an Enhanced Inflammatory Response to Tumor  

E-print Network

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Prime Aortic Endothelium for an Enhanced Inflammatory Response, Anne A. Knowlton, Anthony G. Passerini, Scott I. Simon Abstract--High levels of triglyceride. (Circ Res. 2007;100:381-390.) Key Words: triglyceride-rich lipoprotein endothelium monocyte NF B

Simon, Scott I.

121

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

122

Elevated Serum Levels of Visfatin in Patients with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura  

PubMed Central

Background Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an immune complex-mediated disease predominantly characterized by the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing immunoglobulin A (IgA) on the walls of small vessels. Although the pathogenesis of HSP is not yet fully understood, some researchers proposed that B-cell activation might play a critical role in the development of this disease. Objective To investigate the serum levels of visfatin (pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor), B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), and CXCL13, and to analyze their association with disease severity. Methods The serum levels of visfatin, BAFF, and CXCL13 were measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 patients with HSP and 45 controls. The serum levels of IgA anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) were detected by using a double-antigen sandwich ELISA. Results Levels of visfatin but not BAFF and CXCL13 were significantly elevated in the sera of patients with HSP in the acute stage, and restored to normal levels in the convalescent stage. Furthermore, serum levels of visfatin were significantly higher in patients with HSP having renal involvement than in those without renal involvement. Serum levels of visfatin were correlated with the severity of HSP and serum concentration of ACA-IgA. Conclusion We show for the first time that the serum levels of visfatin are abnormally elevated in patients with HSP. Visfatin may be associated with the pathogenesis of HSP. PMID:24966628

Cao, Na; Chen, Tao; Li, Meng-Meng; Jiao, Xiao-Yan

2014-01-01

123

Triglyceride accumulation in injured renal tubular cells: Alterations in both synthetic and catabolic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride accumulation in injured renal tubular cells: Alterations in synthetic and catabolic pathways.BackgroundTriglycerides can accumulate in injured tissues, a process thought to represent flux of excess, cytotoxic, free fatty acids into nontoxic triglyceride storage pools. However, this view may be overly simplistic, given that multiple pathways may impact triglyceride levels. This study sought new insights into this issue.MethodsCultured human proximal

Ali C. M. Johnson; ANDREAS STAHL; Richard A. Zager

2005-01-01

124

Low LDL-C and High HDL-C Levels Are Associated with Elevated Serum Transaminases amongst Adults in the United States: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Dyslipidemia, typically recognized as high serum triglyceride, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, low LDL-C levels could result from defects in lipoprotein metabolism or impaired liver synthetic function, and may serve as ab initio markers for unrecognized liver diseases. Whether such relationships exist in the general population has not been investigated. We hypothesized that despite common conception that low LDL-C is desirable, it might be associated with elevated liver enzymes due to metabolic liver diseases. Methods and Findings We examined the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and major components of serum lipid profiles in a nationally representative sample of 23,073 individuals, who had no chronic viral hepatitis and were not taking lipid-lowering medications, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. ALT and AST exhibited non-linear U-shaped associations with LDL-C and HDL-C, but not with triglyceride. After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals with LDL-C less than 40 and 41–70 mg/dL were associated with 4.2 (95% CI 1.5–11.7, p?=?0.007) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.1–2.5, p?=?0.03) times higher odds of abnormal liver enzymes respectively, when compared with those with LDL-C values 71–100 mg/dL (reference group). Surprisingly, those with HDL-C levels above 100 mg/dL was associated with 3.2 (95% CI 2.1–5.0, p<0.001) times higher odds of abnormal liver enzymes, compared with HDL-C values of 61–80 mg/dL. Conclusions Both low LDL-C and high HDL-C, often viewed as desirable, were associated with significantly higher odds of elevated transaminases in the general U.S. adult population. Our findings underscore an underestimated biological link between lipoprotein metabolism and liver diseases, and raise a potential need for liver evaluation among over 10 million people with particularly low LDL-C or high HDL-C in the United States. PMID:24454851

Jiang, Zhenghui Gordon; Mukamal, Kenneth; Tapper, Elliot; Robson, Simon C.; Tsugawa, Yusuke

2014-01-01

125

Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7?h after Intranasal Administration  

PubMed Central

We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n?=?18) or 24 IU (n?=?10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n?=?18), and each hour after administration, for 7?h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ among conditions before use of the nasal spray. Salivary oxytocin levels in the placebo group showed high stability across the day. After oxytocin administration oxytocin levels markedly increased, they peaked around 1?h after administration, and were still significantly elevated 7?h after administration. The amount of oxytocin (16 or 24 IU) did not make a difference for oxytocin levels. The increase of oxytocin levels for at least 7?h shows how effective intranasal administration of oxytocin is. Our findings may raise ethical questions about potentially persisting behavioral effects after participants have left the lab setting. More research into the long-term neurological and behavioral effects of sniffs of oxytocin is urgently needed. PMID:23233832

van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

2012-01-01

126

Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that

Cesare Mondadori; Thomas Ducret; Albert Hiiusler

1992-01-01

127

Elevated Circulating Free Fatty Acid Levels Impair Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that insulin-resistant obese sub- jects exhibit impaired endothelial function. Here, we test the hypothesis that elevation of circulating FFA to levels seen in insulin-resistant subjects can impair endothelial function. We studied leg blood flow responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (Mch) or the endothelium-indepen- dent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside during the

Helmut O. Steinberg; Manal Tarshoby; Robert Monestel; Ginger Hook; Jessica Cronin; Ann Johnson; Basel Bayazeed; Alain D. Baron

128

Control of a four-level elevator system using a programmable logic controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project reports on the design and implementation of a PLC-based controller for a four- level elevator. The PLC used is an Omron Sysmac C20K with 12 inputs and 8 outputs. The design incorporates an intelligent controller that services all the requests in an energy-saving way, rather than on a first-come, first-served basis. Some suggestions on how to extend this

L. Cheded

129

Elevated IL-6 levels in patients with atypical depression but not in patients with typical depression.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are among the most consistent findings in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Additionally, some evidence suggests that elevated cytokine levels in patients with major depression are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome in patients suffering from MDD. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the concentrations of IL-6 in specific subtypes of MDD and to investigate their relationship to metabolic factors. Twenty-four patients with typical (24) and atypical (eight) major depression according to DSM-IV criteria were studied and compared to 24 normal controls. Blood samples were collected during a stepwise glucose-clamp procedure, and IL-6 concentrations were measured by high sensitivity ELISA. IL-6 levels were elevated in patients suffering from atypical depression but not in patients with typical depression, compared to normal controls. IL-6 correlated significantly with HbA1c, insulin, waist girth, BMI, number of alcoholic drinks per week and C-reactive protein. Our data indicate that high concentrations of IL-6 during the glucose clamp may be limited to the atypical subgroup of patients with MDD. PMID:24673855

Rudolf, Sebastian; Greggersen, Wiebke; Kahl, Kai Gustav; Hüppe, Michael; Schweiger, Ulrich

2014-06-30

130

Elevated Plasma SPARC Levels Are Associated with Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, and Inflammation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies suggested that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a novel adipokine, is a key player in the pathology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of SPARC were altered in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) controls and to investigate the relationships between SPARC and metabolic parameters in pregnant women. Design/Methods Cross-sectional study of 120 pregnant women with GDM and 60 controls with NGT, in a university hospital setting. Plasma levels of SPARC, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), insulin and proinsulin were determined by ELISA. Results GDM women had higher SPARC and lower adiponectin than NGT subjects; no difference was found in FGF21. SPARC levels were the lowest in subjects in the third tertile of insulin sensitivity index (ISIOGTT) and correlated positively with pre-pregnant BMI, insulin and 3 h glucose during 100-g OGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting proinsulin, hsCRP and white blood cells count, and negatively with ISIOGTT, when adjusting for gestational age. Triglyceride (TG), Apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) correlated with SPARC in partial Pearson correlation. Correlations between SPARC with adiponectin, systolic blood pressure and TG were marginally significant in partial Spearman correlation analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, SPARC was an independent negative indicator of ISIOGTT. Conclusions SPARC levels are correlated significantly with inflammation and may also be correlated with dyslipidemia and represent an independent determinant of insulin resistance in late pregnancy, indicating a potential role of SPARC in the pathophysiology of GDM. PMID:24349098

Xu, Lu; Ping, Fan; Yin, Jinhua; Xiao, Xinhua; Xiang, Hongding; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wu, Huaizhu; Li, Ming

2013-01-01

131

Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity  

PubMed Central

Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Methods: Serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were measured in 101 obese children and in 40 controls. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 51 obese children and in 15 controls. Results: Serum TSH level was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (2.78 vs. 1.99 mIU/L, p<0.001), while no difference was found in fT4, fT3, rT3 levels and in fT3/rT3 ratio. In the obese group, fT3 level positively correlated with fT4 (r=0.217, p=0.033) and inversely with rT3 (r=-0.288, p=0.045). However, thyroid hormone levels and TSH levels were not correlated. Conclusion: In obese children, normal fT4, fT3 and rT3 levels suggest an undisturbed peripheral hormone metabolism. These levels show no correlation with elevated TSH levels. PMID:24932603

Lobotková, Denisa; Staníková, Daniela; Staník, Juraj; Cervenová, Ol’ga; Bzdúch, Vladimír; Tichá, L’ubica

2014-01-01

132

ApoC-III and visceral adipose tissue contribute to paradoxically normal triglyceride levels in insulin-resistant African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background African-Americans are more insulin-resistant than whites but have lower triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The metabolic basis for this is unknown. Our goal was to determine in a cross-sectional study the effect of insulin resistance, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the apolipoproteins, B, C-III and E, on race differences in TG content of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Methods The participants were 31 women (16 African-American, 15 white) of similar age (37?±?9 vs. 38?±?11y (mean?±?SD), P =?0.72) and BMI (32.4?±?7.2 vs. 29.3?±?6.0 kg/m2, P =?0.21). A standard diet (33% fat, 52% carbohydrate, 15% protein) was given for 7 days followed by a test meal (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate, 20% protein) on Day 8. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from the minimal model. VAT was measured at L2-3. The influence of race, SI, VAT and apolipoproteins on the TG content of VLDL was determined by random effects models (REM). Results African-Americans were more insulin-resistant (SI: 3.6?±?1.3 vs. 5.6?±?2.6 mU/L-1.min-1, P

2013-01-01

133

The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.  

PubMed

Although elevated ground-level O3 has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O3-tolerant (YD6) and the O3-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O3. PMID:25576991

Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

2015-02-01

134

Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

2007-01-01

135

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

2000-01-01

136

Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress*  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2, especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2. The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2. Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

2011-01-01

137

Prediction of assisted reproductive technique outcome in elevated early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone with Mullerian inhibiting substance level  

PubMed Central

Background: Detection of best predictor of ovarian reserve in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH is one of the most important goals in assisted reproductive technique (ART). Objective: To evaluate whether high level of anti-mullerian hormone level is related to success of ART in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH. Materials and Methods: Sixty three women underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with GnRH-agonist long protocol or intrauterine insemination (IUI) in a prospective cohort study. FSH, inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured in these women whom were divided to three groups (persistently elevated FSH, variably elevated FSH and, normal FSH level). Basal characteristics, stimulation parameters, and pregnancy occurrence were evaluated. Results: AMH was significantly higher in women with persistently elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy. Women with normal FSH did not have significant difference in AMH level between conceived and non conceived cycles. Women with only one elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy did not have significant difference in AMH level with non pregnant women. Response to gonadotropin stimulation, recommendation to oocyte donation significantly differed between the groups. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that relatively young women with persistently or intermittently elevated day 3 FSH levels have diminished ovarian reserve and lower ART success. However, in women whose FSH levels were constantly elevated, AMH (not inhibin B) concentrations were significantly higher in ART cycles resulting in pregnancy. Therefore, AMH level is a good predictor of ART outcome in patients with elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH. PMID:25242994

Safdarian, Leili; Khayatzadeh, Zahra; Djavadi, Ebrahim; Mahdavi, Atossa; Aghahosseini, Marzieh; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Fallahi, Parvin; Khayatzadeh, Sima; Ahmadzadeh, Arash; Larijani, Mohhamad Bagher

2012-01-01

138

Successful Treatment of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia with a Formula Diet Rich in Omega–3 Fatty Acids and Medium-Chain Triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with highly increased plasma triglyceride levels are at risk of developing serious complications such as pancreatitis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore it is important to rapidly decrease plasma triglyceride levels. A sufficient control of triglyceride levels with drugs like fibrates, statins or nicotinic acid can usually only be attained after a couple of weeks. Plasma exchange appears

Annette Hauenschild; Reinhard G. Bretzel; Henning Schnell-Kretschmer; Hans-Ulrich Kloer; Philip D. Hardt; Nils Ewald

2010-01-01

139

Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level anomaly. No significant increase in wave height was observed during this period, suggesting that the increase in beach erosion resulted from the sea-level anomaly. The sites that were strongly impacted by the sea-level anomaly did not fully recover from the beach erosion and consequently experienced large amounts of erosion in response to Hurricane Irene in 2011. These results suggest that long duration (weeks to months) high water levels cause changes to the beach similar to those generally thought to occur only during large storms. Dune erosion from higher sea levels weakens a beaches defense to storms, leading to increased beach erosion and overwash if a storm occurs before the beach can recover. It is likely that similar high water events will increase in duration and magnitude with future climate change, leading to increased "fair-weather" beach erosion and priming the system for devastating hurricane impacts.

Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

2012-12-01

140

Long-term Surface Elevation Change in Salt Marshes: a Prediction of Marsh Response to Future Sea-Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accretion rates and surface elevation changes were measured in three natural salt marshes in the Wadden Sea. Derived from these measurements, a simple predictive model was made which describes changes in surface elevation during more than 100 years of salt-marsh development at several sea-level rise scenarios. The model was tested with data on long-term surface elevation changes at several successional

H. J. van Wijnen; J. P. Bakker

2001-01-01

141

Sarcoidosis presenting with massive pleural effusion and elevated serum and pleural fluid carbohydrate antigen-125 levels.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old woman was admitted for an elevated serum carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125) level, and a left pleural effusion, which were detected at a routine health examination. Computed tomography of the chest was performed upon admission, revealing extensive bilateral paratracheal and mediastinal lymph node enlargement with a massive left-sided pleural effusion. Subsequent analysis of the pleural fluid demonstrated consistency with an exudate, no evidence of malignant cells, and a normal adenosine deaminase. However, the pleural fluid and serum CA-125 levels were 2,846.8 U/mL and 229.5 U/mL, respectively. A positron emission tomography did not reveal any primary focus of malignancy. Finally, a surgical mediastinoscopic biopsy of several mediastinal lymph nodes was performed, revealing non-necrotizing granulomas, consistent with sarcoidosis. After a month of treatment of prednisolone, the left pleural effusion had resolved, and after 2 months the serum CA-125 level was normalized. PMID:23319994

Lee, In Seon; Kim, Sae Byul; Moon, Chan Soo; Jung, Sung Mo; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Park, Moo Suk

2012-12-01

142

The ontogeny of individual vs. stand-level responses to elevated CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Plant species appear to differ widely in terms of growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2]; however, most existing comparative data are limited to observations made early in the ontogeny on plants grown an isolated individuals. We examined growth responses to elevated CO[sub 2] in nine species of herbaceous plants, including three erect annuals (genera included Abutilon, Ambrosia, and Cassia) three grasses (Dactylis, Lolium, Panicum), and three rosette species (Plantago, Rumex, and Taraxacum), each grown as isolated individuals and as dense monocultures in ambient (350 ppm) and 2X ambient (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] atmospheres in a glasshouse over 5-6 mo. Soil texture, depth, and nutrient conditions matched those of waste areas in western Massachusetts. On the basis of non-destructive estimates of leaf area index (LAI), all species exhibited large early growth responses to CO[sub 2], ranging up to 50-120%. However, later in stand ontogeny LAI consistently converged between CO[sub 2] treatments, eventually becoming lower at ambient than at elevated CO[sub 2] in most species. Final total biomass effects at the stand level were in the range of 0-10% enhancements, with no consistent differences among growth forms. Reproductive output was significantly reduced by elevated CO[sub 2] in several species, including some with very high early growth enhancements. Our results strongly suggest that CO[sub 2] effects on early growth of individual plants greatly overestimate longer term effects on species performance and net ecosystem carbon gain.

Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1994-06-01

143

Relationships between elevation, reproduction and the hematocrit level of brown-headed cowbirds.  

PubMed

Hematocrit, furcular fat level and oviducal egg presence were determined for 267 brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) at eight sites ranging from 15 to 2390 m above sea level in California. Near the end of the breeding season males at a mid-elevation site (1250 m) possessed higher hematocrits than females, but there was no difference between yearling and adult males. Birds were bled during three 11-day periods beginning 1 May 1984 at one montane site (2075 m). The percentage of females with oviducal eggs increased significantly from 0 to 10 to 67% and the mean female hematocrit increased from 0.54 to 0.56 and then decreased significantly to 0.52. The hematocrit of males increased significantly from 0.54 to 0.57 and then remained level during the final period. Correlations were calculated between mean hematocrit and elevation for males (r = 0.94, N = 8 sites, P less than 0.001), females (r = 0.96, N = 7 sites, P less than 0.001) and juveniles (r = 0.99, N = 4 sites, P less than 0.01). PMID:2870867

Keys, G C; Fleischer, R C; Rothstein, S I

1986-01-01

144

The effects of elevated endogenous GABA levels on movement-related network oscillations.  

PubMed

The EEG/MEG signal is generated primarily by the summation of the post-synaptic potentials of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons and cortical oscillations are thought to be dependent on the balance of excitation and inhibition between these cell types. To investigate the dependence of movement-related cortical oscillations on excitation-inhibition balance, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks GABA Transporter 1(GAT-1), the GABA uptake transporter and increases endogenous GABA activity. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in 15 healthy participants we administered either 15mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms, while the participants performed a movement task, prior to, one hour post, three hour post and five hour post tiagabine ingestion. Using time-frequency analysis of beamformer source reconstructions, we quantified the baseline level of beta activity (15-30Hz), the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR), beta event-related desynchronisation (beta-ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronisation (MRGS) (60-90Hz). Our results demonstrated that tiagabine, and hence elevated endogenous GABA levels causes, an elevation of baseline beta power, enhanced beta-ERD and reduced PMBR, but no modulation of MRGS. Comparing our results to recent literature (Hall et al., 2011) we suggest that beta-ERD may be a GABAA receptor mediated process while PMBR may be GABAB receptor mediated. PMID:23110884

Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Myers, J F M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Lingford-Hughes, A; Singh, K D; Hamandi, K

2013-02-01

145

Elevated serum levels of lysophosphatidic acid in patients with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

A plethora of studies have shown that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved both in inflammation and T cell apoptosis evasion. The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of LPA in serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty MS patients along with 20age-sex matched healthy individuals were recruited for this investigation. By employment of ELISA method, we demonstrated that MS patients had higher levels of LPA in serum than control group (P=0.006). This study is the first report of LPA elevation in MS disease. PMID:24530753

Balood, Mohammad; Zahednasab, Hamid; Siroos, Bahaaddin; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Torbati, Sara; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

2014-05-01

146

Elevation of serum CXCL16 level correlates well with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Currently there are no reliable biological markers for ischemic stroke. The novel chemokine CXCL16 is known to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the real role of CXCL16 in atherosclerotic disorders remains uncertain. The goal of our study was to investigate the associations between serum-soluble CXCL16 level and atherosclerotic ischemic stroke, including large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small artery occlusion (SAO) subtypes, and to explore whether elevation in CXCL16 levels is correlated with the severity of large arterial stenosis. Material and methods The study recruited 227 subjects, including 74 controls and 153 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke from atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. The etiology of the acute ischemic strokes was classified into LAA (n = 86) subtype and SAO (n = 67) subtype according to the TOAST criteria, and the severity of carotid artery stenosis was assessed by the NASCET criteria. Serum-soluble CXCL16 concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum CXCL16 concentrations were significantly increased in both LAA (2.36 ng/ml) and SAO subtypes (2.13 ng/ml) when compared to that of the controls (2.04 ng/ml, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), and it was significantly elevated in LAA subtype than in SAO subtype (p < 0.05). However, significant differences in CXCL16 levels between the high-grade stenosis group (2.36 ng/ml) and moderate-grade stenosis group (2.24 ng/ml) of LAA subtype were not found (p > 0.05). A correlation of serum levels of CXCL16 with serum levels of hs-CRP, fibrinogen and lipid parameters was not observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions Increased serum level of soluble CXCL16 was independently associated with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke, particularly LAA subtype. PMID:24701213

Ma, Aijun; Xing, Yubo; Wu, Mei; Wang, Yuan; Ma, Cuiling

2014-01-01

147

Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to babysit for the day had significantly higher levels of prolactin, coupled with lower levels of cortisol, before initiating a babysitting session compared with similarly aged individuals that decided to forage. In addition, these hormonal differences disappeared over the course of the day, suggesting that hormone levels changed in a fundamentally different way in meerkats that babysat versus those that foraged. In contrast, long-term contributions to babysitting were not significantly associated with plasma levels of prolactin, cortisol, or testosterone in individual male helpers. Our results show, for the first time, that elevated levels of prolactin may immediately precede bouts of helping behavior but differ from recent findings on the same study population in which plasma levels of cortisol, but not prolactin, were significantly and positively associated with rates of pup feeding by male helpers. Together, these results lend significant weight to the idea that decisions to help in cooperative vertebrates have a hormonal basis, although different hormones appear to be associated with different types of care. PMID:16527276

Carlson, Anne A; Russell, Andrew F; Young, Andrew J; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Parlow, Al F; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2006-06-01

148

Elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal in body. Impairment in skeletal muscle glucose handling capacity leads to the state of insulin resistance. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) cytokine has now emerged as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function. However, the role of TWEAK in skeletal muscle metabolic function remains less understood. Here, we demonstrate that with progressive age, skeletal muscle-specific TWEAK-transgenic (TWEAK-Tg) mice gain increased body weight (?16%) and fat mass (?64%) and show glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. TWEAK-Tg mice also exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy in the epididymal fat. Oxygen uptake, voluntary physical activity, and exercise capacity were significantly reduced in TWEAK-Tg mice compared with controls. Overexpression of TWEAK inhibited (?31%) 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced (?31%) the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) without affecting the Akt pathway. TWEAK also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (?32%) and repressed the levels of GLUT4 (?50%) in cultured myotubes from C57BL6 mice. TWEAK represses the levels of Krüppel-like factor 15; myocyte enhancer factor 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, which are required for the activation of the GLUT4 locus. Collectively our study demonstrates that elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle cause metabolic abnormalities. Inhibition of TWEAK could be a potential approach to prevent weight gain and type 2 diabetes.-Sato, S., Ogura, Y., Tajrishi, M. M., Kumar, A. Elevated levels ofTWEAKin skeletalmuscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:25466899

Sato, Shuichi; Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Kumar, Ashok

2014-12-01

149

Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations  

SciTech Connect

The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

1993-11-01

150

Neurotensin stimulates exocytotic histamine secretion from rat mast cells and elevates plasma histamine levels.  

PubMed Central

1. Neurotensin stimulated histamine release and granule extrusion when applied to isolated rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. This secretory response was prevented by the removal of calcium or energy and was not accompanied by the release of lactic dehydrogenase. 3. The secretory response produced by neurotensin was prevented by prior treatment of mast cells with cromoglycate. 4. The intravenous injection of neurotensin into anaesthetized rats produced a rapid and significant increase in the level of blood histamine that was dependent upon the dose of neurotensin. 5. Treatment of rats with compound 48/80, 24 hr before neurotensin, abolished the elevation in blood histamine caused by neurotensin. The intravenous injection of cromoglycate 1-2 min before neurotensin greatly reduced the response to neurotensin. 6. The intradermal injection of neurotensin (0.03-30 p-mole) increased capillary permeability in rats pre-treated intravenously with Evans Blue. This response was abolished by the antihistamine, diphenhydramine. Increasing the dose of neurotensin to 300 p-mole partially overcame this inhibition by diphenhydramine. 7. Our results demonstrate that neurotensin can elicit an exocytotic secretory response from isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and elevate histamine levels in blood. It is suggested that some of neurotensin's physiological effects may be due to stimulation of mast cell secretion. Images Plate 1 PMID:6178820

Carraway, R; Cochrane, D E; Lansman, J B; Leeman, S E; Paterson, B M; Welch, H J

1982-01-01

151

Elevated Urine Heparanase Levels Are Associated with Proteinuria and Decreased Renal Allograft Function  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endo-?-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome. PMID:23028487

Shafat, Itay; Agbaria, Amir; Boaz, Mona; Schwartz, Doron; Baruch, Ronny; Nakash, Richard; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Weinstein, Talia

2012-01-01

152

Elevated serum levels of neutrophil elastase in patients with influenza virus-associated encephalopathy.  

PubMed

We examined serum levels of various cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules in patients with uncomplicated influenza (n=20) and influenza virus-associated encephalopathy (IE) (n=18) to understand the underlying mechanism of IE. We found that IL-1?, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-?, TIMP-1, MMP-9, sE-selectin, and neutrophil elastase were elevated significantly in sera from patients with uncomplicated influenza and those with IE, compared with normal controls (n=20). Of note, neutrophil elastase, sE-selectin, IL-8, and IL-13 were elevated significantly in IE as compared with uncomplicated influenza. In the present study, for the first time, we found that serum levels of neutrophil elastase were increased in patients with IE compared with uncomplicated influenza, which suggested that cerebral endothelial damage in the development of IE was mediated by neutrophil elastase. The present study implied that anti-elastase agents are possibly an effective therapeutic protocol for IE, but this needs further elucidation. PMID:25626769

Sun, Guilian; Ota, Chiharu; Kitaoka, Setsuko; Chiba, Yoko; Takayanagi, Masaru; Kitamura, Taro; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Fujie, Hiromi; Mikami, Hitoshi; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

2015-02-15

153

Peritoneal tuberculosis with elevated serum CA 125 level mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis between tuberculous peritonitis and peritonitis carcinomatosis is extremely difficult in patients with ascites, peritoneal implants and elevated CA 125 level. A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal distention, intermittent fever and weight loss. Physical examination and radiologic studies revealed massive ascites, generalized peritoneal thickening and slightly enlarged right ovary with a cystic mass and left pleural effusion. Serum CA 125 was 939 U/L (normal range: 0-35 U/L) and other tumor markers including alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were within normal range. Acid-fast stain and culture were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy and biopsy were performed with the presumptive diagnosis of peritonitis carcinomatosis, and histologic examination revealed multiple granulomas with epithelioid cells and caseification necrosis which confirmed tuberculosis. Quadruple anti-tuberculosis treatment was administered and the patient's clinical findings and serum CA 125 level returned to normal. In conclusion, tuberculous peritonitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with ascites and elevated serum CA 125. This marker may be useful in monitoring treatment response. PMID:16562790

Corapçio?lu, Funda; Güvenç, B Haluk; Sarper, Nazan; Aydo?an, Ay?en; Akansel, Gür; Arisoy, Emin Sami

2006-01-01

154

Elevated levels of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer disease patients.  

PubMed

Neurofilament (NF) subunits NF-H, NF-M and NF-L are hyperphosphorylated and elevated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. We investigated the level and phosphorylation states of NF subunits in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from living patients by bienzyme substrate-recycle enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found: (i), that the levels of phosphorylated NF-H/M (pNF-H/M), non-phosphorylated NF-H/M (npNF-H/M) and NF-L were significantly higher (pNF-H/M, approximately 12-24-fold; npNF-H/M, approximately 3-4-fold) in neurologically healthy aged people than young control individuals; (ii), that in AD, the levels of npNF-H/M, and NF-L were similar to vascular dementia (VaD), and higher than in age-matched controls; and (iii), that the levels of pNF-H/M were significantly higher than in aged controls, non-AD neurological disorders and VaD. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the increased level of total NF proteins in CSF could be used as a marker for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders in general, and the levels of pNF-H/M as a marker to discriminate AD from normal brain aging and as well as neurological conditions including VaD. PMID:11852185

Hu, Yuan-Yuan; He, Shan-Shu; Wang, Xiao-Chuang; Duan, Qiu-Hong; Khatoon, Sabiha; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Wang, Jian-Zhi

2002-03-01

155

Areas of the United States with elevated screening levels of 222Rn  

SciTech Connect

As part of an Environmental Protection Agency/State cooperative program, 38 of the 48 contiguous states have successfully conducted probability-based surveys of indoor 222Rn. These surveys produced short-term screening measurements in approximately 55,000 randomly selected houses. An objective common to all surveys was to identify geographic regions within the state with elevated screening levels of 222Rn. This paper examines the survey results as they relate to this objective. The 38 states were partitioned into 225 geographic regions and summary statistics of 222Rn concentrations (e.g., arithmetic mean, geometric mean, percentage of houses exceeding a specified level) and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each region. Twenty-four of the 225 regions had arithmetic means exceeding 222 Bq m-3 (6 pCi L-1); these are analyzed in detail.

Alexander, B.; Rodman, N.; White, S.B.; Phillips, J. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1994-01-01

156

Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

157

Elevation of rat brain tyrosine levels by phenelzine is mediated by its active metabolite ?-phenylethylidenehydrazine.  

PubMed

Phenelzine, a non-selective irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), has been used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders for several decades. It is a unique inhibitor of MAO as it is also a substrate for MAO, with one of the metabolites being ?-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), and it also inhibits several transaminases (e.g. GABA transaminase) in the brain when administered i.p. to rats. Administration of either phenelzine or PEH to rats has been reported to produce dramatic increases in rat brain levels of GABA and alanine while reducing levels of glutamine; these effects are abolished for phenelzine, but not for PEH, when the animals are pre-treated with another MAO inhibitor, suggesting that they are mediated by the MAO-catalyzed formation of PEH from phenelzine. In the present report, we have found that phenelzine and E- and Z-geometric isomers of PEH significantly increased rat whole brain concentrations of L-tyrosine. In a time-response study, acute administration of phenelzine, E-PEH and Z-PEH (30 mg/kg i.p.) elevated rat whole brain L-tyrosine levels at 3 and 6h following injection, reaching approximately 265-305% of vehicle-treated controls at 3h. To determine whether the effect on L-tyrosine is MAO-dependent, animals were pre-treated with the non-selective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine (1mg/kg i.p.) prior to administration of phenelzine, racemic PEH or vehicle controls. This pre-treatment reversed the effects of phenelzine, but not of PEH, on brain L-tyrosine levels, suggesting that the tyrosine-elevating property of phenelzine is largely the result of its active metabolite PEH. These results are discussed in relation to possible therapeutic applications of these drugs. PMID:24607770

Matveychuk, Dmitriy; Nunes, Emerson; Ullah, Nasir; Aldawsari, Fahad S; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A; Baker, Glen B

2014-08-01

158

Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN. PMID:24396416

TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

2014-01-01

159

Elevated plasma visfatin levels correlate with conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery in acute cholecystitis.  

PubMed

Visfatin correlates with inflammation and its levels in peripheral blood are associated with some inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to assess the relationship between plasma visfatin levels and conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery in acute cholecystitis. One hundred and forty-six acute cholecystitis patients and 146 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited and their plasma visfatin levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. 17 patients (11.6%) underwent conversion. Plasma visfatin levels were statistically significantly elevated in all patients (97.2±41.8ng/mL), those with (161.4±71.3ng/mL) or without conversion (88.7±26.9ng/mL), compared to controls (40.3±13.3ng/mL, all P<0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that plasma visfatin levels were positively associated with plasma C-reactive protein levels (t=0.510, P<0.001). A logistic-regression analysis showed that age [odds ratio (OR) 1.160, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.011-1.332, P=0.035] and plasma visfatin levels (OR 1.035, 95% CI 1.005-1.066, P=0.022) appeared to be the independent predictors of conversion. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that plasma visfatin levels predicted conversion with high area under curve (AUC) (AUC, 850; 95% CI, 0.781-0.903). The AUC of the visfatin concentration was similar to that of age (AUC, 0.738; 95% CI, 0.659-0.807) (P=0.188). Visfatin improved the AUC of age to 0.914 (95% CI, 0.856-0.954) (P=0.011) using a combined logistic-regression model. Thus, high plasma levels of visfatin are associated with systemic inflammation, and may independently predict conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery in acute cholecystitis. PMID:25086268

Xie, Kai-Gang; Teng, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Shui-Yin; Qiu, Xiong-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Ming; Hong, Xiao-Ming

2014-10-01

160

Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute interstitial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. We hypothesized that HSP47 could be a useful marker for fibrotic lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of HSP47 in patients with various idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods Subjects comprised 9 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), 12 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), 16 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 19 healthy adult volunteers. Results Patients with AIP had serum HSP47 levels that were significantly higher than those of COP, NSIP or IPF patients and those of healthy volunteers. In contrast, serum levels of HSP47 among patients with COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between AIP and COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy controls was 859.3 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that, among patients with various IIPs, serum levels of HSP47 were elevated specifically in patients with AIP. PMID:24650086

2014-01-01

161

Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

2014-01-01

162

Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

Ahluwalia, A.

1996-08-01

163

Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ?100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer. PMID:24624890

Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

2014-05-01

164

Triglycerides-based diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are under way in many countries, including India, to search for suitable alternative diesel fuels that are environment friendly. The need to search for these fuels arises mainly from the standpoint of preserving the global environment and the concern about long-term supplies of conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. Among the different possible sources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils\\/animal

Anjana Srivastava; Ram Prasad

2000-01-01

165

Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.  

PubMed

Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1? was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )). PMID:25433580

Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogo?anu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neam?u, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Bi??, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

2015-02-01

166

Elevated level of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients with cardiac ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the blood system to sites of ischemia and endothelial damage, where they contribute to the repair and development of blood vessels. Since numerous eicosanoids including leukotrienes (LTs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) have been shown to exert potent pro-inflammatory activities, we examined their levels in chronic diabetic patients with severe cardiac ischemia in conjunction with the level and function of EPCs. Results Lipidomic analysis revealed a diabetes-specific increase (p<0.05) in inflammatory and angiogenic eicosanoids including the 5-lipoxygenase-derived LTB4 (4.11±1.17 vs 0.96±0.27 ng/ml), the lipoxygenase/CYP-derived 12-HETE (117.08±35.05 vs 24.34±10.03 ng/ml), 12-HETrE (17.56±4.43 vs 4.15±2.07 ng/ml), and the CYP-derived 20-HETE (0.32±0.04 vs 0.06±0.05 ng/ml) the level of which correlated with BMI (p=0.0027). In contrast, levels of the CYP-derived EETs were not significantly (p= 0.36) different between these two groups. EPC levels and their colony forming units were lower (p<0.05) with a reduced viability in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetics. EPC function (Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) and MTT assay) also negatively correlated with the circulating levels of HgA1C. Conclusion This study demonstrates a close association between elevated levels of highly pro-inflammatory eicosonoids, diabetes and EPC dysfunction in patients with cardiac ischemia, indicating that chronic inflammation impact negatively on EPC function and angiogenic capacity in diabetes. PMID:23291334

Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Guo, Austin; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Porat, Eyal; Snir, Eitan; Thompson, Carl I.; Abraham, Nader G.; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

2015-01-01

167

Elevated Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. Methods We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40%) and 47 non-PGD subjects (59%) received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p?=?0.03). The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p?=?0.02); there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p?=?0.9). Conclusions Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated. PMID:23284823

Cantu, Edward; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shah, Rupal J.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2012-01-01

168

Growth of Eastern Cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in elevated [CO2] stimulates stand-level respiration and  

E-print Network

of the vegetation, and the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on soil respiration and carbon storage are poorlyGrowth of Eastern Cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in elevated [CO2] stimulates stand of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) to examine the effects of prolonged exposure to elevated [CO2] on carbon flux

Barron-Gafford, Greg

169

Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 ?g/dL with a mean of 15.3 ?g/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 ?g/dL with a mean of 9.94 ?g/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 ?g/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

2007-01-01

170

Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic conditions whereas the total annual sum is not climatically dependent. Nutrient cycles of Kilimanjaro forest ecosystems are significantly altered by land use and the associated changes of dominant tree species.

Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

171

Large particles are responsible for elevated bacterial marker levels in school air upon occupation.  

PubMed

Muramic acid (Mur) is found in bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) whereas 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) are found in Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thus Mur and 3-OH FAs serve as markers to assess bacterial levels in indoor air. An initial survey, in a school, demonstrated that the levels of dust, PG and LPS (pmol m(-3)) were each much higher in occupied rooms than in the same rooms when unoccupied. In each instance, the Mur content of dust was increased and the hydroxy fatty acid distribution changed similarly suggesting an alteration in the bacterial population. Here, findings are compared with results from two additional schools. Follow-up aerosol monitoring by particle size was also performed for the first time for all 3 schools. The particle size distribution was shown to be quite different in occupied versus unoccupied schoolrooms. Within individual classrooms, concentrations of airborne particles [greater-than-or-equal]0.8 [micro sign]m in diameter, and CO(2) were correlated. This suggests that the increased levels of larger particles are responsible for elevation of bacterial markers during occupation. Release of culturable and non-culturable bacteria or bacterial aggregates from children (e.g. from flaking skin) might explain this phenomenon. PMID:15877165

Fox, Alvin; Harley, William; Feigley, Charles; Salzberg, Deborah; Toole, Charlotte; Sebastian, Aleksandra; Larsson, Lennart

2005-05-01

172

Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. PMID:25481356

Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

2015-03-01

173

High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid.  

PubMed

CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood. Here, we present data obtained in Sipunculus nudus, a sediment-dwelling marine worm that is able to undergo drastic metabolic depression to survive regular exposure to elevated CO2 levels within its natural habitat. We investigated animal survival and the proximate biochemical body composition during long-term CO2 exposure. Results indicate an unexpected and pronounced sensitivity characterized by the delayed onset of enhanced mortality at CO2 levels within the natural range of concentrations. Therefore, the present study contrasts the previously assumed high-CO2 tolerance of animals adapted to temporary hypercapnia. As a consequence, we expect future loss of species and, thereby, detrimental effects on marine benthic ecosystems with as yet poorly defined critical thresholds of long-term tolerance to CO2. PMID:15451607

Langenbuch, M; Pörtner, H O

2004-10-18

174

Elevated serum TRAIL levels in scleroderma patients and its possible association with pulmonary involvement.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of some autoimmune diseases as systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, and multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess serum TRAIL concentration in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and to investigate its possible association with various disease parameters. Thirty SSc patients as well as 25 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 25 healthy volunteers were included in the present study. Organ system involvement in SSc patients was investigated. Pulmonary function tests as well as chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were done to detect pulmonary involvement in our patients. TRAIL concentrations were measured in the sera of SSc patients, RA patients and healthy controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean serum TRAIL levels were significantly higher in SSc patients than in the control RA patients and in healthy controls (p?levels were significantly higher in SSc patients with pulmonary involvement and were significantly correlated with HRCT scores. Serum TRAIL levels are significantly elevated in SSc patients and are associated with SSc-associated pulmonary involvement denoting a possible role of TRAIL in the pathogenesis of SSc. Further studies may be needed to confirm these findings and the possible use of TRAIL in detection and possibly treatment of SSc-associated pulmonary disease. PMID:22729471

Azab, Noha A; Rady, Hanaa M; Marzouk, Samar A

2012-09-01

175

Elevated tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor circulating levels in ischaemic heart disease patients.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that thrombosis and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD). In particular, Tissue Factor (TF) is responsible for the thrombogenicity of the atherosclerotic plaque and plays a key role in triggering thrombin generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TF/Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI) system in patients with IHD. We have studied 55 patients with IHD and not on heparin [18 with unstable angina (UA), 24 with effort angina (EA) and 13 with previous myocardial infarction (MI)] and 48 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers, by measuring plasma levels of TF, TFPI, Prothrombin Fragment 1-2 (F1+2), and Thrombin Antithrombin Complexes (TAT). TF plasma levels in IHD patients (median 215.4 pg/ml; range 72.6 to 834.3 pg/ml) were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those found in control subjects (median 142.5 pg/ml; range 28.0-255.3 pg/ml). Similarly, TFPI plasma levels in IHD patients were significantly higher (median 129.0 ng/ml; range 30.3-316.8 ng/ml; p<0.001) than those found in control subjects (median 60.4 ng/ml; range 20.8-151.3 ng/ml). UA patients showed higher amounts of TF and TFPI plasma levels (TF median 255.6 pg/ml; range 148.8-834.3 pg/ml; TFPI median 137.7 ng/ml; range 38.3-316.8 ng/ml) than patients with EA (TF median 182.0 pg/ml; range 72.6-380.0 pg/ml; TFPI median 115.2 ng/ml; range 47.0-196.8 ng/ml) and MI (TF median 213.9 pg/ml; range 125.0 to 341.9 pg/ml; TFPI median 130.5 ng/ml; range 94.0-207.8 ng/ml). Similar levels of TF and TFPI were found in patients with mono- or bivasal coronary lesions. A positive correlation was observed between TF and TFPI plasma levels (r = 0.57, p<0.001). Excess thrombin formation in patients with IHD was documented by TAT (median 5.2 microg/l; range 1.7-21.0 microg/l) and F1+2 levels (median 1.4 nmol/l; range 0.6 to 6.2 nmol/l) both significantly higher (p<0.001) than those found in control subjects (TAT median 2.3 microg/l; range 1.4-4.2 microg/l; F1+2 median 0.7 nmol/l; range 0.3-1.3 nmol/l). As in other conditions associated with cell-mediated clotting activation (cancer and DIC), also in IHD high levels of circulating TF are present. Endothelial cells and monocytes are the possible common source of TF and TFPI. The blood clotting activation observed in these patients may be related to elevated TF circulating levels not sufficiently inhibited by the elevated TFPI plasma levels present. PMID:9531029

Falciani, M; Gori, A M; Fedi, S; Chiarugi, L; Simonetti, I; Dabizzi, R P; Prisco, D; Pepe, G; Abbate, R; Gensini, G F; Neri Serneri, G G

1998-03-01

176

Elevated Levels of Circulating DNA in Cardiovascular Disease Patients: Metagenomic Profiling of Microbiome in the Circulation  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n?=?80) than in healthy controls (n?=?40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/?-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n?=?3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n?=?3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further. PMID:25133738

Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

2014-01-01

177

[Effect of decamethoxine, decamine and levorin on the content of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in albino rat liver].  

PubMed

It has been shown in experiments that intramuscular injection of guaternary ammonium compounds (decamethoxine and decamine) and levorin changed the content of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in the liver of white rats. Decamethoxine decreased the content of phospholipids and cholesterol and raised the concentration of triglycerides. Decamine decreased the level of phospholipids and raised the content of cholesterol and triglycerides, while levorin minimized the content of phospholipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:6628663

Kovtuniak, N A; Bordiakovskaia, L G; Stadni?chuk, R F

1983-01-01

178

Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects.  

PubMed

In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical-antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25042713

Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

2015-04-01

179

ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels  

PubMed Central

The sense of hearing is remarkable for its auditory dynamic range, which spans more than 1012 in acoustic intensity. The mechanisms that enable the cochlea to transduce high sound levels without damage are of key interest, particularly with regard to the broad impact of industrial, military, and recreational auditory overstimulation on hearing disability. We show that ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 receptor subunits in the cochlea are necessary for the development of temporary threshold shift (TTS), evident in auditory brainstem response recordings as sound levels rise. In mice null for the P2RX2 gene (encoding the P2X2 receptor subunit), sustained 85-dB noise failed to elicit the TTS that wild-type (WT) mice developed. ATP released from the tissues of the cochlear partition with elevation of sound levels likely activates the broadly distributed P2X2 receptors on epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic compartment. This purinergic signaling is supported by significantly greater noise-induced suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions derived from outer hair cell transduction and decreased suprathreshold auditory brainstem response input/output gain in WT mice compared with P2RX2-null mice. At higher sound levels (?95 dB), additional processes dominated TTS, and P2RX2-null mice were more vulnerable than WT mice to permanent hearing loss due to hair cell synapse disruption. P2RX2-null mice lacked ATP-gated conductance across the cochlear partition, including loss of ATP-gated inward current in hair cells. These data indicate that a significant component of TTS represents P2X2 receptor-dependent purinergic hearing adaptation that underpins the upper physiological range of hearing. PMID:23592720

Housley, Gary D.; Morton-Jones, Rachel; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M.; Telang, Ravindra S.; Paramananthasivam, Vinthiya; Tadros, Sherif F.; Wong, Ann Chi Yan; Froud, Kristina E.; Cederholm, Jennie M. E.; Sivakumaran, Yogeesan; Snguanwongchai, Peerawuth; Khakh, Baljit S.; Cockayne, Debra A.; Thorne, Peter R.; Ryan, Allen F.

2013-01-01

180

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy. PMID:22860073

Poisbleau, Maud; Müller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

181

Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

2011-01-01

182

Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients’ mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

2014-01-01

183

New approaches to target microsomal triglyceride transfer protein  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a chaperone for the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins and CD1d, is a therapeutic candidate to decrease plasma lipids and to diminish inflammation. MTP inhibition increases plasma transaminases and tissue lipids, and therefore new approaches are needed to avoid them. Recent findings Inositol requiring enzyme 1? has been identified as a novel intestine-specific regulator of MTP. A new function of MTP in cholesterol ester biosynthesis has been reported. The importance of the phospholipid transfer activity of MTP in the lipidation of apolipoprotein B and CD1d has been indicated. Diurnal variations in MTP expression and its induction by food availability have been observed. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose that upregulation of inositol requiring enzyme 1?, a combined reduction of cellular free cholesterol or triglyceride or both and MTP activity, specific inhibition of phospholipid or triglyceride transfer activities, and targeting of apolipoprotein B–-MTP protein–protein interactions might be pursued to avoid some of the side effects associated with the inhibition of triglyceride transfer activity of MTP. We further speculate that short-lived MTP antagonists may be useful in controlling plasma and tissue lipids and in avoiding steatosis. Summary We have highlighted the importance of addressing the causal relationship between MTP inhibition and aberrant elevations in plasma liver enzymes. The proposed approaches may show that MTP targeting is a viable approach to lower plasma lipids. PMID:18957879

Hussain, M.M.; Bakillah, Ahmed

2009-01-01

184

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

Ames, Forrest E.

1994-01-01

185

Association of dietary pattern and physical activity level with triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio among adults in Jiangsu, China: a cross-sectional study with sex-specific differences.  

PubMed

Our study aims to explore the association between dietary patterns and physical activity levels (PAL) with a triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, and to examine whether the association is sex dependent among Chinese adults. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected through questionnaires, anthropometric measurement, and biochemical tests. Four food patterns ("meat," "healthy," "high-energy," and "traditional Chinese") were established through factor analysis. Physical activity level was categorized as "active," "moderate," and "inactive." Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between food patterns and PAL with TG/HDL-C ratio. Compared with quartile 1, quartiles 2 and 3 of meat pattern among men were found to be associated with lower risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio (the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C ratio). Similar decreased risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio was also observed in the highest quartile 4 of healthy pattern among women. Active PAL was protective against high TG/HDL-C ratio among both men (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.86) and women (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96). Although no statistically significant interaction was observed, we found that individuals with active PAL and low healthy diet had a similar OR with those with inactive PAL and high healthy diet (0.62 vs 0.68). In conclusion, dietary patterns were associated with TG/HDL-C ratio in a sex-specific way, and active PAL was consistently related to decreased risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio across genders. PMID:25176039

Lyu, Shurong; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Wu, Ming

2014-08-01

186

Elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid ?-synuclein oligomers in healthy asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson’s disease (PD). To assess the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ?-synuclein oligomers in symptomatic and asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to investigate total and oligomeric forms of ?-synuclein in CSF samples. The CSF samples were collected from 33 Norwegian individuals with leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations: 13 patients were clinically diagnosed with PD and 20 patients were healthy, asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers. We also included 35 patients with sporadic PD (sPD) and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Levels of CSF ?-synuclein oligomers were significantly elevated in healthy asymptomatic individuals carrying leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations (n = 20; P < 0.0079) and in sPD group (n = 35; P < 0.003) relative to healthy controls. Increased ?-synuclein oligomers in asymptomatic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutation carriers showed a sensitivity of 63.0% and a specificity of 74.0%, with an area under the curve of 0.66, and a sensitivity of 65.0% and a specificity of 83.0%, with an area under the curve of 0.74 for sPD cases. An inverse correlation between CSF levels of ?- synuclein oligomers and disease severity and duration was observed. Our study suggests that quantification of ?-synuclein oligomers in CSF has potential value as a tool for PD diagnosis and presymptomatic screening of high-risk individuals. PMID:25309429

Aasly, Jan O.; Johansen, Krisztina K.; Brønstad, Gunnar; Warø, Bjørg J.; Majbour, Nour K.; Varghese, Shiji; Alzahmi, Fatimah; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Amer, Dena A. M.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem; El-Agnaf, Omar M. A.

2014-01-01

187

Association of Elevated first Trimester Serum Uric Acid Levels with Development of GDM  

PubMed Central

Background: Early intervention and appropriate treatment in patients with GDM will help in preventing the adverse maternal and fetal outcome and protect them from long term complications. Several studies have shown the association of hyperuricemia with GDM. This study was undertaken to find out the association of elevated first trimester uric acid with development of GDM. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in Mahatma Gandhi Medical Collage and Research Institute, Pondicherry, India, between November 2010 and May 2012. A total of 70 pregnant women were included and parameters like age, parity, BMI, history of DM, serum uric acid at <15 weeks and at 24 to 28 weeks and one step test at 24 to 28 weeks were noted and compared. Results: There was no significant correlation between the demographic variables and GDM, but a moderate significance noted between the family history of DM and one step test (p=0.048). Though there is a proportional increase in the serum uric acid with increase in the BMI, it was not statistically significant. A significant correlation was seen between BMI and risk of development of GDM (p= 0.001). Though there is a significant correlation between serum uric acid at <15 weeks and at 24 to 28 weeks, serum uric acid at <15 weeks of gestation is a better predictor of GGI and GDM (Pearson’s correlation = 0.735). Conclusion: There is increase in the risk of development of GDM with increased levels of serum uric acid in the first trimester. Uric acid levels at <15 weeks of gestation is more significantly associated with risk of development of GDM than it’s levels at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. PMID:25653992

C, Rasika; Ghose, Seetesh

2014-01-01

188

Elevated ornithine decarboxylase levels activate ataxia telangiectasia mutated-DNA damage signaling in normal keratinocytes.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine dependent because alpha-difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also displays increased generation of H(2)O(2), acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant gamma H2AX. Both reactive oxygen species generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H(2)O(2) and cytotoxic aldehydes, because spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H(2)O(2) and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results show a novel activation of the ATM-DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S; Woster, Patrick M; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K

2008-04-01

189

Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

190

Vector Percolation Analysis of Triglyceride-based Thermoset Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermosetting Acrylated triglycerides (ATG) were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The distribution of acrylate groups was calculated from the distribution of unsaturation sites on unmodified oils, assuming a binomial distribution of acrylate groups. The ATG were both homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link density v, of the polymers was calculated using the recursive method of Miller and Macosko from a knowledge of the acrylate distribution. The cross-link density was found to increase with the level of acrylation A, in a vector percolation manner, and the trends in the cross-link density predictions matched the experimental results. The deviation in the experimental results and model predictions were the result of intramolecular cross-linking. Approximately 0.5 and 0.8 acrylates per triglyceride were lost to intramolecular cyclization for homopolymerized acrylated triglycerides and triglycerides copolymerized with styrene, respectively. Equations for the level of perfection p, of the triglyceride networks and the percolation threshold pc, were developed using the calculated number of acrylates lost to cyclization. Polymers with p < 0.1 without styrene, and p < 0.39 with styrene did not have mechanical integrity, validating the definition of the level of perfection and percolation threshold pc. The tensile strength, S ˜ [p-p]^1/2 and modulus E ˜ [p-pc]^3 , were in accord with vector percolation theory, where p could be derived experimentally via A ˜ [p-pc] , v ˜ A and FTIR analysis of the extent of reaction of the C=C groups. These results also indicated how mechanical properties were controlled by the fatty acid distribution function of the plant oils, and which oil would give the best particular property. Supported by EPA and DoE.

Lascala, John J.; Wool, Richard P.

2003-03-01

191

Elevated levels of RDW is associated with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Red cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Only a few trials have investigated the correlation of these parameters with postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the correlation of these parameters in non-valvular AF is still unclear. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive AF patients from medical records and included 117 non-valvular AF patients (103 paroxysmal and 14 chronic AF). All subjects underwent physical examination and echocardiographic imaging. Complete blood counts (CBCs) were analyzed for hemoglobin, RDW, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts as well as mean corpuscular volume. Results of CBC tests within the previous year were also included and the averages were used. The demographic and echocardiographic properties of non-valvular AF group were comparable to the control group except for left atrial volumes which were increased in AF (median 33.1, IQR 26.3-41.1 cm(3) vs. median 26.4, IQR 24.2-28.9 cm(3); p = 0.01). RDW levels were significantly higher in the AF group (median 13.4 %, IQR 12.9-14.1 %) compared to the control (median 12.6 %, IQR 12.0-13.1 %; p = 0.01). NLR was not statistically different in the AF group and the controls (2.04 ± 0.94 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64, respectively; p = 0.32). Hs-CRP levels were higher in the AF group compared to the controls (median 0.84, IQR 0.30-1.43 mg/L vs. median 0.29, IQR 0.18-0.50 mg/L, respectively; p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed RDW (OR 4.18, 95 % CI 2.15-8.15; p = 0.01), hs-CRP (OR 3.76, 95 % CI 1.43-9.89; p = 0.01) and left atrial volume (OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.06-1.21; p = 0.01) as the independent markers of non-valvular AF. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that hemoglobin levels (standardized ? coefficient = -0.252; p = 0.01) and the presence of AF (standardized ? coefficient = 0.336; p = 0.01) were the independent correlates of RDW levels. Elevated RDW levels, not NLR, may be an independent risk marker for non-valvular AF. PMID:23821044

Güngör, Bar??; Özcan, Kaz?m Serhan; Erdinler, ?zzet; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Alper, Ahmet Taha; Osmonov, Damirbek; Çal?k, Nazmi; Akyuz, Sukru; Toprak, Ercan; Y?lmaz, Hale; Y?ld?r?m, Ayd?n; Bolca, Osman

2014-05-01

192

Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:24705380

Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J; Ralph, Brian P; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W; Glaser, Sherrye T; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C; Deutsch, Dale G; Ojima, Iwao

2014-01-01

193

Inhibition of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Elevates Brain Anandamide Levels and Produces Analgesia  

PubMed Central

The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:24705380

Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Ralph, Brian P.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T.; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W.; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C.; Deutsch, Dale G.; Ojima, Iwao

2014-01-01

194

Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W  

PubMed Central

Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

2012-01-01

195

Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

196

Elevated Levels of Somatic Mutation in a Manifesting BRCA1 Mutation Carrier  

PubMed Central

Homozygous loss of activity at the breast cancer-predisposing genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (FANCD1) confers increased susceptibility to DNA double strand breaks, but this genotype occurs only in the tumor itself, following loss of heterozygosity at one of these loci. Thus, if these genes play a role in tumor etiology as opposed to tumor progression, they must manifest a heterozygous phenotype at the cellular level. To investigate the potential consequences of somatic heterozygosity for a BRCA1 mutation demonstrably associated with breast carcinogenesis on background somatic mutational burden, we applied the two standard assays of in vivo human somatic mutation to blood samples from a manifesting carrier of the Q1200X mutation in BRCA1 whose tumor was uniquely ascertained through an MRI screening study. The patient had an allele-loss mutation frequency of 19.4 × 10?6 at the autosomal GPA locus in erythrocytes and 17.1 × 10?6 at the X-linked HPRT locus in lymphocytes. Both of these mutation frequencies are significantly higher than expected from age-matched disease-free controls (P < 0.05). Mutation at the HPRT locus was similarly elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from three other BRCA1 mutation carriers with breast cancer. Our patient’s GPA mutation frequency is below the level established for diagnosis of homozygous Fanconi anemia patients, but consistent with data from obligate heterozygotes. The increased HPRT mutation frequency is more reminiscent of data from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, a disease characterized by UV sensitivity and deficiency in the nucleotide excision pathway of DNA repair. Therefore, this BRCA1-associated breast cancer patient manifests a unique phenotype of increased background mutagenesis that likely contributed to the development of her disease independent of loss of heterozygosity at the susceptibility locus. PMID:18158561

GRANT, Stephen G.; DAS, Rubina; CERCEO, Christina M.; RUBINSTEIN, Wendy S.; LATIMER, Jean J.

2015-01-01

197

Direct Antidiabetic Effect of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from

Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger

1997-01-01

198

Amino Acid Change in the Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein is associated with lower triglycerides and myocardial infarction incidence depending on level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the PREDIMED trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variant (rs3812316, C771G, and Gln241His) in the MLXIPL (Max-like protein X interacting protein-like) gene encoding the carbohydrate response element binding protein has been associated with lower triglycerides. However, its association with cardiovascular diseases and gene-diet interactions modul...

199

Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajós region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajós. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 microg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 microg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 microg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 microg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 microg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 microg/g, 1.9-1437 microg/g) and Sr (38.7 microg/g, 3.3-173 microg/g). PMID:20646739

Lemire, Mélanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Mergler, Donna

2010-09-01

200

Lipid Storage Myopathy in Behçet's Disease: A Rare Cause of Elevated Serum Creatine Kinases Levels  

PubMed Central

Muscular involvement in Behçet's disease is rare and there are only a few case reports in the literature. The causes of elevated muscle enzymes in a patient with Behcet's disease are many, including myositis, drug-induced myopathy, metabolic myopathy, and the disease itself. We herein have defined an algorithmic approach to a patient with Behcet's disease and elevated muscle enzymes and report a case of coexisting of lipid storage myopathy. PMID:22937450

Yilmaz, Sedat; Cinar, Muhammet; Karslioglu, Y?ld?r?m; Simsek, Ismail; Erdem, Hakan; Pay, Salih; Dinc, Ayhan

2012-01-01

201

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

2013-11-01

202

Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.  

PubMed

We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 ?g/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ? 45 ?g/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning. PMID:22302239

Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

203

Angiopoietin-2 and Biliary Diseases: Elevated Serum, but Not Bile Levels Are Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is challenging especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and often delayed due to the lack of reliable markers. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) has been employed as a biomarker of angiogenesis and might be involved in tumor neoangiogenesis. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of Angpt-2 as a biomarker to detect patients with CC. Methods Bile and serum Angpt-2 levels were measured in patients with CC (n?=?45), PSC (n?=?74), CC complicating PSC (CC/PSC) (n?=?11) and patients with bile duct stones (n?=?37) in a cross sectional study. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 was compared to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry from human CC liver tissue samples was performed to localize the origin of Angpt-2. Results Serum Angpt-2 concentration was significantly elevated in patients with CC compared to control patients (p<0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis resulted in a higher area under the curve (AUC) value compared to CA19-9 (AUC: 0.85 versus 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74–0.93 versus 0.65–0.87, respectively). Angpt-2 was also detectable in bile, but was not associated with the presence of CC. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong induction of Angpt-2 expression in the tumor vasculature. Conclusions Circulating Angpt-2 in serum might be a promising protein candidate locally derived from the tumor vasculature in patients with CC. Measurement of Angpt-2 in serum may be useful for diagnosis and further clinical management of patients with CC. PMID:24823366

Thamm, Kristina; Schlué, Jerome; Metzger, Jochen; Manns, Michael P.; Lankisch, Tim O.

2014-01-01

204

Reduced Right Frontal Fractional Anisotropy Correlated with Early Elevated Plasma LDL Levels in Obese Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. Materials and Methods A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n?=?22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years) and normal weight (n?=?27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years) Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. Results In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. Conclusions Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies. PMID:25279729

Lou, Baohui; Chen, Min; Luo, Xiaojie; Dai, Yongming

2014-01-01

205

Ethological endophenotypes are altered by elevated stress hormone levels in both Huntington's disease and wildtype mice.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive, psychiatric, motor, neuroendocrine and peripheral dysfunctions. Symptom onset and progression can be closely modeled in HD transgenic mice, which facilitate the search for therapeutics and environmental modulators. In the first investigation of chronic stress in HD, we have previously shown that administering a moderate dose of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT) had no effect on short-term memory in wildtype (WT) mice but accelerated the onset of the impairment in male R6/1 HD mice. We now extend this investigation to ethological dysfunctions in HD, which we hypothesized to be more susceptible to CORT treatment compared to the same functions in WT littermates. Both genotypes consumed similar doses of CORT dissolved in drinking water across 6-14 weeks of age and were assessed for olfactory sensitivity, nest-building, saccharin preference as well as vocal responses to sociosexual stimuli. In female HD and WT mice, olfactory sensitivity and saccharin preference were reduced by 2 and 4 weeks of CORT, respectively. In males, there was no effect of CORT on saccharin preference, however the number of vocalizations to a female mouse was transiently increased by CORT-drinking, regardless of genotype. Nest-building was severely impaired in HD mice at an early age, but was unaffected by CORT. Our results suggest that the presence of the HD mutation had no bearing on CORT-induced effects at this dose, suggesting that even moderately elevated stress hormone levels can impair ethological behaviors in both the HD and healthy brain. PMID:25101541

Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

2014-11-01

206

Assessment of Elevated Radionuclide Levels in Soils Associated with an Avian Colony in a High Arctic Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an investigation into the occurrence of elevated levels of radionuclides in soils associated with a seabird colony in the Arctic. Soils and other materials were collected from a seabird colony (primarily composed of kittiwakes) in Kongsfjorden, located in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. The samples were analyzed for a suite of gamma emitting

M. DOWDALL; J. P. GWYNN; G. W. GABRIELSEN; B. LIND

2005-01-01

207

Maps of lands vulnerable to sea level rise: modeled elevations along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the broad-scale ramifications of accelerated sea level rise requires maps of the land that could be inundated or eroded. Producing such maps requires a combination of elevation information and models of shoreline erosion, wetland accretion, and other coastal processes. Assessments of coastal areas in the United States that combine all of these factors have focused on relatively small areas,

James G. Titus; Charlie Richman

2001-01-01

208

ESR dating of coral reef terraces on Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles) with estimates of Younger Pleistocene sea level elevations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequence of at least three Late and Middle Pleistocene coral reef terraces (Lower Terrace, Middle Terrace I and II), which are uplifted up to 45 m a.s.l., is conserved on Curaçao. The less uplifted Lower terrace (elevation 6 to 12 m above sea level) consists of two different coral reef formations: the Hato unit and the underlying Cortalein unit.

Gerhard Schellmann; Ulrich Radtke; Anja Scheffers; Franziska Whelan; Dieter Kelletat

2004-01-01

209

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

210

Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature  

PubMed Central

The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20%) and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C). The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 ?g mL–1) and biomass (210 ?g mL–1), which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%), were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30°C under elevated CO2 (6%). Although increases in temperature above 30°C resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30°C, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures. PMID:19333419

Chinnasamy, Senthil; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, Keshav C.

2009-01-01

211

Elevated levels of a glycoprotein antigen (P-80) in gray and white matter of brain from victims of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of a glycoprotein reactive with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 44D10 in white and gray matter from brains of victims of several neurological diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, were compared to that of normal individuals. The concentration of antigen reactive with MAb 44D10 was elevated in both gray and white matter of all MS brains examined,

Tony F. Cruz; Elizabeth J. Quackenbush; Michelle Letarte; Mario A. Moscarello

1986-01-01

212

Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.  

PubMed

Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;9999:1-3. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25327935

Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

2014-10-18

213

Heterozygous lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to a missense mutation as the cause of impaired triglyceride tolerance with multiple lipoprotein abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

In 16 members of two Austrian families affected by a missense mutation at codon 188 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene (8 heterozygous and 8 normal subjects), carrier status for the mutation as determined by DNA analysis was related to LPL activity in postheparin plasma, to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, and to concentration, composition, and size of the major lipoprotein classes of postabsorptive plasma. Carriers exhibited clearly reduced LPL activity, normal fasting triglycerides, but pronounced postprandial lipemia. The carriers' impaired triglyceride tolerance, as evident in the postprandial state of challenge only, was associated with a fasting lipoprotein constellation characterized by (a) enrichment of HDL2 with triglycerides, (b) reduced HDL2-cholesterol, (c) enrichment of VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) with cholesteryl esters, (d) elevated IDL levels, and (e) small-sized LDL. Within any given individual, the degrees of expression of these characteristics were quantitatively and continuously related with each other as well as with the magnitude of lipemia and with LPL activity. PMID:8432854

Miesenböck, G; Hölzl, B; Föger, B; Brandstätter, E; Paulweber, B; Sandhofer, F; Patsch, J R

1993-01-01

214

Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

1988-01-01

215

Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO2 levels are mediated by soil water availability.  

PubMed

The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability. PMID:25388876

Manea, A; Leishman, M R

2015-02-01

216

ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS DECLINE IN PRIMARY LEAVES OF BARLEY DURING GROWTH AT AMBIENT AND ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary leaves of barley plants which are grown in high light growth chambers in elevated CO2 (100Pa) often develop symptoms of senescence, e.g., chlorophyll a and b decline, chloroplast protein decline and decling net CO2 photoassimilation, compared with the primary leaves of barley plants grow...

217

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

SciTech Connect

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

1993-12-01

218

Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: new features for diagnosis.  

PubMed

In 30 patients with diagnosed fibromyalgia, the CSF level of immunoreactive substance P (SP) was investigated. Compared to normal values (9.6 +/- 3.2 fmol/ml), all the patients had elevated CSF levels of SP (36.1 +/- 2.7 fmol/ml, range 16.5-79.1 fmol/ml). Anamnestic information from the patients revealed that 53.3% had Raynaud/Raynaud-like phenomenon localized in the fingers, the toes or both. Although SP levels did not differ significantly in patients with or without the Raynaud phenomenon, elevated activity may be present in the peripheral branches of SP neurons which could be responsible for the last (rubor) phase of the triphasic Raynaud's phenomenon. SP levels were significantly higher in patients who were smokers (40.1 +/- 2.7 fmol/ml, range 25.3-64.1 fmol/ml), compared to patients who were non-smokers (29.2 +/- 5.0 fmol/ml, range 16.5-79.1 fmol/ml). We propose elevated CSF levels of SP and the Raynaud phenomenon as characteristic features for fibromyalgia with potential as diagnostic markers of the disease and further that smoking might be an aggravating factor for its pathogenesis or development. PMID:2448729

Vaerøy, H; Helle, R; Førre, O; Kåss, E; Terenius, L

1988-01-01

219

Relationship of Insulin Sensitivity and ApoB Levels to Intra-abdominal Fat in Subjects With Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is one of the most common familial dyslipidemias associated with premature heart disease. Subjects with FCHL typically have elevated apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, variable elevations in cholesterol and\\/or triglycerides, and a predominance of small, dense, low density lipoprotein particles. It is thought that insulin resistance is important in the expression of the combined hyperlipidemia phenotype. To

Jonathan Q. Purnell; Steven E. Kahn; Robert S. Schwartz; John D. Brunzell

2010-01-01

220

Elevated plasma lipid peroxide levels in angina pectoris and myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The concept that oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL), not native LDL, plays a major role in atherogenesis is gaining support. Lipid hydroperoxides in plasma are carried almost exclusively in LDL and reflect oxidised LDL. Previously, elevated plasma lipid hydroperoxides were reported in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients following bypass surgery. To determine whether the increased lipid hydroperoxide was related to

Diana A. Gorog; Nabeel Ahmed; Graham J. Davies

2002-01-01

221

Cardiac Reactivity and Elevated Blood Pressure Levels among Young African Americans: The Importance of Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the racial differences in elevated arterial blood pressure between African American youth, especially adolescents, and their White counterparts. Argues that African American adolescents' perception of day-to-day stress is an important contributor to this condition. Considers a conceptual model of the sociopsychophysiological stress…

Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Marshall, Ronald J.

1990-01-01

222

Elevated levels of kynurenic acid during gestation produce neurochemical, morphological, and cognitive deficits in adulthood: Implications for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous negative modulator of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs), are elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SZ). We reported that increases of brain KYNA in rats, through dietary exposure to its precursor kynurenine from embryonic day (ED)15 to postnatal day (PD) 21, result in neurochemical and cognitive deficits in adulthood. The present experiments focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to elevated kynurenine on measures of prefrontal excitability known to be impaired in SZ. Pregnant dams were fed a mash containing kynurenine (100 mg/day; progeny = EKYNs) from ED15 until ED22. Controls were fed an unadulterated mash (progeny = ECONs). The dietary loading procedure elevated maternal and fetal plasma kynurenine (2223% and 693% above controls, respectively) and increased fetal KYNA (forebrain; 500% above controls) on ED21. Elevations in forebrain KYNA disappeared after termination of the loading (PD2), but KYNA levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were unexpectedly increased again when measured in adults (PD56-80; 75% above controls). We also observed changes in several markers of prefrontal excitability, including expression of the ?7nAChR (22% and 17% reductions at PD2 and PD56-80), expression of mGluR2 (31% and 24% reductions at ED21 and PD56-80), dendritic spine density (11-14% decrease at PD56-80), subsensitive mesolimbic stimulation of glutamate release in PFC, and reversal/extra-dimensional shift deficits in the prefrontally-mediated set-shifting task. These results highlight the deleterious impact of elevated KYNA levels during sensitive periods of early development, which model the pathophysiological and cognitive deficits seen in SZ. PMID:25446576

Pershing, Michelle L; Bortz, David M; Pocivavsek, Ana; Fredericks, Peter J; Jørgensen, Christinna V; Vunck, Sarah A; Leuner, Benedetta; Schwarcz, Robert; Bruno, John P

2015-03-01

223

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP). Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism. PMID:25383314

Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kaai; Ando, Midori; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

2014-01-01

224

Top Ten Things to Know: Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... reserved. Top Ten Things To Know Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease 1. Triglycerides (or blood fats) are an important ... validate triglycerides as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease Miller M, et al; on behalf of the ...

225

PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)  

EPA Science Inventory

Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the F...

226

Positron emission tomography with F-18-deoxyglucose in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, elevated thyroglobulin levels, and negative iodine scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, elevated serum levels of thyroglobulin (hTg) may occur in spite of otherwise\\u000a negative diagnostic procedures and in particular in spite of a negative iodine-131 scan. Positron emission tomography with\\u000a F-18-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a potentially useful method for the detection of metastatic lesions or the recurrence of thyroid\\u000a cancer. We aimed to investigate whether

G. Altenvoerde; H. Lerch; T. Kuwert; P. Matheja; M. Schäfers; O. Schober

1998-01-01

227

Aberrant differentiation of fibroblast progenitors contributes to fibrosis in the aged murine heart: role of elevated circulating insulin levels  

PubMed Central

With age, the collagen content of the heart increases, leading to interstitial fibrosis. We have shown that CD44pos fibroblasts derived from aged murine hearts display reduced responsiveness to TGF-? but, paradoxically, have increased collagen expression in vivo and in vitro. We postulated that this phenomenon was due to the defect in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation in a setting of elevated circulating insulin levels and production that we observed in aging mice. We discovered that cultured fibroblasts derived from aged but not young cardiac MSCs of nonhematopoietic lineage displayed increased basal and insulin-induced (1 nM) collagen expression (2-fold), accompanied by increased farnesyltransferase (FTase) and Erk activities. In a quest for a possible mechanism, we found that a chronic pathophysiologic insulin concentration (1 nM) caused abnormal fibroblast differentiation of MSCs isolated from young hearts. Fibroblasts derived from these MSCs responded to insulin by elevating collagen expression as seen in untreated aged fibroblast cultures, suggesting a causal link between increased insulin levels and defective MSC responses. Here we report an insulin-dependent pathway that specifically targets collagen type I transcriptional activation leading to a unique mechanism of fibrosis that is TGF-? and inflammation-independent in the aged heart.—Cieslik, K. A., Trial, J., Carlson, S., Taffet, G. E., Entman, M. L. Aberrant differentiation of fibroblast progenitors contributes to fibrosis in the aged murine heart: role of elevated circulating insulin levels. PMID:23303205

Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Trial, JoAnn; Carlson, Signe; Taffet, George E.; Entman, Mark L.

2013-01-01

228

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10?8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David

2013-01-01

229

Arsenic residues in predatory birds from an area of Britain with naturally and anthropogenically elevated arsenic levels.  

PubMed

Birds of prey forage over large areas and so might be expected to accumulate contaminants which are elevated but heterogeneously distributed in the general environment. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that arsenic levels in raptors from a region with elevated environmental arsenic concentrations were higher than those in birds from an uncontaminated part of Britain. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle of kestrels, Falco tinnunculus, sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus, and barn owls, Tyto alba, from south-west (SW) England, an area with naturally and anthropogenically (through mining) elevated environmental arsenic concentrations, were compared with those in birds from SW Scotland, where no such geochemical anomaly exists. Arsenic residues in kestrels from SW England were approximately three times greater than those in birds from SW Scotland for the three tissue types analysed. This was not the case for the other species in which arsenic residues were similar in birds from both regions. It is suggested that differences between species in both diet and arsenic metabolism could explain why kestrels have elevated arsenic tissue burdens in response to general environmental contamination but sparrowhawks and barn owls do not. PMID:15093063

Erry, B V; Macnair, M R; Meharg, A A; Shore, R F; Newton, I

1999-07-01

230

[Elevated serum NSE level in locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC predispose to better response to chemotherapy but worse survival].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic values of elevated serum levels of selected cancer markers (NSE, Cyfra 21-1, CEA, ferritin, free beta-hCG, LDH) in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated a group of 79 patients (49 men and 30 women) with NSCLC. Multivariate regression analysis showed response in patients with NSE > 12.5 ng/ml (p = 0.002), good performance status (p = 0.007) and elderly patients (p = 0.005). However, elevated NSE adversely affected the prognosis. Median survival in patients with NSE < 12.5 ng/ml, 12.5-20.0 ng/ml and > 20.0 ng/ml was 13.3, 11.3 and 6.7 months, respectively (p = 0.004). The negative effect of elevated NSE was independent of the response category. Univariate regression analysis showed that the following factors had a significantly negative effect on the prognosis: performance status, stage IIIB or IV, weight loss of > 10%, NSE > 20 ng/ml, Cyfra 21-1 > 10 ng/ml, CEA > 3 ng/ml, ferritin ratio > 1 and LDH > 480 IU/l. Multivariate analysis showed an independent adverse prognostic effect of stage IIIB or IV and elevated ferritin. PMID:20162514

Za?eska, Monika; Szturmowicz, Monika; Zych, Jacek; Roszkowska-Sliz, Barbara; Demkow, Urszula; Langfort, Renata; Roszkowski-Sliz, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

231

Elevated serum L-selectin levels and decreased L-selectin expression on CD8+ lymphocytes in systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

L-selectin is expressed on most circulating leucocytes and mediates leucocyte rolling on endothelium at sites of inflammation. Following rolling or activation of leucocytes, cell surface L-selectin is released as soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin). In the present study, we assessed serum levels of sL-selectin by ELISA and blood leucocyte L-selectin expression by flow cytometry in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serum levels of sL-selectin in patients with SSc (n = 51) were significantly higher than in normal controls (n = 30) while sL-selectin levels were similar for systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 20) and normal controls. Furthermore, SSc patients with elevated sL-selectin levels had inflammatory joint involvement, pitting scar/ulcers, and diffuse pigmentation more frequently than those with normal sL-selectin levels. The frequency of L-selectin+ population among CD8+ T cells was significantly decreased in SSc patients (n = 30) compared with normal controls (n = 20), while that among CD4+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and neutrophils was similar for SSc patients and normal controls. These suggest that elevated sL-selectin levels and decreased frequency of L-selectin+ CD8+ T cells in SSc patients may be involved in inflammation associated with SSc. PMID:11472411

Shimada, Y; Hasegawa, M; Takehara, K; Sato, S

2001-01-01

232

Quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine optimum operating conditions, an extensive study was made of the variables affecting quantitative recovery and\\u000a resolution of model triglyceride mixtures. Parameters investigated included: flash heater temperature, carrier gas flow rate,\\u000a type of carrier gas, column length, glass and metal columns, temperature program rate, linearity of detector response, physical\\u000a design of gas chromatograph, and molecular species of triglyceride.\\u000a \\u000a Results

Carter Litchfield; R. D. Harlow; Raymond Reiser

1965-01-01

233

Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma exhibit elevated levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells upon progression of disease.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) induced by tumor-derived factors are associated with inhibition of immune responses in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. We hypothesized that pro-MDSC cytokines and levels of MDSC in the peripheral blood would be elevated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with progressive disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 16 pancreatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and phenotyped for MDSC using a five antigen panel (CD33, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD14, CD15). Patients with stable disease had significantly lower MDSC levels in the peripheral blood than those with progressive disease (1.41 ± 1.12 vs. 5.14 ± 4.58 %, p = 0.013, Wilcoxon test). A cutoff of 2.5 % MDSC identified patients with progressive disease. Patients with ECOG performance status ?2 had a weaker association with increased levels of MDSC. Plasma was obtained from 15 chemonaive patients, 13 patients undergoing chemotherapy and 9 normal donors. Increases in the levels of pro-MDSC cytokines were observed for pancreatic cancer patients versus controls, and the pro-MDSC cytokine IL-6 was increased in those patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study suggests that MDSC in peripheral blood may be a predictive biomarker of chemotherapy failure in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:25305035

Markowitz, Joseph; Brooks, Taylor R; Duggan, Megan C; Paul, Bonnie K; Pan, Xueliang; Wei, Lai; Abrams, Zachary; Luedke, Eric; Lesinski, Gregory B; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Carson, William E

2015-02-01

234

Elevated Plasma Long Pentraxin-3 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pre-transplant, and 6 and 24 hours post reperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction<0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 hours were associated with PGD (OR=1.6, p=0.02 at 6hrs; OR=1.4, p=0.008 at 24hrs). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted. PMID:21883907

Diamond, Joshua M.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Ahya, Vivek N.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Deutschman, Clifford C.; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Ashish S.; Belperio, John A.; Wilkes, David; Reynolds, John M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2011-01-01

235

Inhibition of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Familial Hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a dose-escalation study to examine the safety, tolerability, and effects on lipid levels of BMS-201038, an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, in six patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. All lipid- lowering therapies were suspended 4 weeks before treatment. The patients received BMS-201038 at four different doses (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg per kilogram of body

Marina Cuchel; LeAnne T. Bloedon; Philippe O. Szapary; Daniel M. Kolansky; Megan L. Wolfe; Antoine Sarkis; John S. Millar; Katsunori Ikewaki; Evan S. Siegelman; Richard E. Gregg; Daniel J. Rader

2007-01-01

236

Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was more in DHM117 than HQPM1. This suggests that DHM117 utilized more assimilates in maintaining the homeostasis against imposed oxidative stress, causing less translocation of assimilates to reproductive parts and thus affecting the final yield. In terms of yield it is suggested that performance of HQPM1 (quality protein maize) was better than the DHM117 (non quality protein maize). PMID:25023387

Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2014-10-01

237

Children's elevated cortisol levels at daycare: A review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home setting. Diurnal patterns revealed significant increases from morning to afternoon,

Harriet J. Vermeer; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn

2006-01-01

238

ELEVATED SPERMIDINE AND SPERMINE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD OF PSORIASIS PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of blood, anticoagulated with EDTA, from 11 patients with psoriasis and 11 individuals without psoriasis were analyzed for their polyamine content. The average spermidine level in patients with psoriasis was approximately twice that of the controls and the average spermine level was three times that of the controls. The levels of spermidine and spermine in the skin of two

Michael Scott Proctor; Howard Vance Fletcher Jr.; Jayesh B. Shukla; Owen M. Rennert

1975-01-01

239

Elevated natural killer cell levels and autoimmunity synergistically decrease uterine blood flow during early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether natural killer (NK) cell and autoimmune antibody acts synergistically, by the action of autoantibodies to increase NK cell number and cytotoxicity, to decrease uterine blood flow during early pregnancy in pregnant women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Methods Seventy-five pregnant women (between 5 and 7 weeks gestation) with a history of unexplained RSA were included in the study group. Forty-one pregnant women without a history of RSA were included as controls. All women with a history of RSA were tested for autoantibodies and number of peripheral blood natural killer (pbNK) cell by flow cytometry. Study populations were stratified into four groups by existence of autoantibody and degree of increase of pbNK cells. The uterine radial artery resistance index (RI) was measured by color-pulsed Doppler transvaginal ultrasound. Results The mean RI of the autoimmune antibody-positive (AA+) group (0.63±0.09) was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (0.53±0.10, P=0.001). The mean RI of the AA+/only-NK elevated (eNK) group (0.63±0.09) was significantly higher than those of the only-AA+ group (0.55±0.07, P=0.019) and the only-eNK group (0.57±0.07, P=0.021). Conclusion Concurrent elevation in NK cells and autoimmunity results in decreased uterine blood flow during early pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of RSA remain unexplained and larger scale studies are needed to confirm our conclusion and to develop diagnostic and therapeutic plans for women with a history of RSA. PMID:24883292

Yi, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Jung Hyun; Koo, Hwa Seon; Bae, Ju Youn; Cha, Sun Wha

2014-01-01

240

Elevated levels of leukotriene C4 synthase mRNA distinguish a subpopulation of eosinophilic oesophagitis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cysteinyl leukotrienes contribute to Th2-type inflammatory immune responses. Their levels in oesophageal tissue, however, do not distinguish patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) from controls. Objective We asked whether mRNA levels of leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S), a key regulator of leukotriene production, could serve as a marker for EoE. Methods Digital mRNA expression profiling (nCounter® Technology) was performed on proximal and distal oesophageal biopsies of 30 paediatric EoE patients and 40 non-EoE controls. Expression data were confirmed with RT-qPCR. LTC4S mRNA levels were quantified in whole blood samples. Leukotriene E4 was measured in urine. Results LTC4S mRNA levels were elevated in proximal (2.6-fold, p<0.001) and distal (2.9-fold, p<0.001) oesophageal biopsies from EoE patients. Importantly, increased LTC4S mRNA transcripts identified a subpopulation of EoE patients (28%). This patient subgroup had higher serum IgE levels (669 U/ml vs. 106 U/ml, p=0.01), higher mRNA transcript numbers of TSLP (1.6-fold, p=0.009) and CD4 (1.4-fold, p=0.04) but lower IL-23 mRNA levels (0.5-fold, p=0.04). In contrast, elevated levels of IL-23 mRNA were found in oesophageal biopsies of patients with reflux oesophagitis. LTC4S mRNA transcripts in whole blood and urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 were similar in EoE patient subgroups and non-EoE patients. Conclusion & Clinical Relevance Elevated oesophageal expression of LTC4S mRNA is found in a subgroup of EoE patients, concomitant with higher serum IgE levels and an oesophageal transcriptome indicative of a more-pronounced allergic phenotype. Together with TSLP and IL-23 mRNA levels, oesophageal LTC4S mRNA may facilitate diagnosis of an EoE subpopulation for personalized therapy. PMID:23889244

Lexmond, Willem S.; Pardo, Michael; Rooney, Katharine; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Snapper, Scott B.; Yen, Elizabeth H.; Dehlink, Eleonora; Nurko, Samuel; Fiebiger, Edda

2013-01-01

241

The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p?=?0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Conclusion The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01634256 PMID:23497020

2013-01-01

242

Levels of Cholesterol  

MedlinePLUS

... How do I know if my cholesterol and triglyceride levels are optimal? The following tables provide some ... or higher Gives some protection against heart disease Triglyceride Level Classification Less than 150 mg/dL Desirable ...

243

Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

2011-01-01

244

Elevating your elevator talk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

245

Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-18 in manic and hypomanic states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.  

PubMed

Inflammatory system dysregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder with peripheral cytokine levels varying between affective states; however, the evidence is based primarily on case-control studies and limited by methodological issues. The objectives of the present study were to assess alterations of peripheral cytokine levels between affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and to compare these with levels in healthy control subjects. In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of plasma levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IL-1? and TNF-? were obtained in affective states of varying polarity during 6-12months in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and compared with repeated measurements in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects, using rigorous laboratory-, clinical- and statistical methodology. Adjusting for demographical, clinical- and lifestyle factors, levels of IL-6 (p<0.05) and IL-18 (p<0.005) were significantly elevated in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in a manic/hypomanic state, compared with a depressed and a euthymic state. Compared with healthy control subjects, unadjusted levels of IL-6 (p<0.05) and IL-18 (p<0.05) were elevated in manic/hypomanic bipolar disorder patients. Levels of IL-10 and IL-1? were undetectable in the majority of samples; high TNF-? assay variability was found. The results support a role for altered peripheral immune response signaling in rapid cycling bipolar disorder and suggest that IL-6 and IL-18 could be markers of manic episodes. PMID:25451609

Munkholm, Klaus; Weikop, Pia; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

2015-01-01

246

Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hard-shell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations results in a decrease in seawater pH and shifts in the carbonate chemistry that can negatively affect marine organisms. Marine bivalves such as the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, serve as ecosystem engineers in estuaries and coastal zones of the western Atlantic and, as for many marine calcifiers, are sensitive to the impacts of ocean acidification. In estuaries, the effects of ocean acidification can be exacerbated by low buffering capacity of brackish waters, acidic inputs from freshwaters and land, and/or the negative effects of salinity on the physiology of organisms. We determined the interactive effects of 21 weeks of exposure to different levels of CO2 (~395, 800 and 1500 ?atm corresponding to pH of 8.2, 8.1 and 7.7, respectively) and salinity (32 versus 16) on biomineralization, shell properties and energy metabolism of juvenile hard-shell clams. Low salinity had profound effects on survival, energy metabolism and biomineralization of hard-shell clams and modulated their responses to elevated PCO2. Negative effects of low salinity in juvenile clams were mostly due to the strongly elevated basal energy demand, indicating energy deficiency, that led to reduced growth, elevated mortality and impaired shell maintenance (evidenced by the extensive damage to the periostracum). The effects of elevated PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of hard-shell clams were more complex. Elevated PCO2 (~800-1500 ?atm) had no significant effects on standard metabolic rates (indicative of the basal energy demand), but affected growth and shell mechanical properties in juvenile clams. Moderate hypercapnia (~800 ?atm PCO2) increased shell and tissue growth and reduced mortality of juvenile clams in high salinity exposures; however, these effects were abolished under the low salinity conditions or at high PCO2 (~1500 ?atm). Mechanical properties of the shell (measured as microhardness and fracture toughness of the shells) were negatively affected by elevated CO2 alone or in combination with low salinity, which may have important implications for protection against predators or environmental stressors. Our data indicate that environmental salinity can strongly modulate responses to ocean acidification in hard-shell clams and thus should be taken into account when predicting the effects of ocean acidification on estuarine bivalves. PMID:23531824

Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Tourek, Robert T; Sokolova, Inna M; Beniash, Elia

2013-07-15

247

Elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the patient compartment of ambulances.  

PubMed Central

Six hundred and ninety New Jersey ambulances were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO); 27 per cent had CO levels of 10 ppm or more greater than ambient air in the breathing zone of the patient. Twenty-nine of these ambulances had levels of at least 35 ppm greater than ambient air. Results indicate that a CO exposure problem exists in ambulances. PMID:6711734

Iglewicz, R; Rosenman, K D; Iglewicz, B; O'Leary, K; Hockemeier, R

1984-01-01

248

Elevated brain dopamine levels associated with ovary development in queenless worker honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain levels of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) were compared between worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) kept with or without queens in various experiments. Levels of DA were significantly higher in queenless bees than in their sisters that had been kept with queens either (1) in small field colonies for 30 days or (2) in incubator cages

Jeffrey W. Harris; Joseph Woodring

1995-01-01

249

Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic  

SciTech Connect

Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ? Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ? Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ? Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ? Study subjects with arsenic-induced skin lesions show elevated plasma Big ET-1 levels. ? Arsenic-induced hypertension and skin lesions may be linked to plasma Big ET-1 levels.

Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh)] [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)] [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

2012-03-01

250

Elevated Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in the Placenta Are Associated With in utero HIV-1 Mother-To-Child Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if there is an association between cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma isolated from the placenta and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Design We designed a case-control study of HIV-infected, pregnant women enrolled in the Malaria and HIV in Pregnancy cohort. Participants were recruited in Blantyre, Malawi from 2000-04. Cases were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-positive at birth (in utero MTCT) or HIV-1 DNA-negative at birth and HIV-1 DNA-positive at 6-weeks post-partum (intrapartum MTCT); controls were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-negative both at birth and 6-weeks post-partum. Methods After delivery, blood was isolated from an incision on the basal plate of the placenta. We used a Luminex assay to simultaneously quantify 27 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in placental plasma. HIV-1 RNA copies were quantified with the Roche Amplicor kit. Results Levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, eotaxin, IL1Ra and IP-10 were significantly elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of in utero HIV-1 MTCT. In contrast, only GCSF was elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of intrapartum MTCT. After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age, and peripheral CD4+ T cell count, every log10 increase in placental IP-10 was associated with a three-fold increase in the prevalence of in utero HIV-1 MTCT. Conclusions Elevated cytokine and chemokine levels in placental plasma were associated with in utero and not intrapartum MTCT. IP-10, which is both a T-cell chemokine and potentiator of HIV-replication, was robustly and independently associated with prevalent, in utero MTCT. PMID:22301415

Kumar, Surender B.; Rice, Cara E.; Milner, Danny A.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ackerman, William E.; Mwapasa, Victor; Turner, Abigail Norris; Kwiek, Jesse J.

2012-01-01

251

Interferon-gamma elevates nicotinamide N-methyltransferase activity and nicotinamide level in human glioma cells.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide. NNMT is strongly expressed in tumor cells and an increase in NNMT activity may reduce cellular nicotinamide level and thereby promote cell survival in the cells. However, there has been no report of a relationship between NNMT activity and nicotinamide level in tumor cells. We report herein that human glioma cells produce relatively large amounts of NNMT and that when these cells are cultured in the presence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) their 1-methylnicotinamide levels increase. To clarify the mechanisms by which IFN-gamma increases 1-methylnicotinamide levels in these cells, we measured NNMT activity and the levels of NNMT expression, nicotinamide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in the presence and absence of IFN-gamma. We also examined whether addition of exogenous 1-methylnicotinamide directly affects cell viability and/or the cellular levels of 1-methylnicotinamide, nicotinamide and NAD(+). While addition of 1-methylnicotinamide increased the total amount of cellular 1-methylnicotinamide present, it did not affect nicotinamide or NAD(+) levels, or cell viability. Conversely, IFN-gamma significantly increased NNMT activity and the nicotinamide cellular concentration, while leaving NNMT expression and the NAD(+) cellular concentration unchanged. Therefore, the increase in the 1-methylnicotinamide level found when IFN-gamma is present in culture may be a consequence of increases in both the nicotinamide concentration and NNMT activity, whereas, 1-methylnicotinamide did not influence nicotinamide levels, NAD(+) levels, or cell viability per se. These results suggest that an increase in NNMT activity does not always reduce cellular nicotinamide concentration in tumor cells. PMID:20495288

Yamada, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Hara, Nobumasa; Tsuchiya, Mikako

2010-01-01

252

The Effect of Atorvastatin and Atorvastatin-Ezetimibe Combination Therapy on Androgen Production in Hyperandrogenic Women with Elevated Cholesterol Levels.  

PubMed

Statins decreased serum androgen levels in hyperandrogenemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome. No previous study has investigated whether this effect is dose-dependent and observed in patients simultaneously treated with other hypolipidemic agents. The study included 23 premenopausal women with elevated total testosterone levels coexisting with hypercholesterolemia, unsuccessfully treated for at least 6 months with atorvastatin (20?mg daily). These patients were then treated with either an increased dose of atorvastatin (40?mg daily, n=11) or atorvastatin (20?mg daily) plus ezetimibe (10?mg daily) (n=12). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and serum levels of androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin and gonadotropins were assessed at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Although both treatments decreased plasma levels of total and LDL-cholesterol levels, only high-dose atorvastatin reduced serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and androstendione. The effect of high-dose atorvastatin on serum androgen levels did not differ between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive subjects. The obtained results suggest that atorvastatin reduces serum androgen levels in a dose-dependent manner and that its administration in a higher dose is associated with a more pronounced effect on serum androgens than combination therapy with low-dose atorvastatin and ezetimibe. PMID:25350347

Krysiak, R; Okopien, B

2014-10-28

253

Elevated expression level of 60-kDa subunit of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase in colon cancer.  

PubMed

tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is an enzyme which synthesizes a modified nucleoside, queuosine, by exchanging the base moiety of guanosine for queuine in tRNA. We have reported that the expression level of the 60-kDa subunit of TGT (TGT60kD) is elevated in leukemic cells, however, there is no other report on the expression of TGT60kD in cancer cells. The expression levels of the TGT60kD protein are elevated in four of the five colon cancer cell lines and 83% of colon cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. The expression levels of the TGT60kD protein decreased in two colon cancer cell lines, after cell differentiation was induced. A marked positive staining of cancer cells in colon tissues was observed, and the subcellular staining pattern was mainly cytosolic. These data suggest that the role of TGT60kD in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:15246567

Ishiwata, Shunji; Ozawa, Yasuko; Katayama, Jun; Kaneko, Shuko; Shindo, Hiroki; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Asano, Goro; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Mizugaki, Michinao

2004-08-20

254

Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS. PMID:22087250

Tauber, John M; Vanlandingham, Phillip A; Zhang, Bing

2011-01-01

255

Elevated Levels of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter and a Novel Repetitive Behavior in the Drosophila Model of Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS. PMID:22087250

Tauber, John M.; Vanlandingham, Phillip A.; Zhang, Bing

2011-01-01

256

Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food  

SciTech Connect

When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

1988-01-01

257

Mechanism of parasitism-induced elevation of haemolymph growth-blocking peptide levels in host insect larvae (Pseudaletia separata).  

PubMed

Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) has been purified for the first time from the haemolymph of the host armyworm Pseudaletia separata whose growth is inhibited and shows developmental arrest in the last larval instar stage when parasitized by the parasitoid wasp Cotesia kariyai. GBP naturally occurs in the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae but its concentration is very low during the last larval instar in comparison with that in the penultimate larval instar. However, by 24h after parasitization or polydnavirus (PdV)-infection on day 0 of the last larval instar, a four-fold increase in GBP level, compared with synchronous non-parasitized control larvae, is observed. Although Northern blot analysis indicates that GBP mRNA is transcribed in brain-nerve cord and fat body, plasma GBP is likely to be secreted mainly from fat body because the GBP mRNA level is approximately 100-fold higher in fat body than that in brain-nerve cord. RT-PCR analysis demonstrates the constant expression of GBP mRNA in both parasitized (or PdV-infected) and non-parasitized larval fat body, which suggests that parasitism does not influence transcriptional level, but might influence post-transcriptional level to elevate plasma GBP concentration. This interpretation was supported by estimating GBP precursor levels in fat body of PdV-infected and non-infected larvae. Virus infection appears to elevate the GBP precursor levels in fat body to about six times greater than that in non-infected last instar larvae by 6h after PdV-injection. The GBP processing enzyme activity that occurs in Golgi body-rich extract of the fat body is increased by about 90% after parasitization or PdV-injection. PMID:12769880

Endo, Y; Ohnishi, A; Hayakawa, Y

1998-09-01

258

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-07-01

259

Health of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) with elevated tissue levels of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were collected in 1996 from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Histologic examination was performed on major organs of 497 specimens and on the liver of 48 additional individuals. Preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatic changes consisted of vacuolated cell (n = 65), clear cell (n = 17), and acidophilic (n = 16) foci of altered hepatocyte, hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 12), cholangioma (n = 5), and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 28). Six fish were intersexes (1.2%), and 11.7% of the ovaries (26/223) had ducts containing spermatogonia or more differentiated cells of the male germ cell line. Asynchronous nodular maturation of the testes was present in 8.2% of the male fish (22/267). The mean hepatic concentrations of various contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes, pesticides, and trace metals, were 6 to 8 times higher in lake whitefish than in three other fish species (Ictalurus punctatus, Catostomus commersoni, and Stizostedion vitreum) collected at the same site. Condition factor of lake whitefish from this study was lower than that previously reported 40 to 50 years ago at this site and from contemporary pristine sites in the Great Lakes, USA. The presence of liver neoplasms, gonadal lesions, and a decreased condition factor in lake whitefish from the St. Lawrence River may be etiologically related to elevated tissue concentrations of toxic chemical contaminants. PMID:11883413

Mikaelian, Igor; de Lafontaine, Yves; Harshbarger, John C; Lee, Lucy L J; Martineau, Daniel

2002-03-01

260

Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease: FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... dietary carbohydrate and fat, as well as alcohol consumption play an important role in treating high levels ... beverages. Currently, it is estimated that soft drink consumption alone accounts for one third of added sugars ...

261

Rhode Island Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal salt marsh is especially sensitive to deterioration due to the effects of accelerated sea level rise when combined with other anthropogenically linked stressors, including crab herbivory, changes in tidal hydrology, nutrient loading, dam construction, changes in temperature...

262

Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03?±?10.41 ?g/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81?±?10.21 ?g/dL), p?=?0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04?±?4.11 ?g/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99?±?3.28 ?g/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 ?g/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention. PMID:24645964

2014-01-01

263

Down syndrome patients with pulmonary hypertension have elevated plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome (DS) patients have an increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH). Increased plasma levels of asymmetric\\u000a dimethylarginine (ADMA) may contribute to vascular dysfunction in adults with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Our goal\\u000a was to test the hypothesis that DS patients with PH have higher plasma levels of ADMA than DS patients without PH. DS patients\\u000a with definitive PH (n?=?6)

Clifford L. Cua; Lynette K. Rogers; Louis G. Chicoine; Molly Augustine; Yi Jin; Patricia L. Nash; Leif D. Nelin

2011-01-01

264

Chitinase 3-Like 1 Protein Levels Are Elevated in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children  

E-print Network

of this study was to determine the relationship between Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40 levels. Methods: Serological levels of CHI3L1 and a panel of cytokines (IFN-y, IL-4/5/6/9/10/13 and 17 allowing for confounding variables. The effect of antihelminthic treatment with praziquantel on CHI3L1

Mutapi, Francisca

265

Appendix 1. List of lakes used in study, including geographic location, elevation of lake above mean sea-level, duration of ice-out record, and observers. For  

E-print Network

1 Appendix 1. List of lakes used in study, including geographic location, elevation of lake above mean sea-level, duration of ice-out record, and observers. For some lakes the criteria for determining ice dates are included. Lake Auburn, ME, USA Lat/Long: 44.146839°, -70.254301° Elevation: 79 m

Patterson, Timothy

266

Elevated mitochondrial cisplatin-DNA adduct levels in rat tissues after transplacental cisplatin exposure.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence that the toxic effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) include morphologically abnormal mitochondria, direct demonstrations of mitochondrial DNA damage by this chemotherapeutic agent have rarely been reported. Here we show that, in rats exposed to a single dose of cisplatin during gestation, cisplatin-DNA binding levels in both maternal and fetal liver and brain mitochondrial DNA are higher than those observed in genomic DNA. Pregnant F344/NCr rats were injected i.p. with either 5 or 15 mg cisplatin/kg body wt at 18 days of gestation and killed 24 h later. Cisplatin-DNA adducts were determined by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay using a cisplatin-DNA standard modified in the same range as the biological samples. Values for genomic cisplatin-DNA adducts in multiple maternal and fetal tissues have been presented elsewhere. Here, genomic DNA adduct levels for liver, brain, kidney and placenta are reported again for comparison with mitochondrial DNA adduct levels in the same tissues. In maternal and fetal brain, mitochondrial DNA adduct levels were approximately 7- to 50-fold higher than genomic DNA adduct levels, and in fetal liver they were approximately 2- to 16-fold higher than genomic DNA adduct levels. These studies demonstrate extensive cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in brain and liver mitochondria of fetal rats exposed transplacentally and suggest that mitochondrial DNA in some organs may be a particular target for cisplatin genotoxicity. PMID:9054594

Giurgiovich, A J; Diwan, B A; Olivero, O A; Anderson, L M; Rice, J M; Poirier, M C

1997-01-01

267

Experimentally elevated levels of testosterone at independence reduce fitness in a territorial bird.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions and individual strategies in early life may have a profound effect on fitness. A critical moment in the life of an organism occurs when an individual reaches independence and stops receiving benefits from its relatives. Understanding the consequences of individual strategies at the time of independence requires quantification of their fitness effects. We explored this period in the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). In this system, testosterone and parasite (Trichostrongylus tenuis) levels are known to influence survival and reproduction, the two key components of individual fitness. We experimentally and simultaneously manipulated testosterone and parasites at three levels (high, intermediate, and control levels for both factors) in 195 young males in five populations using a factorial experimental design. We explored the effects of our treatments on fitness by monitoring reproduction and survival throughout the life of all males and estimating lambda(ind), a rate-sensitive index of fitness. Parasite challenges increased the number of worms with a time lag, as previously found. However, we did not find significant effects of parasite manipulations on fitness, possibly because parasite abundance did not increase to harmful levels. Our hormone manipulation was successful at increasing testosterone at three different levels. Such increases in hormone levels decreased overall fitness. This was caused by reduced offspring production in the first breeding attempt rather than by any effect of the treatment on bird survival. Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels at independence, a strategy that might enhance short-term recruitment probability in territorial species such as Red Grouse, has a fitness cost, and can influence the resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and survival later in life. PMID:24933821

Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S C; Redpath, S M

2014-04-01

268

Elevated Plasma Total Cholesterol Level Is Associated with the Risk of Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is one of the most common causes of stroke, and dyslipidemia was one of the most common risk factors related to ICAS. However, the correlation between the plasma total cholesterol level (PTC) and ICAS, especially asymptomatic ICAS (AICAS) is not clear. Materials and Methods 5,300 participants were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of AICAS was made by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The participants were then divided into 5 essentially equal-sized groups based on their PTC levels. The multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the PTC level and the prevalence of AICAS. Results 13.0% of the participants were diagnosed with AICAS. The prevalence of AICAS gradually increased with the increasing PTC level. After adjusted by the possible confounding factors, the Odds Ratios (OR) of the AICAS prevalence between the 1st quintile group and the other 4 groups were 1.13, 1.23, 1.63 and 1.75 with 95% confident intervals (CI) of 0.84–1.52, 0.91–1.66, 1.20–2.22 and 1.23–2.47, respectively. The further subgroup analysis revealed that the PTC level was stronger for males (OR 1.42 95%CI 1.23–1.64), regarding the prevalence of AICAS. Conclusions In this large community-based study, the prevalence of AICAS is 13.0%, subjects with higher PTC levels showed a mild increase in the prevalence of AICAS. The PTC level is an independent risk factor of AICAS. Males seem to be significantly more vulnerable to the risk of AICAS. PMID:24992466

Wu, Jianwei; Qu, Weikai; Wang, Chunxue; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Anxin; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

2014-01-01

269

Targeted intestinal overexpression of the immediate early gene tis7 in transgenic mice increases triglyceride absorption and adiposity.  

PubMed

Following loss of functional small bowel surface area due to surgical resection, the remnant gut undergoes an adaptive response characterized by increased crypt cell proliferation and enhanced villus height and crypt depth, resulting in augmented intestinal nutrient absorptive capacity. Previous studies showed that expression of the immediate early gene tis7 is markedly up-regulated in intestinal enterocytes during the adaptive response. To study its role in the enterocyte, transgenic mice were generated that specifically overexpress TIS7 in the gut. Nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein promoter were used to direct abundant overexpression of TIS7 into small intestinal upper crypt and villus enterocytes. TIS7 transgenic mice had increased total body adiposity and decreased lean muscle mass compared with normal littermates. Oxygen consumption levels, body weight, surface area, and small bowel weight were decreased. On a high fat diet, transgenic mice exhibited a more rapid and proportionately greater gain in body weight with persistently elevated total body adiposity and increased hepatic fat accumulation. Bolus fat feeding resulted in a greater increase in serum triglyceride levels and an accelerated appearance of enterocytic, lamina propria, and hepatic fat. Changes in fat homeostasis were linked to increased expression of genes involved in enterocytic triglyceride metabolism and changes in growth with decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 expression. Thus, TIS7 overexpression in the intestine altered growth, metabolic rate, adiposity, and intestinal triglyceride absorption. These results suggest that TIS7 is a unique mediator of nutrient absorptive and metabolic adaptation following gut resection. PMID:16085642

Wang, Yuan; Iordanov, Hristo; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Wang, Lihua; Fritsch, Christine; Coleman, Trey; Semenkovich, Clay F; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

2005-10-14

270

Elevated Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D Levels Are Negatively Correlated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization.  

PubMed

To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

2015-02-01

271

Elevated erythropoietin and cytokines levels are related to impaired reticulocyte maturation in thalassemic patients.  

PubMed

Serum EPO concentration is related primarily to the rate of erythrocyte production and, under the stimulation of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreased. The level of EPO was determined in 141 subjects including 43 normal, 44 thalassemic patients and 54 thalassemic trait subjects. The EPO level was significantly higher in the thalassemic patients (54.8mU/ml in HbH disease [? thal1/? thal2;], 78.1mU/ml in HbH with Hb CS [? thal 1/CS]; 95.6mU/ml in ?-thal/HbE splenectomized [BE(S)]; and 114.8mU/ml in ?-thal/HbE non-splenectomized [BE(NS)]as compared with 12.0mU/ml in normal subjects. No significant differences were detected in thalassemic trait subjects. In addition, the levels of EPO in thalassemic patients is correlated significantly with the number of reticulocytes and the reticulocyte fractions especially the fraction of immature reticulocytes. Interestingly, the highest level of EPO/% retic ratio as indicated for EPO non-responder was detected in BE(NS) patients. However, the impaired reticulocytes maturation was found to be related significantly with the levels of TNF-?,IFN-?,IL-10, and VEGF. Since, TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-10 and VEGF are reported as the cytokines with erythropoietic inhibitory mediators, the variation of these cytokines in thalassemic environments may be associated to the anemic crisis in these patients. PMID:25477265

Butthep, Punnee; Wisedpanichkij, Raewadee; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee; Fucharoen, Suthat

2015-02-01

272

Elevated Chemerin Levels in Pakistani Men: An Interrelation with Metabolic Syndrome Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Chemerin is a novel protein linked to adipocyte differentiation and the development of metabolic imbalances. We sought to examine the relationship of chemerin with metabolic syndrome disturbances including body fat percentage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin levels and body fat percentage in lean and obese volunteers. A cross-sectional study of 90 randomly selected healthy males from Pakistan were divided into three groups as per Body Mass Index (BMI) criteria for South Asian Population. Anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage, while serum analyses were performed for fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, fasting lipid profile and serum chemerin. Associations between serum chemerin levels and body fat and other metabolic syndrome parameters were performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. Data was presented as Mean±SD. In all statistical analyses p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Circulating chemerin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (P?=?0.001). Serum chemerin levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with serum levels of cholesterol (P?=?0.0160; r?=?0.255), fasting glucose (P?=?0.002; r?=?0.323), HOMA-IR (P?=?0.004; r?=?0.300) and hip circumference (P?=?0.021; r?=?0.246). This demonstrates that chemerin levels are associated with obesity and dyslipidemia and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance. This data suggests that chemerin may serve as an independent marker in diagnosing these conditions even before they become clinically symptomatic. PMID:23468920

Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Rehman, Rehana; Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor

2013-01-01

273

Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

J. Edward Hunter

2001-01-01

274

Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed at answering the question why feeding rats an oligofructose (OFS) supplemented diet could cause\\u000a a significant reduction in plasma lipid levels. Daily administration of a 10% (w\\/w) OFS-containing diet to normolipidemic\\u000a male rats resulted in a decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect\\u000a was observed after one week and lasted for at

Maria Fiordaliso; Nadine Kok; Jean-Pierre Desager; Fabienne Goethals; Dominique Deboyser; Marcel Roberfroid; Nathalie Delzenne

1995-01-01

275

Constitutively Elevated Levels of Putrescine and Putrescine-Generating Enzymes Correlated with Oxidant Stress Resistance in Conyza bonariensis and Wheat.  

PubMed Central

Oxidant stress resistance in Conyza bonariensis and wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been correlated with high levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, external oxidant stresses can increase a plant's levels of the enzymes of polyamine biosynthesis and polyamines, especially putrescine. We investigated the constitutive relationships between putrescine, putrescine-generating enzymes, and oxidant stress resistance in wheat and C. bonariensis. Putrescine was Constitutively elevated (2.5- to 5.7-fold) in 2-week-old-resistant wheat and C. bonariensis biotypes, which correlated with a 10- to 15-fold increase in paraquat oxidant resistance. Arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities doubled, along with higher putrescine levels in resistant C. bonariensis. The variations in levels of putrescine and arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities paralleled the constitutive variation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as oxidant resistance. Higher levels of both putrescine and antioxidant enzyme activities occurred during a peak of oxidant resistance at 10 weeks, when paraquat resistance in C. bonariensis plants is >50-fold greater than in the sensitive biotype. Application of 100 [mu]M putrescine can double oxidant-stress resistance in the resistant C. bonariensis. Putrescine may play an important role in contributing to the base level of oxidant resistance found at the nonpeak period. PMID:12223875

Ye, B.; Muller, H. H.; Zhang, J.; Gressel, J.

1997-01-01

276

The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels.  

PubMed

This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from-1.1. to-1.6 microgram/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:9756679

Aschengrau, A; Hardy, S; Mackey, P; Pultinas, D

1998-10-01

277

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ELEVATED PTH LEVELS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS IN HOUSTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) have been reported in adolescents with low 25-hydroxyvitamins D status (25D). As part of a study evaluating longitudinal changes in calcium (Ca) metabolism, we gave Ca-fortified orange juice (Ca-OJ, Minute Maid) once daily with breakfast to 88 adolescents (...

278

Orthometric corrections from leveling, gravity, density and elevation data: a case study in Taiwan  

E-print Network

produce different results and yield OCs that are greater than 10 cm between adjacent benchmarks (separated leveling must be corrected for non-parallel equipotential surfaces using the orthometric correction (OC applications. Rigorous OC computation is expensive because it requires observed gravity values at benchmarks

Hwang, Cheinway

279

Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance rosmarinic acid production in spearmint plantlets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The C20 diterpene rosmarinic acid (RA) is synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway and is constitutively expressed in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantlets grown in vitro. RA levels within plantlet leaves were found to be readily manipulated by the nutritional and physical environments. Higher...

280

Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our

Max Weintraub; Linda S. Birnbaum

2008-01-01

281

PROLONGED FASTING AND CORTISOL REDUCE MYOSTATIN MRNA LEVELS IN TILAPIA LARVAE, SHORT-TERM FASTING ELEVATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indices in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA...

282

Effects of elevated peroxidase levels and corn earworm feeding on gene expression in tomato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato gene arrays were used to investigate how high levels of transgenic peroxidase expression and feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, affected expression of defensive and other genes. High peroxidase activity significantly upregulated proteinase inhibitors and a few other defensive gene...

283

The effect of elevated progesterone levels on intraocular pressure in lions ( Panthera leo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we reported that intraocular pressure (IOP) in juvenile male lions (Panthera leo) is significantly higher than in juvenile lionesses. Whilst we could not ascertain the basis for this gender-related difference, we suspected that they were the result of fluctuations in levels of sex hormones. Because 19 of the 22 lions described in our previous report had to be re-anaesthetized,

R. OFRI; L. S. SHORE; P. H. KASS; I. H. HOROWITZ

1999-01-01

284

Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that decisions to care for the offspring of others in societies of cooperative vertebrates may have a hormonal basis. The crucial question of whether changes in hormone levels immediately precede or merely follow bouts of offspring care, however, remains largely unanswered. Here, we show that in wild groups of cooperatively breeding meerkats, male helpers that decided to

Anne A. Carlson; Andrew F. Russell; Andrew J. Young; Neil R. Jordan; Alan S. McNeilly; Al F. Parlow; Tim Clutton-Brock

2006-01-01

285

C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.  

PubMed

Context: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), due to loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (NPR-B), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MEK/ERK MAP kinase pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in over-activation of the MEK/ERK MAP kinase pathway. Objective: To determine if these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases of plasma CNP and its amino terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). Design: This was a prospective, observational study. Subjects: Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Results: Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDS) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) [median (intraquartile range)] and NTproCNP SDS of 1.4 (0.4-1.8) (p<0.0005). NTproCNP levels correlated with height velocity. Levels were also elevated in adults with achondroplasia, CNP SDS 1.5 (0.7-2.1) and NTproCNP SDS 0.5 (0.1-1.0), p<0.005. In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDS were 1.3 (0.7-1.5)(p=0.08) and NTproCNP SDS were 1.9 (1.8-2.3)(p<0.05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDS were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDS were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (p<0.01). Conclusions: In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP. PMID:25387261

Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

2014-11-11

286

Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges  

SciTech Connect

The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

1999-07-01

287

Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome (MS) and “low grade” systemic inflammation (LGSI) are very common findings in the older population. Although MS and LGSI have been associated in adults, it is not known what is the real contribution of MS, and its single components, to LGSI in older persons, due to the potential confounding effect of comorbidity and aging. We investigated the relationship between increased C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, a marker of LGSI, and MS in 1044 older (?65 years) community dwelling Italian individuals enrolled the InChianti study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III-AHA/NHLBI criteria. High sensitivity CRP (hs.CRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and defined as high when >3 mg/L. The overall prevalence of MS was 31%. The prevalence of high hs.CRP was 54.5% in subjects with, and 41.3% in those without MS (p < 0.001). MS was associated with high hs.CRP levels after adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.46-2.55). Compared to subjects with MS and no LGSI, individuals with MS and LGSI were characterized by higher waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels in subjects with MS (waist circumference III vs. I tertile OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79-3.77) independent of age, gender, and important confounding variables including comorbidity. Additional analyses, conducted with and without dichotomization of hs.CRP levels, confirmed the central role of waist circumference in the LGSI phenomenon, independent of gender and diagnosis of MS. We conclude that in older individuals, MS is associated with LGSI, but the association is mainly supported by a strong independent correlation between waist circumference and high hs.CRP levels. In the absence of this specific MS component, it seems that the contribution of MS to LGSI would be modest at best. PMID:18845301

Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Galvani, Matteo; Blè, Alessandro; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

2009-01-01

288

Elevated homocysteine levels and risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate whether elevated homocysteine levels were a predictor of subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality in the general population by a meta-analysis. Methods: In a systematic search conducted in the databases of PubMed and Embase prior to October 2013, we identified relevant prospective observational studies evaluating the association between baseline homocysteine levels and CHD mortality, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population. Pooled adjust risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated separately for categorical risk estimates and continuous risk estimates. Results: Twelve studies with 23 623 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest to lowest homocysteine level categories, CHD mortality increased by 66% (RR 1.66; 95% CI 1.12–2.47; P=0.012), cardiovascular mortality increased by 68% (RR 1.68; 95% CI 1.04–2.70; P=0.033), and all-cause mortality increased by 93% (RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.54–2.43; P<0.001). Moreover, for each 5 ?mol/L homocysteine increment, the pooled RR was 1.52 (95% CI 1.26–1.84; P<0.001) for CHD mortality, 1.32 (95% CI 1.08–1.61; P=0.006) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03–1.55; P=0.023) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Elevated homocysteine levels are an independent predictor for subsequent cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality, and the risks were more pronounced among elderly persons. PMID:25559959

Peng, Hui-yong; Man, Chang-feng; Xu, Juan; Fan, Yu

2015-01-01

289

Elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but not S100B in major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Objectives. Alterations in neuronal and glial integrity are considered to be of pathogenic impact on major depressive disorder (MDD). For MDD, data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are lacking and scarce for glial protein S100B. Methods. We measured CSF levels of NSE and S100B in 31 patients with MDD and 32 mentally healthy controls using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays (ECLIA). Results. Adjusted means of NSE were significantly elevated in the MDD patients (11.73 ng/ml (9.95-13.52 95% CI) compared to the controls (6.17 ng/ml (4.55-7.78), F = 9.037, P = 0.004. Effect size for adjusted mean group difference of 5.57 ng/ml was found invariably high (Cohen's d = 1.23). Differentiating MDD from controls, a NSE cut-off of 7.94 ng/ml showed sensitivity of 81% (95% CI 63.7-90.8) and specificity of 75% (95% CI 57.9-86.7). Adjusted levels of S100B did not differ significantly between the two groups (1.12 ng/ml (0.77-1.48) in MDD, 0.97 ng/ml (0.64-1.30) in controls). Conclusions. Our results of elevated CSF-NSE levels support neuronal pathology in MDD and the potential use of CSF-NSE as marker in clinical diagnostics. Missing group differences in S100B do not promote a specific glial pathology in depressive disorders. PMID:25264292

Schmidt, Frank Martin; Mergl, Roland; Stach, Barbara; Jahn, Ina; Schönknecht, Peter

2014-09-29

290

Elevated CA 19-9 levels observed in association with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour and amyloid.  

PubMed

Investigations completed in a 77-year-old ex-smoker presenting with weight loss showed raised CA 19-9 levels. The findings of chest radiograph, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations were all normal. On follow-up, the patient developed left upper lobe collapse on chest radiograph with increasing CA 19-9 levels. Chest CT findings suggested the presence of a left upper lobe tumour. The results of a biopsy of the left upper lobe nodule seen on bronchoscopy suggested a diagnosis of amyloidosis; however, this was not the only diagnosis. The left upper lobe mass comprised a neuroendocrine tumour with amyloid deposition just beneath the bronchial epithelium and focally between the nests of the tumour cells. We report and discuss this uncommon association and presentation. PMID:23291683

Faruqi, Shoaib; Gumparthy, Krishna; Wahbi, Zaroug

2013-01-01

291

Elevated levels of members of the STAT family of transcription factors in breast carcinoma nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, milk protein binding factor (MPBF/Stat5), is a member of the STAT family of signalling molecules which mediates prolactin signal transduction in lactating mammary gland by binding to GAS (gamma-interferon activation site) DNA elements. We have determined the levels of STAT factors in nuclear extracts from a variety of human breast tissues including carcinoma and normal 'resting' breast by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The results show that the level of STAT binding activity is low in normal 'resting' breast and benign lesions while carcinoma samples have significantly higher (P < 0.01) amounts of STAT binding activity. Supershift analysis suggests that Stat1 and possibly other members of the STAT family of signalling factors, including Stat3, are activated in breast cancer tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7710952

Watson, C. J.; Miller, W. R.

1995-01-01

292

Detection of elevated reactive oxygen species level in cultured rat hepatocytes treated with aflatoxin B 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that oxidative damage is one of the underlying mechanisms to the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1. The main objective of this study is to show that AFB, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in hepatocytes. The ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with

Han-Ming Shen; Chen-Yang Shi; Yi Shen; Choon-Nam Ong

1996-01-01

293

Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ  

PubMed Central

Background In animal models, there is evidence to suggest a causal link between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and offspring outcomes; however, evidence for this relationship in humans is inconclusive. We address important confounders of this association by estimating the relationship between maternal cortisol levels in late pregnancy and childhood IQ in a birth cohort and in a subsample of siblings. Methods This study included 832 children who were members of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Maternal serum collected between 1959 and 1966 during the third trimester of pregnancy was analysed for free cortisol. We investigated the relationship between maternal cortisol in quintiles and full, verbal and performance scale scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7 years, adjusting for prenatal and family characteristics. We repeated this analysis among 74 discordant sibling pairs using a fixed effects approach, which adjusts for shared family characteristics. Results Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to full-scale IQ, an effect driven by verbal IQ scores. Compared with those in the lowest quintile of cortisol exposure, the verbal IQ of children in the highest quintile of exposure was 3.83 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): ?6.44 to ?1.22]. Within sibling pairs, being in the highest quintile of exposure was associated with verbal IQ scores 5.5 points lower (95% CI: ?11.24 to 0.31) compared with the other quintiles. Conclusion These findings are consistent with prior human and animal studies, and suggest that exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol during pregnancy may be negatively related to offspring cognitive skills independently of family attributes that characterize the postnatal environment. PMID:19423658

LeWinn, Kaja Z; Stroud, Laura R; Molnar, Beth E; Ware, James H; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

2009-01-01

294

Elevated cytokine levels in tracheobronchial aspirate fluids from ventilator treated neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract  Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease often occurring in ventilator-treated very low birth weight infants.\\u000a The aetiology of BPD is multifactorial and pulmonary immaturity, high oxygen concentrations, peak inspiratory pressure levels\\u000a and large tidal volumes during prolonged mechanical ventilation are important factors. We measured in tracheobronchial aspirate\\u000a fluid (TAF) the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor

K. Tullus; G. W. Noack; L. G. Burman; R. Nilsson; B. Wretlind; A. Brauner

1996-01-01

295

Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

2014-01-01

296

Castleman's disease and arterial thrombosis: result of excessively elevated interleukin-6 plasma level?  

PubMed

Morbus Castleman is a benign non-clonal lymphoproliverative disorder. Immunomodulatory and antiproliferative drugs are used to treat this plasma cell disorder. We report the case of a 46-year old female patient with multicentric Castleman's disease and limb ischemia. Thrombotic occlusions of the popliteal and tibioperoneal arteries were treated by percutaneous thrombus aspiration. We discuss the role of increased interleukin-6 plasma levels during therapy with Tocilizumab, an antibody to interleukin-6 receptor, as a potential cause for arterial thrombosis. PMID:22403134

Schumacher, Anette; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Stüssi, Georg; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Corti, Natascia; Husmann, Marc

2012-03-01

297

Plasma Kynurenine Levels are Elevated in Suicide Attempters with Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation has been linked to depression and suicide risk. One inflammatory process that has been minimally investigated in this regard is cytokine-stimulated production of kynurenine (KYN) from tryptophan (TRP). Recent data suggest that KYN increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with depressive symptoms secondary to immune activation. KYN may alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic tone, thereby contributing to increased arousal, agitation and impulsivity - important risk factors in suicide. We hypothesized that patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and a history of suicide attempt would have higher levels of KYN than depressed nonattempters, who in turn would have higher levels than healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma KYN, TRP, and neopterin were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography in three groups: healthy volunteers (n=31) and patients with MDD with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of suicide attempt. Analysis of variance tested for group differences in KYN levels. Results KYN levels differed across groups (F=4.03, df=(2,58), p=0.023): a priori planned contrasts showed that KYN was higher in the MDD suicide attempter subgroup compared with MDD non-attempters (t=2.105, df=58, p=0.040), who did not differ from healthy volunteers (t=0.418, df=58, p=0.677). In post-hoc testing, KYN but not TRP was associated with attempt status, and only suicide attempters exhibited a positive correlation of the cytokine activation marker neopterin with the KYN:TRP ratio, suggesting that KYN production may be influenced by inflammatory processes among suicide attempters. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that KYN and related molecular pathways may be implicated in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. PMID:21605657

Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Lapidus, Manana; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Postolache, Teodor T.

2012-01-01

298

Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.  

PubMed

Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 ?Acm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 ?. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose. PMID:24779948

Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

2014-04-01

299

Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Film Cooling at Elevated Levels of Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of an experimental study on the influence of high level turbulence on vane film cooling and the influence of film cooling on vane heat transfer. Three different cooling configurations were investigated which included one row of film cooling on both pressure and suction surfaces, two staggered rows of film cooling on both suction and pressure surfaces, and a shower-head cooling array. The turbulence had a strong influence on film cooling effectiveness, particularly on the pressure surface where local turbulence levels were the highest. For the single row of holes, the spanwise mixing quickly reduced centerline effectiveness levels while mixing in the normal direction was more gradual. The film cooling had a strong influence on the heat transfer in the laminar regions of the vane. The effect of film cooling on heat transfer was noticeable in the turbulent regions but augmentation ratios were significantly lower. In addition to heat transfer and film cooling, velocity profiles were taken downstream of the film cooling rows at three spanwise locations. These profile comparisons documented the strong spanwise mixing due to the high turbulence. Total pressure exit measurements were also documented for the three configurations.

Ames, Forrest E.

1996-01-01

300

Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

2013-04-01

301

Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach ridge plains are a common feature of prograding coastlines and they have in the past been widely used as geomorphological archives for the reconstruction of past coastal dynamics, event chronologies or late quaternary sea-level change. The most critical parameters for sea-level related research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time-consuming and essentially of limited spatial coverage. The SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) dataset is a freely-available digital surface model covering landmasses between approximately 60° N and 56° S at a 90 m (3 arc seconds) resolution. The model elevations are indicated without decimals (integer) and are projected for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) with the SRTM elevation model along a cross-ridge transect. An average vertical deviation of 0,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM data acquisition and our GPS measurement. This interpretation is supported by a multi-decadal sequence of Landsat false-color composites. Vegetation cover and rounding errors are further possible factors in explaining vertical deviation. The consistency of data quality was confirmed by a comparison study using a LiDAR (Light detection and ranging)-based digital elevation model (vertical accuracy: <0,1 m) to extract surface elevations on an extensive beach ridge plain on the island of Anholt, Denmark. The relatively high accuracy of the SRTM data in near-coastal environments is probably owed to the correction of the original dataset for a fixed value of 0 m along the coastlines of the world (SRTM Water Body Data). Our findings indicate that, at certain scales, a spatial integration of linear GPS data can be attempted using the SRTM dataset. However, the process must be aided by adequate surface information (e.g. Landsat images from close to the date of SRTM acquisition). The fixed reference datum allows a contextualization of distant field sites and thus can help to reduce bias measurement and interpretation. In our case, the SRTM data set has proven to be a valuable tool for the preparation of field work and facilitated a more accurate appraisal of the Holocene marine sedimentary record.

Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariel; Alberdi, Ernesto; Pejrup, Morten

2014-05-01

302

Elevated Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Association With Tumor Markers as the Prognostic Factors Predictive for Poor Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated blood vitamin B12 (VitB12) level has recently been identified as a prognostic indicator for advanced cancer patients. The predictive value of blood VitB12 for survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our objective was to examine the determinants of elevated serum VitB12 levels and their associations with prognosis of patients with HCC. The cohort study included 90

Ching-Yih Lin; Chang-Sheng Kuo; Chin-Li Lu; Meng-Ying Wu; Rwei-Fen Syu Huang

2010-01-01

303

PTH Ablation Ameliorates the Anomalies of Fgf23-Deficient Mice by Suppressing the Elevated Vitamin D and Calcium Levels  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a key regulator of mineral ion homeostasis. Genetic ablation of Fgf23 in mice leads to severe biochemical disorders including elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and marked decreased PTH levels. Because PTH stimulates 1,25(OH)2D production and increases serum calcium levels, we hypothesized that ablation of PTH from the Fgf23 knockout (Fgf23?/?) mice could suppress these affects, thus ameliorating the soft tissue and skeletal anomalies in these animals. In this study, we generated a genetic mouse model with dual ablation of the Fgf23/PTH genes. The data show that deletion of PTH does suppress the markedly higher serum 1,25(OH)2D and calcium levels observed in Fgf23?/? mice and results in much larger, heavier, and more active double-knockout mice with improved soft tissue and skeletal phenotypes. On the contrary, when we infused PTH (1–34) peptide into Fgf23?/? mice using osmotic minipumps, serum 1,25(OH)2D and calcium levels were increased even further, leading to marked reduction in trabecular bone. These results indicate that PTH is able to modulate the anomalies of Fgf23?/? mice by controlling serum 1,25(OH)2D and calcium levels. PMID:21896668

Yuan, Quan; Sitara, Despina; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Saito, Hiroaki; Schüler, Christine; Erben, Reinhold G.

2011-01-01

304

Elevated plasma level of visfatin/pre-b cell colony-enhancing factor in male oral squamous cell carcinoma patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Visfatin, also known as nicotiamide phosphoribosyltransferase or pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose serum level is increased in various cancers. In this study, we investigated whether plasma visfatin levels were altered in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The relationship between plasma visfatin levels and the pretreatment hematologic profile was also explored. Study Design: Plasma visfatin concentrations were measured through ELISA in OSCC patients and control subjects. A total of 51 patients with OSCC and 57 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were studied. All study subjects were male. Results: Plasma visfatin was found to be elevated in patients with OSCC (7.0 ± 4.5 vs. 4.8 ± 1.9 ng/ml, p = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed visfatin as an independent association factor for OSCC, even after full adjustment of known biomarkers. Visfatin level was significantly correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, and hematocrit (all p < 0.05). In addition, WBC count, neutrophil count, and visfatin gradually increased with stage progression, and hematocrit gradually decreased with stage progression (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Increased plasma visfatin levels were associated with OSCC, independent of risk factors, and were correlated with inflammatory biomarkers. These data suggest that visfatin may act through inflammatory reactions to play an important role in the pathogenesis of OSCC. Key words:Visfatin; oral squamous cell carcinomas; white blood cell count; neutrophil count. PMID:23229270

Yu-Duan, Tsai; Chao-Ping, Wang; Chih-Yu, Chen; Li-Wen, Lin; Tsun-Mei, Lin; Chia-Chang, Hsu; Fu-Mei, Chung; Hsien-Chang, Lin; Hsia-Fen, Hsu; Yau-Jiunn, Lee

2013-01-01

305

Perilipin 2 Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle Despite Elevated Intramuscular Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by excessive lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage exceeds intracellular needs and induces lipotoxic events, ultimately contributing to the development of insulin resistance. Lipid droplet (LD)–coating proteins may control proper lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2/adipose differentiation–related protein [ADRP]) is one of the most abundantly expressed LD-coating proteins in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of PLIN2 in myocellular lipid handling and insulin sensitivity by investigating the effects of in vitro PLIN2 knockdown and in vitro and in vivo overexpression. PLIN2 knockdown decreased LD formation and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage, marginally increased fatty-acid (FA) oxidation, and increased incorporation of palmitate into diacylglycerols and phospholipids. PLIN2 overexpression in vitro increased intramyocellular TAG storage paralleled with improved insulin sensitivity. In vivo muscle-specific PLIN2 overexpression resulted in increased LD accumulation and blunted the high-fat diet–induced increase in protein content of the subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) chain. Diacylglycerol levels were unchanged, whereas ceramide levels were increased. Despite the increased IMCL accumulation, PLIN2 overexpression improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. We conclude that PLIN2 is essential for lipid storage in skeletal muscle by enhancing the partitioning of excess FAs toward TAG storage in LDs, thereby blunting lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:22807032

Bosma, Madeleen; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Sparks, Lauren M.; Timmers, Silvie; Ferraz, Maria João; Mattijssen, Frits; van Beurden, Denis; Schaart, Gert; de Baets, Marc H.; Verheyen, Fons K.; Kersten, Sander; Schrauwen, Patrick

2012-01-01

306

Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.  

PubMed

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

2015-01-01

307

Community and species level responses to elevated CO 2 in designed calcareous grassland communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a synthesis of two independent glasshouse experiments in which we investigated the short term response of model communities of calcareous grassland species to CO 2-enrichment. Communities consisted of six species in the first study and of 14 species in the second study. Communities were grown in containers filled with ca. 20 liters of natural soil. Total aboveground biomass production was increased by 14% (n.s., p=0.21) in the first study and by 8.5% (p=0.03) in the second study. This community level response was due to a significant stimulation of growth in 2 and 5 species, respectively. In each of the experiments, one species responded negatively to CO 2-enrichment. The remaining species, including all legumes, remained unaffected by CO 2-enrichment. Positive or negative responding species did not belong to specific functional groups, hence responses could not have been predicted from a priori knowledge of individual plant traits. Bromus erectus, which is the dominant species in calcareous grasslands of the Jura mountains, did not exhibit a CO 2-response at the species level, but genotype-specific responses in this species varied significantly and included positive as well as negative responses. No such genotypic differentiation of CO 2-response was observed in Festuca ovina. In the long term, we expect directional selection of positively responding genotypes and shifts in species composition to alter both population and community structure of calcareous grasslands — a conclusion that may also hold for other diverse plant communities.

Stöcklin, Jürg; Leadley, Paul W.; Körner, Christian

308

Elevated selenium levels in bluegills and their effect on reproduction. [Lepomis macrochirus  

SciTech Connect

A series of 18 artificial crosses of bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, from Hyco Reservoir, North Carolina (mean Se = 7.94 ppm) and Roxboro City Lake, North Carolina (mean Se = 0.38 ppm) were generated. Neither percent fertilization nor percent hatch differed significantly among the parent combinations. However, all crosses of females with high Se body burdens resulted in larvae with edema; larvae from all crosses of females with low Se body burdens were normal. No differences were found in morphology of the membranes from immature ova between females of the two reservoirs. Sections of heart and intestines appear similar between larvae from females of Hyco Reservoir and Roxboro City Lake suggesting that edema occurs from physiological impairment and not from developmental abnormalities. Mean Se levels in the gonads and carcass of adult bluegills were more than 20 times higher in fishes from Hyco Reservoir than in those from Roxboro City Lake. The high Se concentration in ovaries of Hyco Reservoir bluegills, coupled with high Se levels in larvae from artificial crosses indicated that Se was transferred from females to offspring and resulted in larval edema. /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine was fed to adult bluegills. After 12 weeks of feeding, liver and testis had the highest /sup 75/Se activities according to gamma activity assays while ovary, heart and skeletal muscle had the lowest activities.

Gillespie, R.B.

1985-01-01

309

Does short-term exposure to elevated levels of natural gamma radiation in Ramsar cause oxidative stress?  

PubMed Central

Background: Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, has areas with some of the highest recorded levels of natural radiation among inhabited areas measured on the earth. Aims: To determine whether short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation induce oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: In this study, 53 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10-12 animals. Animals in the 1st group were kept for 7 days in an outdoor area with normal background radiation while the 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th groups were kept in four different outdoor areas with naturally elevated levels of gamma radiation in Ramsar. A calibrated RDS-110 survey meter, mounted on a tripod approximately 1 m above the ground, was used to measure exposure rate at each location. On days 7 and 9 blood sampling was performed to assess the serum levels of catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On day 8, all animals were exposed to a lethal dose of 8 Gy gamma radiations emitted by a Theratron Phoenix (Theratronics, Canada) Cobalt-60 (55 cGy/min) at Radiotherapy Department of Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran. Results: Findings obtained in this study indicate that high levels of natural radiation cannot induce oxidative stress. CAT and MDA levels in almost all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.69 and P = 0.05, respectively). After exposure to the lethal dose, CAT and MDA levels in all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.054 and P = 0.163, respectively). Conclusions: These findings indicate that short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation (up to 196 times higher than the normal background) does not induce oxidative stress. PMID:25143879

Mortazavi, SMJ; Niroomand-Rad, A; Roshan-Shomal, P; Razavi-Toosi, SMT; Mossayeb-Zadeh, M; Moghadam, M

2014-01-01

310

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  

PubMed

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

2011-08-01

311

Elevated Levels of Coagulation Factor VIII in Patients With Venous Leg Ulcers.  

PubMed

Chronic venous disease affects millions of people around the world. Venous valvular incompetencies and venous reflux, often a result of outflow obstruction are important contributors to venous disease. The prevalence of thrombophilia is increased in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The recognition of underlying thrombophilia particularly in young patients opens new avenues in the management and prevention plan. We emphasize on the consideration of workup for coagulopathy, especially factor VIII deficiency in young patients with venous disease. We report 3 patients with chronic leg ulcers and high levels of FVIII:C activity in plasma and other associated thrombophilic factors. We highlight the need to get a workup done for thrombophilia in young patients with recurrent and chronic leg ulcers related to venous insufficiency or livedoid vasculopathy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to define the definite indications for the thrombophilia workups. PMID:24861090

Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

2014-05-25

312

Serum Proteomic Analysis Reveals High Frequency of Haptoglobin Deficiency and Elevated Thyroxine Level in Heroin Addicts  

PubMed Central

Heroin addiction is a chronic, complex disease, often accompanied by other concomitant disorders, which may encumber effective prevention and treatment. To explore the differences in expression profiles of serum proteins in control and heroin addicts, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF, and identified 4 proteins of interest. Following validation of the increase in serum transthyretin, we assessed serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4), and observed a robust increase in T4 in heroin addicts compared to controls. In addition, we performed haptoglobin (Hp) phenotyping, and showed that the frequency of Hp0 (serum devoid of haptoglobin) was significantly higher in heroin addicts. Altogether, these findings indicated that: (1) thyroid hormone imbalance is present in heroin addicts; (2) anhaptoglobinemia (Hp0) might a risk factor or a deleterious effect of heroin abuse. PMID:24743330

Zhou, Bing-Ying; Yan, Shi-Yan; Shi, Wan-Lu; Qu, Zhi; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Min; Pu, Xiao-Ping

2014-01-01

313

Elevated soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor levels in non-obese adults with the atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked insulin resistance and the dyslipoproteinemia of insulin resistance. This study has two aims: (1) to compare select inflammatory mediators in non-smoking, normoglycemic male subjects with and without the atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia (ADL), and (2) to determine the effects of statin therapy on select inflammatory mediators. ADL subjects had higher levels of insulin (16.7 +/- 7.5 versus 11.6 +/- 5.9 microIU/mL, P=0.008), soluble TNF receptor superfamily 1B (sTNFRSF1B) (3.3 +/- 0.7 versus 2.7 +/- 0.5 ng/mL, P=0.005), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (2.6 +/- 2.2 versus 1.3 +/- 1.8 pg/mL, P=0.006) as compared to those of the non-ADL subjects. After adjustment for age, sTNFRSF1B (P=0.003) was more predictive of ADL than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P=0.047). Statin therapy did not change sTNFRSF1B, TNF-alpha, IL-6, hs-CRP, whereas soluble TNF receptor superfamily 1A (sTNFRSF1A) increased slightly (P=0.048). A high level of sTNFRSF1B is a strong marker of the pro-inflammatory state in this sample of male ADL subjects. PMID:15488868

Rosenson, Robert S; Tangney, Christine C; Levine, Daniel M; Parker, Thomas S; Gordon, Bruce R

2004-11-01

314

Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.  

PubMed

Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24059726

Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

2013-10-01

315

Dietary polyphenols suppress elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland of obese mice.  

PubMed

In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity-induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-?B activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-?B resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators [TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, COX-2] in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of aromatase. Several polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate) blocked these inductive effects of stearic acid. Zyflamend, a widely used polyherbal preparation that contains numerous polyphenols, possessed similar suppressive effects. In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with Zyflamend suppressed levels of phospho-Akt, NF-?B binding activity, proinflammatory mediators, and aromatase in the mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that targeting the activation of NF-?B is a promising approach for reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in inflamed mouse mammary tissue. Further investigation in obese women is warranted. PMID:23880231

Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sue, Erika; Bhardwaj, Priya; Du, Baoheng; Hudis, Clifford A; Giri, Dilip; Kopelovich, Levy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Dannenberg, Andrew J

2013-09-01

316

Dietary Polyphenols Suppress Elevated Levels of Proinflammatory Mediators and Aromatase in the Mammary Gland of Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-?B activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-?B resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-1?, COX-2) in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of aromatase. Several polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, EGCG) blocked these inductive effects of stearic acid. Zyflamend®, a widely used polyherbal preparation that contains numerous polyphenols, possessed similar suppressive effects. In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with Zyflamend® suppressed levels of phospho-Akt, NF-?B binding activity, proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that targeting the activation of NF-?B is a promising approach for reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in inflamed mouse mammary tissue. Further investigation in obese women is warranted. PMID:23880231

Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sue, Erika; Bhardwaj, Priya; Du, Baoheng; Hudis, Clifford A.; Giri, Dilip; Kopelovich, Levy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

317

Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

Barnes, Peter W.

1990-01-01

318

Elevated levels of dietary ascorbic acid increase immune responses in channel catfish.  

PubMed

Channel catfish fingerlings were fed purified diets containing 0 to 3000 mg/kg of ascorbic acid until external signs of scurvy were seen in the fish fed the ascorbic acid-deficient diet. At this time, resistance to bacterial infection, antibody production, complement activity and phagocytic activity were assessed for fish from the various dietary treatments. Mortality rates of fish experimentally infected with Edwardsiella ictaluri, the bacterium causing enteric septicemia in channel catfish, decreased with increases in dietary ascorbic acid doses, ranging from 100% for fish fed the ascorbic acid-deficient diet to 15% for fish fed 300 mg ascorbic acid per kilogram diet and 0 for fish fed 3000 mg ascorbic acid per kilogram diet. Antibody response to E. ictaluri antigen, hemolysis of sensitized sheep erythrocytes by complement activity and phagocytic engulfment of E. ictaluri by peripheral phagocytes were each impaired in fish fed the diet without supplemental ascorbic acid; intracellular bactericidal activity of the phagocytes was not affected by ascorbic acid deficiency. There were no differences in antibody production, complement activity, or phagocytic activities among fish fed diets containing 30-300 mg ascorbic acid/kg of diet. However, the dose level of 3000 mg ascorbic acid/kg significantly enhanced antibody production and complement activity. PMID:3965664

Li, Y; Lovell, R T

1985-01-01

319

An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

1994-06-01

320

Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-06-01

321

The transcriptome and proteome are altered in marine polychaetes (Annelida) exposed to elevated metal levels.  

PubMed

Polychaetes are often used in toxicological studies to understand mechanisms of resistance and for biomarker detection, however, we know of only a few genetic pathways involved in resistance. We found the marine polychaete Ophelina sp.1 (Opheliidae) in sediment containing high copper levels and investigated this phenomenon by measuring metal accumulation in the worms and changes in gene and protein expression. We sequenced the transcriptome of Ophelina sp.1 from both the impacted and reference sediments using 454-sequencing and analysed their proteomes using differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). We used the sequenced transcriptome to guide protein identification. Transcripts coding for the copper chaperone, Atox1, were up-regulated in the worms inhabiting the high copper sediment. In addition, genes coding for respiratory proteins, detoxification proteins and cytoskeletal proteins were significantly altered in metal-exposed worms; many of these changes were also detected in the proteome. This dual approach has provided a better understanding of heavy metal resistance in polychaetes and we now have a wider range of suitable indicator genes and proteins for future biomarker development. PMID:22484056

Neave, Matthew J; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Nouwens, Amanda S; Glasby, Chris J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Gibb, Karen S

2012-05-17

322

Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns.  

PubMed

Perinatal hypoxia results in neuronal and endothelial cell damage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) expression and peripheral blood changes in perinatal asphyxia with neuronal injury markers in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. We compared the concentrations of serum sICAM-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibodies specific for NR2 glutamate receptors in 29 asphyxiated and 20 control infants using standard enzyme immunoassay procedures. The mean total concentrations of sICAM-1 and neuron-specific proteins (NSE and NR2-specific antibodies) were higher in the asphyxiated infants than in the control infants. The serum sICAM-1 concentrations significantly correlated with Apgar scoring and with the pH and lactate data from capillary or arterial cord blood. No significant correlation between serum concentrations of neuron specific proteins and blood changes of asphyxia was found. Therefore, endothelial sICAM-1 expression levels might be accepted as an indicator of the severity of perinatal asphyxia in LBW infants. PMID:25358349

Huseynova, Saadat; Panakhova, Nushaba; Orujova, Pusta; Hasanov, Safikhan; Guliyev, Mehman; Orujov, Agil

2014-01-01

323

Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

2001-01-01

324

Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns  

PubMed Central

Perinatal hypoxia results in neuronal and endothelial cell damage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) expression and peripheral blood changes in perinatal asphyxia with neuronal injury markers in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. We compared the concentrations of serum sICAM-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibodies specific for NR2 glutamate receptors in 29 asphyxiated and 20 control infants using standard enzyme immunoassay procedures. The mean total concentrations of sICAM-1 and neuron-specific proteins (NSE and NR2-specific antibodies) were higher in the asphyxiated infants than in the control infants. The serum sICAM-1 concentrations significantly correlated with Apgar scoring and with the pH and lactate data from capillary or arterial cord blood. No significant correlation between serum concentrations of neuron specific proteins and blood changes of asphyxia was found. Therefore, endothelial sICAM-1 expression levels might be accepted as an indicator of the severity of perinatal asphyxia in LBW infants. PMID:25358349

Huseynova, Saadat; Panakhova, Nushaba; Orujova, Pusta; Hasanov, Safikhan; Guliyev, Mehman; Orujov, Agil

2014-01-01

325

Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

2000-05-01

326

Elevated titanium levels in Iraqi children with neurodevelopmental disorders echo findings in occupation soldiers.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic release of pollutants into the environment is especially harmful to growing fetuses and young children. These populations are at an increased risk of damage because exposure to pollutants during critical periods of development can cause many impairments. Children's exposure to mixtures of metals could be responsible for the rising numbers of neurological disorders surfacing in Iraqi children. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) are heavily used in war industries. Exposure to Ti and Mg has been linked to the dust in occupation soldiers' lungs. Hair samples of children in Hawija, Iraq (n?=?13) contained significantly higher levels of Ti compared to Iranian children (n?=?13) living near the Iraqi border (2080?±?940 vs 707?±?421 ?g/kg, p?

Savabieasfahani, M; Alaani, S; Tafash, M; Dastgiri, S; Al-Sabbak, M

2015-01-01

327

Anthropogenic land uses elevate metal levels in stream water in an urbanizing watershed.  

PubMed

Land use/cover change is a dominant factor affecting surface water quality in rapidly developing areas of Asia. In this study we examined relationships between land use and instream metal loadings in a rapidly developing mixed land use watershed in southeastern China. Five developing subwatersheds and one forested reference site (head water) were instrumented with timing- and rainfall-triggered autosampler and instream loadings of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Mn) were monitored from March 2012 to December 2013. Farm land and urban land were positively, and forest and green land were negatively associated with metal loadings (except Cr) in stream water. All developing sites had higher loadings than the reference head water site. Assessed by Chinese surface water quality standard (GB3830-2002), instream loadings of Cu and Zn occasionally exceeded the Class I thresholds at monitoring points within farmland dominated subwatersheds while Mn loadings were greater than the limit for drinking water sources at all monitoring points. Farm land use highly and positively contributed to statistical models of instream loadings of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn while urban land use was the dominant contributor to models of Pb and Cd loadings. Rainfall played a crucial role in metal loadings in stream water as a direct source (there were significant levels of Cu and Zn in rain water) and as a driver of watershed processes (loadings were higher in wet years and seasons). Urbanization effects on metal loadings in this watershed are likely to change rapidly with development in future years. Further monitoring to characterize these changes is clearly warranted and should help to develop plans to avoid conflicts between economic development and water quality degradation in this watershed and in watersheds throughout rapidly developing areas of Asia. PMID:24815555

Yu, Shen; Wu, Qian; Li, Qingliang; Gao, Jinbo; Lin, Qiaoying; Ma, Jun; Xu, Qiufang; Wu, Shengchun

2014-08-01

328

Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation.  

PubMed

The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our review suggests that catfish consumption may be a significant PCB source for the one million non-Hispanic black anglers who fish for catfish. In comparison to non-Hispanic white anglers, non-Hispanic black anglers consume more catfish, are more likely to eat the whole fish rather than just the fillets that contain less PCBs, and are more likely to fish in watersheds with high PCB contamination. Efforts to diminish potential racial disparities in PCB exposure are challenged by geographic, economic, cultural, and educational barriers. In response, we propose that a fish consumption survey be performed that identifies the extent of subsistence fishing by non-Hispanic black anglers for catfish in watersheds with PCB contamination, the type and quantity of catfish subsistence fishing provides, and what actions would help moderate PCB exposure due to subsistence fishing for catfish in such areas. Understanding the contamination and consumption factors that contribute to higher PCB body burdens will help identify and offer solutions to racial disparities in exposure to PCBs due to subsistence fishing while providing a model to prevent similar disparities in exposure to toxics ranging from mercury to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18407261

Weintraub, Max; Birnbaum, Linda S

2008-07-01

329

Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes. PMID:25463649

Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

2014-12-01

330

Elevated Levels of MYB30 in the Phloem Accelerate Flowering in Arabidopsis through the Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO), the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time. PMID:24587042

Adrian, Jessika; Gissot, Lionel; Coupland, George; Yu, Diqiu; Turck, Franziska

2014-01-01

331

Giant splenic epithelial cyst with elevated serum markers CEA and CA 19-9 levels: an incidental association?  

PubMed

True spleen cysts are uncommon and rarely associated with elevated serum and intracystic tumor markers CA 19-9 and CEA levels. A 19-year-old woman with a left subcostal mass was observed. Echinococcus granulosus serology was negative, and serum tumor markers CA 19-9 and CEA levels were 273 kU/L and 33 ng/mL, respectively. CT-scanning showed a splenic cyst of 18 cm in greatest diameter. The patient underwent total laparoscopic splenectomy and the serum tumor markers progressively decreased and became normal three months after surgery. Splenic cysts derive from an invagination of the splenic capsule in the splenic pulp with a subsequent squamous metaplasia. This last evidence could be confirmed from the variable cellular differentiation lines of the mesothelial squamous cells in the cyst wall. We should not exclude a higher degenerative potential of cystic epithelium that produces de-differentiation proteins. The lowering of the serum levels of the two markers after the cyst removal is witness of the direct relationship between the increment of the serum tumor markers and the presence of the epidermoid cyst. PMID:12680182

Madia, Carmelo; Lumachi, Franco; Veroux, Massimiliano; Fiamingo, Pietro; Gringeri, Enrico; Brolese, Alberto; Zanus, Giacomo; Cillo, Umberto; D'Amico, Davide F

2003-01-01

332

Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P < 0.0001). Other elements were unchanged between conditions. Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P < 0.0001), indicative of increased B12 activity. Conclusions: Long-term intermittent hypoxia increases brain cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

333

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

334

Thyrotropin and obesity: increased adipose triglyceride content through glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyrotropin (TSH) is positively correlated with the severity of obesity. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that TSH promoted triglyceride (TG) synthesis in differentiated adipocytes in a thyroid hormone-independent manner. Mice with subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a 35% increase in the total white adipose mass compared with their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, which had normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, resisted high-fat diet-induced obesity. TSH could directly induce the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 3 (GPAT3), the rate-limiting enzyme in TG synthesis, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, following either the knockdown of Tshr and PPAR? or the constitutive activation of AMPK, the changes to TSH-triggered GPAT3 activity and adipogenesis disappeared. The over-expression of PPAR? or the expression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant reversed the TSH-induced changes. Thus, TSH acted as a previously unrecognized master regulator of adipogenesis, indicating that modification of the AMPK/PPAR?/GPAT3 axis via the TSH receptor might serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:25559747

Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Dongqing; Gao, Ling; Li, Yujie; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

335

Thyrotropin and Obesity: Increased Adipose Triglyceride Content Through Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 3  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyrotropin (TSH) is positively correlated with the severity of obesity. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that TSH promoted triglyceride (TG) synthesis in differentiated adipocytes in a thyroid hormone-independent manner. Mice with subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a 35% increase in the total white adipose mass compared with their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, which had normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, resisted high-fat diet-induced obesity. TSH could directly induce the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 3 (GPAT3), the rate-limiting enzyme in TG synthesis, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, following either the knockdown of Tshr and PPAR? or the constitutive activation of AMPK, the changes to TSH-triggered GPAT3 activity and adipogenesis disappeared. The over-expression of PPAR? or the expression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant reversed the TSH-induced changes. Thus, TSH acted as a previously unrecognized master regulator of adipogenesis, indicating that modification of the AMPK/PPAR?/GPAT3 axis via the TSH receptor might serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:25559747

Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Dongqing; Gao, Ling; Li, Yujie; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

336

USGS Elevation Monument  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

337

Analysis of elevated springtime levels of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at the high Alpine research sites Jungfraujoch and Zugspitze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mole fractions at remote surface sites in the Northern Hemisphere are commonly observed during the months April and May. Different formation mechanisms for this seasonal maximum have previously been suggested: hemispheric-scale production from precursors accumulated during the winter months, increased springtime transport from up-wind continents or increased regional-scale production in the atmospheric boundary layer from recent emissions. The two high Alpine research sites Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Zugspitze (Germany) exhibit a distinct and consistent springtime PAN maximum. Since these sites intermittently sample air masses of free-tropospheric and boundary layer origin, they are ideally suited to identify the above-mentioned PAN formation processes and attribute local observations to these. Here we present a detailed analysis of PAN observations and meteorological conditions during May 2008 when PAN levels were especially elevated at both sites. The highest PAN concentrations were connected with anticyclonic conditions, which persisted in May 2008 for about 10 days with north-easterly advection towards the sites. A backward dispersion model analysis showed that elevated PAN concentrations were caused by the combination of favourable photochemical production conditions and large precursor concentrations in the European atmospheric boundary layer. The results suggest that the largest PAN values in spring 2008 at both sites were attributable to regional-scale photochemical production of PAN in the (relatively cold) planetary boundary layer from European precursors, whereas the contribution of inter-continental transport or free-tropospheric build-up was of smaller importance for these sites.

Pandey Deolal, S.; Henne, S.; Ries, L.; Gilge, S.; Weers, U.; Steinbacher, M.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.

2014-11-01

338

Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are an essential component of our body composition and necessary in our daily food intake. Conventional fats and oils\\u000a are composed of glycerides of long chain fatty acids and are designated as long chain triglycerides (LCT). Body fat as well\\u000a as the fats and oils in our daily intake fall into this category. In enteral and parenteral hyperalimentation, we

Vigen K. Babayan

1987-01-01

339

Elevated CO2 Levels do not Affect the Shell Structure of the Bivalve Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic  

PubMed Central

Shells of the bivalve Arctica islandica are used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions (e.g. temperature) via biogeochemical proxies, i.e. biogenic components that are related closely to environmental parameters at the time of shell formation. Several studies have shown that proxies like element and isotope-ratios can be affected by shell growth and microstructure. Thus it is essential to evaluate the impact of changing environmental parameters such as high pCO2 and consequent changes in carbonate chemistry on shell properties to validate these biogeochemical proxies for a wider range of environmental conditions. Growth experiments with Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic Sea kept under different pCO2 levels (from 380 to 1120 µatm) indicate no affect of elevated pCO2 on shell growth or crystal microstructure, indicating that A. islandica shows an adaptation to a wider range of pCO2 levels than reported for other species. Accordingly, proxy information derived from A. islandica shells of this region contains no pCO2 related bias. PMID:23922922

Stemmer, Kristina; Nehrke, Gernot; Brey, Thomas

2013-01-01

340

The effect of elevated UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation levels on Silene vulgaris: A comparison between a highland and a lowland population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highland (altitude 1600 m above sea level) and lowland (altitude ?2 m below sea level) populations of the perennial herb Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, were tested on their response to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Highland populations typically receive high natural UV-B fluxes, whereas lowland populations receive a lower natural UV-B dose. Adaptation to high UV-B levels of the highland

R. Huijsmans; W. H. O. Ernst; J. Rozema

1995-01-01

341

A moderate-fat diet containing pistachios improves emerging markers of cardiometabolic syndrome in healthy adults with elevated LDL levels.  

PubMed

A randomised, cross-over, controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of diets containing pistachios as a strategy for increasing total fat (TF) levels v. a control (step I) lower-fat diet. Ex vivo techniques were used to evaluate the effects of pistachio consumption on lipoprotein subclasses and functionality in individuals (n 28) with elevated LDL levels ( ? 2·86 mmol/l). The following test diets (SFA approximately 8 % and cholesterol < 300 mg/d) were used: a control diet (25 % TF); a diet comprising one serving of pistachios per d (1PD; 30 % TF); a diet comprising two servings of pistachios per d (2PD; 34 % TF). A significant decrease in small and dense LDL (sdLDL) levels was observed following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the 1PD dietary treatment (P= 0·03) and following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the control treatment (P= 0·001). Furthermore, reductions in sdLDL levels were correlated with reductions in TAG levels (r 0·424, P= 0·025) following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the control treatment. In addition, inclusion of pistachios increased the levels of functional ?-1 (P= 0·073) and ?-2 (P= 0·056) HDL particles. However, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated serum cholesterol efflux capacity (P= 0·016) and global serum cholesterol efflux capacity (P= 0·076) were only improved following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the 1PD dietary treatment when baseline C-reactive protein status was low ( < 103?g/l). Moreover, a significant decrease in the TAG:HDL ratio was observed following the 2PD dietary treatment v. the control treatment (P= 0·036). There was a significant increase in ?-sitosterol levels (P< 0·0001) with the inclusion of pistachios, confirming adherence to the study protocol. In conclusion, the inclusion of pistachios in a moderate-fat diet favourably affects the cardiometabolic profile in individuals with an increased risk of CVD. PMID:25008473

Holligan, Simone D; West, Sheila G; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kay, Colin D; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

2014-09-14

342

Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation  

PubMed Central

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J. M. A.

2014-01-01

343

Ethanolic Extract of Butea monosperma Leaves Elevate Blood Insulin Level in Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Stimulate Insulin Secretion in Isolated Rat Islets, and Enhance Hepatic Glycogen Formation.  

PubMed

We measured a vast range of parameters, in an attempt to further elucidate previously claimed antihyperglycemic activity of Butea monosperma. Our study clearly negates the possibility of antidiabetic activity by inhibited gastrointestinal enzyme action or by reduced glucose absorption. Reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose level was reconfirmed (P < 0.05). Improved serum lipid profile via reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) was also reestablished (P < 0.05). Significant insulin secretagogue activity of B. monosperma was found in serum insulin assay of B. monosperma treated type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.01). This was further ascertained by our study on insulin secretion on isolated rat islets (P < 0.05). Improved sensitivity of glucose was shown by the significant increase in hepatic glycogen deposition (P < 0.05). Hence, we concluded that antihyperglycemic activity of B. monosperma was mediated by enhanced insulin secretion and enhanced glycogen formation in the liver. PMID:24860609

Samad, Mehdi Bin; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; D'Costa, Ninadh Malrina; Akhter, Farjana; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Hannan, J M A

2014-01-01

344

Quantitative analysis of metabolism of hepatic triglyceride in ethanol-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

An acute intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.7 or 2.1g/kg body wt.) causes the reversible, dose-dependent accumulation of hepatic triglyceride in rats. By using a pulse of [14C]palmitate injected into a tail vein, it was found that ethanol (2.1g/kg)had no effect on the flux of unesterified fatty acid of serum (4.3mumol/min per 100g body wt.). However, either dose increased the fraction of the total flux going to liver from 0.16 to0.27 as rapidly as could be measured (30s), and it remained elevated until all ethanol had been cleared from the blood. The fraction of the total radioactivity in lipids of liver that was in triglyceride increased linearly for 1 h from 30 to 50% and there was a simultaneous decrease in phospholipid from 60 to 40%. The rate of synthesis of hepatic triglyceride derived directly from unesterified fatty acid of serum was calculated by using the flux rate of unesterified fatty acid in serum, the fractional hepatic uptake of this flux, and the percentage of liver fatty acid esterified to triglyceride. This contribution is related to the total synthetic rate of hepatic triglyceride (rate of accumulation+rate of release) to determine quantitatively how much of the developing fatty liver is attributable to increased uptake of unesterfied fatty acid of serum. At the higher dose of ethanol, about half of the accumulating triglyceride is derived from this source, whereas with the lower dose of ethanol it can account for all of the build-up. PMID:942401

Abrams, M A; Cooper, C

1976-01-01

345

Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ?15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI ?0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=?0.003, 95% CI ?0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ?15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood and paint. • Regressions gave significance for isotopic measures of blood/dust and dust/soil.

Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia) [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia) [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-10-15

346

Foraminifera in elevated Bermudian caves provide further evidence for +21 m eustatic sea level during Marine Isotope Stage 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 deposits in small Bermudian caves at +21 m above modern sea level: (1) a +21 m MIS 11 eustatic sea-level highstand, and (2) a MIS 11 mega-tsunami event. Importantly, the foraminifera reported in these caves have yet to be critically evaluated within a framework of coastal cave environments. After statistically comparing foraminifera in modern Bermudian littoral caves and the MIS 11 Calonectris Pocket A (+21 m cave) to the largest available database of Bermudian coastal foraminifera, the assemblages found in modern littoral caves - and Calonectris Pocket A - cannot be statistically differentiated from lagoons. This observation is expected considering littoral caves are simply sheltered extensions of a lagoon environment in the littoral zone, where typical coastal processes (waves, storms) homogenize and rework lagoonal, reefal, and occasional planktic taxa. Fossil protoconchs of the Bermudian cave stygobite Caecum caverna were also associated with the foraminifera. These results indicate that the MIS 11 Bermudian caves are fossil littoral caves (breached flank margin caves), where the total MIS 11 microfossil assemblage is preserving a signature of coeval sea level at +21 m. Brackish foraminifera ( Polysaccammina, Pseudothurammina) and anchialine gastropods (˜95%, >300 individuals) indicate a brackish anchialine habitat developed in the elevated caves after the prolonged littoral environmental phase. The onset of sea-level regression following the +21 m highstand would first lower the ancient brackish Ghyben-Herzberg lens (<0.5 m) and flood the cave with brackish water, followed by drainage of the cave to create a permanent vadose environment. These interpretations of the MIS 11 microfossils (considering both taphonomy and paleoecology) are congruent with the micropaleontological, hydrogeological and physical mechanisms influencing modern Bermudian coastal cave environments. In conclusion, we reject the mega-tsunami hypothesis, concur with the +21 m MIS 11 eustatic sea-level hypothesis, and reiterate the need to resolve the disparity between global marine isotopic records and the physical geologic evidence for sea level during MIS 11.

van Hengstum, Peter J.; Scott, David B.; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.

2009-09-01

347

Advanced periductal fibrosis from infection with the carcinogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini correlates with elevated levels of IL-6  

PubMed Central

More than 750 million people are at risk of infection with food-borne liver flukes. Opisthorchis viverrini is considered among the most important of these parasites, due to its strong association with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini infection results in a chronic inflammatory challenge to the host, which can lead to advanced, pathogen-specific disease sequelae including obstructive jaundice, hepatomegaly, cholecystitis, as well as CCA. However, before disease sequelae are apparent, important inflammatory changes to the liver can be detected early during O. viverrini infection. In a case-control study involving 328 men and women with O. viverrini infection, we determined the presence of advanced periductal fibrosis in asymptomatic, O. viverrini-infected individuals and then measured cytokine responses to O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (ES). In the 200 participants with advanced periductal fibrosis (cases), levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 to O. viverrini ES were 8 times higher than levels of the 128 O. viverrini-infected individuals without advanced periductal fibrosis (controls). Moreover, elevated IL-6 to parasite ES was associated with increased risk of advanced periductal fibrosis by 63% in a model adjusted for sex and age. The risk of advanced periductal fibrosis was also found to increase with higher levels of IL-6: individuals in the third quartile of IL-6-ES production had a 127% higher risk of developing advanced periductal fibrosis than individuals in the first quartile of IL-6 production. O. viverrini-infected individuals with advanced periductal fibrosis showed other hepatobiliary abnormalities, including reduced gallbladder contractility and the presence of gallbladder sludge. Conclusion These data strongly implicate a role for parasite specific IL-6 in the pathogenesis of advanced periductal fibrosis in opisthorchiasis, with possible links to other hepatobiliary abnormalities, including cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:19676135

Sripa, Banchob; Mairiang, Eimorn; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tessana, Smarn; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.

2009-01-01

348

Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level  

PubMed Central

Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS. PMID:19912621

2009-01-01

349

Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01

350

Low erucic acid canola oil does not induce heart triglyceride accumulation in neonatal pigs fed formula.  

PubMed

Canola oil is not approved for use in infant formula largely because of concerns over possible accumulation of triglyceride in heart as a result of the small amounts of erucic acid (22:1n-9) in the oil. Therefore, the concentration and composition of heart triglyceride were determined in piglets fed from birth for 10 (n = 4-6) or 18 (n = 6) d with formula containing about 50% energy fat as 100% canola oil (0.5% 22:1n-9) or 100% soybean oil, or 26% canola oil or soy oil (blend) with palm, high-oleic sunflower and coconut oil, providing amounts of 16:0 and 18:1 closer to milk, or a mix of soy, high-oleic sunflower and flaxseed oils with C16 and C18 fatty acids similar to canola oil but without 22:1. Biochemical analysis found no differences in heart triglyceride concentrations among the groups at 10 or 18 d. Assessment of heart triglycerides using Oil Red O staining in select treatments confirmed no differences between 10-d-old piglets fed formula with 100% canola oil (n = 4), 100% soy oil (n = 4), or the soy oil blend (n = 2). Levels of 22:1n-9 in heart triglyceride and phospholipid, however, were higher (P<0.01) in piglets fed 100% canola oil or the canola oil blend, with higher levels found in triglycerides compared with phospholipids. The modest accumulation of 22:1n-9 associated with feeding canola oil was not associated with biochemical evidence of heart triglyceride accumulation at 10 and 18 d. PMID:10901421

Green, T J; Innis, S M

2000-06-01

351

The impact of plasma triglyceride and apolipoproteins concentrations on high-density lipoprotein subclasses distribution  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of triglyceride (TG) integrates with plasma major components of apolipoproteins in HDL subclasses distribution and further elicited the TG-apolipoproteins (apos) interaction in the processes of high density lipoprotein (HDL) mature metabolic and atherosclerosis related diseases. Methods Contents of plasma HDL subclasses were quantities by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with immunodetection in 500 Chinese subjects. Results Contents of pre?1-HDL, HDL3a, and apoB-100 level along with apoB-100/A-I ratio were significantly increased, whereas there was a significant reduction in the contents of HDL2, apoA-I level as well as apoC-III/C-II ratio with increased TG concentration. Moreover, pre?1-HDL contents is elevated about 9 mg/L and HDL2b contents can be reduced 21 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TG concentration. Moreover, with increase of apoA-I levels, HDL2b contents were marginally elevated in any TG concentration group. Furthermore, despite of in the apoB-100/A-I < 0.9 group, the contents of pre?1-HDL increased, and those of HDL2b decreased significantly for subjects in both high and very high TG levels compared to that in normal TG levels. Similarly, in the apoB-100/A-I ? 0.9 group, the distribution of HDL subclasses also showed abnormality for subjects with normal TG levels. Conclusions The particle size of HDL subclasses tend to small with TG levels increased which indicated that HDL maturation might be impeded and efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT) might be weakened. These data suggest that TG levels were not only significantly associated with but liner with the contents of pre?1-HDL and HDL2b. They also raise the possibility that the TG levels effect on HDL maturation metabolism are subjected to plasma apolipoproteins and apolipoproteins ratios. PMID:21251287

2011-01-01

352

Elevated Levels of Interleukin 6 and C-Reactive Protein Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

There is abundant evidence on inflammatory mechanisms in heart failure (HF) that are used for prognostication of the disease; however, data are lacking regarding the association between elevated cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cognition in HF. A cross-sectional pilot study of 38 patients with HF, aged 62 years (standard deviation± 9 years), predominantly men (68%) and Cau casian (79%) were screened for cognitive function using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The study aimed to examine cognitive scores on MoCA with cytokines, interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF-?], and CRP as indicators of early cognitive changes in HF. The result showed no direct correlation between cardiac variables and the MoCA score. The MoCA score, however, was inversely associated with IL-6 (r=?0.53, P=.001) and CRP (r=?0.34, P=.04), with no association to TNF-?. Regression analysis on the MoCA score and log-transformed IL-6 accounted for an additional 11% variation and remained statistically significant (P=.008) after controlling for covariates of education, living arrangements, and loneliness. The large effect size (R2=0.87) found in this pilot study provides rationale for a larger exploratory study to examine associations between cognitive function, cytokines, and CRP levels and help design future intervention studies. PMID:23057677

Athilingam, Ponrathi; Moynihan, Jan; Chen, Leway; D’Aoust, Rita; Groer, Maureen; Kip, Kevin

2013-01-01

353

Centrally administered adrenomedullin 5 activates oxytocin-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus and elevates plasma oxytocin level in rats.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of i.c.v. administration of adrenomedullin 5 (AM5) on the brain of conscious rats. We used porcine AM5 in the present study because rat AM5 has not been detected. We observed Fos-like immunoreactivity (LI) in the hypothalamus and brainstem of conscious rats after i.c.v. administration of AM5 (2 nmol/rat). Fos-LI, measured at 90 min post-AM5 injection, was observed in various brain areas, including the supraoptic (SON) and the paraventricular nuclei (PVN). Dual immunostaining for Fos/oxytocin (OXT) and Fos/arginine vasopressin (AVP) revealed that OXT-LI neurones predominantly colocalized Fos-LI compared with AVP-LI neurones in the SON and the PVN. Plasma OXT levels were significantly increased 5 min after i.c.v. administration of AM5 (1 nmol/rat) compared with vehicle and remained elevated in samples taken at 15 and 30 min without changes in plasma AVP levels at any time. In situ hybridization histochemistry showed that i.c.v. administration of AM5 (0.2, 1 and 2 nmol/rat) caused a marked induction of the expression of the c-fos gene in the SON and the PVN. This induction was significantly but not completely reduced by pretreatment with both the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist CGRP-(8-37; 3 nmol/rat) and the AM receptor antagonist AM-(22-52; 27 nmol/rat). Although porcine AM5 has not been detected yet in the brain, these results suggest that centrally administered porcine AM5 may activate OXT-secreting neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus partly through AM/CGRP receptors and elicit secretion of OXT into the systemic circulation in conscious rats. PMID:19420012

Otsubo, Hiroki; Hyodo, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saito, Takeshi; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Yokoyama, Toru; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Takei, Yoshio; Ueta, Yoichi

2009-08-01

354

Elevated Serum Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Are Associated with Progressive Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease occur in around 30% of the individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and are characterized by heart inflammation and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not completely understood yet, partially because disease evolution depends on complex host-parasite interactions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that promotes numerous pathophysiological processes. In the current study, we investigated the link between MIF and CCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated MIF overexpression in the hearts from chronically T. cruzi-infected mice, particularly those showing intense inflammatory infiltration. We also found that MIF exogenously added to parasite-infected murine macrophage cultures is capable of enhancing the production of TNF-? and reactive oxygen species, both with pathogenic roles in CCC. Thus, the integrated action of MIF and other cytokines and chemokines may account for leukocyte influx to the infected myocardium, accompanied by enhanced local production of multiple inflammatory mediators. We further examined by ELISA the level of MIF in the sera from chronic indeterminate and cardiomyopathic chagasic patients, and healthy subjects. CCC patients displayed significantly higher MIF concentrations than those recorded in asymptomatic T. cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals. Interestingly, increased MIF levels were associated with severe progressive Chagas heart disease, in correlation with elevated serum concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and also with several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular dysfunction, one of the hallmarks of CCC. Our present findings represent the first evidence that enhanced MIF production is associated with progressive cardiac impairment in chronic human infection with T. cruzi, strengthening the relationship between inflammatory response and parasite-driven pathology. These observations contribute to unravel the elements involved in the pathogenesis of CCC and may also be helpful for the design of novel therapies aimed to control long-term morbidity in chagasic patients. PMID:23451183

Cutrullis, Romina A.; Petray, Patricia B.; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Sánchez, Rubén; Postan, Miriam; González, Mariela N.; Martín, Valentina; Corral, Ricardo S.

2013-01-01

355

Somatic Mutations throughout the Entire Mitochondrial Genome Are Associated with Elevated PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:21129724

Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Schäfer, Georg; Erhart, Gertraud; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Coassin, Stefan; Seifarth, Christof; Summerer, Monika; Bektic, Jasmin; Klocker, Helmut; Kronenberg, Florian

2010-01-01

356

Human Pancreatic Islets Isolated from Donors with Elevated HbA1c Levels: Islet Yield and Graft Efficacy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated donor HbA1c levels (type 2 diabetes, T2D), on the islet yield and functionality post isolation. In this retrospective analysis, donors for islet isolations were classified into two groups: T2D group (HbA1c?6.5%, n=18) and normal group (HbA1c <6.5%, n=308). Optimum pancreas digestion (switch time) time was significantly higher in the T2D group compared to normal group (13.7 ? 1.2 vs 11.7 ? 0.1 min respectively, p=0.005). Islet yields were significantly lower in the T2D group compared to the control (T2D vs control): islet equivalent (IEQ)/g (pre-purification 2318 ? 195 vs 3713 ? 114, p=0.003; post-purification 1735 ? 175 vs 2663 ? 89, p=0.013) and islet particle number (IPN)/g (pre-purification, 2519 ? 336 vs 4433 ? 143, p=0.001; post-purification, 1760 ? 229 vs 2715 ? 85, p=0.007). Islets from T2D pancreata had significantly lower viability (T2D vs control: 91.9 ? 1.6 vs 94.4 ? 0.3%, p=0.004) and decreased oxygen consumption rate (?OCR) (T2D vs control: 0.09 ? 0.01 and 0.21 ? 0.03 nmol O2 100 islets-1 min-1, p=0.049). The islets isolated from T2D donor pancreata reversed diabetes in NOD-SCID mice in 9% (2/22) compared to islets from control donor pancreata which reversed diabetes in 67% (175/260), p<0.001. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that elevated HbA1c (?6.5%) is associated with impairment of islet function and lower islet yield; however, these islets could not be suitable for clinical applications. PMID:25198342

Qi, Meirigeng; McFadden, Brian; Valiente, Luis; Omori, Keiko; Bilbao, Shiela; Juan, Jemily; Rawson, Jeffrey; Oancea, Alina R; Scott, Stephen; Nair, Indu; Ferreri, Kevin; Mullen, Yoko; Dafoe, Donald; El-Shahawy, Mohamed; Kandeel, Fouad; Al-Abdullah, Ismail H

2014-08-01

357

Circulating Levels of Dimethylarginines, Chronic Kidney Disease and Long-Term Clinical Outcome in Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanisms linking chronic kidney disease (CKD) and adverse outcomes in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are not fully understood. Among potential key players, reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis due to its endogenous inhibitors, asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine could be involved. We measured plasma concentration of arginine, ADMA and SDMA and investigated their relationship with CKD and long-term outcome in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methodology/Principal Findings We prospectively measured arginine, ADMA, and SDMA at hospital admission in 104 NSTEMI patients. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. We considered a primary end point of combined cardiac death and re-infarction at a median follow-up of 21 months. In CKD (n?=?33) and no-CKD (n?=?71) patients, arginine and ADMA were similar, whereas SDMA was significantly higher in CKD patients (0.65±0.23 vs. 0.42±0.12 µmol/L; P<0.0001). Twenty-four (23%) patients had an adverse cardiac event during follow-up: 12 (36%) were CKD and 12 (17%) no-CKD patients (P?=?0.02). When study population was stratified according to arginine, ADMA and SDMA median values, only SDMA (median 0.46 µmol/L) was associated with the primary end-point (P?=?0.0016). In models adjusted for age, hemoglobin and left ventricular ejection fraction, the hazard ratio (HR) for CKD and SDMA were high (HR 2.93, interquartile range [IQR] 1.15–7.53; P?=?0.02 and HR 6.80, IQR 2.09–22.2; P?=?0.001, respectively) but, after mutual adjustment, only SDMA remained significantly associated with the primary end point (HR 5.73, IQR 1.55–21.2; P?=?0.009). Conclusions/Significance In NSTEMI patients, elevated SDMA plasma levels are associated with CKD and worse long-term prognosis. PMID:23185262

Cavalca, Viviana; Veglia, Fabrizio; Squellerio, Isabella; De Metrio, Monica; Rubino, Mara; Porro, Benedetta; Moltrasio, Marco; Tremoli, Elena; Marenzi, Giancarlo

2012-01-01

358

Lowering glucose level elevates [Ca2+]i in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus NPY neurons through P/Q-type Ca2+ channel activation and GSK3? inhibition  

PubMed Central

Aim: To identify the mechanisms underlying the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) induced by lowering extracellular glucose in rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus NPY neurons. Methods: Primary cultures of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons were prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats. NPY neurons were identified with immunocytochemical method. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2 AM. Ca2+ current was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp recording. AMPK and GSK3? levels were measured using Western blot assay. Results: Lowering glucose level in the medium (from 10 to 1 mmol/L) induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i in ARC neurons, but not in hippocampal and cortical neurons. The low-glucose induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in ARC neurons depended on extracellular Ca2+, and was blocked by P/Q-type Ca2+channel blocker ?-agatoxin TK (100 nmol/L), but not by L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (10 ?mol/L) or N-type Ca2+channel blocker ?-conotoxin GVIA (300 nmol/L). Lowering glucose level increased the peak amplitude of high voltage-activated Ca2+ current in ARC neurons. The low-glucose induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in ARC neurons was blocked by the AMPK inhibitor compound C (20 ?mol/L), and enhanced by the GSK3? inhibitor LiCl (10 mmol/L). Moreover, lowering glucose level induced the phosphorylation of AMPK and GSK3?, which was inhibited by compound C (20 ?mol/L). Conclusion: Lowering glucose level enhances the activity of P/Q type Ca2+channels and elevates [Ca2+]i level in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons via inhibition of GSK3?. PMID:22504905

Chen, Yu; Zhou, Jun; Xie, Na; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Jun-qi; Hu, Zhuang-li; Ni, Lan; Jin, You; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-guo; Long, Li-hong

2012-01-01

359

Functional Analysis of the TRIB1 Associated Locus Linked to Plasma Triglycerides and Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The TRIB1 locus has been linked to hepatic triglyceride metabolism in mice and to plasma triglycerides and coronary artery disease in humans. The lipid?associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified by genome?wide association studies, are located ?30 kb downstream from TRIB1, suggesting complex regulatory effects on genes or pathways relevant to hepatic triglyceride metabolism. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional relationship between common SNPs at the TRIB1 locus and plasma lipid traits. Methods and Results Characterization of the risk locus reveals that it encompasses a gene, TRIB1?associated locus (TRIBAL), composed of a well?conserved promoter region and an alternatively spliced transcript. Bioinformatic analysis and resequencing identified a single SNP, rs2001844, within the promoter region that associates with increased plasma triglycerides and reduced high?density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk. Further, correction for triglycerides as a covariate indicated that the genome?wide association studies association is largely dependent on triglycerides. In addition, we show that rs2001844 is an expression trait locus (eQTL) for TRIB1 expression in blood and alters TRIBAL promoter activity in a reporter assay model. The TRIBAL transcript has features typical of long noncoding RNAs, including poor sequence conservation. Modulation of TRIBAL expression had limited impact on either TRIB1 or lipid regulatory genes mRNA levels in human hepatocyte models. In contrast, TRIB1 knockdown markedly increased TRIBAL expression in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. Conclusions These studies demonstrate an interplay between a novel locus, TRIBAL, and TRIB1. TRIBAL is located in the genome?wide association studies identified risk locus, responds to altered expression of TRIB1, harbors a risk SNP that is an eQTL for TRIB1 expression, and associates with plasma triglyceride concentrations. PMID:24895164

Douvris, Adrianna; Soubeyrand, Sébastien; Naing, Thet; Martinuk, Amy; Nikpay, Majid; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie; Yauk, Carole; McPherson, Ruth

2014-01-01

360

Failure simulations of triglyceride-based adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of natural plant oils in the production of adhesives has been the focus of a large amount of research because the natural oils are a renewable resource which have environmental and economic advantages over the petroleum-derived chemicals used in traditional adhesives. An off-lattice Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the formation of networks consisting of the triglycerides found in soybean, linseed and olive oils and networks made from other `theoretical' natural oils. Each of these networks has a different number of carbon-carbon double bonds n present in a given triglyceride molecule. The stress-strain behavior of these networks is studied using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Tensile strains are applied to the networks and it is observed that with increasing n the failure stress increases but the failure strain decreases. Also, at low values of n, the systems have large voids form while the system is strained and then the system fails cohesively. However for large n, no significant voiding is observed and the system fails close to the interface. The simulation results are shown to be consistent with vector percolation theoretical predictions for how the failure stress and the crosslink density relate to n.

Lorenz, Christian D.; Stevens, Mark J.; Wool, Richard P.

2004-03-01

361

Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency.  

PubMed

Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPAR? agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

2014-06-01

362

Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency  

PubMed Central

Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~ 50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPAR? agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

2014-01-01

363

Prognostic effect of amenorrhoea and elevated serum gonadotropin levels induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal node-positive breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation between prognosis and chemotherapy induced amenorrhoea or elevated gonadotropin levels in node-positive breast cancer patients. Since we have previously found a better prognosis in patients with more profound leucopenia induced by adjuvant chemotherapy, we examined whether this effect was mediated through more efficient induction of amenorrhoea. The study population consisted

P Poikonen; T Saarto; I Elomaa; H Joensuu; C Blomqvist

2000-01-01

364

Pro-inflammatory cytokines intensify the activation of NO\\/NOS, JNK1\\/2 and caspase cascades in immature neurons exposed to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperbilirubinemia may lead to encephalopathy in neonatal life, particularly in premature infants. Although the mechanisms were never established, clinicians commonly consider sepsis as a risk factor for bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND). Our previous studies showed that elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) have immunostimulant effects, which are potentiated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and that immature neural cells are more vulnerable to

Ana R. Vaz; Sandra L. Silva; Andreia Barateiro; Adelaide Fernandes; Ana S. Falcão; Maria A. Brito; Dora Brites

2011-01-01

365

Association of conception rate with pattern and level of somatic cell count elevation relative to time of insemination in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate the effects of mastitis, determined by the pattern and level of somatic cell count (SCC) around first artificial insemination (AI), on conception rate (CR). Data from 287,192 first AI and milk records covering a 7-yr period were obtained from the Israeli Herd Book. Analyses examined the association of probability of conception with SCC elevation relative

Y. Lavon; E. Ezra; G. Leitner; D. Wolfenson

2011-01-01

366

Elevated extracellular calcium increases fibroblast growth factor-2 gene and protein expression levels via a cAMP\\/PKA dependent pathway in cementoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cementoblasts, tooth root lining cells, are responsible for laying down cementum on the root surface, a process that is indispensable for establishing a functional periodontal ligament. Cementoblasts share phenotypical features with osteoblasts. Elevated levels of extracellular Ca2+ have been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of extracellular Ca2+ signaling in cementogenesis has

Sousuke Kanaya; Eiji Nemoto; Yukari Ebe; Martha J. Somerman; Hidetoshi Shimauchi

2010-01-01

367

Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects  

E-print Network

Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects on photosynthesis to a complex canopy architecture§ M.J. Martina, *, G.E. Hosta; accepted 17 July 2001 ``Capsule'': A process model is described that predicts the relative effects of ozone

368

Elevated levels of ferrimagnetic metals in foodchains supporting the Guam cluster of neurodegeneration: Do metal nucleated crystal contaminents evoke magnetic fields that initiate theprogressivepathogenesisofneurodegeneration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Elevated levels of aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) cations - combined with deficiencies of magnesium (Mg)\\/calcium (Ca) - have been observed in the foodchains that traditionally support the Chamorro populations affected by high incidence clusters of Alzheimer (AD), Parkinson-like (PD), motor neurone diseases and multiple sclerosis on the island of Guam. Soils drawn from

Mark Purdey

369

Comparative gene identification-58/?/? hydrolase domain 5: more than just an adipose triglyceride lipase activator?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that controls intracellular triglyceride levels by its ability to activate adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Additionally, CGI-58 was described to exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase (LPAAT) activity. This review focuses on the significance of CGI-58 in energy metabolism in adipose and nonadipose tissue. Recent findings Recent studies with transgenic and CGI-58-deficient mouse strains underscored the importance of CGI-58 as a regulator of intracellular energy homeostasis by modulating ATGL-driven triglyceride hydrolysis. In accordance with this function, mice and humans that lack CGI-58 accumulate triglyceride in multiple tissues. Additionally, CGI-58-deficient mice develop an ATGL-independent severe skin barrier defect and die soon after birth. Although the premature death prevented a phenotypical characterization of adult global CGI-58 knockout mice, the characterization of mice with tissue-specific CGI-58 deficiency revealed new insights into its role in neutral lipid and energy metabolism. Concerning the ATGL-independent function of CGI-58, a recently identified LPAAT activity for CGI-58 was shown to be involved in the generation of signaling molecules regulating inflammatory processes and insulin action. Summary Although the function of CGI-58 in the catabolism of cellular triglyceride depots via ATGL is well established, further studies are required to consolidate the function of CGI-58 as LPAAT and to clarify the involvement of CGI-58 in the metabolism of skin lipids. PMID:24565921

Zierler, Kathrin A.; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Guenter

2014-01-01

370

The impact of elevated UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation levels on the reproduction biology of a highland and a lowland population of Silene vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highland (altitude 1600 m) and a lowland (altitude –2 m) population of the perennial herb Silene vulgaris were tested on the effects of elevated levels of UV-B radiation on their reproductivity. Highland populations receive higher natural UV-B doses than lowland populations. Therefore adaptation to high UV-B levels of the highland population is to be expected. The lowland population showed

E. Bolink; J. Rozema; W. H. O. Ernst

1997-01-01

371

Perturbations of triglycerides but not of cholesterol metabolism are prevented by anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment in rats bearing an ascites hepatoma (Yoshida AH-130).  

PubMed Central

Rats transplanted with the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 developed a severely progressive cachexia, characterised by marked alterations in protein and lipid metabolism. In particular, high levels of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids were associated with altered levels and distribution of plasma cholesterol, with increased total and very low-density lipoprotein-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL) cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The tumour cells showed high rates of cholesterol synthesis and elevated content of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol synthesis was reduced in the host liver. To determine whether these perturbations could be related to the elevation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) previously shown in the AH-130 bearers (Tessitore L, Costelli P, Baccino FM 1993, Br J Cancer, 67, 15-23), either anti-TNF polyclonal antibodies or non-immune IgGs were injected daily after tumour transplantation. The anti-TNF treatment neither affected tumour growth nor prevented the serum cholesterol changes, while attenuating the hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevated serum free fatty acid levels. These data indicate that TNF does not appear to be directly involved in the altered cholesterol metabolism in AH-130 hosts, thus supporting the view that cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism are regulated differently during tumour growth. PMID:7577459

Dessì, S.; Batetta, B.; Spano, O.; Bagby, G. J.; Tessitore, L.; Costelli, P.; Baccino, F. M.; Pani, P.; Argilès, J. M.

1995-01-01

372

Perturbations of triglycerides but not of cholesterol metabolism are prevented by anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment in rats bearing an ascites hepatoma (Yoshida AH-130).  

PubMed

Rats transplanted with the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 developed a severely progressive cachexia, characterised by marked alterations in protein and lipid metabolism. In particular, high levels of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids were associated with altered levels and distribution of plasma cholesterol, with increased total and very low-density lipoprotein-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL) cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The tumour cells showed high rates of cholesterol synthesis and elevated content of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol synthesis was reduced in the host liver. To determine whether these perturbations could be related to the elevation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) previously shown in the AH-130 bearers (Tessitore L, Costelli P, Baccino FM 1993, Br J Cancer, 67, 15-23), either anti-TNF polyclonal antibodies or non-immune IgGs were injected daily after tumour transplantation. The anti-TNF treatment neither affected tumour growth nor prevented the serum cholesterol changes, while attenuating the hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevated serum free fatty acid levels. These data indicate that TNF does not appear to be directly involved in the altered cholesterol metabolism in AH-130 hosts, thus supporting the view that cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism are regulated differently during tumour growth. PMID:7577459

Dessì, S; Batetta, B; Spano, O; Bagby, G J; Tessitore, L; Costelli, P; Baccino, F M; Pani, P; Argilès, J M

1995-11-01

373

Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

1964-01-01

374

Combination Therapy of an Intestine-Specific Inhibitor of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist in Diabetic Rat  

PubMed Central

We investigated effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in combination of JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, and pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, JTT-130 treatment group, pioglitazone treatment group, and combination group. The Zucker diabetic fatty rats were fed a regular powdered diet with JTT-130 and/or pioglitazone as a food admixture for 6 weeks. Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were compared mainly between JTT-130 treatment group and combination group. JTT-130 treatment showed good glycemic control, while the plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in combination group were significantly decreased as compared with those JTT-130 treatment group. The reduction in the plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in combination group was higher than that in JTT-130 treatment group, and glucose utilization was significantly elevated in adipose tissues. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, combination treatment of JTT-130 and pioglitazone showed better glycemic control and a strong hypolipidemic action with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy of MTP inhibitor and PPAR? agonist might be more useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes accompanied with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:24772450

Sakata, Shohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

2014-01-01

375

Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Our ability to interpret ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} is contingent on understanding and integrating a complex of physiological and ecological processes. However, we have a limited understanding of the combined effects of changes in plant carbon (C) allocation, microbial activity, and nitrogen (N) dynamics on the long-term response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2}. Individually, these factors are potent modifiers of C and N dynamics, and an in depth understanding of their interactions should provide insight into ecosystem-level responses to global climate change. Our research is aimed at quantifying the physiological mechanisms leading to increased fine root production, microbial biomass and rates of N cycling at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. More specifically, we will experimentally manipulate soil nitrogen availability and atmospheric CO{sub 2} to understand how changes in plant resource availability influence the cycling of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms.

Zak, D.R. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment; Pregitzer, K.S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1994-05-15

376

Genotype-specific responses of Bromus erectus to elevated CO{sub 2} at different levels of biodiversity and endophyte infection - a field experiment  

SciTech Connect

In 1994 we initiated a long-term field experiment in a calcareous grassland to study the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on individuals, populations, and communities. Clonal replicates of 54 genotypes of the dominant grass Bromus erectus were grown in communities planted at three levels of biodiversity (5-, 12-, 31-species plots) and exposed to ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. The same genotypes were also individually grown in tubes within the field plots. Some genotypes were infected by the endophytic fungus Epichloee typhina. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no significant effects on plant growth, however, there was large variation among genotypes in all measured characters. A significant CO{sub 2}-by-genotype interaction was found for leaf length in the competition-free tubes. Infection by the endophyte led to the abortion of all inflorescences but increased vegetative growth, especially under competitive conditions.

Steinger, T.; Groppe, K.; Schmid, B. [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)]|[Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

1995-06-01

377

Effect of exercise on metabolism of glycogen and triglycerides in the respiratory muscles.  

PubMed

It was shown that during muscular exertion the diaphragm muscle and the intercostal muscles utilize endogenous glycogen whereas only the diaphragm muscle utilizes endogenous triglycerides. The post-excercise glycogen repletion in the diaphragm muscle was much faster than in the intercostal muscles. In the diaphragm muscle, marked overshoot of the glycogen level occurred early after the exercise. PMID:569818

Górski, J; Namiot, Z; Giedroj?, J

1978-11-30

378

Bioconversion of Xylan to Triglycerides by Oil-Rich Yeasts  

PubMed Central

A series of lipid-accumulating yeasts was examined for their potential to saccharify xylan and accumulate triglyceride. Of the genera tested, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Trichosporon, only Cryptococcus and Trichosporon isolates saccharified xylan. All of the strains could assimilate xylose and accumuate triglyceride under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were found to be especially useful for a one-step saccharification of xylan coupled to triglyceride synthesis. Cryptococcus terricolus, a strain constitutive for lipid accumulation, lacked extracellular xylanase, but did assimilate xylose and xylobiose and was able to continuously convert xylan to triglyceride if the culture medium was supplemented with xylanase. PMID:16346541

Fall, Ray; Phelps, Patricia; Spindler, Diane

1984-01-01

379

Relationship of Left Atrial Global Peak Systolic Strain with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level in Patients Presenting with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background In patients presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, we investigated the relationship of left atrial deformational parameters evaluated by 2-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) with conventional echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction parameters and brain natriuretic peptide level. Material/Methods We enrolled 74 non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients who were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and 58 healthy control subjects. Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients had echocardiographic examination 48 h after the percutaneous coronary intervention procedure and venous blood samples were drawn simultaneously. In addition to conventional echocardiographic parameters, left atrial strain curves were obtained for each patient. Average peak left atrial strain values during left ventricular systole were measured. Results BNP values were higher in non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients compared to controls. Mean left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain in Group 2 (the control group) was higher than in the non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction group. Left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain was significantly correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. There was a significant inverse correlation between left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain and brain natriuretic peptide level, left atrium volume maximum, and left atrium volume minimum. Conclusions Our study shows that Left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain values decreased consistently with deteriorating systolic and diastolic function in non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain measurements may be helpful as a complimentary method to evaluate diastolic function in this patient population. PMID:25338184

De?irmenci, Hüsnü; Bak?rc?, Eftal Murat; Demirta?, Levent; Duman, Hakan; Hamur, Hikmet; Ceyhun, Gökhan; Topal, Ergün

2014-01-01

380

Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.  

PubMed

Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified. PMID:25300978

Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

2015-01-01

381

Leaf?Level Physiology, Biomass, and Reproduction of Phytolacca americana under Conditions of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Increased Nocturnal Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising atmospheric CO2 and increasing air temperatures are predicted to increase future plant growth, but plant responses to incr