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1

Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China.

2013-01-01

2

Triglycerides  

MedlinePLUS

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

3

Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) Is Related to Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Levels, but Not to an Increased Risk for Vascular Events in Patients with Clinically Manifest Vascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex are associated with elevated plasma triglycerides and elevated vascular risk in healthy populations. In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome are frequently present, but the contribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms to plasma triglycerides, effect modification by obesity and risk of recurrent vascular events is unknown in these patients. Methods Prospective cohort study of 5547 patients with vascular disease. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex) was genotyped, and we evaluated the relation with plasma lipid levels, presence of metabolic syndrome and the risk for new vascular events. Results The minor allele of rs964184 was strongly associated with log plasma triglycerides (? 0.12; 95%CI 0.10-0.15, p?=?1.1*10?19), and was also associated with 0.03 mmol/L lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.01–0.04), and 0.14 mmol/L higher non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.09–0.20). The minor allele frequency increased from 10.9% in patients with plasma triglycerides <1 mmol/L to 24.6% in patients with plasma triglycerides between 4 and 10 mmol/L. The relation between rs964184 and plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index in patients with one minor allele (? 0.02; (95%CI ?0.04–0.09) if body mass index <24 kg/m2, ? 0.17 (95%CI 0.12–0.22) if body mass index >27 kg/m2, p for interaction?=?0.02). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased from 52% for patients with two copies of the major allele to 62% for patients with two copies of the minor allele (p?=?0.01). Rs964184 was not related with recurrent vascular events (HR 0.99; 95%CI 0.86–1.13). Conclusion The single nucleotide polymorphism rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides concentrations in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. In carriers of one minor allele, the effect on plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index. There is no relation between rs964184 and recurrent vascular events in these patients.

van de Woestijne, Anton P.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Spiering, Wilko; Visseren, Frank L. J.

2014-01-01

4

Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2?/? mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Ostlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

2012-01-01

5

Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob\\/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma

Thomas Lundåsen; Eva-Marie Andersson; Michael Snaith; Helena Lindmark; Johanna Lundberg; Ann-Margret Östlund-Lindqvist; Bo Angelin; Mats Rudling

2012-01-01

6

Chronic changes in plasma triglyceride levels do modify platelet membrane microviscosity in rats.  

PubMed

Lipid metabolism disorders were proposed to mediate numerous cell membrane alterations in various forms of hypertension. Elevated plasma triglycerides were found to be associated with changes in membrane structure and function related to altered microviscosity in particular domains of the cell membrane. The aim of our study was to determine if an abnormal triglyceride metabolism might play a causal role in these alterations of membrane dynamics. Using genetically hypertensive rats of the Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) strain we investigated whether the elevation of circulating triglycerides induced by high fructose intake and/or their lowering by chronic gemfibrozil treatment (for 10 weeks starting at the age of 6 weeks) are followed by reciprocal changes in membrane microviscosity. Two different fluorescent probes exploring either the outer membrane leaflet (TMA-DPH anisotropy) or the membrane lipid core (DPH anisotropy) were used in platelets of HTG rats. DPH (diphenylhexatriene) fluorescence anisotropy was decreased in platelets of fructose-treated HTG animals with highly elevated plasma triglyceride levels, whereas it was increased in gemfibrozil-treated HTG rats in which triglyceride levels were almost normalized. On the contrary, TMA-DPH (trimethylamino-diphenylhexatriene) anisotropy was not substantially altered in platelets from HTG rats by the above modifications of circulating triglycerides. No changes of plasma cholesterol or blood pressure were associated with the triglyceride-dependent modifications of membrane core microviscosity. Our interventional study demonstrates a major causal role of circulating triglycerides in the control of the microviscosity of membrane lipid core. PMID:10946855

Kunes, J; Devynck, M A; Zicha, J

2000-07-14

7

Correlation of triglyceride level with acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

The study was aimed to find out the correlation of serum triglyceride level with acute coronary syndrome. This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of cardiology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, from August 2009 to May 2010. Socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habit, hypertension, serum total cholesterol level, serum HDLc, Serum LDLc, TG level were important variable considered. A total number of 100 respondents consisted of 50 cases (patient) and 50 healthy persons (control). Investigations included ECG, cardiac enzyme (troponin I), FBS and lipid profile. The data were analyzed by computer with the help of SPSS. Chi-square Test, T-test & ANOVA test were used as test of significance. The mean level of TG in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients (cases) was 168.2±58.0 mg/dl and in control were 141.2±45.3 mg/dl. So serum TG level is significantly higher in patients with ACS (p=0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, there was a significant association of elevated TG with risk of ACS (relative risk) is the highest, compared with the lowest quarantile = 1.011; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.002 - 1.020; P for trend = 0.01). The relation of TG level to HDLc was a strong predictor of ACS (RR in the highest) compared with lowest quarantile = 0.02; (95% CI = 0.003 - 0.173; P for trend <0.0001). The study revealed that high level of serum triglyceride is associated with ACS. Categorization of patients with ACS on the basis of TG level may be helpful for risk stratification and management. PMID:22314453

Islam, M Z; Faruque, M; Bari, M A; Islam, M S; Khan, M K; Khan, N A; Miah, A H; Alam, M K

2012-01-01

8

Plasma triglyceride levels are higher in nephrotic than in analbuminemic rats despite a similar increase in hepatic triglyceride secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma triglyceride levels are higher in nephrotic than in analbuminemic rats despite a similar increase in hepatic triglyceride secretion. The relative contributions of increased hepatic secretion of triglyceride (TG) and decreased TG catabolism to hypertriglyceridemia in the nephrotic syndrome, and their relationship to urinary protein loss and reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure (?) remain unclear. We measured the activity of

Jaap A Joles; Caspaar Bijleveld; Arie van Tol; Math JH Geelen; Hein A Koomans; Jaap A Joles DVM

1995-01-01

9

Rapid reduction of severely elevated serum triglycerides with insulin infusion, gemfibrozil and niacin.  

PubMed

The conventional methods of treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia are dietary restriction and lipid lowering medications, mainly fibric acid derivatives. In the medical literature, use of insulin infusion to treat hypertriglyceridemia has not been highlighted sufficiently. We report a 53-year-old male who presented with a four-day history of epigastric pain. The patient's clinical history was significant for hypertriglyceridemia, type-2 diabetes mellitus with medication noncompliance, obesity, status post-gastric bypass surgery, and alcohol abuse with prior admissions for detoxification. Physical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness. Laboratory studies revealed severely elevated serum triglyceride (TG) level (8116 mg/dL). Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen exhibited no evidence of pancreatitis. Regular insulin infusion was started at 3 U/h and gradually increased to 7-10 U/h. Dextrose infusion was titrated to avoid hypoglycemia and maintain blood glucose levels below 150 mg/dL. Gemfibrozil and niacin were also started. After 24 hours, his TG levels were decreased to 2501 mg/dL. Insulin infusion was continued for about 48 hours. A low carbohydrate diet excluding simple carbohydrates was given. The patient's serum TG levels normalized over a period of one month. Thus insulin infusion can be considered a safe modality of treatment for rapid reduction of serum TG in addition to fibrates and niacin. PMID:20852089

Poonuru, Sujani; Pathak, Sumedha R; Vats, Hemender S; Pathak, Ram D

2011-03-01

10

Understanding triglyceride levels related to intravenous fat administration.  

PubMed

Lipid is an essential macronutrient in parenteral nutrition (PN) support. intravenous (IV) lipid provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated calorie source. Preterm infants are at risk for essential fatty deficiency early in life. Lipid administration is associated with some risks, and there are guidelines for administration to minimize complications. Lipid emulsions in the United States are derived from soybean oil. Outside of the United States, lipid emulsions made from fish oil or combinations of fish, soybean, olive, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are under investigation for improved tolerance, lower plasma lipid levels, and improved fatty acid profiles, all of which are considered beneficial. Triglyceride levels are an important measurement to assess patient tolerance. PMID:24816878

Weaver, Karen

2014-01-01

11

CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid  

SciTech Connect

Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2013-01-15

12

Lipasin, a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that regulates serum triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

The metabolic syndrome, a common disorder including glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, poses a major public health issue. Patients with high blood lipids, such as triglycerides, are at high risk in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. To identify genes involved in metabolism, we performed RNA-seq experiments on the liver and fat in mice treated with a high-fat diet or fasting, and identified Gm6484 (named Lipasin) as a novel nutritionally regulated gene. Human LIPASIN is liver specific, while the mouse one is enriched in the liver and fat, including both brown and white adipose tissues. Obesity increases liver Lipasin, whereas fasting reduces its expression in fat. ANGPTL3 (Angiopoietin-like 3) and ANGPTL4 are critical regulators of blood lipids. LIPASIN shares homology with ANGPTL3's N-terminal domain that is needed for lipid regulation, and with ANGPTL4's N-terminal segment that mediates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) binding. Lipasin overexpression by adenoviruses in mice increases serum triglyceride levels, and a recombinant Lipasin inhibits LPL activity. Therefore, a potential mechanism for Lipasin-mediated triglyceride elevation is through reduced triglyceride clearance by LPL inhibition. Lipasin is thus a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that plays a role in lipid metabolism. PMID:22809513

Zhang, Ren

2012-08-10

13

A Report of High Triglyceride Level in Cord Blood of Iranian Newborns  

PubMed Central

Background: Since cord blood triglyceride level have been reported very different in recent articles, the purpose of this study is determination of triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns and compare it with other reports. Methods: In this study, cord blood of 174 healthy term newborn infants (97 girls, 77 boys) born from healthy mothers have been used. Triglyceride level has been measured by calorie metric method Statistical analysis was performed by independent t test, Mann-Whitney regression test and Spearman correlation coefficient method using SPSS 16 .0 software (SPSS, USA). Results: The mean of cord blood triglyceride was 1.37 ± 4.81 mg /dl and there was no statistical difference between two sexes. There was not exist linear relationship between triglyceride and weight, height, head circumference, body mass index and sex of the babies. In 8.6% of our new born infants, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in Iranian population. In 33.9% of our cases, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in the Nelson text book of Pediatrics. In this study, the 95th percentile of triglyceride level in cord blood was 132.5 mg /dl. Conclusion: The mean and 95th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome.

Kazemi, Seyed Ali Naghi; Mousavinasab, Nooreddin; Mellati, Ali Awsat; Sadeghzadeh, Mansour

2013-01-01

14

Chronic changes in plasma triglyceride levels do modify platelet membrane microviscosity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid metabolism disorders were proposed to mediate numerous cell membrane alterations in various forms of hypertension. Elevated plasma triglycerides were found to be associated with changes in membrane structure and function related to altered microviscosity in particular domains of the cell membrane. The aim of our study was to determine if an abnormal triglyceride metabolism might play a causal role

Jaroslav Kuneš; Marie-Aude Devynck; Josef Zicha

2000-01-01

15

Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1988-01-01

16

Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Genes Influencing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Elevated plasma triglyceride concentration is a component of the insulin resistance syndrome and is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and coronary heart disease. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage scan to identify genetic regions that influence variation in plasma triglyceride levels in families that are enriched with individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,026 individuals distributed across 294 Mexican-American families, who were ascertained for type 2 diabetes, from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Plasma triglyceride values were transformed, and a variance-components technique was used to conduct multipoint linkage analysis. RESULTS—After adjusting for the significant effects of sex and BMI, heritability for plasma triglycerides was estimated as 46 ± 7% (P < 0.0001). Multipoint linkage analysis yielded the strongest evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides near marker D12S391 on chromosome 12p (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 2.4). Our linkage signal on chromosome 12p provides independent replication of a similar finding in another Mexican-American sample from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). Combined multipoint linkage analysis of the VAGES and SAFDS data yielded significant evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides to a genetic location between markers GATA49D12 and D12S391 on 12p (LOD = 3.8, empirical P value = 2.0 × 10?5). This region on 12p harbors the gene-encoding adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), where we previously have shown that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations in the SAFDS. In the present study, we provided suggestive evidence in favor of association for rs929434 with triglyceride concentrations in the VAGES. CONCLUSIONS—Collectively, these results provide strong evidence for a major locus on chromosome 12p that influences plasma triglyceride levels in Mexican Americans.

Coletta, Dawn K.; Schneider, Jennifer; Hu, Shirley L.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Puppala, Sobha; Farook, Vidya S.; Arya, Rector; Lehman, Donna M.; Blangero, John; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

2009-01-01

17

Insulin resistance and elevated triglyceride in muscle: more important for survival than 'thrifty' genes?  

PubMed Central

Elevated intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) is strongly associated with insulin resistance, though a cause and effect relationship has not been fully described. Insulin sensitivity and IMTG content are both dynamic and can alter rapidly in response to dietary variation, physical activity and thermoregulatory response. Physically active humans (athletes) display elevated IMTG content, but in contrast to obese persons, are insulin sensitive. This paradox has created confusion surrounding the role of IMTG in the development of insulin resistance. In this review we consider the modern athlete as the physiological archetype of the Late Palaeolithic hunter–gatherer to whom the selection pressures of food availability, predation and fluctuating environmental conditions applied and to whom the genotype of modern man is virtually identical. As food procurement by the hunter–gatherer required physical activity, ‘thrifty’ genes that encouraged immediate energy storage upon refeeding after food deprivation (Neel, 1962) must have been of secondary importance in survival to genes that preserved physical capacity during food deprivation. Similarly genes that enabled survival during cold exposure whilst starved would be of primary importance. In this context, we discuss the advantage afforded by an elevated IMTG content, and how under these conditions, a concomitant muscle resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake would also be advantageous. In sedentary modern man, adiposity is high and skeletal muscle appears to respond as if a state of starvation exists. In this situation, elevated plasma lipids serve to accrue lipid and induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Reversal of this physiological state is primarily dependant on adequate contractile activity, however, in modern Western society, physical inactivity combined with abundant food and warmth has rendered IMTG a redundant muscle substrate.

Stannard, S R; Johnson, N A

2004-01-01

18

Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Norwegian adolescent school children.  

PubMed

The frequency distribution of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in 172 boys and 232 girls, 13--16 years, from four elementary schools in Oslo has been determined. The cholesterol values were significantly higher for girls 15--16 years than for boys of the same age group. In the case of triglycerides boys 15--16 years had significantly higher values than boys 13--14 years. Otherwise no statistically significant differences with regard to sex and age were observed. The 85th percentiles have been suggested as appropriate upper normal limits. In all groups the 85th percentile for plasma cholesterol was slightly below 6 mmol/l. The corresponding plasma triglyceride value was below 2 mmol/l. PMID:626074

Askevold, R; Høstmark, A T; Vellar, O D; Von Kraemer Bryn, M; Glattre, E

1978-03-01

19

Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides.  

PubMed

Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild-type and clock-disrupted mice either fed ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (?17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g., PPAR?) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ?50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation; however, oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock. PMID:24506873

Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Asher, Gad

2014-02-01

20

Lipid profile in women with preeclampsia: relationship between plasma triglyceride levels and severity of preeclampsia.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that, in preeclampsia, hypertriglyceridemia may lead to increased endothelial triglyceride accumulation that, in turn, may result in endothelial cell damage. The purpose of our study was to determine whether hypertriglyceridemia is associated with the severity of preeclampsia. We studied 29 preeclamptic patients and 46 normal pregnant women, aged 15 to 35 years, with singleton pregnancies, at 28 to 37 weeks' gestation. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured enzymatically. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was determined using a dextran sulfate-magnesium precipitation method. Patients with mild preeclampsia had a significant increase in plasma triglyceride levels (P < .001), while patients with severe preeclampsia had triglyceride levels comparable to controls. Our findings suggest that there is no direct relationship between triglyceride levels and severity of preeclampsia. PMID:7858376

Mikhail, M S; Basu, J; Palan, P R; Furgiuele, J; Romney, S L; Anyaegbunam, A

1995-01-01

21

Space elevator systems level analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing

Laubscher

2004-01-01

22

Genetic risk score and adiposity interact to influence triglyceride levels in a cohort of Filipino women.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:Individually, genetic variants only moderately influence cardiometabolic (CM) traits, such as lipid and inflammatory markers. In this study we generated genetic risk scores from a combination of previously reported variants influencing CM traits, and used these scores to explore how adiposity levels could mediate genetic contributions to CM traits.Subjects/Methods:Participants included 1649 women from the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Three genetic risk scores were constructed for C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs). We used linear regression models to assess the association between each genetic risk score and its related trait. We also tested for interactions between each score and measures of adiposity.Results:Each genetic risk score explained a greater proportion of variance in trait levels than any individual genetic variant. We found an interaction between the TG genetic risk score (2.29-14.34 risk alleles) and waist circumference (WC) (Pinteraction=1.66 × 10(-2)). Based on model predictions, for individuals with a higher TG genetic risk score (75th percentile=12), having an elevated WC (?80?cm) increased TG levels from 1.32 to 1.71?mmol?l(-1). However, for individuals with a lower score (25th percentile=7), having an elevated WC did not significantly change TG levels.Conclusions:The TG genetic risk score interacted with adiposity to synergistically influence TG levels. For individuals with a genetic predisposition to elevated TG levels, our results suggest that reducing adiposity could possibly prevent further increases in TG levels and thereby lessen the likelihood of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. PMID:24932782

Zubair, N; Mayer-Davis, E J; Mendez, M A; Mohlke, K L; North, K E; Adair, L S

2014-01-01

23

Genetic risk score and adiposity interact to influence triglyceride levels in a cohort of Filipino women  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Individually, genetic variants only moderately influence cardiometabolic (CM) traits, such as lipid and inflammatory markers. In this study we generated genetic risk scores from a combination of previously reported variants influencing CM traits, and used these scores to explore how adiposity levels could mediate genetic contributions to CM traits. Subjects/Methods: Participants included 1649 women from the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Three genetic risk scores were constructed for C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs). We used linear regression models to assess the association between each genetic risk score and its related trait. We also tested for interactions between each score and measures of adiposity. Results: Each genetic risk score explained a greater proportion of variance in trait levels than any individual genetic variant. We found an interaction between the TG genetic risk score (2.29–14.34 risk alleles) and waist circumference (WC) (Pinteraction=1.66 × 10?2). Based on model predictions, for individuals with a higher TG genetic risk score (75th percentile=12), having an elevated WC (?80?cm) increased TG levels from 1.32 to 1.71?mmol?l?1. However, for individuals with a lower score (25th percentile=7), having an elevated WC did not significantly change TG levels. Conclusions: The TG genetic risk score interacted with adiposity to synergistically influence TG levels. For individuals with a genetic predisposition to elevated TG levels, our results suggest that reducing adiposity could possibly prevent further increases in TG levels and thereby lessen the likelihood of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease.

Zubair, N; Mayer-Davis, E J; Mendez, M A; Mohlke, K L; North, K E; Adair, L S

2014-01-01

24

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

SciTech Connect

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

2002-09-16

25

HDLC and Triglyceride Levels: Relationship to Coronary Heart Disease and Treatment with Statins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well established and LDL-C-lowering is currently the primary target for the treatment of dyslipidemia. However, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high levels of triglycerides (TG) are also risk factors for CHD and modifying levels of these lipid subfractions, in addition to

Allan Gaw

2003-01-01

26

Circulating sCD36 is associated with unhealthy fat distribution and elevated circulating triglycerides in morbidly obese individuals  

PubMed Central

Background: The recently identified circulating sCD36 has been proposed to reflect tissue CD36 expression, and is upregulated in case of obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of weight loss secondary to bariatric surgery in relation to sCD36 among morbidly obese individuals. Furthermore, we investigated the levels of sCD36 in relation to obesity-related metabolic complications, low-grade inflammation and fat distribution. Methods: Twenty morbidly obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 43.0±5.4?kg?m?2) with a referral to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected at a preoperative baseline visit and 3 months after surgery. sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay, whereas insulin sensitivity and the hepatic fat accumulation were estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-%S) and liver fat percentage (LF%), respectively. Results: Postoperatively, BMI was reduced by 20% to 34.3±5.2?kg?m?2 (P<0.001). sCD36 was reduced by 31% (P=0.001) and improvements were observed in the amount of fat mass (P<0.001), truncal fat mass (P<0.001), circulating triglycerides (P=0.001), HOMA-%S (P=0.007), LF% (P=0.001) and the inflammatory marker high-sensitive C-reactive protein (P=0.005). sCD36 correlated with triglycerides (?=0.523, P=0.001) and truncal fat mass (?=0.357, P=0.026), and triglycerides were found to be an independent predictor of sCD36. At baseline, participants with the metabolic syndrome had a higher LF% and higher levels of the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 (P=0.003 and P=0.014) as well as a tendency towards higher levels of sCD36. Conclusion: sCD36 was reduced by weight loss and associated with an unhealthy fat accumulation and circulating triglycerides, which support the proposed role of sCD36 as a biochemical marker of obesity-related metabolic complications and risks.

Kn?sgaard, L; Thomsen, S B; St?ckel, M; Vestergaard, H; Handberg, A

2014-01-01

27

Low Serum Triglyceride Levels as Predictors of Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Understanding the influence of sex differences on predictors of cardiac mortality rates in chronic heart failure might enable us to lengthen lifetimes and to improve lives. This study describes the influence of sex on cardiovascular mortality rates among chronic heart failure patients. From January 2003 through December 2009, we evaluated 637 consecutive patients (409 men and 228 women) with chronic heart failure, who ranged in age from 18 through 94 years (mean age, 64 ± 13 yr) and ranged in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class from II through IV. The mean follow-up period was 38 ± 15 months, the mean age was 64 ± 13 years, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.27 ±0.11. By the end of the study, both sexes had similar cardiovascular mortality rates (36% men vs 37% women, P=0.559). In Cox regression analysis, NYHA functional class, triglyceride level, and history of coronary artery disease were independent predictors of cardiovascular death for women with chronic heart failure. For men with chronic heart failure, the patient's age, ejection fraction, and sodium level were independent predictors of cardiovascular death. In a modern tertiary referral heart failure clinic, decreased triglyceride levels were, upon univariate analysis, predictors of poor outcomes for both men and women. However, upon Cox regression analysis, reduced triglyceride levels were independent predictors of cardiac death only in women.

Kozdag, Guliz; Ertas, Gokhan; Emre, Ender; Akay, Yasar; Celikyurt, Umut; Sahin, Tayfun; Gorur, Gozde; Karauzum, Kurtulus; Yilmaz, Irem; Ural, Dilek; Sarsekeyeva, Mira

2013-01-01

28

Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apoE phenotype: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between apoE phenotype and plasma lipid levels was analyzed in the combined data of published studies. Accordingly, 45 population samples from 17 different countries were included in the analysis. The mean plasma values of cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-CH of the apoE 2\\/2, 3\\/2, 4\\/3, 4\\/4, and 4\\/2 groups were compared with the same

J. Dallongeville; S. Lussier-Cacan; J. Davignon

29

Human triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impair glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in L6 skeletal muscle cells independently of non-esterified fatty acid levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Elevated fasting and postprandial plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs), i.e. VLDL\\/remnants and chylomicrons\\/remnants, are a characteristic feature of insulin resistance and are considered a consequence of this state. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intact TGRL particles are capable of inducing insulin resistance.Methods  We studied the effect of highly purified TGRLs on glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase activity,

M. T. Pedrini; M. Kranebitter; A. Niederwanger; S. Kaser; J. Engl; P. Debbage; L. A. Huber; J. R. Patsch

2005-01-01

30

Elevator Reboarding Level Plan & Observation Level Plan Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevator Reboarding Level Plan & Observation Level Plan - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

31

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

2010-01-01

32

Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

33

Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

2013-01-01

34

Genetic Variation in SULF2 Is Associated with Postprandial Clearance of Triglyceride-Rich Remnant Particles and Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Context Nonfasting (postprandial) triglyceride concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease risk factor that results from accumulation of remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in the circulation. The remnant TRLs are cleared from the circulation by hepatic uptake, but the specific mechanisms involved are unclear. The syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) pathway is important for the hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs in mice, but its relevance in humans is unclear. Objective We sought to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for HSPG assembly and disassembly contribute to atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias in humans. Patients And Design We performed an oral fat load in 68 healthy subjects. Lipoproteins (chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins 1 and 2) were isolated from blood, and the area under curve and incremental area under curve for postprandial variables were calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding syndecan-1 and enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of HSPG were genotyped in the study subjects. Results Our results indicate that the genetic variation rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with postprandial clearance of remnant TRLs and triglyceride levels in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the SNP rs2281279 in SULF2 associates with hepatic SULF2 mRNA levels. Conclusions In humans, mild but clinically relevant postprandial hyperlipidemia due to reduced hepatic clearance of remnant TRLs may result from genetic polymorphisms that affect hepatic HSPG.

Romeo, Stefano; Hakkarainen, Antti; Adiels, Martin; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Lundbom, Nina; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Orho-Melander, Marju; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Boren, Jan

2013-01-01

35

Cyclic nucleotides in platelets of genetically hypertriglyceridemic and hypertensive rats. Thrombin and nitric oxide responses are unrelated to plasma triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) rats constitute a genetic model of hypertension associated with hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Various cell alterations, including changes in membrane dynamics, ion transport, and decreased platelet responses to thrombin have been observed in this strain. As hypertriglyceridemia appears to be associated with reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and platelet aggregation, we examined whether triglycerides could modulate cell responsiveness through changes in cyclic nucleotides in platelets of HTG rats. From the age of 6 weeks, these hypertensive animals were subjected for 10 weeks to interventions that modified circulating triglycerides levels (2.17+/-0.09 mmol/l), leading to their reduction (gemfibrozil treatment, 0.87+/-0.05 mmol/l) or elevation (high fructose intake, 3.23+/-0.07 mmol/l). Basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) contents were 15% and 48% lower in isolated platelets of HTG rats than in those of Lewis controls. cAMP level was further reduced in HTG rats subjected to high fructose intake. Irrespective of their plasma triglyceride levels, the thrombin-induced increase in platelet cGMP levels present in Lewis rats was absent in platelets of HTG rats. In contrast, no strain- or treatment-related differences were observed in the magnitude or kinetics of cGMP response to exogenous nitric oxide (NO). NO-induced cGMP and cAMP changes were associated in an opposite manner with trimethylamino-diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPH) anisotropy, a biophysical parameter that reflects the microviscosity of the outer part of the cell membrane. Our results indicate that the attenuation of platelet responsiveness to thrombin in HTG rats represents a strain difference that cannot merely be due to a difference in plasma triglyceride levels. Platelet hyporesponsiveness to agonists such as thrombin in HTG rats cannot be explained by a change in levels of inhibitory cyclic nucleotides, since they were actually found to be low and not high. PMID:11583736

Pernollet, M G; Kunes, J; Zicha, J; Devynck, M A

2001-10-01

36

Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: Relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17?-estradiol

Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Marilena Pannuto; Angela Favaro; Lorenza Caregaro; Eloisa Castaldo; Tatiana Zanetti; Mario Maj

2005-01-01

37

Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Objective: untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: bogota, medellin and cali. Methods: in this study 192 (28.4%) advanced and 256 (37.8%) moderate periodontitis patients were investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, hdl, ldl and triglycerides (tg). Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8%) controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher hdl and tg levels were present in periodontitis. Bmi <30 and smoking were associated with increased hdl, hdl-35, ldl and tg, while glycemia >100 mg/dl associated with hdl, hdl-35 and tg. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with hdl-35 in bivariate analysis and serum igg1 against p. Gingivalis associated with hdl-35 and serum igg1 against t. Forsythia associated with tg and serum igg2 against a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of hdl y hdl-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from cali presented reduced hdl levels as compared to bogota and medellin patients. Presence of igg1 antibodies against p. Gingivalis and a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced hdl levels. Conclusion: this study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria could be the biological link.

Lafaurie, Gloria Ines; Millan, Lina Viviana; Ardila, Carlos Martin; Duque, Andres; Novoa, Camilo; Lopez, Diego; Contreras, Adolfo

2013-01-01

38

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in â16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare

Len A. Pennacchio; Michael Olivier; Jaroslav A. Hubacek; Ronald M. Krauss; Edward M. Rubin; Jonathan C. Cohen

2002-01-01

39

Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.  

PubMed

Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10??) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10??) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10??), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

2013-11-01

40

Increase in triglyceride blood level in patients treated with capecitabine: a retrospective survey.  

PubMed

According to registry studies of capecitabine, grade 3-4 hypertriglyceridemia can occur in 0.1-1% of patients, unexplained by the drug's mechanism of action. This retrospective study aimed at estimating the incidence of capecitabine-induced hypertriglyceridemia (CIH) and attempted to identify the risk factors for its occurrence. In a retrospective survey, the files of 289 patients treated with capecitabine as a single agent or combined with other drugs were reviewed. A total of 102 patients without grade 2 or more hypertriglyceridemia at baseline and with at least one test of triglyceride blood level (TGBL) at least 2 months from the start of capecitabine were eligible for the study. The mean TGBL was 149±80 mg/dl at the onset of treatment and the mean maximal level after two or more cycles of capecitabine was 236±137 mg/dl (P<0.001; average increase 93 mg/dl). Nineteen (19%) patients developed grade?2 CIH, four (4%) of whom had grade 3-4. The median time to developing grade?2 CIH was 79 days (range, 16-243 days). A high rate of grade?2 CIH, without statistical significance, was observed on the basis of several risk factors: pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia grade 1 (11/45; 24%), diabetes (7/25; 37%), hypertension (10/60; 17%), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (5/14; 36%). The only identified risk factor for grade?3 CIH was IHD (2/14; P=0.02). Increased capecitabine-induced TGBL is common and grade?2 was detected in 19% of patients in this series. Close monitoring of lipid profile is recommended in patients on capecitabine treatment. IHD may be a risk factor for development of severe hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24595094

Bar-Sela, Gil; Cohensius-Kent, Dorit; Vornikova, Olga; Haim, Nissim

2014-07-01

41

Triglyceride level-influencing functional variants of the ANGPTL3, CILP2, and TRIB1 loci in ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is a common multifactorial disease, and the third leading cause of death worldwide, which results in serious long-term mental and physical disability among survivors. The role of affected triglyceride metabolism in the development of ischemic stroke is under extensive investigations. Here, we examined three SNPs, rs12130333 located within the ANGPTL3 locus; rs16996148 residing at the CILP2 gene locus; and rs17321515 at the TRIB1 locus, which were originally reported in association with decreased triglyceride levels; therefore, we investigated their possible protective effect against the development of ischemic stroke. A total of 459 Caucasian stroke patients, stratified as large-vessel, small-vessel, and mixed stroke groups, and 168 control subjects were genotyped using PCR-RFLP methods. As a result, we could not detect any differences in triglyceride or total cholesterol levels in relation to any allelic variants of rs16996148, rs17321515, or rs12130333 SNPs. No correlation was found between the minor alleles rs16996148-T (P = 0.881), rs17321515-G (P = 0.070), or rs12130333-T allele (P = 0.757) and the risk for development of stroke. The data presented here suggest different scale of effect of triglyceride modifier alleles and also their variable susceptibility or protective nature. PMID:21691831

Járomi, Luca; Csöngei, Veronika; Polgár, Noémi; Rappai, Gábor; Szolnoki, Zoltán; Maász, Anita; Horvatovich, Katalin; Sáfrány, Eniko; Sipeky, Csilla; Magyari, Lili; Melegh, Béla

2011-09-01

42

The effects of bitter melon ( Momordica charantia) on serum and liver triglyceride levels in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of three different varieties (Koimidori, Powerful-Reishi, and Hyakunari) of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and those of methanol fraction extract of Koimidori variety on serum and liver triglycerides were studied in rats. Feeding of diets containing either bitter melon or various fractions isolated by organic solvents caused no adverse effects on food intake or growth of rats. When the effect

Gamarallage V. K Senanayake; Mitsuru Maruyama; Kei Shibuya; Masanobu Sakono; Nobuhiro Fukuda; Toshiro Morishita; Chizuko Yukizaki; Mikio Kawano; Hideaki Ohta

2004-01-01

43

Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.  

PubMed

Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:24184591

de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

2014-01-01

44

Paradoxical Lower Serum Triglyceride Levels and Higher Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Susceptibility in Obese Individuals with the PNPLA3 148M Variant  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is highly associated with elevated serum triglycerides, hepatic steatosis and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The I148M (rs738409) genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) is known to modulate hepatic triglyceride accumulation, leading to steatosis. No association between PNPLA3 I148M genotype and T2D in Europeans has been reported. Aim of this study is to examine the relationship between PNPLA3 I148M genotypes and serum triglycerides, insulin resistance and T2D susceptibility by testing a gene-environment interaction model with severe obesity. Methods and Findings PNPLA3 I148M was genotyped in a large obese cohort, the SOS study (n?=?3,473) and in the Go-DARTS (n?=?15,448), a T2D case-control study. Metabolic parameters were examined across the PNPLA3 I148M genotypes in participants of the SOS study at baseline and at 2- and 10-year follow up after bariatric surgery or conventional therapy. The associations with metabolic parameters were validated in the Go-DARTS study. Serum triglycerides were found to be lower in the PNPLA3 148M carriers from the SOS study at baseline and from the Go-DARTS T2D cohort. An increased risk for T2D conferred by the 148M allele was found in the SOS study (O.R. 1.09, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.39, P?=?0.040) and in severely obese individuals in the Go-DARTS study (O.R. 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.13-1.66, P?=?0.001). The 148M allele was no longer associated with insulin resistance or T2D after bariatric surgery in the SOS study and no association with the 148M allele was observed in the less obese (BMI<35) individuals in the Go-DARTS study (P for interaction ?=?0.002). This provides evidence for the obesity interaction with I48M allele and T2D risk in a large-scale cross-sectional and a prospective interventional study. Conclusions Severely obese individuals carrying the PNPLA3 148M allele have lower serum triglyceride levels, are more insulin resistant and more susceptible to T2D. This study supports the hypothesis that obesity-driven hepatic lipid accumulation may contribute to T2D susceptibility.

Pirazzi, Carlo; Burza, Maria Antonella; Adiels, Martin; Burch, Lindsay; Donnelly, Louise A.; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alexander S.; Dillon, John F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; McCarthy, Mark; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Frayling, Tim; Morris, Andrew D.; Peltonen, Markku; Svensson, Per-Arne; Jacobson, Peter; Boren, Jan; Sjostrom, Lars; Carlsson, Lena M. S.; Romeo, Stefano

2012-01-01

45

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in several animal species  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of YM-53601 ((E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene) ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride), a new inhibitor of squalene synthase, in reducing both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and fibrates, respectively. YM-53601 equally inhibited squalene synthase activities in hepatic microsomes prepared from several animal species and also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED50, 32?mg?kg?1). In guinea-pigs, YM-53601 and pravastatin reduced plasma nonHDL-C (=total cholesterol–high density lipoprotein cholesterol) by 47% (P<0.001) and 33% (P<0.001), respectively (100?mg?kg?1, daily for 14 days). In rhesus monkeys, YM-53601 decreased plasma nonHDL-C by 37% (50?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 21 days, P<0.01), whereas the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, failed to do (25?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 28 days). YM-53601 caused plasma triglyceride reduction in hamsters fed a normal diet (81% decrease at 50?mg?kg?1, daily for 5 days, P<0.001). In hamsters fed a high-fat diet, the ability of YM-53601 to lower triglyceride (by 73%, P<0.001) was superior to that of fenofibrate (by 53%, P<0.001), the most potent fibrate (dosage of each drug: 100?mg?kg?1, daily for 7 days). This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor is superior to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in lowering plasma nonHDL-C level in rhesus monkeys and is superior to a fibrate in significantly lowering plasma triglyceride level. YM-53601 may therefore prove useful in treating hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in humans.

Ugawa, Tohru; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hirosh; Matsuda, Koyo; Ishihara, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Naganuma, Shin; Iizumi, Yuichi; Shikama, Hisataka

2000-01-01

46

Long-term fructose feeding changes the expression of leptin receptors and autophagy genes in the adipose tissue and liver of male rats: a possible link to elevated triglycerides.  

PubMed

Long-term fructose consumption has been shown to evoke leptin resistance, to elevate triglyceride levels and to induce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Autophagy has been suggested to function in processes such as lipid storage in adipose tissue and inflammation in liver. Autophagy and the leptin system have also been suggested to regulate each other. This study aimed to identify the changes caused by fetal undernourishment and postnatal fructose diet in the gene expression of leptin, its receptors (LEPR-a, LEPR-b, LEPR-c, LEPR-e and LEPR-f) and autophagy genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of adult male rats in order to clarify the mechanism behind the metabolic alterations. The data clearly revealed that the long-term postnatal fructose diet decreased leptin levels (p < 0.001), LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.011) and LEPR-f (p = 0.005), as well as SOCS3 (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.006), ATG7 (p < 0.001), MAP1LC3? (p < 0.001) and LAMP2 (p = 0.004) mRNA expression in WAT. Furthermore, LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.001) and LEPR-f (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.010), ATG7 (p = 0.024), MAP1LC3? (p = 0.003) and LAMP2 (p < 0.001) mRNA expression in the liver was increased in fructose-fed rats. In addition, the LEPR expression in liver and MAP1LC3? expression in WAT together explained 55.7 % of the variation in the plasma triglyceride levels of the rats (R adj. (2)  = 0.557, p < 0.001). These results, together with increased p62 levels in WAT (p < 0.001), could indicate decreased adipose tissue lipid storing capacity as well as alterations in liver metabolism which may represent a plausible mechanism through which fructose consumption could disturb lipid metabolism and result in elevated triglyceride levels. PMID:24085619

Aijälä, Meiju; Malo, Elina; Ukkola, Olavi; Bloigu, Risto; Lehenkari, Petri; Autio-Harmainen, Helena; Santaniemi, Merja; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

2013-11-01

47

Reduction by phytate-reduced soybean beta-conglycinin of plasma triglyceride level of young and adult rats.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of soybean beta-conglycinin, from which phytate was mostly removed, on the plasma lipids in young and adult rats. Male Wistar young (6 week-old) and adult (21 week-old) rats were fed high cholesterol diets containing 20% casein, soy protein isolate (SPI), or soybean beta-conglycinin for 10 days. In young rats, although the food intake of the beta-conglycinin group was higher than those of the casein and SPI groups, the weight gain was significantly lower than those of the other groups. However, in adult rats, the weight gain was not different among the groups. In young and adult rats, relative liver weights of SPI and beta-conglycinin groups were significantly lower than that of the casein group, and the degree of the reduction was more marked in the beta-conglycinin group than in the SPI group. In young rats, the plasma triglyceride level was significantly lower in the SPI and beta-conglycinin groups than that in the casein group. In addition, the plasma triglyceride level of the beta-conglycinin group was significantly lower than that of the SPI group. Plasma total cholesterol levels of the SPI and beta-conglycinin groups were significantly lower than that of the casein group. However, there was little difference in the lowering effect between SPI and beta-conglycinin. These results indicate that soybean beta-conglycinin may have lowering functions not only on plasma total cholesterol level, but also on plasma triglyceride level. PMID:11440119

Aoyama, T; Kohno, M; Saito, T; Fukui, K; Takamatsu, K; Yamamoto, T; Hashimoto, Y; Hirotsuka, M; Kito, M

2001-05-01

48

The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of signals for both Type 2 Diabetes and related quantitative traits. For the majority of loci, the transition from association signal to mutational mechanism has been difficult to establish. Glucokinase (GCK) regulates glucose storage and disposal in the liver where its activity is regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP; gene name GCKR). Fructose-6 and fructose-1 phosphate (F6P and F1P) enhance or reduce GKRP-mediated inhibition, respectively. A common GCKR variant (P446L) is reproducibly associated with triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational mechanism responsible for this genetic association. Recombinant human GCK and both human wild-type (WT) and P446L-GKRP proteins were generated. GCK kinetic activity was observed spectrophotometrically using an NADP+-coupled assay. WT and P446L-GKRP-mediated inhibition of GCK activity and subsequent regulation by phosphate esters were determined. Assays matched for GKRP activity demonstrated no difference in dose-dependent inhibition of GCK activity or F1P-mediated regulation. However, the response to physiologically relevant F6P levels was significantly attenuated with P446L-GKRP (n = 18; P ? 0.03). Experiments using equimolar concentrations of both regulatory proteins confirmed these findings (n = 9; P < 0.001). In conclusion, P446L-GKRP has reduced regulation by physiological concentrations of F6P, resulting indirectly in increased GCK activity. Altered GCK regulation in liver is predicted to enhance glycolytic flux, promoting hepatic glucose metabolism and elevating concentrations of malonyl-CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis, providing a mutational mechanism for the reported association of this variant with raised triglycerides and lower glucose levels.

Beer, Nicola L.; Tribble, Nicholas D.; McCulloch, Laura J.; Roos, Charlotta; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gloyn, Anna L.

2009-01-01

49

View of book shop on elevator reboarding level Washington ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of book shop on elevator reboarding level - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

50

3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

51

Triglycerides and atherogenic lipoproteins: rationale for lipid management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated a relation between plasma triglyceride levels and risk of coronary artery disease and an amplification of risk with combined elevations of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In patients with coronary disease, angiographic progression and clinical events have been correlated with concentrations of smaller very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), consistent with evidence

Ronald M. Krauss

1998-01-01

52

Significance of elevated cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels in blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of serum cobalamin may be a sign of a serious, even life-threatening, disease. Hematologic disorders like chronic myelogeneous leukemia, promyelocytic leukemia, polycythemia vera and also the hypereosinophilic syndrome can result in elevated levels of cobalamin. Not surprisingly, a rise of the cobalamin concentration in serum is one of the diagnostic criteria for the latter two diseases. The increase

A. A. M. Ermens; L. T. Vlasveld; J. Lindemans

2003-01-01

53

Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels in Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Attributable to Elevated Haptocorrin in Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Objective Identify the etiology of elevated B12 in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Design Peripheral blood of ALPS patients with elevated B12 and controls were evaluated. Results Total and holo-haptocorrin (HC) levels were 26- and 23-fold higher in ALPS patients, respectively. No abnormal B12-binding proteins were found. Western blot revealed HC in lymphocyte lysates only from ALPS patients. Conclusion Elevated concentrations of B12 found in ALPS patients were due to increased lymphocyte expression of HC.

Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Dowdell, Kennichi C.; Dale, Janet K.; Drake, Steven K.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Hortin, Glen L.; Remaley, Alan T.; Nexo, Ebba; Rao, V. Koneti

2012-01-01

54

High serum phosphate and triglyceride levels in smoking women and men with CVD risk and type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Both low and high serum phosphate levels may be associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. As smoking increases risk for type 2 diabetes (as shown by dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia), we wanted to study whether smoking and type 2 diabetes were associated with serum phosphate and triglyceride levels independently from other CVD risk factors. Methods Upon admittance to the Vindeln Health Education Centre (VHE-centre) for a four-week comprehensive lifestyle intervention, the participants (1408 women and 1096 men) completed a questionnaire that included their smoking habits – current smoker or non-smoker. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the association between smoking and other CVD risk factors with S-P and S-TG levels. Results In the non-type 2 diabetes populations, the smokers, compared to the non-smokers, had higher S-P and higher serum triglycerides (S-TG). In women, serum-TG in smokers with type 2 diabetes was higher than in smokers with non-type 2 diabetes. Non-type 2 diabetes patients exhibited an inverse relation between S-Glucose (S-Glu) and S-P and a positive association with S-TG. For men only, an association was seen between age (-) and S-Crea (-) and S-P. For women only, an association was seen between BMI (-) and S-Cholesterol (+) (S-Chol) and S-P. Conclusions Compared to non-smokers, smoking women with non-type 2 diabetes and smoking men with type 2 diabetes had a higher level of S-P and S-TG. The association between smoking and S-P and S-TG levels still existed after adjusting for age and CVD risk factors in the multiple linear regression analyses. Trial registration The study has been registered as a sub-study to the Lifestyle Intervention Trial no. ISRCTN79355192.

2014-01-01

55

Increased serum triglyceride clearance and elevated high-density lipoprotein 2 and 3 cholesterol during treatment of primary hypertriglyceridemia with bezafibrate?  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertriglyceridemia accompanied by low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) and 3 (HDL3) are believed to suppress the progress of atherosclerosis through reverse cholesterol transport. As a result, peripheral tissues can be protected against excessive accumulation of cholesterol. Although bezafibrate is known to accelerate the increase of HDL-C, results are not standardized regarding increases of HDL3 and HDL2 subfractions. Objective This study assessed the effects of bezafibrate on serum triglyceride (TG) fractional clearance rate (K2) and HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol (HDL2-C and HDL3-C, respectively) levels in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia (serum TG ?150 mg/dL). Methods Outpatients with primary hypertriglyceridemia were enrolled in this 8-week study conducted at the Third Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya City University Hospital (Nagoya, Japan). Oral bezafibrate was administered at a dose of 400 mg/d (200-mg tablet BID, morning and evening) for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C were measured. A fat emulsion tolerance test to assess K2 and measurements of plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass, LPL activity, and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activity in postheparin plasma were performed before bezafibrate administration and after the course of treatment. Results Sixteen patients (10 men, 6 women; mean [SD] age, 54 [12] years [range, 30–69 years]; mean [SD] body mass index, 23 [2] kg/m2) entered the study. The following findings were observed in male and female patients after 8 weeks of treatment. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean serum TG level (P<0.01). Significant increases were seen in HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C (all P<0.01), K2 (P<0.01), and in plasma LPL mass (P<0.01) and LPL activity (P<0.05). TC level and HTGL activity did not change significantly. No adverse effects related to the use of bezafibrate were documented. Conclusions In this study, bezafibrate treatment resulted in significant decreases in serum TG level and significant increases in HDL2-C and HDL3-C levels and plasma LPL mass and activity. We hypothesize that bezafibrate may increase HDL3-C by promoting TG-rich lipoprotein catabolism and may increase HDL2-C by promoting the conversion of HDL3 to HDL2.

Sakuma, Nagahiko; Ikeuchi, Reiko; Hibino, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Mukai, Seiji; Akita, Sachie; Yajima, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Hiromichi; Goto, Toshihiko; Takada, Norio; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Kunimatu, Mitoshi; Kimura, Genjiro

2003-01-01

56

Gender-related association between the -93T -> G\\/D9N haplotype of the lipoprotein lipase gene and elevated lipid levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a frequent cause of premature coronary artery disease. Affected family members are characterized by different combinations of elevated cholesterol and:or triglyceride levels. A reduction in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity has been observed in a subgroup of FCHL patients. Recently, we have demonstrated an increased frequency of mutations in the LPL gene in Dutch FCHL patients

Mariette J. V. Hoffer; Sebastian J. H. Bredie; Harold Snieder; P. W. A. Reijmer; Pierre N. M. Demacker; Louis M. Havekes; Dorret I. Boomsma; Anton F. H. Stalenhoef; Rune R. Frants; Johannes J. P. Kastelein

1998-01-01

57

Flyway-scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels as an index of refueling rate in spring-migrating western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We combined radiotelemetry, plasma metabolite analyses, and macro-invertebrate prey sampling to investigate variation in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) migrating between Punta Banda, Mexico (31??N), and Hartney Bay, Alaska (60??N), a distance of 4,240 km. Birds were caught at a wintering site (San Francisco Bay) and eight stopover sites along this Pacific Flyway. Body mass was higher in females than in males at six sites, but variation was not correlated with latitude for either sex, and the relationship of change in mass by date within sites was uninformative with regard to possible latitudinal variation in fattening rates. At San Francisco Bay, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among stopover sites, and there was a significant linear trend of increasing triglyceride levels with latitude as birds migrated north. At San Francisco Bay, length of stay was negatively related to triglyceride levels. However, plasma triglyceride levels at wintering or initial stopover sites (San Francisco and Punta Banda) did not predict individual variation in subsequent rates of travel during migration. We found no significant relationship between triglyceride levels and prey biomass at different stopover sites, which suggests that the latitudinal pattern is not explained by latitudinal changes in food availability. Rather, we suggest that differences in physiology of migratory birds at southern versus northern stopover sites or behavioral differences may allow birds to sustain higher fattening rates closer to the breeding grounds. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Williams, T. D.; Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Bishop, M. A.

2007-01-01

58

LCR bridge measurements at elevated operating levels  

SciTech Connect

A critical part in the design of high voltage systems is the selection of the appropriate discrete components The proper selection involves consideration to the basic equivalent electrical parameters of inductance, capacitance, and resistance. The typical approach to establish these parameters involves the use of low level measurements at reduce scale and extrapolate the results to the desired operating ranges. A test voltage level of one volt represents the typical low- level measurement system. The linearity of this process is always in question and may not represent the system operating parameters. The following technique involves the use of a standard Hewlett Packard LCR bridge to measure the electrical parameters of a selected component while it is at its operating level. This process not only provides discrete component values at operating stress but also provides limited information of frequency information at the internal frequency steps. Capacitance is the principal parameter of interest and is highly stress related The significance of a varying capacitance as a function of voltage is the direct relationship to the available stored energy Additional concerns of system frequency response depend on the application.

Wilson, M.J., LLNL

1997-12-01

59

Detail of three levels with windows on west elevation; camera ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of three levels with windows on west elevation; camera looking east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

60

Rare loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL family members contribute to plasma triglyceride levels in humans.  

PubMed

The relative activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in different tissues controls the partitioning of lipoprotein-derived fatty acids between sites of fat storage (adipose tissue) and oxidation (heart and skeletal muscle). Here we used a reverse genetic strategy to test the hypothesis that 4 angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL3, -4, -5, and -6) play key roles in triglyceride (TG) metabolism in humans. We re-sequenced the coding regions of the genes encoding these proteins and identified multiple rare nonsynonymous (NS) sequence variations that were associated with low plasma TG levels but not with other metabolic phenotypes. Functional studies revealed that all mutant alleles of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 that were associated with low plasma TG levels interfered either with the synthesis or secretion of the protein or with the ability of the ANGPTL protein to inhibit LPL. A total of 1% of the Dallas Heart Study population and 4% of those participants with a plasma TG in the lowest quartile had a rare loss-of-function mutation in ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, or ANGPTL5. Thus, ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL5, but not ANGPTL6, play nonredundant roles in TG metabolism, and multiple alleles at these loci cumulatively contribute to variability in plasma TG levels in humans. PMID:19075393

Romeo, Stefano; Yin, Wu; Kozlitina, Julia; Pennacchio, Len A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hobbs, Helen H; Cohen, Jonathan C

2009-01-01

61

Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate on Triglyceride Metabolism in Humans1  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the content of dietary carbohydrate is elevated above the level typically consumed (.55% of energy), blood concentrations of triglycerides rise. This phenomenon, known as carbohydrate-induced hypertri- glyceridemia, is paradoxical because the increase in dietary carbohydrate usually comes at the expense of dietary fat. Thus, when the content of the carbohydrate in the diet is increased, fat in the diet

Elizabeth J. Parks

62

A role of apolipoprotein D in triglyceride metabolism[S  

PubMed Central

Apolipoproteins (apo) are constituents of lipoproteins crucial for lipid homeostasis. Aberrant expression of apolipoproteins is associated with metabolic abnormalities. Here we characterized apolipoprotein D (apoD) in triglyceride metabolism. Unlike canonical apolipoproteins that are mainly produced in the liver, apoD is an atypical apolipoprotein with broad tissue distribution. We show that circulating apoD is present mainly in HDL and, to a lesser extent, in LDL and VLDL and that its plasma levels were reduced in db/db mice with visceral obesity and altered lipid metabolism. Elevated apoD production, derived from adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, resulted in significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels in mice. This effect was attributable to en­hanced LPL activity and improved catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles. In contrast, VLDL triglyceride production remained unchanged in response to elevated apoD production. These findings were recapitulated in high-fat–induced obese mice. Obese mice with elevated apoD production exhibited significantly improved triglyceride profiles, correlating with increased plasma LPL activity and enhanced postprandial fat tolerance. ApoD was shown to promote LPL-mediated hydrolysis of VLDL in vitro, correlating with its TG-lowering action in vivo. Apolipoprotein D plays a significant role in lipid metabolism. These data provide important clues to clinical observations that genetic variants of apoD are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

Perdomo, German; Kim, Dae Hyun; Zhang, Ting; Qu, Shen; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Toledo, Frederico G. S.; Slusher, Sandra; Fan, Yong; Kelley, David E.; Dong, H. Henry

2010-01-01

63

46. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL Two elevators, left and center, and stairs, all lead to the third level. The finished produce of canned fish was stored here, awaiting shipment by either truck or train. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

64

Cilostazol, a selective type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, decreases triglyceride and increases HDL cholesterol levels by increasing lipoprotein lipase activity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cilostazol, a selective type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has antiplatelet and vasodilating effects. In this study, the effects of cilostazol on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were studied in rats. Cilostazol was administered orally at doses of 30 or 100 mg\\/kg twice a day for 1–2 weeks to rats. Cilostazol decreased the serum triglyceride level in normolipidemic rats. The

Takeshi Tani; Kenji Uehara; Toshiki Sudo; Keiko Marukawa; Yoshinobu Yasuda; Yukio Kimura

2000-01-01

65

Genomewide Scan for Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia Genes in Finnish Families, Suggesting Multiple Susceptibility Loci Influencing Triglyceride, Cholesterol, and Apolipoprotein B Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The disease is characterized by increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), or both. We recently localized the first locus for FCHL, on chromosome 1q21-q23. In the present study, a genomewide screen for additional FCHL loci was per- formed. In stage 1,

Päivi Pajukanta; Joseph D. Terwilliger; Markus Perola; Tero Hiekkalinna; Ilpo Nuotio; Pekka Ellonen; Maija Parkkonen; Jaana Hartiala; Kati Ylitalo; Jussi Pihlajamäki; Kimmo Porkka; Markku Laakso; Jorma Viikari; Christian Ehnholm; Marja-Riitta Taskinen; Leena Peltonen

1999-01-01

66

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

2009-01-01

67

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

PubMed Central

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr?1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

2009-01-01

68

A Review of Omega-3 Ethyl Esters for Cardiovascular Prevention and Treatment of Increased Blood Triglyceride Levels  

PubMed Central

The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.

von Schacky, Clemens

2006-01-01

69

Evidence for a role of tumor necrosis factor ? in disturbances of triglyceride and glucose metabolism predisposing to coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired fibrinolytic function frequently aggregate in patients with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Experimetnal studies suggest that the cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) produced by adipocytes plays a part in the regulation of triglyceride and glucose metabolism. The present study examined whether TNF? is

Stefan Jovinge; Anders Hamsten; Per Tornvall; Anthony Proudler; Peter Båvenholm; Carl-Göran Ericsson; Ian Godsland; Ulf de Faire; Jan Nilsson

1998-01-01

70

Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.  

PubMed

Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ?1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis. PMID:24500922

Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

2014-05-01

71

Reduction in triglyceride level with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in HIV-infected patients taking potent antiretroviral therapy: a randomized prospective study.  

PubMed

To assess the evolution of triglyceride (TG) levels in HIV-infected patients receiving stable potent antiretroviral therapy treated with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a prospective double-blind randomized design for a reliable assessment of TG evolution was performed. One hundred twenty-two patients with TG levels >2 g/L and < or =10 g/L after a 4-week diet (baseline TG: 4.5 +/- 1.9 g/L) were randomized for 8 weeks to N-3 PUFAs (2 capsules containing 1 g of fish oil 3 times daily, n = 60), or placebo (1 g of paraffin oil capsules, n = 62). An 8-week open-label phase of N-3 PUFAs followed. Evaluation criteria were TG percent change at week 8, percentage of responders (normalization or > or =20% TG decrease), and safety issues. Ten patients with baseline TG levels >10 g/L were not randomized and received N-3 PUFAs as open treatment. The difference (PUFA - placebo) in TG percent change at week 8 was -24.6% (range: -40.9% to -8.4%; P = 0.0033), the median was -25.5% in the PUFA group versus 1% in the placebo group, and mean TG levels at week 8 were 3.4 +/- 1.8 g/L and 4.8 +/- 3.1 g/L, respectively. TG levels were normalized in 22.4% (PUFA) versus 6.5% (placebo) of patients (P = 0.013) with a > or =20% reduction in 58.6% (PUFA) versus 33.9% (placebo) of patients (P = 0.007). Under the open-label phase of N-3 PUFAs, the decrease in TG levels was sustained at week 16 for patients in the PUFA group (mean TG: 3.4 +/- 1.7 g/L), whereas a 21.2% decrease in TG levels occurred for patients in the placebo group (mean TG: 3.3 +/- 1.4 g/L). No significant differences were observed between groups in the occurrence of adverse events. The median TG change at week 8 was -43.6% (range: Q1-Q3; 95% CI: -66.5% to -4.6%) for patients with baseline TG levels >10 g/L. The difference in mean total cholesterol between groups (PUFA - placebo) at week 8 was -8.5% (P = 0.0117). This study demonstrated the efficacy of PUFAs to lower elevated TG levels in treated HIV-infected hypertriglyceridemic patients. N-3 PUFAs have a good safety profile. PMID:17179770

De Truchis, Pierre; Kirstetter, Myriam; Perier, Antoine; Meunier, Claire; Zucman, David; Force, Gilles; Doll, Jacques; Katlama, Christine; Rozenbaum, Willy; Masson, Hélène; Gardette, Jean; Melchior, Jean-Claude

2007-03-01

72

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels.  

PubMed

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58-175% increase, P < 0.05-0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64-75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19-38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3-1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101-137% increase, P < 0.05-0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63-192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance. PMID:19237736

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-06-01

73

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels  

PubMed Central

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58–175% increase, P < 0.05–0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64–75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19–38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3–1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101–137% increase, P < 0.05–0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63–192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance.

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-01-01

74

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of east wall from fifteenth level, west platform. Two hoisting supports are nested on the test stand structure in the background center and foreground right. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

75

Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.

1986-06-01

76

Effects of L-carnitine on serum triglyceride and cytokine levels in rat models of cachexia and septic shock.  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate hepatic lipogenesis, hypertriglyceridaemia, decreased fatty acid oxidation and muscle protein wasting are common in patients with sepsis, cancer or AIDS. Given carnitine's role in the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs), we anticipated that carnitine might promote FA oxidation, thus ameliorating metabolic disturbances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma models of wasting in rats. In the LPS model, rats were injected with LPS (24 mg kg-1 i.p.), and treated with carnitine (100 mg kg-1 i.p.) at -16, -8, 0 and 8 h post LPS. Rat health was observed, and plasma inflammatory cytokines and triglycerides (TG) were measured before and 3 h post LPS. In the sarcoma model, rats were implanted subcutaneously with tumour, and treated continuously with carnitine (200 mg kg-1 day-1 i.p.) via implanted osmotic pumps. Tumour burden, TG and cytokines were measured weekly for 4 weeks. Carnitine treatment significantly lowered the tumour-induced rise in TG (% rise) in the sarcoma model (700 +/- 204 vs 251 +/- 51, P < 0.03) in control and carnitine groups respectively. Levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (pg ml-1) were also lowered by carnitine in both LPS (IL-1 beta: 536 +/- 65 vs 378 +/- 44: IL-6: 271 +/- 29 vs 222 +/- 32; TNF-alpha: 618 +/- 86 vs 367 +/- 54, P < or = 0.02) and sarcoma models (IL-1 beta: 423 +/- 33 vs 221 +/- 60; IL-6: 222 +/- 18 vs 139 +/- 38; TNF-alpha: 617 +/- 69 vs 280 +/- 77, P < or = 0.05) for control and carnitine groups respectively. We conclude that carnitine has a therapeutic effect on morbidity and lipid metabolism in these disease models, and that these effects could be the result of down-regulation of cytokine production and/or increased clearance of cytokines.

Winter, B. K.; Fiskum, G.; Gallo, L. L.

1995-01-01

77

Effects of L-carnitine on serum triglyceride and cytokine levels in rat models of cachexia and septic shock.  

PubMed

Inappropriate hepatic lipogenesis, hypertriglyceridaemia, decreased fatty acid oxidation and muscle protein wasting are common in patients with sepsis, cancer or AIDS. Given carnitine's role in the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs), we anticipated that carnitine might promote FA oxidation, thus ameliorating metabolic disturbances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma models of wasting in rats. In the LPS model, rats were injected with LPS (24 mg kg-1 i.p.), and treated with carnitine (100 mg kg-1 i.p.) at -16, -8, 0 and 8 h post LPS. Rat health was observed, and plasma inflammatory cytokines and triglycerides (TG) were measured before and 3 h post LPS. In the sarcoma model, rats were implanted subcutaneously with tumour, and treated continuously with carnitine (200 mg kg-1 day-1 i.p.) via implanted osmotic pumps. Tumour burden, TG and cytokines were measured weekly for 4 weeks. Carnitine treatment significantly lowered the tumour-induced rise in TG (% rise) in the sarcoma model (700 +/- 204 vs 251 +/- 51, P < 0.03) in control and carnitine groups respectively. Levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (pg ml-1) were also lowered by carnitine in both LPS (IL-1 beta: 536 +/- 65 vs 378 +/- 44: IL-6: 271 +/- 29 vs 222 +/- 32; TNF-alpha: 618 +/- 86 vs 367 +/- 54, P < or = 0.02) and sarcoma models (IL-1 beta: 423 +/- 33 vs 221 +/- 60; IL-6: 222 +/- 18 vs 139 +/- 38; TNF-alpha: 617 +/- 69 vs 280 +/- 77, P < or = 0.05) for control and carnitine groups respectively. We conclude that carnitine has a therapeutic effect on morbidity and lipid metabolism in these disease models, and that these effects could be the result of down-regulation of cytokine production and/or increased clearance of cytokines. PMID:7577464

Winter, B K; Fiskum, G; Gallo, L L

1995-11-01

78

Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. Methods There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. Results E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223–2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720–1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759–1.429, P=0.800). Conclusion A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

2014-01-01

79

Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2?=?0.214, P?levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP.

2013-01-01

80

Baseline triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity are major determinants of the increase of LDL particle size and buoyancy induced by rosuvastatin treatment in patients with primary hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

The influence of various statins on low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-particle phenotype has been reportedly trivial or moderate. We assessed the effect of rosuvastatin (the newest statin available) on the LDL subfraction profile in patients with primary hyperlipidemia. One hundred and twenty patients with primary hyperlipidemia without evidence of cardiovascular disease were randomized to therapeutic lifestyle modification ('control' group, N=60) or therapeutic lifestyle modification plus rosuvastatin 20 mg/day (N=60). Laboratory evaluation was performed at baseline and 12 weeks post-treatment. LDL subfraction analysis was carried out electrophoretically using of high-resolution 3% polyacrylamide gel tubes and the Lipoprint LDL System. Rosuvastatin induced a redistribution of LDL-cholesterol from small-dense LDL particles to large-buoyant ones and increased the mean LDL particle size. This beneficial effect was observed only in patients with baseline triglyceride levels >or=150 mg/dl (mean LDL particle size 255+/-7 A vs 260+/-5 A, P<0.01), whereas the LDL subfraction profile was not altered in those with triglyceride levels <150 mg/dl. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that baseline triglyceride levels (R(2)=0.29, P=0.001) followed by baseline insulin resistance as assessed by the HOmeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) (R(2)=0.25, P=0.001) were independently associated with the rosuvastatin-induced increase in the mean LDL particle size. In conclusion, rosuvastatin at 20 mg/day favorably modified the relative distribution of LDL-cholesterol distribution on LDL subfractions as well as on the mean LDL particle size in patients treated for primary dyslipidemia. Baseline triglyceride levels as well as baseline HOMA-index were found to be the major predictors of this beneficial action of rosuvastatin. PMID:18585701

Kostapanos, Michael S; Milionis, Haralampos J; Lagos, Konstantinos G; Rizos, Christos B; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses S

2008-08-20

81

48. MAIN WAREHOUSE THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. MAIN WAREHOUSE - THIRD LEVEL Elevator drive mechanism is seen to the right, while drive wheels, belt wheels and chain drives are visible in the wooden wall framing. The horizontal metal conveyor (at the top of the wall Just under the inverted 'V' brace) is part of the empty can supply system connected to the external can conveyor. See Photo No. 28. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

82

Determination of triglycerides with special emphasis on biosensors: a review.  

PubMed

Triglycerides (TG) are transesterification product of fatty acids and glycerol and engaged in the transportation of fats. Elevated triglyceride level is associated with coronary heart disease (CAD), atherosclerosis and hypolipoprotenemia. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on enzymes are an attractive alternative to conventional analytical methods. Triglyceride biosensors (TGBs) are based on either measurement of oxygen consumed or electron generated from splitting of H2O2, an ultimate product, of immobilized enzymes. TGBs work optimally within 2-900 s, between pH 6.4-8.5 and the potential 0.5-4V. TGBs measure TG level in serum directly and can be used over a period of 14 to 168 days. This review describes the analytic characteristics of various methods available for determination of TGs with special emphasis on TGBs. PMID:23932946

Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

2013-10-01

83

Triglyceride Level-Influencing Functional Variants of the ANGPTL3, CILP2, and TRIB1 Loci in Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke is a common multifactorial disease, and the third leading cause of death worldwide, which results in serious long-term\\u000a mental and physical disability among survivors. The role of affected triglyceride metabolism in the development of ischemic\\u000a stroke is under extensive investigations. Here, we examined three SNPs, rs12130333 located within the ANGPTL3 locus; rs16996148\\u000a residing at the CILP2 gene locus; and

Luca JaromiVeronika; Veronika Csöngei; Noémi Polgár; Gábor Rappai; Zoltán Szolnoki; Anita Maász; Katalin Horvatovich; Enik? Sáfrány; Csilla Sipeky; Lili Magyari; Béla Melegh

84

Reduced aortic lesions and elevated high density lipoprotein levels in transgenic mice overexpressing mouse apolipoprotein A-IV.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mouse lines carrying several copies of the mouse apo A-IV gene were produced. Lipoprotein composition and function, and aortic lesion development were examined. Apo A-IV levels in the plasma of transgenic mice were elevated threefold compared with nontransgenic littermates on a chow diet, and sixfold in mice fed an atherogenic diet. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were similar in transgenic and control mice fed a chow diet. However, with the atherogenic diet, male transgenic mice exhibited significantly higher levels of plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001), and free fatty acids (P < 0.05), and lower levels of unesterified cholesterol (P < 0.05), than nontransgenic littermates. Expression of the apo A-IV transgene had a protective effect against the formation of diet-induced aortic lesions, with transgenics exhibiting lesion scores of approximately 30% those seen in control mice. HDL-sized lipoproteins isolated from transgenic mice fed the atherogenic diet promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded human monocytes more efficiently than comparable lipoproteins from nontransgenic counterparts. Plasma from transgenics also exhibited higher endogenous cholesterol esterification rates. Taken together, these results suggest that apo A-IV levels influence the metabolism and antiatherogenic properties of HDL.

Cohen, R D; Castellani, L W; Qiao, J H; Van Lenten, B J; Lusis, A J; Reue, K

1997-01-01

85

Hyperuricaemia in the Pacific: why the elevated serum urate levels?  

PubMed

Pacific Island populations, particularly those of Polynesian descent, have a high prevalence of hyperuricaemia and gout. This is due to an inherently higher urate level among these populations with a demonstrated genetic predisposition. While an excess of urate can cause pathology, urate is also important for human health. It has been implicated as an antioxidant, has a neuroprotective role and is involved in innate immune responses. This paper provides a brief review of urate levels worldwide, with a particular focus on island Southeast Asia and the Pacific. We then present possible evolutionary explanations for the elevated serum urate levels among Pacific populations in the context of the physiological importance of urate and of the settlement history of the region. Finally, we propose that ancestry may play a significant role in hyperuricaemia in these populations and that exposure to malaria prior to population expansion into the wider Pacific may have driven genetic selection for variants contributing to high serum urate. PMID:24378761

Gosling, Anna L; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Merriman, Tony R

2014-06-01

86

Elevated serum cyclophilin levels in patients with severe sepsis.  

PubMed

Several cytokines are considered to be important mediators in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Cyclophilins (Cyps), the main binding proteins for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A, have been suggested to function as cytokines. This study was conducted to determine (i) if serum Cyp levels were elevated in critically ill patients suffering from either sepsis or other life-threatening diseases and (ii) if so, whether there was an association between Cyp levels and a certain diagnosis and/or outcome. Serum samples of 45 patients (22 severe sepsis, 23 other diagnoses) and 17 healthy controls were prospectively analyzed by an enzymatic assay using the ability of cyclophilins to catalyze cis/trans isomerisation of peptidylprolyl-peptide bonds (PPIase activity). In addition, western blotting was applied to differentiate both isoforms. PPIase activity was significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis than in patients with other diagnoses (P = 0.004) or in healthy subjects (P = 0.001). There was no difference between healthy subjects and other critically ill patients (P = 0.067). Elevated PPIase activity was associated with high mortality (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cyps might play a role, probably as mediators in the pathophysiology of sepsis or as symptoms of diagnostic value. PMID:9327337

Tegeder, I; Schumacher, A; John, S; Geiger, H; Geisslinger, G; Bang, H; Brune, K

1997-09-01

87

The Common P446L Polymorphism in GCKR Inversely Modulates Fasting Glucose and Triglyceride Levels and Reduces Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the DESIR Prospective General French Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE— Hepatic glucokinase (GCK) is a key regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver, where its activity is competitively modulated, with respect to glucose, by binding to glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes identified GCKR as a potential locus for modulating triglyceride levels. We evaluated, in a general French population, the contribution of the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism to quantitative metabolic parameters and to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Genotype effects of rs1260326 were studied in 4,833 participants from the prospective DESIR (Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome) cohort both at inclusion and using the measurements at follow-up. RESULTS— The minor T-allele of rs1260326 was strongly associated with lower fasting glucose (?1.43% per T-allele; P = 8 × 10?13) and fasting insulin levels (?4.23%; P = 3 × 10?7), lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (?5.69%; P = 1 × 10?8), and, conversely, higher triglyceride levels (3.41%; P = 1 × 10?4) during the 9-year study. These effects relate to a lower risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratio [OR] 0.79 [95% CI 0.70–0.88]; P = 4 × 10?5) and of incident cases during the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [0.74–0.95]; P = 0.005). Moreover, an additive effect of GCKR rs1260326(T) and GCK (?30G) alleles conferred lower fasting glycemia (P = 1 × 10?13), insulinemia (P = 5 × 10?6), and hyperglycemia risk (P = 1 × 10?6). CONCLUSIONS— GCKR-L446 carriers are protected against type 2 diabetes despite higher triglyceride levels and risk of dyslipidemia, which suggests a potential molecular mechanism by which these two components of the metabolic syndrome can be dissociated.

Vaxillaire, Martine; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Dechaume, Aurelie; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe

2008-01-01

88

Partially saponified triglyceride ethoxylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various triglycerides (coconut oil, palm kernel oil, tallow) were ethoxylated with a proprietary catalyst (calcium\\/aluminum\\u000a alkoxide complex partially neutralized in an alcohol ethoxylate base) to obtain triglyceride ethoxylates. Triglyceride ethoxylates\\u000a were then partially saponified with sodium hydroxide to form mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglyceride ethoxylates, fatty acid\\u000a soap, and glycerol ethoxylate. These mixtures were characterized in terms of physical

Michael F. Cox; Upali Weerassoriya

2000-01-01

89

Elevated circulating levels of tissue factor in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have coagulation disturbances and inflammation, which increases the risk of atherothrombosis. We evaluated the status of circulating tissue factor (TF), the receptor for coagulation factor VII involved in atherothrombosis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status and weight class on TF and other parameters. The TF levels were significantly higher in lean women with PCOS compared to lean controls. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in obese participants compared to lean participants after controlling for PCOS status. The TF levels directly correlated with percentage of truncal fat and plasma levels of PAI-1, testosterone, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate; and inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index-OGTT(IS(OGTT)). Circulating TF is elevated in PCOS independent of obesity, but both PCOS and obesity contribute to a prothrombotic state. In PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherothrombosis. PMID:22327820

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

2013-01-01

90

Elevated serum BAFF levels in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Serum cytokines are thought to be involved in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) pathogenesis via immune dysregulation. B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is known for its role in the survival and maturation of B cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of BAFF in patients with AIH and determine its relation to the clinical features of AIH. We examined serum BAFF levels in 55 patients with AIH, 14 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 33 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 33 healthy subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver function tests, quantitative immunoglobulin, and antinuclear antibody levels were also assayed in AIH patients. Serum BAFF levels were elevated in AIH patients compared with healthy subjects (AIH: 2.07+/-1.21 pg/ml, control: 0.77+/-0.22 pg/ml). Similarly, serum BAFF levels were significantly higher in AIH patients compared with AH or chronic hepatitis C patients. There was a positive correlation between BAFF and aspartate aminotransferase (r=0.513, p<0.0001), alanine aminotransferase (r=0.435, p<0.0001), total bilirubin (r=0.419, p<0.01), and soluble CD30 (r=0.579, p<0.0001) in AIH patients. However, there was no correlation between BAFF and levels of gammaglobulins or titer of antinuclear antibodies. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in marked reduction in serum BAFF levels in AIH patients. These results suggest that BAFF contributes to liver injury and disease development in AIH patients. PMID:17584580

Migita, Kiyoshi; Abiru, Seigo; Maeda, Yumi; Nakamura, Minoru; Komori, Atsumasa; Ito, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Yano, Koji; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Ishibashi, Hiromi

2007-07-01

91

Elevated hair cortisol levels in chronically stressed dementia caregivers.  

PubMed

Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to reflect integrated long-term cortisol levels and have been proposed as a promising endocrine marker of chronic psychological stress. The current study examined HCC in relation to caregiving burden, a well-established naturalistic model of chronic stress in humans. HCC and relevant psychosocial data were examined in 20 caregivers of relatives with dementia and 20 non-caregiver controls matched for age and sex. Results revealed elevated HCC in dementia caregivers compared to non-caregiver controls (F(1,38)=4.4, p=.04, ?p(2)=.10). Further, within caregivers, a trend for a positive association of HCC with self-reported caregiving burden (r=.43, p=.058) and a positive association with depressiveness (r=.48, p=.045) were observed. No other associations between HCC and subjective measures were seen. These findings concur with the notion that HCC sensitively capture endocrine aberrations in stress-exposed groups. PMID:25001953

Stalder, Tobias; Tietze, Antje; Steudte, Susann; Alexander, Nina; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2014-09-01

92

Electric shock and elevated EMF levels due to triplen harmonics  

SciTech Connect

The increasing use of single phase rectifiers for electric power conversion in residential applications increases harmonic load on utility systems. Many papers have analyzed the effect of these loads on power quality and equipment loadability. However, there are two more critical concerns for harmonic loads served phase to neutral on multi-grounded wye systems. Triplen harmonics, particularly the third, add in the neutral and have little diversity between loads. The higher neutral currents may cause significant problems. Neutral to earth voltages will increase near the substations which could increase stray voltage complaints. The additional neutral current on three phase lines will elevate EMF levels especially in the fringe areas. This paper provides fundamental understanding of triplen harmonic influence on stray voltage and EMF related to multi-grounded wye electric distribution systems.

Tran, T.Q.; Conrad, L.E.; Stallman, B.K. [PSI Energy, Inc., Plainfield, IN (United States)] [PSI Energy, Inc., Plainfield, IN (United States)

1996-04-01

93

Medium chain triglycerides and hepatic encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

The oral administration of short (C6) and medium (C8 and (C10) chain triglycerides produced no clinical or electroencephalographic changes in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Arterial ammonia levels were also monitored in these patients and showed no significant change after medium chain triglycerides. It was concluded that medium chain triglycerides, known to be of potential value in the treatment of malabsorption in patients with cirrhosis, are not clinically contraindicated, even in patients with evidence of hepatic encephalopathy.

Morgan, M. Hilary; Bolton, C. H.; Morris, J. S.; Read, A. E.

1974-01-01

94

Characteristics of depressed patients with elevated levels of dysfunctional cognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of subjects with elevated scores on both the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and Cognitive Bias Questionnaire were studied in a sample of 72 depressed inpatients. In comparison with low cognitive dysfunctional subjects (n =48), subjects with elevated dysfunctional cognitions (n =24) revealed greater severity of depression, more hopelessness, higher frequencies of automatic thoughts, less social support, and overall poorer

William H. Norman; Ivan W. Miller; Michael G. Dow

1988-01-01

95

Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

2013-01-01

96

Association of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants with coronary atherosclerosis in cases of sudden cardiac death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis, elevated LDL-C level is best known. The action of lipoprotein lipase on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins produces remnant lipoprotein particles enriched in cholesterol and apolipoprotein E (apo E). Apo E serves as the ligand for uptake of remnant lipoproteins via the LDL-receptor or the remnant receptor. In this study, postmortem plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG),

Sanae Takeichi; Nobuhiro Yukawa; Yasuhiro Nakajima; Motoki Osawa; Takeshi Saito; Yoshihisa Seto; Takamitsu Nakano; Abby R. Saniabadi; Masakazu Adachi; Tao Wang; Katsuyuki Nakajima

1999-01-01

97

Circulating Triglycerides Impact on Orexigenic Peptides and Neuronal Activity in Hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the impact of circulating lipids on brain processes. Building on evidence that chronic fat consumption stimulates hypothalamic peptides in close association with elevated triglycerides (TG), this study examined whether an acute rise in TG levels induced by fat emulsion can affect these hypothalamic systems. In normal weight rats, ip injection of Intralipid (20%, 5 ml) during

GUO-QING CHANG; OLGA KARATAYEV; ZOYA DAVYDOVA; SARAH F. LEIBOWITZ

2004-01-01

98

Assessment of serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in periodontitis patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is a destructive inflammatory disease inducing profound changes in the plasma concentrations of cytokines leading to a catabolic state characterized by altered lipid metabolism and hypertriglyceridemia. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal infection on serum levels of triglycerides (TGL), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Materials and Methods: A sample of 90 subjects; 30 periodontally healthy individuals, 30 chronic gingivitis cases (n=30), and 30 chronic periodontitis cases (n=30) with an age range of 25 to 65 years were included in the study. Periodontal parameters including Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Probing Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level were recorded. Venous blood samples were obtained after 12 hours fasting period from antecubital vein and serum levels of TGL, TC, HDL, and LDL cholesterol were measured. Results: The levels of TGL, TC, and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher for periodontitis group (P<0.05) as compared to gingivitis and periodontally healthy groups. HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower in periodontitis group (P<0.05) as compared to periodontally healthy and gingivitis groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that periodontal infection has a definite role in altering lipid metabolism leading to hyperlipidemia. However, further studies are required to clarify the relationship between periodontitis and serum lipid levels and to determine whether oral healthcare has the potential to reduce serum lipid levels in otherwise systemically healthy individuals.

Penumarthy, Swati; Penmetsa, Gautami S.; Mannem, Satheesh

2013-01-01

99

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene -493G/T polymorphism and its association with serum lipid levels in Bama Zhuang long-living families in China  

PubMed Central

Background The -493G/T polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene is associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels and longevity in several populations, but the results are inconsistent in different racial/ethnic groups. The current study was to investigate the plausible association of MTP -493G/T polymorphism with serum lipid levels and longevity in Zhuang long-lived families residing in Bama area, a famous home of longevity in Guangxi, China. Methods The MTP -493G/T was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 391 Bama Zhuang long-lived families (BLF, n?=?1467, age 56.60?±?29.43 years) and four control groups recruited from Bama and out-of-Bama area with or without a familial history of exceptional longevity: Bama non-long-lived families (BNLF, n?=?586, age 44.81?±?26.83 years), Bama non-Zhuang long-lived families (BNZLF, n?=?444, age 52.09?±?31.91 years), Pingguo long-lived families (PLF, n?=?658, age 50.83?±?30.30 years), and Pingguo non-long-lived families (PNLF, n?=?539, age 38.74?±?24.69 years). Correlation analyses between genotypes and serum lipid levels and longevity were then performed. Results No particularly favorable lipoprotein and clinical phenotypes were seen in BLF as compared to general families in the same area. Instead, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were significantly higher in the three Bama families as compared to the two non-Bama families (P??0.05 for all), but the TT genotype tended to enrich in the three long-lived cohorts from both areas. In addition, the individuals harboring TT genotype exhibited lower LDL-C and TC levels in the overall populations and Bama populations with a region- and sex-specific pattern. Multiple linear regression analyses unraveled that LDL-C levels were correlated with genotypes in Bama combined population, BNLF, and the total population (P?levels were correlated with genotypes in Bama combined population and BLF, respectively (P?

2012-01-01

100

Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to assess the impact of the association between elevated oestradiol (E2) and low testosterone (T) levels on erectile dysfunction (ED) severity. A total of 614 male patients with ED and a normal or low T level in association with normal or elevated E2 levels were enrolled. Patients underwent routine laboratory investigations in addition to measurements of total T, total E2, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin. We compared the responses to the erectile function domain, Q3 (achieving erection) and Q4 (maintaining erection) of the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) score in patients with the following: normal T and E2 levels; low T level; low T level and elevated E2 level; and elevated E2 level. Of the patients included, 449 (73.1%) had normal T and E2 levels, 110 (17.9%) had a low T level, 36 (5.9%) had a low T level and an elevated E2 level, and 19 (3.1%) had an elevated E2 level. Increased ED severity was significantly associated with low T levels, elevated E2 levels, and both a low T level and an elevated E2 level. Additionally, the mean values of the EF-domain, Q3 and Q4 were significantly lower in patients with both a low T level and an elevated E2 level compared to patients with any condition alone. In conclusion, a low T level had the primary effect on erectile function; however, a concomitantly elevated E2 level had an additive impairment effect.

El-Sakka, Ahmed I

2013-01-01

101

Relationships among Blood Pressure, Triglycerides and Verbal Learning in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition.

Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

2013-01-01

102

Triglyceride-lowering agents.  

PubMed

This review is the first attempt at systematization of the literature data on the structures and activities of triglyceride-lowering agents which used in medical practice or are in development. The effects and mechanisms of action of statins, squalene synthase inhibitors, fibrates, PPAR? and PPAR?/? agonists, nicotinic acid, omega-3 fatty acids and some other molecular targets were considered. Unfortunately, to date, harmless and effective triglyceride-lowering drug still does not exist and there is still need for development of better triglyceride-lowering agents. PMID:24894768

Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Laev, Sergey S

2014-07-15

103

Lack of nitric oxide synthases increases lipoprotein immune complex deposition in the aorta and elevates plasma sphingolipid levels in lupus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients display impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function required for normal vasodilatation. SLE patients express increased compensatory activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generating excess nitric oxide that may result in inflammation. We examined the effects of genetic deletion of NOS2 and NOS3, encoding iNOS and eNOS respectively, on accelerated vascular disease in MRL/lpr lupus mouse model. NOS2 and NOS3 knockout (KO) MRL/lpr mice had higher plasma levels of triglycerides (23% and 35%, respectively), ceramide (45% and 21%, respectively), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) (21%) compared to counterpart MRL/lpr controls. Plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) in NOS2 and NOS3 KO MRL/lpr mice were lower (53% and 80%, respectively) than counterpart controls. Nodule-like lesions in the adventitia were detected in aortas from both NOS2 and NOS3 KO MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the lesions revealed activated endothelial cells and lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells), elevated sphingosine kinase 1 expression, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein immune complexes (oxLDL-IC). The findings suggest that advanced vascular disease in NOS2 and NOS3 KO MRL/lpr mice maybe mediated by increased plasma triglycerides, ceramide and S1P; decreased plasma IL-10; and accumulation of oxLDL-IC in the vessel wall. The results expose possible new targets to mitigate lupus-associated complications.

Al Gadban, Mohammed M.; German, Jashalynn; Truman, Jean-Philip; Soodavar, Farzan; Riemer, Ellen C; Twal, Waleed O; Smith, Kent J; Heller, Demarcus; Hofbauer, Ann F; Oates, Jim C.; Hammad, Samar M.

2012-01-01

104

Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereospecific analysis determines how the fatty acids of triglycerides are distributed over the three different positions\\u000a of the glycerol. The special problem is the differentiation of position I-1 and L-3 of glycerol. In the presently known methods,\\u000a triglycerides are first degraded to mixtures of diglycerides, either by the action of a lipase or by degradation with a Grignard\\u000a reagent. The

H. Brockerhoff

1971-01-01

105

Triglycerides in embryogenic conifer calli: a comparison with zygotic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglycerides in developing zygotic embryos of Norway spruce and loblolly pine were found to accumulate continuously during the course of development, comprising nearly 50% of the fresh weight of a mature embryo. Embryogenic calli of these two species contained dramatically lower levels of triglycerides. Abscisic acid treatments promoted both embryo production and triglyceride accumulation in Norway spruce cultures. A method

R. P. Feirer; J. H. Conkey; S. A. Verhagen

1989-01-01

106

Effect of the APOC3 Sst I SNP on fasting triglyceride levels in men heterozygous for the LPL P207L deficiency.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a major role in triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein catabolism. A mutation at codon 207 (P207L) in the exon 5 of the LPL gene has been associated with 50% reduction in postheparin plasma LPL activity and significant increase in plasma TG levels in heterozygous individuals with low HDL. However, heterogeneity in fasting TG concentrations among these carriers suggests that other factors may be involved in the expression of this hypertriglyceridemic state. Indeed, previous studies have shown that the rare S2 allele of the APOC3 Sst I polymorphism was associated with higher concentrations of TG levels in noncarriers of LPL defect. Therefore, we investigated the association of the APOC3 Sst I variant on fasting lipoprotein-lipid levels in a sample of 35 heterozygous men bearing the LPL P207L mutation. Genetic association analyses were performed using the two-genotype groups S1/S1 and S1/S2. The genotype S1/S2 group was characterized by greater plasma cholesterol (plasma-C, P=0.02), plasma-TG (P=0.04), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)-C (P=0.004), VLDL-TG (P=0.01), VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P=0.001) levels and cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (P=0.008), as well as lower VLDL-TG/VLDL-apoB ratio compared to the S1/S1 genotype group. These results support an exacerbating effect of the APOC3 Sst I single-nucleotide polymorphism on fasting TG levels since a large number of smaller VLDL particles are observed in LPL-deficient men bearing the APOC3 S2 allele. PMID:16015281

Garenc, Christophe; Couillard, Charles; Laflamme, Nathalie; Cadelis, François; Gagné, Claude; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Bergeron, Jean

2005-10-01

107

Spuriously elevated inorganic phosphate level in a multiple myeloma patient.  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient with IgG multiple myeloma and pseudohyperphosphatemia. The patient had no clinical features of hyperphosphatemia. Subsequent investigations demonstrated that this hyperphosphatemia was spurious and was caused by a high concentration of the paraprotein. Deproteinization of the serum samples by sulfosalicylic acid resulted in normalization of the elevated phosphate values. This pseudohyperphosphatemia resulted from an increase in optic density because of interference between monoclonal immunoglobulin and the molybdic reagent used to determine phosphate in serum. These data indicate that the finding of marked hyperphosphatemia in multiple myeloma patients should always prompt an assay carried out on a deproteinized sample. In addition, knowledge of this phenomenon may avoid confusion, unnecessary testing and obviate confusion in the clinical evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:12890170

Barutçuoglu, B; Parildar, Z; Mutaf, I; Habif, S; Bayindir, O

2003-08-01

108

Elevated East Coast Sea Level Anomaly: June - July 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CO-OPS stations recorded higher than normal sea levels (SL) along the U.S. East Coast in June and July 2009. Near-peak levels in the latter half of June coincided with a perigean-spring tide, an extreme predicted tide when the moon is closest to the Earth...

C. Zervas S. Gill W. Sweet

2009-01-01

109

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

110

Elevation of Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Objective PTH influences atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors and pathways involved in AF. We therefore sought to determine if PTH levels are altered in patients with AF. Background In addition to the traditional role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) as a regulator of calcium homeostasis, PTH also acts as a cardiac hormone, vasodilatory substance, and regulator of smooth muscle proliferation. Methods We compared plasma PTH levels in subjects with early-onset AF (n=230; 144 with lone AF and 86 with AF and hypertension), and control subjects (n=150). Subjects with structural heart disease were excluded. Plasma PTH levels were determined using a commercially available immunoassay. Results PTH levels were higher in subjects with early-onset AF versus controls (56 versus 50 pg/ml, p=0.01), and there was a stepwise increase in PTH levels from controls, to lone AF and AF and hypertension (50, 54 and 59 pg/ml, p=0.03). PTH levels were higher in permanent AF compared to paroxysmal AF (61 versus 55 pg/ml, p=0.03). PTH levels were higher in subjects with AF compared to sinus rhythm at the time of blood draw (64 versus 54 pg/ml, p=0.001). In a multivariable analysis, each mm increase in left atrial size was associated with a 0.005 (±0.002) pg/ml increase in log(PTH) levels (p=0.047). Conclusions We demonstrate that PTH levels are higher in AF subjects, most prominently in subjects with hypertension and in AF at blood sampling. These data suggest that both the rhythm itself and hypertension, as a concomitant condition, may influence the relation between PTH and AF.

Rienstra, Michiel; Lubitz, Steven A.; Zhang, Michael L.; Cooper, Rebecca R.; Ellinor, Patrick T.

2013-01-01

111

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester (AMR101) Therapy in Patients With Very High Triglyceride Levels (from the Multicenter, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] Trial)  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMR101 is an omega-3 fatty acid agent containing ?96% eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and no docosahexaenoic acid. Previous smaller studies suggested that highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid lowered triglyceride (TG) levels without increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. TG-lowering therapies such as fibrates, and fish oils containing both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, can substantially increase LDL cholesterol levels when administered

Harold E. Bays; Christie M. Ballantyne; John J. Kastelein; Jonathan L. Isaacsohn; Rene A. Braeckman; Paresh N. Soni

2011-01-01

112

Response of tomato to defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2]level  

SciTech Connect

Increased resources are expected to result in increased plant productivity and to increase a plant's ability to replace tissue lost to defoliation. This hypothesis was tested by growing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a phytotron greenhouse at ambient (355 ppm) and elevated (710 ppm) levels of CO[sub 2]. The experiment was fully factorial for CO[sub 2] level and two manual defoliation treatments, the first during vegetative growth and the second during fruiting. Elevated CO[sub 2] level did not alter total biomass, but did alter allocation: total fruit biomass and fruit number decreased. This is contrary to the expected result. Only the first defoliation treatment lowered total vegetative and reproductive biomass produced. There was no interaction between response to defoliation and response to elevated CO[sub 2] level. Thus, both the main effect of elevated CO[sub 2] and the interaction of defoliation and elevated CO[sub 2] were inconsistent with my hypothesis.

Freidus, D. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1993-06-01

113

Rhizodeposition under ambient and elevated CO2 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global CO2 levels rise, can soils store more carbon and so buffer atmospheric CO2 levels? Answering this question requires a knowledge of the rates of C inputs to soil and of CO2 outputs via decomposition. Below-ground inputs from roots are a major component of the C flow into soils but are still poorly understood. In this article, new techniques

Peter R. Darrah

1995-01-01

114

Increased plasma and aortic triglycerides in rabbits after acute administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.  

PubMed

Administration of a single nonlethal dose (20 micrograms/kg) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to New Zealand male rabbits, both on a standard and on a cholesterol (0.5% in the diet) regimen, resulted in a significant increase of plasma triglyceride levels. Triglycerides were particularly raised in the very low-density lipoprotein fraction; no significant apolipoprotein changes, as assessed by an analytical isoelectrofocusing procedure, could be determined. Concomitant to the increased triglyceridemia, aortic triglycerides were also significantly elevated in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-pretreated rabbits, both on the standard and on the cholesterolemic regimen. These findings suggest that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, possibly by inhibiting triglyceride breakdown, may induce an atherogenic form of hypertriglyceridemia in a standard experimental model of atherosclerosis. PMID:6464024

Lovati, M R; Galbussera, M; Franceschini, G; Weber, G; Resi, L; Tanganelli, P; Sirtori, C R

1984-08-01

115

Elevated ghrelin plasma levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder in women. It is associated with hirsuitism, obesity, insulin resistance, abnormality in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) axis and polycystic ovaries. The etiology of PCOS has not been clarified. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is mainly secreted by stomach cells but has also been shown to be present in hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas and gonads. Ghrelin is a regulator of energy homeostasis and GH secretion. The influence of ghrelin on insulin secretion and gonadal function is known. Since ghrelin may play an important role in pathophysiology of PCOS, we studied ghrelin levels in a group of 52 women with PCOS and in 16 women in a control group. Plasma levels of insulin, total testosterone, SHBG, LH, and FSH were also measured. In conclusion, PCOS women have higher ghrelin levels than controls. Ghrelin negatively correlates with BMI and insulin levels in PCOS group. A relation between ghrelin and SHBG was observed. Our data suggest that ghrelin could be the possible link in PCOS etiology. PMID:15057670

Wa?ko, R; Komarowska, H; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Sowi?ski, J

2004-03-01

116

Riluzole elevates GLT-1 activity and levels in striatal astrocytes.  

PubMed

Drugs which upregulate astrocyte glutamate transport may be useful neuroprotective compounds by preventing excitotoxicity. We set up a new system to identify potential neuroprotective drugs which act through GLT-1. Primary mouse striatal astrocytes grown in the presence of the growth-factor supplement G5 express high levels of the functional glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (also known as EAAT2) as assessed by Western blotting and ³H-glutamate uptake assay, and levels decline following growth factor withdrawal. The GLT-1 transcriptional enhancer dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 ?M) was able to prevent loss of GLT-1 levels and activity following growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, ceftriaxone, a compound previously reported to enhance GLT-1 expression, failed to regulate GLT-1 in this system. The neuroprotective compound riluzole (100 ?M) upregulated GLT-1 levels and activity, through a mechanism that was not dependent on blockade of voltage-sensitive ion channels, since zonasimide (1 mM) did not regulate GLT-1. Finally, CDP-choline (10 ?M-1 mM), a compound which promotes association of GLT-1/EAAT2 with lipid rafts was unable to prevent GLT-1 loss under these conditions. This observation extends the known pharmacological actions of riluzole, and suggests that this compound may exert its neuroprotective effects through an astrocyte-dependent mechanism. PMID:22080156

Carbone, Marica; Duty, Susan; Rattray, Marcus

2012-01-01

117

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

118

TYPHOON AND ELEVATED RADON LEVEL IN A MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m3\\/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December

Cheng-Hsin Mao; Pao-Shan Weng

119

Peptide YY Levels Are Elevated After Gastric Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Mechanisms that promote effective and sustained weight loss in persons who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are incompletely understood but may be mediated, in part, by changes in appetite. Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut-derived hormone with anorectic properties. We sought to determine whether gastric bypass surgery alters PYY levels or response to glucose.Research Methods and Procedures: PYY

Jean L. Chan; Edward C. Mun; Violeta Stoyneva; Christos S. Mantzoros; Allison B. Goldfine

2006-01-01

120

Towards quantitative ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment.  

PubMed

The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected in order to conduct a marine ecological risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels, using a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). It became evident that information currently available from the literature is mostly insufficient for such a quantitative approach. Most studies focus on effects of expected future CO2 levels, testing only one or two elevated concentrations. A full dose-response relationship, a uniform measure of exposure, and standardized test protocols are essential for conducting a proper quantitative risk assessment of elevated CO2 levels. Improvements are proposed to make future tests more valuable and usable for quantitative risk assessment. PMID:23850125

de Vries, Pepijn; Tamis, Jacqueline E; Foekema, Edwin M; Klok, Chris; Murk, Albertinka J

2013-08-30

121

Serum cholesterol and triglyceride measurements in Canadian physicians.  

PubMed Central

In a study of serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in male physicians, blood was drawn after fasting from 2071 registrants at 17 Canadian medical meetings from 1968 to 1973. Eight regional medical laboratories participated in the study. About two thirds of the samples were analysed in one of two laboratories to diminish method variations. When chylomicronemia, hyperglycemia or extremely high triglyceride values were detected, suggesting nonfasting, the data were discarded. The mean serum cholesterol value for the total study population was 233.9 plus or minus 1.22 mg/dl and the mean serum triglyceride value, 150.5 plus or minus 2.48 mg/dl. The mean values and the prevalence of elevated values (cholesterol larger than or equal to 250 mg/dl; triglyceride larger than or equal to 150 mg/dl) were related to age. Of the total study population 34.7% had elevated cholesterol values and 36.2% had elevated triglyceride values; only the cholesterol value was elevated in 17.5%, only the triglyceride value in 19.6% and both values were elevated in 16.8%. Although this was not a random sampling of Canadian physicians or of Canadian men, our findings of elevated serum lipid values were similar to those in French Canadian civic workers, American executives and Scandinavians, and somewhat higher than those in the Albany, New York and Framingham populations, but distinctly higher than those reported by a recent Nutrition Canada survey.

Merriman, J. E.; Davies, R. O.

1975-01-01

122

Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs.

De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Castillo Ramirez, Luis A.; Ryu, Soojin

2013-01-01

123

Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center  

SciTech Connect

Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

2002-05-14

124

Flowering responses of insect-pollinated plants to elevated CO{sub 2} levels  

SciTech Connect

Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been predicted or shown to substantially influence plants, communities and ecosystems in a variety of ways. Here, we examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels on the timing and magnitude of flowering for two insect-pollinated annual plant species in a serpentine grassland. We focused on Lasthenia californica and Linanthus parviflorus and addressed three questions: (1) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels influence flowering phenologies and is this species specific? (2) Do elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect flower production and is this due to altered numbers of individuals, flowers per plant, or both? and (3) Are effects on flowering due to elevated CO{sub 2} levels per se or changes in environmental conditions associated with methods used to manipulate CO{sub 2} levels? To address these questions, we used the ecosystem experiment at Stanford University`s Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (San Mateo Co., CA). This system consists of 20 open-topped chambers - half receiving ambient CO{sub 2} (360 ppm) and half receiving elevated CO{sub 2} (720 ppm) - and 10 untreated plots serving as chamber controls. Results from the 1994 season demonstrated that there were species-specific responses to elevated CO{sub 2} levels and the field chambers. For Lasthenia californica, elevated CO{sub 2} per se did not affect relative abundance, inflorescence production, or phenology, but chambers did significantly increase inflorescence production and extend the duration of flowering. For Linanthus parviflorus, elevated CO{sub 2} levels significantly increased relative abundance and flower production, and extended the flowering period slightly, while the chambers significantly decreased flower production early in the season and increased it later in the season.

Cushman, J.H.; Koch, G.W.; Chiariello, N.R. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States)]|[Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-06-01

125

Elevated Tribbles homolog 2-specific antibody levels in narcolepsy patients  

PubMed Central

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle atonia triggered by strong emotions (cataplexy). Narcolepsy is caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, paralleled by a dramatic loss in hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons. It is believed that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, although definitive proof of this, such as the presence of autoantibodies, is still lacking. We engineered a transgenic mouse model to identify peptides enriched within hypocretin-producing neurons that could serve as potential autoimmune targets. Initial analysis indicated that the transcript encoding Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), previously identified as an autoantigen in autoimmune uveitis, was enriched in hypocretin neurons in these mice. ELISA analysis showed that sera from narcolepsy patients with cataplexy had higher Trib2-specific antibody titers compared with either normal controls or patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, multiple sclerosis, or other inflammatory neurological disorders. Trib2-specific antibody titers were highest early after narcolepsy onset, sharply decreased within 2–3 years, and then stabilized at levels substantially higher than that of controls for up to 30 years. High Trib2-specific antibody titers correlated with the severity of cataplexy. Serum of a patient showed specific immunoreactivity with over 86% of hypocretin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus. Thus, we have identified reactive autoantibodies in human narcolepsy, providing evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder.

Cvetkovic-Lopes, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Dorsaz, Stephane; Maret, Stephanie; Pradervand, Sylvain; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lecendreux, Michel; Lammers, Gert-Jan; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Du Pasquier, Renaud A.; Pfister, Corinne; Petit, Brice; Hor, Hyun; Muhlethaler, Michel; Tafti, Mehdi

2010-01-01

126

Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis.  

PubMed

Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress ('Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress': TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

Gross, Katharina M; Schote, Andrea B; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

2014-01-01

127

Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants.

Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, Andre; Meyer, Jobst

2014-01-01

128

Serum Endoglin Levels in Patients Suffering from Systemic Sclerosis and Elevated Systolic Pulmonary Arterial Pressure  

PubMed Central

Background. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the main cause of morbimortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Increased Eng expression has been demonstrated in SSc patients. Objective. Ascertaining serum levels of Eng in SSc patients with and without elevated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) and comparing them with that of healthy volunteers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A commercial ELISA kit was used for measuring serum concentrations of Eng in 60 subjects: 40 patients with SSc with and without elevated sPAP, compared to 20 healthy control subjects. Elevated sPAP was detected by echocardiogram. Results. No association between positive Eng and elevated sPAP was found when compared to the SSc without elevated sPAP group (OR = 2.85; 0.65–12.88 95% CI; P = .11); however, an association was found between positive Eng and elevated sPAP compared to healthy controls (OR = 23.22; 2.46–1050.33 95% CI; P = .001), and weak association was found between the positive Eng with SSc without elevated sPAP group compared to healthy controls (OR = 8.14, 0.8–393.74 95% CI; P = .046). Conclusion. Raised serum levels of Eng in SSc patients compared to healthy controls were found, suggesting a role for Eng in SSc vasculopathy and not just in elevated sPAP. However, prospective studies are needed to verify such observations.

Coral-Alvarado, Paola Ximena; Garces, Maria Fernanda; Caminos, Jorge Eduardo; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Quintana, Gerardo

2010-01-01

129

Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits  

DOEpatents

Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

Righter, A.W.

1996-05-21

130

Regulation of triglyceride metabolism by Angiopoietin-like proteins.  

PubMed

Plasma triglyceride concentrations are determined by the balance between production of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins VLDL and chylomicrons in liver and intestine, and their lipoprotein lipase-mediated clearance in peripheral tissues. In the last decade, the group of Angiopoietin-like proteins has emerged as important regulators of circulating triglyceride (TG) levels. Specifically, ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 impair TG clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Whereas ANGPTL4 irreversibly inactivates LPL by promoting conversion of active LPL dimers into inactive monomers, ANGPTL3 reversibly inhibits LPL activity. Studies using transgenic or knockout mice have clearly demonstrated the stimulatory effect of Angptl3 and Angptl4 on plasma TG, which is further supported by human genetic data including genome wide association studies. Whereas ANGPTL3 is mainly active in the fed state, ANGPTL4 is elevated by fasting and mediates fasting-induced changes in plasma TG and free fatty acid metabolism. Both proteins undergo oligomerization and are subject to proteolytic cleavage to generate N- and C-terminal fragments with highly divergent biological activities. Expression of ANGPTL3 is exclusive to liver and governed by the liver X receptor (LXR). In contrast, ANGPTL4 is expressed ubiquitously and under sensitive control of the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family and fatty acids. Induction of ANGPTL4 gene expression by fatty acids and via PPARs is part of a feedback mechanism aimed at protecting cells against lipotoxicity. So far there is very little evidence that other ANGPTLs directly impact plasma lipoprotein metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. PMID:22063269

Mattijssen, Frits; Kersten, Sander

2012-05-01

131

Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ? 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-?4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.39-2.87; p < 0.001) or more (2 or 3 raising variants; OR = 2.90; 95% CI, 1.56-5.41; p < 0.001) were associated with HTG. Conclusion Our results showed a significant independent additive effect on TG levels of the LPL polymorphisms HindIII, S447X, D9N and N291S; the S19W and -1131T/C variants of APOA5, and the ?4 allele of APOE in our study population. Moreover, some of the variant combinations studied were significantly associated with the absence or the presence of hypertriglyceridemia.

2010-01-01

132

Echo-Lucency of Computerized Ultrasound Images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Are Associated With Increased Levels of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as Well as Increased Plaque Lipid Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results—The study included 137 patients with neurological

Marie-Louise M. Grønholdt; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Britt M. Wiebe; Jens E. Wilhjelm; Henrik Sillesen

133

Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8%) had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140?mg/dL). IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4%) had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD. PMID:22693517

Ryu, Jay H; Horie, Ryohei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Peikert, Tobias; Yi, Eunhee S

2012-01-01

134

Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8%) had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140?mg/dL). IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4%) had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD.

Ryu, Jay H.; Horie, Ryohei; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Peikert, Tobias; Yi, Eunhee S.

2012-01-01

135

[Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

Lincoln, D.E.

1995-10-01

136

Elevated serum copper levels in women with a history of post-partum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous observations suggested that there may be an association between elevated serum copper (Cu) levels and post-partum depression (PPD). In this study, we examined Zn and Cu levels in women with completed pregnancies who had a history of PPD and compared them to women who did not have depression, and to women who reported having been depressed, but without a

John W. Crayton; William J. Walsh

2007-01-01

137

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

138

Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which

Sriharsha Damera; Kalani L Raphael; Bradley C Baird; Alfred K Cheung; Tom Greene; Srinivasan Beddhu

2011-01-01

139

Wound Fluid from Chronic Leg Ulcers Contains Elevated Levels of Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine if metalloproteinase levels were elevated in human chronic wound fluid. Samples of blood and wound fluid from acute (mastectomy) and chronic (leg ulcer) wounds were collected, and metalloproteinase profiles of the samples were determined by gelatin zymography. Compared to serum, acute wound fluid (mastectomy fluid) contained markedly increased levels (five- to

Annette B. Wysocki; Lisa Staiano-Coico; Frederick Grinnell

1993-01-01

140

Elevated levels of a C-terminal agrin fragment identifies a new subset of sarcopenia patients.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is a recently defined medical condition described as age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Recently, a transgenic mouse model was described linking dispersal of the neuromuscular junction caused by elevated agrin degradation to the rapid onset of sarcopenia. These mice show a significant elevation of serum levels of a C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF) compared to wild-type littermates. A series of experiments was designed to ascertain the significance of elevated agrin degradation in the development of human sarcopenia. A quantitative Western blot method was devised to detect CAF in sera of humans. A first trial on consenting blood donors (n=169; age 19-74 years) detected CAF in the limited range of 2.76 ± 0.95 ng/ml. In sarcopenia patients (diagnosed according to clinical and instrumental standards) mean CAF levels were significantly elevated (p=9.8E10-9; n=73; age 65-87 years) compared to aged matched controls. Of all sarcopenia patients, 40% had elevated, non-overlapping CAF levels compared to controls. Evidence is presented for a pathogenic role of the agrin/neurotrypsin system in a substantial subset of sarcopenia patients. These patients are characterized by elevated CAF blood levels compared to aged-matched healthy volunteers suggesting the identification of an agrin-dependent form of sarcopenia. Elevated CAF levels in a large subpopulation of sarcopenic patients suggest the existence of a specific form of sarcopenia for which CAF could become a biomarker and a new target for therapeutic interventions. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by the development of a small molecule capable of inhibiting neurotrypsin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22433628

Hettwer, Stefan; Dahinden, Pius; Kucsera, Stefan; Farina, Carlo; Ahmed, Shaheen; Fariello, Ruggero; Drey, Michael; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Vrijbloed, Jan Willem

2013-01-01

141

Senescence-related truncation and multimerization of apolipoprotein A-I in high-density lipoprotein with an elevated level of advanced glycated end products and cholesteryl ester transfer activity.  

PubMed

To compare the change in lipoprotein metabolism with aging, we analyzed the lipid and protein compositions of individual lipoprotein fractions. Healthy and nonobese elderly participants (elderly group, n = 26) had a serum lipid profile within the normal range, although slightly higher than in young participants (control group, n = 18). However, the elderly group had a twofold higher serum uric acid level and triglyceride (TG):high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. The elderly group had less antioxidant ability and elevated TG content in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity. An elevated level of advanced glycated end products in lipoproteins and fragmentation of apoA-I were present in the elderly group, with detected lower apoA-I level and more multimerized apoA-I in HDL. The protein levels of apoA-I, apoC-III, and serum amyloid A in lipoprotein-deficient serum were increased in the elderly group. PMID:20421239

Park, Ki-Hoon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2010-06-01

142

Elevated serum osteoprotegerin levels predict in-hospital major adverse cardiac events in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to investigate whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is related to in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and reperfusion parameters in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The OPG/receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has recently been associated with atherosclerosis. OPG is a predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study included 96 consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two groups with equal number of patients were formed according to median OPG level. The association of OPG levels on admission with post-procedural reperfusion parameters, and in-hospital MACE were investigated. Patients with higher OPG levels displayed higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, admission troponin, admission glucose, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Higher OPG levels were associated with increased thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score, TIMI risk index, pain to balloon time, need for inotropic support, shock, and MACE, mainly driven by death. Reperfusion parameters were not different between the two groups. TIMI risk score, TIMI risk index, myocardial blush grade, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), number of obstructed vessels, and OPG significantly predicted adverse cardiac events. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed OPG as an independent predictor of MACE as well as eGFR, number of obstructed vessels, and corrected TIMI frame count. OPG, a bidirectional molecule displaying both atheroprotective and pro-atherosclerotic properties, is currently known as a marker of inflammation and a predictor of cardiovascular mortality. The present study, for the first time, demonstrated that an increased OPG level is related to in-hospital adverse cardiovascular events after primary PCI in patients with STEMI. PMID:22727437

Çanga, Aytun; Durako?lugil, Murtaza Emre; Erdo?an, Turan; Kirba?, Aynur; Yilmaz, Adnan; Çiçek, Yüksel; Ergül, Elif; Çetin, Mustafa; Kocaman, Sinan Altan

2012-11-01

143

Regulation of triglyceride metabolism by Angiopoietin-like proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma triglyceride concentrations are determined by the balance between production of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins VLDL and chylomicrons in liver and intestine, and their lipoprotein lipase-mediated clearance in peripheral tissues. In the last decade, the group of Angiopoietin-like proteins has emerged as important regulators of circulating triglyceride (TG) levels. Specifically, ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 impair TG clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL).

Frits Mattijssen; Sander Kersten

144

Risk factors associated with elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of serum pancreatic enzymes are frequently observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The complex hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological alterations in uremia were speculated to cause excessive release of pancreatic enzymes beyond decreased renal clearance. However, hemodynamic factors are seldom explored in this aspect. We performed the study to evaluate the association between intradialytic hemodynamic change and elevated serum pancreatic amylase (SPA). Eighty-three prevalent HD patients without any clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis underwent pre-HD and post-HD blood sampling for serum pancreatic enzyme levels. Demographic, biochemical, and hematological data were collected from patient record review. Hemodialysis information including intradialytic blood pressure changes and ultrafiltration (UF) amount were collected and averaged for 1 month before the blood sampling day. Patients with elevated SPA during the HD session had greater mean systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure reduction, greater UF volume, greater pre-HD blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, higher serum phosphorus, lower pre-HD serum total CO(2) , and lower left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Using multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of elevated SPA were determined to be mean arterial pressure reduction during HD, mean UF amount, pre-HD serum total CO(2) , and LVEF. Greater blood pressure reduction during HD, greater UF volume, lower pre-HD serum total CO(2) , and lower LVEF were significantly associated with elevated SPA during HD. This suggests that hemodynamic factors contribute to elevated serum pancreatic enzymes in HD patients. PMID:21223486

Chen, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Wu-Chang; Wang, Feng-Ming; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Tsai-Hun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ching

2011-01-12

145

Elevated CO2, nitrogen availability and marsh tolerance for sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of sea-level rise that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors such as elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen eutrophication. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. We manipulated atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen availability (2 x 2 factorial) in a highly organic tidal marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr-1, an effect caused primarily by stimulating belowground plant productivity. Nitrogen additions, despite increasing aboveground productivity, tended to reverse elevation gains, perhaps by reducing root productivity and stimulating soil decomposition. Therefore, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas, but nitrogen pollution may negate this effect regionally. These effects on the organic mechanisms of marsh elevation gain may help explain patterns marsh formation and disappearance worldwide.

Langley, J. A.; Cahoon, D. R.; Megonigal, J. P.

2008-12-01

146

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, I.C.

2007-01-01

147

Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.  

PubMed

Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:23803162

Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

2014-05-01

148

Magnesium-deficiency elevates circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and endothelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have developed two rodent models of diet-induced magnesium-deficiency in which histologically defined cardiac lesions can\\u000a be induced within two to three weeks. During the development of these lesions, the magnesium-deficient animals exhibit circulating\\u000a cytokine levels which are indicative of a generalized inflammatory state. Dramatic elevations of the macrophage-derived cytokines,\\u000a IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-? together with signigicantly elevated levels of

William B. Weglicki; Terry M. Phillips; Anthony M. Freedman; Marie M. Cassidy; Benjamin F. Dickens

1992-01-01

149

Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Cherry, J. A.; McKee, K. L.; Grace, J. B.

2009-01-01

150

Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.  

PubMed

Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. PMID:23504873

Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

2013-05-01

151

Influence of plant diversity and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on belowground bacterial diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in aboveground plant species diversity as well as variations of environmental conditions such as exposure of ecosystems to elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide may lead to changes in metabolic activity, composition and diversity of belowground microbial communities, both bacterial and fungal. Results We examined soil samples taken from a biodiversity × CO2 grassland experiment where replicate plots harboring 5, 12, or 31 different plant species had been exposed to ambient or elevated (600 ppm) levels of carbon dioxide for 5 years. Analysis of soil bacterial communities in these plots by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) showed that dominant soil bacterial populations varied only very little between different experimental treatments. These populations seem to be ubiquitous. Likewise, screening of samples on a high-resolution level by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that increased levels of carbon dioxide had no significant influence on both soil bacterial community composition (appearance and frequency of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) and on bacterial richness (total number of different OTUs). In contrast, differences in plant diversity levels had a significant effect on bacterial composition but no influence on bacterial richness. Regarding species level, several bacterial species were found only in specific plots and were related to elevated carbon dioxide or varying plant diversity levels. For example, analysis of T-RFLP showed that the occurrence of Salmonella typhimurium was significantly increased in plots exposed to elevated CO2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion Plant diversity levels are affecting bacterial composition (bacterial types and their frequency of occurrence). Elevated carbon dioxide does not lead to quantitative alteration (bacterial richness), whereas plant diversity is responsible for qualitative changes (bacterial diversity).

Gruter, Dominique; Schmid, Bernhard; Brandl, Helmut

2006-01-01

152

Gut triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption.

Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood

2012-01-01

153

False in vitro and in vivo elevations of uric Acid levels in mouse blood.  

PubMed

Uric acid (UA) levels in mouse blood have been reported to range widely from 0.1 ?M to 760 ?M. The aim of this study was to demonstrate false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA levels in mouse blood. Male ICR mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital (breathing mice) or sacrificed with overdose ether (non-breathing mice). Collected blood was dispensed into MiniCollect® tubes and incubated in vitro for 0 or 30 min at room temperature. After separation of plasma or serum, the levels of UA and hypoxanthine were determined using HPLC. From the non-incubated plasma of breathing mice, the true value of UA level in vivo was 13.5 ± 1.4 ?M. However, UA levels in mouse blood increased by a factor of 3.9 following incubation in vitro. This "false in vitro elevation" of UA levels in mouse blood after blood sampling was inhibited by allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Xanthine oxidase was converted to UA in mouse serum from hypoxanthine which was released from blood cells during incubation. Plasma UA levels from non-breathing mice were 19 times higher than those from breathing mice. This "false in vivo elevation" of UA levels before blood sampling was inhibited by pre-treatment with phentolamine, an ?-antagonist. Over-anesthesia with ether might induce ?-vasoconstriction and ischemia and thus degrade intracellular ATP to UA. For the accurate measurement of UA levels in mouse blood, the false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA level must be avoided by immediate separation of plasma after blood sampling from anesthetized breathing mice. PMID:24940669

Watanabe, Tamaki; Tomioka, Naoko H; Watanabe, Shigekazu; Tsuchiya, Masao; Hosoyamada, Makoto

2014-04-01

154

Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance.  

PubMed

The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC-CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [(3)H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC-CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC-CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC-CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC-CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC-CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative impact of constitutively elevated cholinergic signaling capacity. PMID:24274995

Holmstrand, Ericka C; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F; Ennis, Elizabeth A; Stanwood, Gregg D; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D

2014-07-01

155

Transgenic overexpression of the presynaptic choline transporter elevates acetylcholine levels and augments motor endurance  

PubMed Central

The hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) sustains cholinergic signaling via the presynaptic uptake of choline derived from dietary sources or from acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). Loss of cholinergic signaling capacity is associated with cognitive and motor deficits in humans and in animal models. Whereas genetic elimination of CHT has revealed the critical nature of CHT in maintaining ACh stores and sustaining cholinergic signaling, the consequences of elevating CHT expression have yet to be studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic methods, we generated mice with integrated additional copies of the mouse Slc5a7 gene. BAC–CHT mice are viable, appear to develop normally, and breed at wild-type (WT) rates. Biochemical studies revealed a 2 to 3-fold elevation in CHT protein levels in the CNS and periphery, paralleled by significant increases in [3H]HC-3 binding and synaptosomal choline transport activity. Elevations of ACh in the BAC–CHT mice occurred without compensatory changes in the activity of either choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or AChE. Immunohistochemistry for CHT in BAC–CHT brain sections revealed markedly elevated CHT expression in the cell bodies of cholinergic neurons and in axons projecting to regions known to receive cholinergic innervation. Behaviorally, BAC–CHT mice exhibited diminished fatigue and increased speeds on the treadmill test without evidence of increased strength. Finally, BAC–CHT mice displayed elevated horizontal activity in the open field test, diminished spontaneous alteration in the Y-maze, and reduced time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Together, these studies provide biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral evidence that CHT protein expression and activity can be elevated beyond that seen in wild-type animals. BAC–CHT mice thus represent a novel tool to examine both the positive and negative impact of constitutively elevated cholinergic signaling capacity.

Holmstrand, Ericka C.; Lund, David; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Wright, Jane; Martin, Rolicia F.; Ennis, Elizabeth A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Sarter, Martin; Blakely, Randy D.

2014-01-01

156

Blood Lead Level Is Associated With Elevated Blood Pressure in Blacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lead exposure has been associated with elevated blood pressure in epidemiological studies. It is not known whether the previously observed relation between blood lead and hypertension persists after significant reductions have been made in environmental lead contamination. We examined the relation between blood lead levels and blood pressure in a representative sample of 14 952 whites and blacks aged

Suma Vupputuri; Jiang He; Paul Muntner; Lydia A. Bazzano; Paul K. Whelton; Vecihi Batuman

2010-01-01

157

Gilbert syndrome and ischemic heart disease: a protective effect of elevated bilirubin levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oxidation processes play an important role in atherogenesis. Bilirubin IX? is recognised as a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we assessed the role of elevated serum bilirubin levels in the prevention of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: The occurrence of IHD was determined in Gilbert syndrome (GS) patients above 40 years (n=50). The diagnosis was based on past

Libor V??tek; Milan Jirsa; Marie Brodanová; Milan Kaláb; Zden?k Mare?ek; Vilém Danzig; Ladislav Novotný; Petr Kotal

2002-01-01

158

SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SAFETY AND SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-614. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. TWO ROOF LEVELS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-814-2, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0614-00-098-100703, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

159

Elevated second trimester human chorionic gonadotropin level associated withadverse pregnancy outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to determine whether unexplained elevations in maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin in the second trimester may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Method: Between April 1992 and April 1995, 610 pregnant women undergoing second trimester triple marker screening for Down syndrome who delivered at our institution were evaluated. Eighty-one women with a hCG level greater than

L. S. Öndero?lu; A. Kabukçu

1997-01-01

160

Serum AFBP levels are elevated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding-protein (A-FABP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and lipocalin-2 have been identified as adipokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a manifestation of metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the relationship of A-FABP, RBP4, and lipocalin-2 to variables related to metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Methods. A total of 140 subjects (72 males and 68 females) were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups (NAFLD, n = 73 and normal, n = 67) based on the detection of a fatty liver by ultrasonography. Results. Serum A-FABP levels were higher in the NAFLD group than in the normal group (18.42 ± 7.24 ng/mL vs. 15.74 ± 7.02 ng/mL, p = 0.022). After adjusting for age and sex, we observed that body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body fat percentage, triglycerides, and serum RBP4 levels were positively associated with serum A-FABP levels in all subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum RBP4 levels were independently associated with serum A-FABP levels. In logistic regression analysis, patients in the higher quartiles of A-FABP levels had higher odds ratios (OR) for the presence of NALFD than patients in the lower quartiles (OR: 3.56; 95% confident interval or CI: 1.25, 10.14). Conclusions. We observed higher serum A-FABP levels in the NAFLD group than in the normal group. However, serum RBP4 and lipocalin-2 levels appeared to have different relationships with several variables related to metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, which contradict results of previous studies. PMID:24957697

Suh, Jun-Bin; Kim, Seon Mee; Cho, Geum-Ju; Choi, Kyung Mook

2014-08-01

161

Platelet hypoaggregability in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats: relation to plasma triglycerides.  

PubMed

To define better the relationships between lipid metabolism disturbances and platelet aggregation we have examined these parameters in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic and control Lewis rats. Hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats are hypertensive and have high plasma triglycerides but not elevated plasma total cholesterol. In the present study, we have demonstrated that platelets from hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats have lowered initial rate and maximal aggregation after stimulation with thrombin or ADP in comparison with controls. These two strains did not differ significantly in the inhibition of platelet aggregation by the thromboxane A2 receptor inhibitor, SQ 29 548. In hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats, the thrombin response, as well as the contribution of the thromboxane A2-sensitive pathway, were positively associated with the plasma level of triglycerides. Similar trend was found in Lewis rats. However, the slopes of these relationships were reduced in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. These alterations of the aggregatory responses in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats were independent of blood pressure and plasma cholesterol level. In conclusion, our results showed a clear-cut platelet hypoaggregability to both thrombin and ADP in hypertensive hypertriglyceridemic rats. This hypoaggregability was not due to an impaired function of the thromboxane A2 pathway but could be connected with disturbances of lipid metabolism. PMID:9526957

Kunes, J; Mazeaud, M M; Devynck, M A; Zicha, J

1997-11-15

162

There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors.

Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

163

Elevated Serum Levels of IL10 and IFN-? in Patients with Acute Plasmodium falciparum Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-? (IFN-?) were determined in 37 patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bangkok, Thailand. Serum levels of IL-10 and IFN-? were markedly elevated in patients with malaria prior to treatment (717 ± 260 pg\\/ml versus 2.2 ± 1.3 pg\\/ml in healthy controls; 123 ± 71 pg\\/ml versus 29 ± 9 pg\\/ml, respectively; mean

C. Wenisch; B. Parschalk; E. Narzt; S. Looareesuwan; W. Graninger

1995-01-01

164

Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group  

SciTech Connect

No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

Friedman, Lee S. [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Kundiev, Yuri I. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Chislovska, Nataliya V. [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Gynecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Mucha, Amy [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Zvinchuk, Alexander V. [Data Management Center, Kyiv University of Illinois (United States); Oliynyk, Irene [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States); Hryhorczuk, Daniel [Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612 (United States)

2006-09-15

165

Elevating SOX2 Levels Deleteriously Affects the Growth of Medulloblastoma and Glioblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas and glioblastomas are devastating tumors that respond poorly to treatment. These tumors have been shown to express SOX2 and overexpression of SOX2 has been correlated with poor prognosis. Although knockdown of SOX2 impairs the growth and tumorigenicity of brain tumor cells, it was unclear how elevating SOX2 levels would affect their fate. Interestingly, studies conducted with neural stem cells have shown that small increases or decreases in the level of this transcription factor significantly alter their fate. Here, we report that elevating SOX2 3-fold above endogenous levels in U87 and U118 glioblastoma, and DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly impairs their ability to proliferate. We extended these findings and determined that elevating SOX2 in DAOY cells remodels their cell-cycle profile by increasing the proportion of cells in the G1-compartment, and induces the expression of genes associated with differentiation. Furthermore, we show that elevating SOX2 leads to a dramatic induction of CD133 expression in DAOY cells, yet inhibits the ability of both CD133+ and CD133? cells to form neurospheres. Together, these findings argue that SOX2 levels must be carefully controlled in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas to maintain their fate. Equally important, our data suggests that increases in the expression of SOX2 during brain tumor progression are likely to be linked closely with changes in other critical genes that work in concert with SOX2 to enhance the tumorigenicity of brain tumors. Importantly, we demonstrate that this is also likely to be true for other cancers that express SOX2. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the advantage of using inducible promoters to study the effects of SOX2 elevation, as compared to gene expression systems that rely on constitutive expression.

Cox, Jesse L.; Wilder, Phillip J.; Desler, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie

2012-01-01

166

HDAC inhibition induces increased choline uptake and elevated phosphocholine levels in MCF7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable phosphocholine (PC) is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using (13)C MRS to monitor [1,2-(13)C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by (31)P MRS (129±7% of control). Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%), while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase ? increased (144% and 161%, respectively) relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18%) in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho)-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using (1)H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow-up diagnostics of HDAC inhibitor treatment. PMID:23626839

Ward, Christopher S; Eriksson, Pia; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L; Brandes, Alissa H; Ronen, Sabrina M

2013-01-01

167

HDAC Inhibition Induces Increased Choline Uptake and Elevated Phosphocholine Levels in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-detectable phosphocholine (PC) is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using 13C MRS to monitor [1,2-13C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by 31P MRS (129±7% of control). Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%), while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase ? increased (144% and 161%, respectively) relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18%) in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho)-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using 1H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow-up diagnostics of HDAC inhibitor treatment.

Ward, Christopher S.; Eriksson, Pia; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L.; Brandes, Alissa H.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

2013-01-01

168

Particle Size Evidence of Intertidal Elevation: A Basis for Quantitative Sea-level Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame is controlled largely by hydroperiod and proximity to tidal ingress. Here, the upper part of the intertidal zone is characterised by poorly sorted, near symmetrical, platy- to mesokurtic, fine-grained particle size distributions due to particle settling from suspension as the tidal flow velocity decreases to high tide slack water. Indeed, an elevational or spatial gradient in particle size distribution can be observed whereby shorter hydroperiods (higher elevations) are accompanied by slower and more variable flow velocities. However, this gradient may become complicated by creek networks, whereby particle size can be observed to decrease away from creek margins, or extant vegetation that increases bed friction. Unvegetated, planar tidal flats in the Yangtze estuary offer an ideal test bed to explore evidence for a quantitative relationship between particle size distributions and bed elevation within the tidal frame. Such a relationship would then serve as an effective proxy for tidal level preserved within sediment cores, and thus a means for reconstructing past sea level. This principle is based largely on ecological transfer function-based reconstructions of Holocene sea level from foraminifera and diatoms. Surface sediment samples were collected along three transects extending eastwards from Chongming Island in South Branch channel of the Yangtze estuary. Sample positions relative to the high water mark were determined using RTK surveying, and particle size analysis was undertaken using laser granulometry. Unconstrained cluster analysis, based on unweighted Euclidean distance, was undertaken on the particle size classes at 0.25 phi intervals (up to 50 size bins) as well as Udden-Wentworth size classes (6-7 size bins). All three transects demonstrate a good clustering of particle size classes with distance and elevation, i.e. sites that are higher within the tidal frame and closer to the high water mark are characterised by higher percentages of clay and silt grades. Distance and elevation show a strong negative correlation for all transects (r2: -0.88 to -0.97), whilst cluster order is positively correlated with distance (r2: 0.41 to 0.80) and negatively correlated with elevation (r2: -0.68 to -0.75). A weighted average (WA) transfer function analysis of the relationship with elevation was then undertaken to examine how the predictability of elevation changes according to the number of data points and the number of size classes. For the largest dataset (middle transect), the WA elevation transfer function offers good predictability but limited precision (r2jack c.0.76, RMSEPjack c.0.60 m), both of which increase as the number of size classes is reduced. The smallest dataset (north transect) offers reduced predictability and precision (r2jack c.0.45, RMSEPjack c.0.60-0.90 m). Although the precision of these transfer functions is disappointing, due to the relatively widespread occurrence of size classes with elevation and distance, the r2jack values compare very well with ecological transfer functions used for reconstructing past tidal level. It is proposed that, in the absence or poor preservation of microfossils, particle size distributions offer a means for reconstructing trends in past sea level from dated sediment cores.

Plater, Andrew; Mills, Hayley; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin

2014-05-01

169

ELEVATION OF PROPERDIN LEVELS IN MICE FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF BACTERIAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES  

PubMed Central

The administration of a single small dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produces in mice a considerable rise in properdin levels. This is accompanied by an early, transient, non-specific increase in resistance to certain bacterial infections. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides were shown to possess far greater activity than other substances previously studied in bringing about an elevation of properdin levels. After the injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, high molecular weight substances appear in the circulation, which interfere with the combination of properdin with zymosan and thus affect the assay of properdin. The administration of small amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides to mice at appropriate times before experimental infection "conditions" the mice so that they maintain normal or elevated properdin titers during the infectious process in contrast to control mice which show a progressive decline in properdin to low levels and death. The significance of this observation and its relationship to natural resistance to Gram-negative pathogens are considered.

Landy, Maurice; Pillemer, Louis

1956-01-01

170

Elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a neuronal glycolytic enzyme of which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels are found altered following acute or prolonged neuronal damage. Investigations concerning the role of NSE in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are conflicting with both elevated and reduced levels. We measured CSF-levels of NSE in 32 patients with AD and 32 healthy subjects (HS) using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Mean levels of adjusted NSE were significantly elevated in AD (18.12ng/mL (95% CI 15.63-20.60), HS 8.46ng/mL (95% CI 5.98-10.94), p=0.00002) and effect size for mean group differences high (1.84). NSE alone (cut-off score 15.80ng/mL, 94% sensitivity, 97% specificity) and in combination with T-tau and P-Tau had high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate AD from HS. NSE correlated significantly with T-tau (r?0.87, p<0.000001) and P-tau (r?0.88, p<0.000001) in both AD and HS. Our results indicate elevated CSF-NSE levels to reflect altered neuronal metabolism in AD that may be used in supporting AD diagnostics. PMID:24746933

Schmidt, Frank Martin; Mergl, Roland; Stach, Barbara; Jahn, Ina; Gertz, Hermann-Josef; Schönknecht, Peter

2014-06-01

171

Chronic renovascular hypertension is associated with elevated levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin  

PubMed Central

Background Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the stenotic kidney and progressive renal dysfunction. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an acute phase protein induced in inflammatory conditions and ischemia, is a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury. We hypothesized that chronic RVH would be associated with increased renal and circulating NGAL levels. Methods We prospectively measured renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) levels of NGAL and inflammatory cytokines in essential hypertensive (EH) and RVH patients, during constant sodium intake and anti-hypertensive regimens, and compared them with systemic levels in age-matched normotensive subjects (n = 22 each). In addition, we measured urinary NGAL and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 in all patients. Results Blood pressure, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), lipid panels and medications were similar in RVH and EH. Systemic, stenotic and contralateral renal vein levels of NGAL were all similarly elevated in RVH versus normal hypertension and EH (P < 0.05), as were renal vein levels of inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor-?. Furthermore, renal vein NGAL levels inversely correlated with eGFR, and directly with renal vein (but not systemic) levels of inflammatory markers. Urinary levels of NGAL and KIM-1 were elevated in both EH and RVH, as were systemic levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusions Chronic RVH is associated with elevated NGAL levels, likely due to ongoing kidney and systemic inflammation and ischemia. These findings may also imply the occurrence of the inflammation process in chronic RVH, which might contribute to the poorer outcomes of RVH compared with EH patients.

Eirin, Alfonso; Gloviczki, Monika L.; Tang, Hui; Rule, Andrew D.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

2012-01-01

172

Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor contributes to triglyceride degradation.  

PubMed

Pigment epithelium-derived factor is well known as a secreted glycoprotein with multiple functions, such as anti-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-tumor activities. However, its intracellular role remains unknown. The present study was performed to demonstrate the intracellular function of pigment epithelium-derived factor on triglyceride degradation. Hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor levels increased at the early stage and subsequently decreased after 16 weeks in high-fat-diet-fed mice compared to those in chow-fed mice. Similarly, oleic acid led to long-term downregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor in HepG2 cells. Endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor was an intracellular protein with cytoplasmic distribution in hepatocytes by immunostaining. Exogenous FITC-labeled pigment epithelium-derived factor could be absorbed into hepatocytes. Both signal peptide deletion and full-length pigment epithelium-derived factor transfection HeLa cells and hepatocytes promoted triglyceride degradation. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor co-immunoprecipitated with adipose triglyceride lipase and promoted triglyceride degradation in an adipose triglyceride lipase-dependent manner. Additionally, pigment epithelium-derived factor bound to the C-terminal of adipose triglyceride lipase (aa268-504) and adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 complex simultaneously, which facilitated adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 translocation onto lipid droplet using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor in hepatocytes diminished triglyceride degradation. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor was decreased in obese mice accompanied with hepatic steatosis. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to and facilitates adipose triglyceride lipase translocation onto lipid droplet, which promotes triglyceride degradation. These findings suggest that a decreased level of hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor may contribute to hepatic steatosis in obesity. PMID:23886488

Dai, Zhiyu; Zhou, Ti; Li, Cen; Qi, Weiwei; Mao, Yuling; Lu, Juling; Yao, Yachao; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Hong, Honghai; Li, Shuai; Cai, Weibin; Yang, Zhonghan; Ma, Jianxing; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan

2013-09-01

173

Cholecystokinin Elevates Mouse Plasma Lipids  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR?/?) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR?/? mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, Zhongmao

2012-01-01

174

Elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in serum of patients with D+ HUS.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) is characterized by endothelial damage of glomeruli and tubules within the kidney. In several other diseases in which glomerular endothelial damage occurs, elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been reported. VEGF is involved in angiogenesis, permeabilization of blood vessel endothelium, and wound repair. In this study we evaluated VEGF levels in the serum of 40 D+ HUS patients in the acute phase and during the course of the disease. VEGF levels were measured using a double-sandwich ELISA. Indirect immunohistochemistry was performed for the detection of VEGF in renal biopsy material of 3 HUS patients. Significantly elevated VEGF levels were found in HUS patients compared with controls in both serum ( P<0.001) and plasma ( P<0.05). A significant relationship was found between VEGF levels and severity of the disease according to the classification of Gianantonio ( P<0.05). Levels of VEGF in blood increased during the 2nd and 3rd week after HUS was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry of renal biopsy material showed increased levels of the receptors for VEGF in the glomeruli. During the course of HUS, plasma VEGF levels increase and the increase is dependent on the severity of the disease. This is probably associated with the repair process. PMID:15141341

Maroeska Te Loo, D; Bosma, Nienke; Van Hinsbergh, Victor; Span, Paul; De Waal, Rob; Clarijs, Ruud; Sweep, C; Monnens, Leo; Van Den Heuvel, Lambertus

2004-07-01

175

Elevated Serum Levels of Visfatin in Patients with Henoch-Sch?nlein Purpura  

PubMed Central

Background Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an immune complex-mediated disease predominantly characterized by the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing immunoglobulin A (IgA) on the walls of small vessels. Although the pathogenesis of HSP is not yet fully understood, some researchers proposed that B-cell activation might play a critical role in the development of this disease. Objective To investigate the serum levels of visfatin (pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor), B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), and CXCL13, and to analyze their association with disease severity. Methods The serum levels of visfatin, BAFF, and CXCL13 were measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 patients with HSP and 45 controls. The serum levels of IgA anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) were detected by using a double-antigen sandwich ELISA. Results Levels of visfatin but not BAFF and CXCL13 were significantly elevated in the sera of patients with HSP in the acute stage, and restored to normal levels in the convalescent stage. Furthermore, serum levels of visfatin were significantly higher in patients with HSP having renal involvement than in those without renal involvement. Serum levels of visfatin were correlated with the severity of HSP and serum concentration of ACA-IgA. Conclusion We show for the first time that the serum levels of visfatin are abnormally elevated in patients with HSP. Visfatin may be associated with the pathogenesis of HSP.

Cao, Na; Chen, Tao; Li, Meng-Meng; Jiao, Xiao-Yan

2014-01-01

176

Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The largest known dioxin contamination occurred between 1962 and 1970, when 12 million gallons of Agent Orange, a defoliant mixture contaminated with a form of the most toxic dioxin, were sprayed over southern and central Vietnam. Studies were performed to determine if elevated dioxin levels persist in Vietnamese living in the south of Vietnam. METHODS. With gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, human milk, adipose tissue, and blood from Vietnamese living in sprayed and unsprayed areas were analyzed, some individually and some pooled, for dioxins and the closely related dibenzofurans. RESULTS. One hundred sixty dioxin analyses of tissue from 3243 persons were performed. Elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) levels as high as 1832 ppt were found in milk lipid collected from southern Vietnam in 1970, and levels up to 103 ppt were found in adipose tissue in the 1980s. Pooled blood collected from southern Vietnam in 1991/92 also showed elevated TCDD up to 33 ppt, whereas tissue from northern Vietnam (where Agent Orange was not used) revealed TCDD levels at or below 2.9 ppt. CONCLUSIONS. Although most Agent Orange studies have focused on American veterans, many Vietnamese had greater exposure. Because health consequences of dioxin contamination are more likely to be found in Vietnamese living in Vietnam than in any other populations, Vietnam provides a unique setting for dioxin studies.

Schecter, A; Dai, L C; Thuy, L T; Quynh, H T; Minh, D Q; Cau, H D; Phiet, P H; Nguyen, N T; Constable, J D; Baughman, R

1995-01-01

177

Elevated CO2 Levels Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Impair Cell Proliferation*  

PubMed Central

Elevated CO2 concentrations (hypercapnia) occur in patients with severe lung diseases. Here, we provide evidence that high CO2 levels decrease O2 consumption and ATP production and impair cell proliferation independently of acidosis and hypoxia in fibroblasts (N12) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Cells exposed to elevated CO2 died in galactose medium as well as when glucose-6-phosphate isomerase was knocked down, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. High CO2 levels led to increased levels of microRNA-183 (miR-183), which in turn decreased expression of IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2). The high CO2-induced decrease in cell proliferation was rescued by ?-ketoglutarate and overexpression of IDH2, whereas proliferation decreased in normocapnic cells transfected with siRNA for IDH2. Also, overexpression of miR-183 decreased IDH2 (mRNA and protein) as well as cell proliferation under normocapnic conditions, whereas inhibition of miR-183 rescued the normal proliferation phenotype in cells exposed to elevated levels of CO2. Accordingly, we provide evidence that high CO2 induces miR-183, which down-regulates IDH2, thus impairing mitochondrial function and cell proliferation. These results are of relevance to patients with hypercapnia such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and muscular dystrophies.

Vohwinkel, Christine U.; Lecuona, Emilia; Sun, Haying; Sommer, Natascha; Vadasz, Istvan; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

2011-01-01

178

Elevated fasting glucose levels predicts IGT and diabetes also in middle-age subjects.  

PubMed

To add to the discussion whether higher normal range fasting plasma glucose levels or "IFG" may be able to predict the risk to develop type 2 diabetes we tested in 294 healthy middle-age persons during a mean follow up time of 3.8 years which range of fasting glucose levels allowed to predict type 2 diabetes. A significant increase in frequency of IGT/diabetes was significantly observed for the "IFG" category. We therefore conclude that elevated fasting glucose levels in the "IFG" category predict the development of IGT/diabetes in a middle-age population. PMID:17092598

Schwarz, Peter E H; Bornstein, Stefan R; Hanefeld, Markolf

2007-07-01

179

Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.  

PubMed

Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (?10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calver, Geoffrey Mt; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

2014-04-25

180

Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of circulating casomorphins (CM), the exogenous opioid peptides from milk casein, may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism in children. Because several mass spectrometry studies failed to detect casomorphins in autistic children, it was questioned whether these peptides can be detected in body fluids by mass spec. Here we demonstrated, using a novel high sensitivity ELISA method, that autistic children have significantly higher levels of urine CM-7 than control children. The severity of autistic symptoms correlated with concentrations of CM-7 in the urine. Because CMs interact with opioid and serotonin receptors, the known modulators of synaptogenesis, we suggest that chronic exposure to elevated levels of bovine CMs may impair early child development, setting the stage for autistic disorders. PMID:24657283

Sokolov, Oleg; Kost, Natalya; Andreeva, Olga; Korneeva, Ekaterina; Meshavkin, Viktor; Tarakanova, Yulia; Dadayan, Aleksander; Zolotarev, Yurii; Grachev, Sergei; Mikheeva, Inna; Varlamov, Oleg; Zozulya, Andrey

2014-06-01

181

Elevated acetoacetate and MCP-1 levels in cord blood of infants of diabetic mothers  

PubMed Central

Background Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are at increased risk for metabolic complications. Type 1 and some type 2 diabetic patients have elevated levels of ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Objective The aim of this study is to examine how hyperketonemia in diabetic mothers affects markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in their offspring. Methods Blood was obtained from 23 diabetic mothers and 13 healthy mothers, and their infants’ umbilical cords at the delivery. IL-8, MCP-1 and protein carbonyl (protein oxidation) levels were determined by ELISA. U937 human monocyte cell culture was used to examine the effect of AA and BHB on secretion of MCP-1. Results There was a significant increase in the levels of AA in cord blood of diabetic mothers compared with cord blood of healthy mothers. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation (p<0.05) and MCP-1 levels (p<0.05) were observed in the cord blood of IDMs. The level of MCP-1 significantly correlated (r=0.51, p=0.01) with the concentration of AA in the IDM. In further experiments with cultured monocytes treated with exogenous AA (0-4 mM), a significant increase in MCP-1 secretion was observed with AA but not in BHB-treated monocytes. Conclusion Blood levels of AA and MCP-1 are elevated in IDM, which may contribute to the development of the metabolic complications seen in IDM.

Kurepa, Dalibor; Pramanik, Arun K.; Kakkilaya, Venkatakrishna; Caldito, Gloria; Groome, Lynn J.; Bocchini, Joseph A.; Jain, Sushil K.

2013-01-01

182

Evaluation of the environmental stress index (ESI) for different terrestrial elevations below and above sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently developed environmental stress index (ESI) for different climatic conditions and terrestrial elevations below and above sea level and to evaluate a new and relatively small (5mm) infra-red (IR) light sensor for reliability and for measuring global radiation (GR). Meteorological measurements were taken in 3 different climatic zones (hot\\/wet, hot\\/dry and

D. S. Moran; K. B. Pandolf; Y. Heled; R. R. Gonzalez

2004-01-01

183

Large-eddy simulation of dispersion: comparison between elevated and ground-level sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to calculate the concentration fluctuations of pas- sive plumes from an elevated source (ES) and a ground-level source (GLS) in a turbu- lent boundary layer over a rough wall. The mean concentration,relative fluctuations and spectra are found to be in good agreement with the wind-tunnel measurements for both ES and GLS. In particular,the

Zhengtong Xie; Paul Hayden; Peter R. Voke

2004-01-01

184

Elevated Circulating Free Fatty Acid Levels Impair Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that insulin-resistant obese sub- jects exhibit impaired endothelial function. Here, we test the hypothesis that elevation of circulating FFA to levels seen in insulin-resistant subjects can impair endothelial function. We studied leg blood flow responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (Mch) or the endothelium-indepen- dent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside during the

Helmut O. Steinberg; Manal Tarshoby; Robert Monestel; Ginger Hook; Jessica Cronin; Ann Johnson; Basel Bayazeed; Alain D. Baron

185

Control of a four-level elevator system using a programmable logic controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project reports on the design and implementation of a PLC-based controller for a four- level elevator. The PLC used is an Omron Sysmac C20K with 12 inputs and 8 outputs. The design incorporates an intelligent controller that services all the requests in an energy-saving way, rather than on a first-come, first-served basis. Some suggestions on how to extend this

L. Cheded

186

Postprandial metabolism of meal triglyceride in humans*,**  

PubMed Central

The intake of dietary fat above energy needs has contributed to the growing rates of obesity worldwide. The concept of disease development occurring in the fed state now has much support and dysregulation of substrate flux may occur due to poor handling of dietary fat in the immediate postprandial period. The present paper will review recent observations implicating cephalic phase events in the control of enterocyte lipid transport, the impact of varying the composition of meals on subsequent fat metabolism, and the means by which dietary lipid carried in chylomicrons can lead to elevated postprandial non-esterified fatty acid concentrations. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of the data on quantitative meal fat oxidation at the whole body level and an examination of dietary fat clearance to peripheral tissues — with particular attention paid to skeletal muscle and liver given the role of ectopic lipid deposition in insulin resistance. Estimates derived from data of dietary-TG clearance show good agreement with clearance to the liver equaling 8–12% of meal fat in lean subjects and this number appears higher (10–16%) in subjects with diabetes and fatty liver disease. Finally, we discuss new methods with which to study dietary fatty acid partitioning in vivo. Future research is needed to include a more comprehensive understanding of 1) the potential for differential oxidation of saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids which might lead to meaningful energy deficit and whether this parameter varies based on insulin sensitivity, 2) whether compartmentalization exists for diet-derived fatty acids within tissues vs. intracellular pools, and 3) the role of reduced peripheral fatty acid clearance in the development of fatty liver disease. Further advancements in the quantitation of dietary fat absorption and disposal will be central to the development of therapies designed to treat diet-induced obesity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.

Lambert, Jennifer E.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

187

Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL)-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ) and 77 healthy control subjects (HC) for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

2012-01-01

188

Elevated IL-6 levels in patients with atypical depression but not in patients with typical depression.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are among the most consistent findings in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Additionally, some evidence suggests that elevated cytokine levels in patients with major depression are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome in patients suffering from MDD. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the concentrations of IL-6 in specific subtypes of MDD and to investigate their relationship to metabolic factors. Twenty-four patients with typical (24) and atypical (eight) major depression according to DSM-IV criteria were studied and compared to 24 normal controls. Blood samples were collected during a stepwise glucose-clamp procedure, and IL-6 concentrations were measured by high sensitivity ELISA. IL-6 levels were elevated in patients suffering from atypical depression but not in patients with typical depression, compared to normal controls. IL-6 correlated significantly with HbA1c, insulin, waist girth, BMI, number of alcoholic drinks per week and C-reactive protein. Our data indicate that high concentrations of IL-6 during the glucose clamp may be limited to the atypical subgroup of patients with MDD. PMID:24673855

Rudolf, Sebastian; Greggersen, Wiebke; Kahl, Kai Gustav; Hüppe, Michael; Schweiger, Ulrich

2014-06-30

189

Elevated serum interleukin-33 levels in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.  

PubMed

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis and is known as an immunoglobulin (Ig) A related immune complex-mediated disease. However, the molecular mechanisms in the development of HSP are not yet fully understood. Herein, we investigated the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) in HSP patients and their association with disease severity and IgA autoantibodies production. The serum levels of IL-33 and sST2 were measured by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the serum of 33 patients with HSP and 22 controls. Serum levels of IgA anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) and IgA anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in HSP patients were detected by double antigen sandwich ELISA. Our results indicated that serum levels of IL-33 but not sST2 were significantly elevated in patients with HSP in acute stage and restored to normal levels in convalescent stage. Moreover, serum IL-33 levels were correlated with the severity of HSP and serum concentrations of AECA-IgA and ACA-IgA. Taken together, we show firstly that serum IL-33 is abnormally elevated in HSP patients. IL-33 might be associated with the IgA autoantibodies production in the pathogenesis of HSP. PMID:22836779

Chen, Tao; Jia, Rui-zhen; Guo, Zai-pei; Cao, Na; Li, Meng-meng; Jiao, Xiao-yan

2013-03-01

190

Serum Levels of Glycoproteins are Elevated in Patients with Ovarian Cancer.  

PubMed

Identification of reliable biomarkers for detection and staging of cancer and monitoring the outcome of anticancer therapy has been considered to be of high importance. We aimed to estimate the levels of serum glycoproteins, protein bound-hexose, protein bound hexosamine, protein bound fucose, protein bound sialic acid and protein bound carbohydrate in 32 ovarian cancer patients and compared them with the levels that found in 25 normal subjects. As compared to the normal subjects, all the four fractions of glycoproteins level were significantly elevated in ovarian cancer patients (p < 0.05). Chemotherapy in these patients significantly decreased the levels of serum glycoproteins (p < 0.05). Thus, high levels of serum glycoproteins in ovarian cancer patients could be due to abnormal protein glycosylation indicating malignant transformation of the cells. PMID:24966484

Thakkar, Vikram; Patel, Purvi; Prajapati, Neelam; Kaur, Ranjit; Nandave, Mukesh

2014-07-01

191

Reduction of highly elevated plasma levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid does not reverse hepatic coma.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of coma in patients with fulminant hepatic failure is still unknown, but there is some evidence that decreased hepatic metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be involved. If this hypothesis is true, reduction of increased GABA levels in patients with hepatic encephalopathy should reduce the depth of hepatic coma. In the case described here, highly elevated plasma GABA levels were reduced by cross-circulation with baboon liver. No amelioration of the coma was observed, thus suggesting that decreased hepatic metabolism of GABA is not critically involved in hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:2613172

Löscher, W; Kretz, F J; Tung, L C; Dillinger, U

1989-12-01

192

Extremely elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein levels in a child with neurologic symptoms: beware of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Neurologic symptoms can be the initial manifestation of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In this case study, we present a 3-year old boy with a clinical picture of encephalitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level up to 1165 mg/dl and diffuse cerebral MRI abnormalities. The diagnosis of HLH was established only 6 weeks after initial presentation. The boy recovered after HLH therapy with persisting mild cognitive defects. Genetic investigation demonstrated X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) as the underlying cause of HLH. The extremely elevated protein level in CSF in this case has not yet been reported in patients with HLH. PMID:24433830

Voeten, Michiel; Maes, Philip; Wojciechowski, Marek; Vandenbossche, Luc; Meyts, Isabelle; Ceulemans, Berten

2014-05-01

193

Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

1974-01-01

194

Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Smith, L. W.; Birkeland, C.

2007-01-01

195

Determination of Martian Northern Polar Insolation Levels Using a Geodetic Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar insolation levels at the Martian polar caps bear significantly on the seasonal and climatic cycling of volatiles on that planet. In the northern hemisphere, the Martian surface slopes downhill from the equator to the pole such that the north polar cap is situated in a 5-km-deep hemispheric-scale depression. This large-scale topographic setting plays an important role in the insolation of the northern polar cap. Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) provide comprehensive, high-accuracy topographical information required to precisely determine polar insolation. In this study, we employ a geodetic elevation model to quantify the north polar insolation and consider implications for seasonal and climatic changes. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Arrell, J. R.; Zuber, M. T.

2000-01-01

196

Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women.

van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

2012-01-01

197

Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference in cytokine levels between one and six hours postoperatively. Samples from the drainage system in 30 consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement were collected at one and six hours after closure of the wound. Levels of several cytokines were measured in the drainage fluids. A significant elevation of almost all cytokines was observed between the sample after one hour and six hours postoperatively. We found a strong correlation between the different pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-6 to IL-10 ratio were also raised, showing a pro-inflammatory predominance. Levels were much higher than those previously shown in serum.

van der Kraan, Peter M.; Rijnberg, Willard J.; Buma, Pieter; Schreurs, B. Willem

2009-01-01

198

Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.  

PubMed

Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that BDNF may be a marker related to illness stage in bipolar disorder, not varying with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Due to the nature of comparison, it cannot be excluded that the finding of elevated BDNF levels in bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy controls could be influenced by medication. PMID:25001969

Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

2014-09-01

199

Surface Elevation, Carbon Sequestration Potential and Rising sea Levels in Estuarine Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat for commercially important fish species and migratory shorebirds, serving as nurseries for many other marine organisms and supporting the productivity of adjacent coastal waters. Typically, these wetlands are driven by tidal hydrodynamics and are net sinks for sediment and soil carbon. Their distribution in the tidal frame depends on a delicate balance between topographic gradient, the rate of vertical soil development, and the rate of sea level change. The complex interactions between hydrodynamics, ecology and soil processes that govern this balance produce positive feedbacks and system self-organization. As complex systems, these wetlands demonstrate resilience under a wide range of conditions but they have been observed to collapse or move to another equilibrium state above certain thresholds. Research at a wetland in the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia has tracked changes in relative sea level and surface elevation in mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands over a five year period (2002- 2006) and soil carbon over a two year period (2005-2006). Mangrove surface elevation was strongly correlated with relative sea level (R2=0.715, p=0.004) but there was no correlation between relative sea level and saltmarsh surface elevation (R2=0.093, p=0.424). Soil carbon levels were high in both vegetation types (% loss on ignition of 16.2% and 18.8% for mangrove and saltmarsh soils, respectively) and not significantly different (ANOVA F=1.36, p=0.270). A 16% increase in soil carbon was recorded in each vegetation type over the period 2005-2006. Mean annual sea level rose by 55 mm and net annual precipitation (rainfall minus evaporation) fell by 189 mm over the same period. The ability of mangrove to respond rapidly to changes in relative sea level and the indicative positive trend between soil carbon and relative sea level suggest that this wetland type is both resilient to future sea level rise and has the potential to sequester carbon. Saltmarsh exhibited a similar potential for carbon sequestration, but low resilience to rising sea level, particularly in areas with steep or urbanised landward topography. Incorporation of these findings into general models of wetland hydrodynamics will inform strategies for adaptive management of estuarine wetlands in response to future climate change.

Rodríguez, J. F.; Howe, A.; Saco, P. M.

2007-12-01

200

Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms.

2012-01-01

201

ApoC-III and visceral adipose tissue contribute to paradoxically normal triglyceride levels in insulin-resistant African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background African-Americans are more insulin-resistant than whites but have lower triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The metabolic basis for this is unknown. Our goal was to determine in a cross-sectional study the effect of insulin resistance, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the apolipoproteins, B, C-III and E, on race differences in TG content of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Methods The participants were 31 women (16 African-American, 15 white) of similar age (37?±?9 vs. 38?±?11y (mean?±?SD), P =?0.72) and BMI (32.4?±?7.2 vs. 29.3?±?6.0 kg/m2, P =?0.21). A standard diet (33% fat, 52% carbohydrate, 15% protein) was given for 7 days followed by a test meal (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate, 20% protein) on Day 8. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from the minimal model. VAT was measured at L2-3. The influence of race, SI, VAT and apolipoproteins on the TG content of VLDL was determined by random effects models (REM). Results African-Americans were more insulin-resistant (SI: 3.6?±?1.3 vs. 5.6?±?2.6 mU/L-1.min-1, P

2013-01-01

202

Association of Helicobacter pylori with Elevated Blood Ammonia Levels in Cirrhotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and blood ammonia levels in cirrhotic patients is controversial. We aimed to clarify this controvercy by performing a meta-analysis of published studies. Materials and Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library for studies which explored the association between H. pylori and blood ammonia levels in cirrhotic patients before May 2012. Six cohort studies involved in 632 H. pylori positive and 396 H. pylori negative cirrhotic patients were eligible for our analysis. The summary estimates were presented as standard means differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from individual studies. Results Overall, there was significant association between H. pylori infection and the elevated blood ammonia levels in cirrhotic patients (SMD=0.34, 95% CI=0.21-0.47, I2=42.1%). Sensitivity analysis further confirmed this association. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was found only in Asian ethnicity, but not in Caucasian ethnicity. Conclusion H. pylori infection is associated with elevated blood ammonia levels in cirrhotic patients, and more large scale studies and stratify analysis are warranted in order to further evaluate this association.

Qin, Shan-Yu; Min, Zhi-gang; Xie, Ming-Zhi; Lin, Tao; Hu, Bang-Li; Guo, Xiao-Yun

2013-01-01

203

Oxazepam and temazepam attenuate paroxetine-induced elevation of serotonin levels in guinea-pig hippocampus.  

PubMed

Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used as a first-line treatment in depression. However, many depressed patients are also treated with benzodiazepines to alleviate increased anxiety and sleep disturbances normally associated with depression. Since benzodiazepines inhibit 5-HT neuronal firing activity, they might attenuate SSRI-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT levels. This study aimed to assess, using in-vivo microdialysis, the effects of the benzodiazepines oxazepam or temazepan on the SSRI paroxetine-induced 5-HT increase in the hippocampus of freely moving guinea-pigs. It was found that the acute systemic administration of paroxetine increased extracellular 5-HT levels. Pre-administration of oxazepam or temazepam significantly diminished the paroxetine-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT levels (from 350% to 200% of baseline). It was concluded that benzodiazepines attenuate the ability of SSRIs to elevate hippocampal 5-HT levels. Thus, co-administration of benzodiazepines might affect the therapeutic efficacy of SSRI treatment. PMID:20047712

Cremers, Thomas I F H; Dremencov, Eliyahu; Bosker, Fokko J; Westerink, Ben H C

2010-07-01

204

Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult sickle cell patients during the clinically asymptomatic state as well as during painful crisis. Serum SDF-1 levels were significantly elevated in HbSS/HbSbeta(0)-thalassaemia patients [n = 42; 5,177 pg/ml (2,438-7,246)] compared to HbSC/HbSbeta(+)-thalassaemia patients [n = 16; 2,405 pg/ml (1,365-3,047)] and healthy HbAA controls [n = 45; 2,894 pg/ml (2,577-3,334)] (p = 0.001). No significant increments were observed during painful crisis (n = 40). SDF-1 levels were significantly higher in SCD patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHT) compared to patients without PHT. Elevated circulating SDF-1 levels occur in patients with SCD and may play a role in the pathophysiology of SCD-related PHT. PMID:19816012

Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

2009-01-01

205

Elevated levels of NR2A and PSD-95 in the lateral amygdala in depression  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence suggests that major depression is associated with dysfunction of the brain glutamatergic transmission, and that the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a role in antidepressant activity. Recent postmortem studies demonstrate that depression is associated with altered concentrations of proteins associated with NMDA receptor signaling in the brain. The present study investigated glutamate signaling proteins in the amygdala from depressed subjects, given strong evidence for amygdala pathology in depression. Lateral amygdala samples were obtained from 13-14 pairs of age- sex-, and postmortem-interval matched depressed and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2A subunits of the NMDA receptor, as well as NMDA receptor-associated proteins such as postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Additionally, levels of enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism, including glutamine synthetase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), were measured in the same amygdala samples. NR2A protein levels were markedly and significantly elevated (+115%, p=0.03) in depressed subjects as compared to controls. Interestingly, PSD-95 levels were also highly elevated (+128%, p=0.01) in the same depressed subjects relative to controls. Amounts of NR1, nNOS, glutamine synthetase, and GAD-67 were unchanged. Increased levels of NR2A and PSD-95 suggest that glutamate signaling at the NMDA receptor in the amygdala is disrupted in depression.

Karolewicz, Beata; Szebeni, Katalin; Gilmore, Tempestt; Maciag, Dorota; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Ordway, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

206

Effects of elevated CO(2) levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO(2) levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Lolium perenne L. exposed to two CO(2) levels (360 and 1 000 ?l/L) and three Cd levels (0, 4, and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions. The results show that elevated levels of CO(2) increased shoot biomass more, compared to root biomass, but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues. Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species, as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length, surface area, volume, and tip numbers. These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2), especially for the number of fine roots. The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO(2) under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress, suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO(2). The total Cd uptake per pot, calculated on the basis of biomass, was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO(2) than under ambient CO(2). Ameliorated Cd toxicity, decreased Cd concentration, and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO(2) may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation. PMID:21462388

Jia, Yan; Tang, Shi-rong; Ju, Xue-hai; Shu, Li-na; Tu, Shu-xing; Feng, Ren-wei; Giusti, Lorenzino

2011-04-01

207

Rapid and sensitive enzymatic-radiochemical assay for the determination of triglycerides  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic-radiochemical method suitable for the determination of triglyceride levels of cells in culture is described. The method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids which then complex with /sup 63/Ni. The method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. The procedure extends the sensitivity of triglyceride measurement to as low as 0.25 nanomoles.

Khoo, J.C.; Miller, E.; Goldberg, D.I.

1987-07-01

208

Soluble fibrillar oligomer levels are elevated in Alzheimer's disease brain and correlate with cognitive dysfunction.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has suggested a role for soluble oligomeric Abeta species in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fibrillar plaque deposits are present in non-demented individuals and levels of soluble Abeta correlate better with cognitive dysfunction in AD and transgenic mouse models. We have previously reported that there are at least two conformationally distinct types of Abeta oligomers: prefibrillar oligomers that are kinetic intermediates in fibril assembly reactions and are specifically recognized by A11 antibody and fibrillar oligomers that may represent fibril seeds or small pieces of fibrils and are recognized by a fibril specific antibody, OC. We have examined the levels of these two types of oligomers in the PBS soluble fraction of brain tissue from control cases, cases with senile degenerative changes (SDC) and AD patients. We found that the levels of soluble fibrillar oligomers detected by OC antibody are significantly elevated in multiple brain regions of AD patients. The elevated fibrillar oligomer levels were found not to be an artifact of tissue homogenization, nor a result of increased Abeta or APP levels. The concentration of fibrillar oligomers in adjacent brain regions of the same patient can vary widely and were not detected in post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid. In contrast, the level of prefibrillar oligomers are variable in both AD and age matched controls, indicating that they are not correlated with cognitive dysfunction and suggesting that they precede dementia in AD. Significant correlations were found between the levels of fibrillar oligomers and cognitive decline (MMSE scores) as well as the neuropathological hallmarks of AD. These results indicate that fibrillar oligomers may play a key role in the pathology of AD and may be a new target for diagnostic and therapeutic development. PMID:19523517

Tomic, Jennifer L; Pensalfini, Anna; Head, Elizabeth; Glabe, Charles G

2009-09-01

209

Thujone corrects cholesterol and triglyceride profiles in diabetic rat model.  

PubMed

Thujone, which is the major constituent in Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae), was found to correct the lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides) in diabetic rats. Oral treatment with thujone (5 mg kg?¹ body weight dose) significantly adjusted cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats (p ? 0.05) to normal levels compared to diabetic untreated rats. This provides a premise in the field of finding new agents to treat diabetic complications. PMID:21740283

Baddar, Nour W Al-Haj; Aburjai, Talal A; Taha, Mutasem O; Disi, Ahmad M

2011-07-01

210

Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of particular importance for patients harbouring a myeloma clone which produces large amounts of HGF.

2014-01-01

211

Biogenic Impact on O3 Levels Under Elevated CO2 Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three week field campaign was conducted at the Duke Forest, NC, Forest-Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage-I Research Facility (FACTS-I) during the time period of September 10 - September 28, 2004. For the first time measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), O3, NO, CO2, organic and inorganic aerosols were conducted above the forest canopy under two CO2 environments: (1) present day (Ring 1, 370 ppmv) and (2) a future condition (Ring 2, 570 ppmv). Preliminary results show that levels of isoprene, light alkenes, and O3 were enhanced under elevated CO2 conditions. In contrast, monoterpene levels were highest under present day CO2. There was a tendency for higher peak/minimum O3 mixing ratios in the Ring 2 environment. Beginning on September 16, O3 mixing ratios exhibited a steady rise to near 40 ppbv on September 20 - 21. From September 21 - 27 the O3 daily maximum value increased and peaked on September 24 near 70 ppbv. An identical trend was observed in Ring 2, with O3 peaking around 80 ppbv. The CMAQ regional air quality model and the NCAR Master Mechanism box model are being used to determine the relative contributions to the elevated O3 levels at Ring 2 from perturbations in various chemical species due to changes in biogenic emissions.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B.; Varner, R.; Chen, M.

2005-12-01

212

[Febrile episodes of unknown origin, elevated level of plasma ferritin and rapidly developed multiorgan dysfunction].  

PubMed

A previously healthy 40-year-old man developed febrile episodes of unknown origin, articular symptoms, venous occlusion of the lower limb and transient elevation of hepatic enzymes, and cutaneous symptoms. Computed tomography scanning revealed enlarged lymph nodes, but no sample was collected. In addition to microcytic anemia, a high serum ferritin level and an increased IL-2 receptor value in serum were found. Drug therapy against tuberculosis and borreliosis was started, but febrile episodes continued and in a few days the patient developed multiorgan dysfunction. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with T-cell lymphoma was revealed as the underlying condition. PMID:24660387

Jantunen, Esa; Siitonen, Sanna; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa

2014-01-01

213

Elevated plasma level of lipotropin revealing an occult carcinoid tumor with normal plasma adrenocorticotropin.  

PubMed

The increases in the level of plasma lipotropin (LPH) and in the LPH/ACTH ratio are considered diagnostic tools in ectopic ACTH syndrome. However, plasma ACTH is also elevated in this syndrome. We report a case of a small carcinoid tumor with an increase in both ACTH and LPH in plasma before surgery. Eight months after the tumoral resection, plasma LPH alone was increased again, whereas plasma ACTH and plasma and urinary cortisol remained normal in this apparently cured patient. This repeated abnormality was the only available feature that allowed successful removal of the occult tumoral residue. PMID:11443158

Coffin, C; Lireux, B; Le Rochais, J P; Raux-Demay, M C; Girard, F; Galateau, F; Reznik, Y; Mahoudeau, J

2001-07-01

214

Reduction of Elevated Plasma Osteopontin Levels With Resection of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Plasma osteopontin (OPN) levels in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) correlate with therapeutic response and survival, but the utility of plasma OPN for diagnosis and monitoring of early-stage NSCLC has not been investigated. We hypothesize that plasma OPN levels are elevated in early-stage NSCLC and decrease with resection. Patients and Methods Presurgery plasma OPN levels (in ng/mL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a discovery set of 60 patients with early-stage NSCLC and were compared with data from 56 cancer-free smokers. Presurgery OPN was validated in an independent cohort of 96 patients with resectable NSCLC. The presurgery levels in the latter cohort were compared with matched postsurgery levels. Perioperative OPN levels were correlated with demographics, tumor characteristics, and perioperative events. OPN was monitored during follow-up. Results Discovery set presurgery NSCLC OPN (271 ± 31 ng/mL) was higher than smokers (40 ± 2 ng/mL; P = .001). Presurgery OPN was similar in the NSCLC validation cohort (324 ng/mL ± 20 ng/mL; P = .134). Postsurgery OPN (256 ng/mL ± 21 ng/mL) measured at mean of 9.8 weeks (range, 2 to 46 weeks) was lower than presurgery OPN (P = .005). Time from surgery significantly impacted postsurgery OPN: OPN ? 6 weeks postsurgery (303 n/mL ± 26 ng/mL) was higher than OPN greater than 6 weeks postsurgery (177 ng/mL ± 29 ng/mL; P = .003). Multivariate analysis noted correlations between albumin and creatinine to presurgery OPN and use of thoracotomy to postsurgery OPN. Recurrence rate was 5% at 29 weeks mean follow-up. OPN at recurrence was elevated from postsurgery nadir. Conclusion Plasma OPN levels are elevated in early-stage NSCLC. They are reduced after resection and appear to increase with recurrence. Plasma OPN may have utility as a biomarker in early-stage NSCLC.

Blasberg, Justin D.; Pass, Harvey I.; Goparaju, Chandra M.; Flores, Raja M.; Lee, Suzie; Donington, Jessica S.

2010-01-01

215

Hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated glycated hemoglobin levels in a long-lived mouse stock  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that two wild-derived stocks of mice, Idaho and Majuro, are significantly longer-lived than mice of a control stock (DC) generated as a four-way cross of commonly used laboratory strains of mice. This study provides independent confirmation of this earlier finding, as well as examining serum glucose, insulin, leptin, glycated hemoglobin (GHb), cataract severity, and glucose tolerance levels in each of the stocks. Both the mean (+20%) and maximum (+13%) life span of the Idaho mice were significantly increased relative to the DC stock, while in the Majuro mice only maximum (+15%) life span was significantly increased. In addition, Majuro mice were hyperglycemic in both the fed and fasted states compared both to laboratory-derived and Idaho stocks, had significantly elevated GHb levels and cataract scores, and were glucose intolerant although serum insulin levels did not differ between stocks. Body weight and body mass index (BMI)-corrected leptin levels were also dramatically (1.5–3-fold) higher in the Majuro mice. The longevity of Id mice was not accompanied by changes in serum glucose and insulin levels, or glucose tolerance compared to DC controls, although GHb levels were significantly lower in the Idaho mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that neither a reduction of blood glucose levels nor an increase in glucose tolerance is necessary for life span extension in mice.

Harper, James M.; Durkee, Stephen J.; Smith-Wheelock, Michael; Miller, Richard A.

2010-01-01

216

Serum levels of CXCL13 are elevated in active multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

There is increasing recognition of the important role that B cells play in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently it was reported that the B cell chemokine CXCL13 is elevated in MS serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Here we study whether serum levels of CXCL13 are associated with active MS. We measured serum levels of CXCL13 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 74 patients with relapsing MS randomized to interferon beta 1b or glatiramer acetate and examined with monthly 3 T brain MRI scans optimized for detection of gadolinium-enhancement for up to 2 years. The median (range) serum levels of CXCL13 pre-treatment were 40 (3-171) pg/ml. Serum levels of CXCL13 were significantly higher at times of active brain MRI scans (p < 0.01). Furthermore, serum levels were higher in patients who never reached MRI remission compared with those in complete (p < 0.01) or partial (p = 0.01) remission. There was a significant positive correlation between the pattern of serum levels of CXCL13 and MRI activity during the first (r = 0.33, p < 0.05) and the full 2 years (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) of the study. Treatment with interferon beta 1b or glatiramer acetate did not affect serum CXCL13. We conclude that the serum levels of the B cell chemokine CXCL13 are associated with active MS. PMID:19805441

Festa, Eugene D; Hankiewicz, Karolina; Kim, Soyeon; Skurnick, Joan; Wolansky, Leo J; Cook, Stuart D; Cadavid, Diego

2009-11-01

217

Elevated homocysteine levels in levodopa-treated idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To assess the association between the elevation of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and long-term levodopa (L-dopa) therapy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed a systematic literature review to recruit original studies published up to May 14, 2012. Studies enrolled should be controlled, with specific information of long-term L-dopa application and plasma Hcy in patients with PD. Effects were summarized using standardized mean differences (SMDs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs). Our search enrolled 22 eligible studies. Plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher in L-dopa-treated patients than those in healthy controls [SMD 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.14, P < 0.001], L-dopa-naïve patients with PD (SMD 0.99; 95% CI 0.54-1.44, P < 0.001), and untreated patients (SMD 0.52; 95% CI 0.18-0.86, P < 0.01). However, its levels in untreated patients with PD were not significantly higher than in healthy controls (SMD 0.24; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.51, P > 0.05). Patients with PD treated with L-dopa plus catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor (COMT-I) showed lower plasma Hcy concentrations compared with L-dopa-treated patients (WMD 4.62; 95% CI 2.89-6.35, P < 0.001). L-dopa treatment is associated with the increase in plasma Hcy level in patients with PD. COMT-I may attenuate L-dopa-induced elevation of Hcy level. PMID:23432663

Hu, X-W; Qin, S-M; Li, D; Hu, L-F; Liu, C-F

2013-08-01

218

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of

G. G. Gardner; T. H. Brikowski

1993-01-01

219

If blocking potency of ivabradine is preserved under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial myocytes  

PubMed Central

Lower heart rate is associated with better survival in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a disease mostly caused by sepsis. The benefits of heart rate reduction by ivabradine during MODS are currently being investigated in the MODIfY clinical trial. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current If and since If is impaired by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), a trigger of sepsis, we aimed to explore If blocking potency of ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial cardiomyocytes. Treatment of myocytes with S-LPS (containing the lipid A moiety, a core oligosaccharide and an O-polysaccharide chain) but not R595 (an O-chain lacking LPS-form) caused If inhibition under acute and chronic septic conditions. The specific interaction of S-LPS but not R595 to pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4 proves the necessity of O-chain for S-LPS–HCN interaction. The efficacy of ivabradine to block If was reduced under septic conditions, an observation that correlated with lower intracellular ivabradine concentrations in S-LPS- but not R595-treated cardiomyocytes. Computational analysis using a sinoatrial pacemaker cell model revealed that despite a reduction of If under septic conditions, ivabradine further decelerated pacemaking activity. This novel finding, i.e. If inhibition by ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in vitro, may provide a molecular understanding for the efficacy of this drug on heart rate reduction under septic conditions in vivo, e.g. the MODIfY clinical trial.

Scheruebel, Susanne; Koyani, Chintan N.; Hallstrom, Seth; Lang, Petra; Platzer, Dieter; Machler, Heinrich; Lohner, Karl; Malle, Ernst; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Pelzmann, Brigitte

2014-01-01

220

Elevated Urine Heparanase Levels Are Associated with Proteinuria and Decreased Renal Allograft Function  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endo-?-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

Shafat, Itay; Agbaria, Amir; Boaz, Mona; Schwartz, Doron; Baruch, Ronny; Nakash, Richard; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Weinstein, Talia

2012-01-01

221

Chronic granulomatous disease with markedly elevated IgE levels mimicking hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have prominently increased immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels. We present a 9-year-old boy with medical history revealing recurrent pneumonia, suppurative lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and otitis. The patient was hospitalized with severe pneumonia. The examination showed tachypnea, crackles at the right and left base of the lung, freckles on his face, red-hair, gingivitis, a high arched palate, and retained primary dentition. Serum IgE level was markedly increased. Nevertheless, patient did not have STAT3 or DOCK8 mutation, characteristic of HIES. Neutrophil function test with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) showed X linked-CGD pattern and molecular analysis of DNAshowed a splice site mutation (c.338-1G > A) in CYBB gene. Herein, we present a case of CGD with selective IgA deficiency. Laboratory findings and elevated IgE mimic the features seen in HIES. Thus, CGD must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with elevated Ig E. PMID:23827747

Patiroglu, Turkan; Gungor, Hatice Eke; Lazaroski, Sandra; Unal, Ekrem

2013-06-01

222

Elevated circulating levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Identified risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain a part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated if trace and heavy metals might also play a role in LVH. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography together with eleven different trace and heavy metals in 993 subjects aged 70 years. Only copper levels were significantly related to LVMI following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001). However, both copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were related to RWT following adjustment (p<0.0001). When divided into four geometric groups, both Cu and Ni were elevated in subjects with concentric remodelling and concentric LVH, but not in those with eccentric hypertrophy, when compared to subjects with a normal left ventricle. No relationships were found for zinc, aluminium, manganese, molybdenum, mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt or chromium. Elevated levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with LVH, especially of the concentric type, following adjustment for known risk factors for LVH. PMID:23079738

Lind, P Monica; Olsén, Lena; Lind, Lars

2012-12-01

223

Isoniazid-induced elevation of CSF GABA levels and effects on chorea in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral isoniazid was undertaken in eight men with known Huntington's disease. Six completed the trial. Overall chorea scores indicated some amelioration, but clinical improvement was noticed in only two patients and was mild. Side effects included anorexia and elevation of liver enzyme levels. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were measured simultaneously. Mean CSF GABA increased threefold following treatment with isoniazid (414 +/- 52 SEM pmol/ml) compared to placebo (120 +/- 11 pmol/ml). No significant changes occurred in plasma GABA levels between the placebo and drug treatment phases. Reversal of central GABA deficiency appears not to correct extrapyramidal symptoms in Huntington's disease. PMID:6455963

Manyam, B V; Katz, L; Hare, T A; Kaniefski, K; Tremblay, R D

1981-07-01

224

Hypereosinophilia with abnormal T cells, trisomy 7 and elevated TARC serum level.  

PubMed

The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, characterized by persistent blood eosinophilia with possible organ involvement. We describe here the case of a 20-year-old atopic male presenting chronic hypereosinophilia and eczema since childhood. Biological findings included hypereosinophilia (9.5 x 10(9)/L), hyperlymphocytosis (10.9 x 10(9)/L), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and elevated IgE serum level. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphoid cells showed a population of CD2+CD3-CD4+TCRab-TCRgd- lymphocytes. These cells displayed a Th0/Th2 cytokine profile, and a clonal TCR rearrangement pattern. A high serum TARC level was observed. Karyotype studies on blood stimulated culture or lymph nodes revealed a cellular hyperdiploïd clone 47, XY, +7. To our knowledge, this chromosomal aberration has never been reported in such case. PMID:12857571

Roumier, A S; Grardel, N; Laï, J L; Becqueriaux, I; Ghomari, K; de Lavareille, A; Roufosse, F; Prin, L; Capron, M

2003-07-01

225

Elevated messenger RNA levels after antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides are being increasingly employed in various fields of biological research. Not only has the antisense mediated inhibition of gene expression become a valuable experimental tool, the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides are also considered to be potential therapeutic drugs. Despite the huge body of literature regarding antisense treatment, there is little information on the mode of action. Currently, the main view is that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides bind to the target mRNA and thus trigger RNase H-directed cleavage of the newly formed RNA-DNA duplex molecules. Here we present data from in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment does not necessarily lead to a reduction of the corresponding mRNA levels. In fact, mRNA levels can be clearly elevated. These results favor the view that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, presumably in a large number of neurobiological applications, function via hybrid arrested translation rather than RNase H-driven mRNA cleavage. PMID:8780703

Probst, J C; Skutella, T

1996-08-23

226

Elevated serum homocysteine levels were not correlated with serum uric Acid levels, but with decreased renal function in gouty patients.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the important factors of the cardiovascular disease, and gout is well known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. There are a few reports on the serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with gout, however, the results showed discrepancies. In this study, we measured Hcy levels in patients with gout and examined factors associated with the levels of serum Hcy. Ninety-one male patients with gout and 97 age-matched healthy male controls were enrolled in the study. Serum uric acid levels were not significantly different between gout and healthy control groups. However, serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in patients with gout compared to controls (13.96±4.05 µM/L vs 12.67±3.52 µM/L, P=0.035). In gout group, patients with 1-2 stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) had significantly lower serum Hcy than those with 3-5 stages of CKD (13.15±3.46 µM/L vs 17.45±4.68 µM/L, P<0.001). Multivariate linear analysis revealed an inverse association between serum Hcy and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (?=-0.107, P<0.001). In conclusion, serum Hcy was elevated in male patients with gout. Hyperhomocysteinemia was not correlated with serum uric acid, but it was inversely associated with impaired renal function. PMID:24932079

Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jin Su; Song, Jung-Soo

2014-06-01

227

Elevation of rat brain tyrosine levels by phenelzine is mediated by its active metabolite ?-phenylethylidenehydrazine.  

PubMed

Phenelzine, a non-selective irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), has been used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders for several decades. It is a unique inhibitor of MAO as it is also a substrate for MAO, with one of the metabolites being ?-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), and it also inhibits several transaminases (e.g. GABA transaminase) in the brain when administered i.p. to rats. Administration of either phenelzine or PEH to rats has been reported to produce dramatic increases in rat brain levels of GABA and alanine while reducing levels of glutamine; these effects are abolished for phenelzine, but not for PEH, when the animals are pre-treated with another MAO inhibitor, suggesting that they are mediated by the MAO-catalyzed formation of PEH from phenelzine. In the present report, we have found that phenelzine and E- and Z-geometric isomers of PEH significantly increased rat whole brain concentrations of l-tyrosine. In a time-response study, acute administration of phenelzine, E-PEH and Z-PEH (30mg/kg i.p.) elevated rat whole brain l-tyrosine levels at 3 and 6h following injection, reaching approximately 265-305% of vehicle-treated controls at 3h. To determine whether the effect on l-tyrosine is MAO-dependent, animals were pre-treated with the non-selective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine (1mg/kg i.p.) prior to administration of phenelzine, racemic PEH or vehicle controls. This pre-treatment reversed the effects of phenelzine, but not of PEH, on brain l-tyrosine levels, suggesting that the tyrosine-elevating property of phenelzine is largely the result of its active metabolite PEH. These results are discussed in relation to possible therapeutic applications of these drugs. PMID:24607770

Matveychuk, Dmitriy; Nunes, Emerson; Ullah, Nasir; Aldawsari, Fahad S; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A; Baker, Glen B

2014-08-01

228

Elevated urinary level of vitamin D-binding protein as a novel biomarker for diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Improving the early prediction and detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a great challenge in disease management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early detection power of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) for the diagnosis of DN. Urine samples were obtained from 45 healthy volunteers and 105 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DM group), microalbuminuria (DN1 group) and macroalbuminuria (DN2 group) (n=35 per group). The VDBP expression patterns in urine from patients and controls were quantified by western blot analysis. The excretion levels of urinary VDBP were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The quantification results were obtained by correcting for creatinine expression and showed that urinary VDBP levels were significantly elevated in the patients of the DN1 and DN2 groups compared with those of the DM group and normal controls (1,011.33±325.30 and 1,406.34±239.66 compared with 466.54±213.63 and 125.48±98.27 ng/mg, respectively) (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of urinary VDBP levels for the diagnosis of DN rendered an optimum cut-off value of 552.243 ng/mg corresponding to 92.86% sensitivity and 85.00% specificity, which also showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.966. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that urinary VDBP may be a potential biomarker for the early detection and prevention of DN. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated VDBP levels and their role in the diagnosis of DN.

TIAN, XIAO-QIN; ZHAO, LI-MIN; GE, JIA-PU; ZHANG, YAN; XU, YAN-CHENG

2014-01-01

229

Progression to Neuropsychological Impairment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Predicted by Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: If cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human im- munodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels are elevated be- fore the development of neuropsychological (NP) im- pairment, such an observation would support prospective monitoring of CSF HIV RNA levels as well as therapeu- tic interventions designed to lower CSF HIV levels. Objective: To determine whether increased CSF HIV RNA levels at an earlier time

Ronald J. Ellis; David J. Moore; Meredith E. Childers; Scott Letendre; J. Allen McCutchan; Tanya Wolfson; Stephen A. Spector; Karen Hsia; Robert K. Heaton; Igor Grant

2002-01-01

230

Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n?=?91), TC (n?=?98), and CC (n?=?14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P?=?0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P?=?0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C polymorphism.

2014-01-01

231

Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity.

Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

2014-01-01

232

Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron- sufficient microcytosis.  

SciTech Connect

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is a required test under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's lead standard. However, there is no mention of the influence of hemoglobinopathy on the ZPP test value. We undertook a retrospective laboratory review of 382 employees at the Argonne National Laboratory who had been subjects in a lead surveillance program since 1982. A total of 321 samples were analyzed, after female subjects and samples with abnormally high bilirubin levels were excluded. A group with low mean red blood cell volume (MCV; less than 80.0 fL) was compared with a group with normal MCV (greater or equal to 80.0 fL). A statistically significant difference was noted in ZPP (P < 0.007) and total bilirubin (P< 0.0003) values of two groups. There was no statistically significant difference noted in age, lead levels, or iron levels between the two groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with hemoglobinopathies. Only a minor part of this elevation could be explained by the higher bilirubin levels.

Ronin, D.; Strehl, F.; Human Resources

1998-05-01

233

Serum heat shock protein 47 levels are elevated in acute interstitial pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. We hypothesized that HSP47 could be a useful marker for fibrotic lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of HSP47 in patients with various idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods Subjects comprised 9 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), 12 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), 16 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 19 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 19 healthy adult volunteers. Results Patients with AIP had serum HSP47 levels that were significantly higher than those of COP, NSIP or IPF patients and those of healthy volunteers. In contrast, serum levels of HSP47 among patients with COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy volunteers did not differ significantly. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between AIP and COP, NSIP, IPF, and healthy controls was 859.3 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion The present results demonstrate that, among patients with various IIPs, serum levels of HSP47 were elevated specifically in patients with AIP.

2014-01-01

234

Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

235

Maps of Lands Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise: Modeled Elevations along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the broad-scale ramifications of accelerated sea level rise requires maps of the land that could be inundated or eroded. Producing such maps requires a combination of elevation information and models of shoreline erosion, wetland accretion, ...

J. G. Titus C. Richman

2000-01-01

236

Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the uintah basin, utah.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ?100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer. PMID:24624890

Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

2014-05-01

237

Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

Ahluwalia, A.

1996-08-01

238

Study on the mechanism causing elevation of serum CA19-9 levels in diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Serum CA19-9 levels are often elevated in diabetic patients. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the metabolism of CA19-9 in diabetic patients without obvious cancer. Study 1 included 119 patients in whom HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and CA19-9 were measured at the time of hospital admission. Study 2 examined 6 patients with markedly elevated CA19-9 levels (?100 U/mL). Their half-lives for HbA1c, GA, and serum CA19-9 were calculated using the data before and after diabetes treatment. Three diabetic patients with pancreatic cancer were also examined as controls. In Study 1, serum CA19-9 (logarithmically transformed value) was significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and GA. On multivariate analysis, GA and FPG, but not HbA1c, were significant explanatory variables for serum CA19-9. In Study 2, serum CA19-9 decreased together with HbA1c and GA after diabetes treatment. The calculated half-lives for HbA1c, GA, and serum CA19-9 were 33.8 days, 16.1 days, and 10.9 days, respectively. The half-life of serum CA19-9 was longer in the study patients than that reported in patients with malignant tumors. By contrast, in the diabetic patients with pancreatic cancer serum CA19-9 showed a marginal decrease after diabetes treatment. Taken all together, prolonged half-life of serum CA19-9 may contribute to the increase in serum CA19-9 levels in diabetic patients without obvious cancer. PMID:23708182

Murai, Jun; Soga, Sumiko; Saito, Hiroshi; Otsuki, Michio; Kitada, Takatoshi; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Hideji; Kasayama, Soji; Koga, Masafumi

2013-01-01

239

Successful Treatment of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia with a Formula Diet Rich in Omega–3 Fatty Acids and Medium-Chain Triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with highly increased plasma triglyceride levels are at risk of developing serious complications such as pancreatitis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore it is important to rapidly decrease plasma triglyceride levels. A sufficient control of triglyceride levels with drugs like fibrates, statins or nicotinic acid can usually only be attained after a couple of weeks. Plasma exchange appears

Annette Hauenschild; Reinhard G. Bretzel; Henning Schnell-Kretschmer; Hans-Ulrich Kloer; Philip D. Hardt; Nils Ewald

2010-01-01

240

Elevated Levels of C-Reactive Protein at Discharge in Patients With Unstable Angina Predict Recurrent Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. Methods and Results—We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pyloriand Chlamydia pneumoniaeantibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary

Luigi M. Biasucci; Giovanna Liuzzo; Rita L. Grillo; Giuseppina Caligiuri; Antonio G. Rebuzzi; Antonino Buffon; Francesco Summaria; Francesca Ginnetti; Giovanni Fadda; Attilio Maseri

2010-01-01

241

Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1.

Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

1993-01-01

242

[Association of hypercalcemia, elevated levels of calcitriol and tuberculosis in patients on hemodialysis].  

PubMed

Hypercalcemia is associated with numerous chronic granulomatous processes and chronic infections. Increased production of calcitriol by activated macrophages has been shown to be the cause in most cases. In this article, we describe three cases of hypercalcemia associated with inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels and suppressed PTH in hemodialysis. In addition to conventional techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis we used Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) to detect mycobacterial DNA in pleural effusion with acid-fast stain and culture negativity. Antituberculous therapy was associated with a decrease in the levels of calcium, as well as in serum calcitriol concentrations, and a substantial increase in the levels of iPTH. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 remained unchanged. These findings suggested ectopic production of calcitriol. The discussion reviews the previously reported cases of hypercalcemia and tuberculosis that occurred during hemodialysis, and concludes that ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas is extremely unusual and its demonstration requires a high index of suspicion. Molecular techniques are a potentially useful approach for early and rapid diagnosis of tuberculous infection in dialysis patients. PMID:11100667

Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C

2000-01-01

243

Preliminary evidence that plasma oxytocin levels are elevated in major depression  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is involved in regulating social behavior, anxiety, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis physiology in mammals. Because individuals with major depression often exhibit functional irregularities in these measures, we test in this pilot study whether depressed subjects (n=11) exhibit dysregulated OT biology compared to healthy control subjects (n=19). Subjects were hospitalized overnight and blood samples were collected hourly between 1800 and 0900 h. Plasma levels of OT, the closely related neuropeptide argine-vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol were quantified. Results indicated that depressed subjects exhibit increased OT levels compared to healthy control subjects, and this difference is most apparent during the nocturnal peak. No depression-related differences in AVP or cortisol levels were discerned. This depression-related elevation in plasma OT levels is consistent with reports of increased hypothalamic OT-expressing neurons and OT mRNA in depressed patients. This present finding is likewise consistent with the hypothesis that dysregulated OT biology may be a biomarker of the emotional distress and impaired social relationships which characterize major depression. Additional research is required to elucidate the role of OT in the pathophysiology of this psychiatric disorder.

Parker, Karen J.; Kenna, Heather A.; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Keller, Jennifer; Blasey, Christine M.; Amico, Janet A.; Schatzberg, Alan F.

2009-01-01

244

Elevated Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. Methods We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40%) and 47 non-PGD subjects (59%) received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p?=?0.03). The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p?=?0.02); there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p?=?0.9). Conclusions Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

Cantu, Edward; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shah, Rupal J.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

2012-01-01

245

Plasma Free H2S Levels are Elevated in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators. Methods and Results Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma?free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin?1 (TSP?1), Interleukin?6 (IL?6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (sICAM?1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n=66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n=13), or any vascular disease (n=140) had higher plasma?free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n=53). Plasma?free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL?6, ICAM?1, and TSP?1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition. Conclusions Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma?free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01407172.

Peter, Elvis A.; Shen, Xinggui; Shah, Shivang H.; Pardue, Sibile; Glawe, John D.; Zhang, Wayne W.; Reddy, Pratap; Akkus, Nuri I.; Varma, Jai; Kevil, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

246

Elevated preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of venous thromboembolism in Japanese females with gynecological cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of increased levels of D-dimer and associated factors in preoperative patients with gynecological cancer. Furthermore, we determined the incidence and risk factors associated with preoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, 456 patients with invasive gynecological cancer scheduled to undergo surgery were recruited. Preoperative plasma D-dimer levels were measured and patients whose plasma D-dimer concentration exceeded the pre-set cut-off value underwent computed tomography scanning. The incidence of elevated D-dimer and VTE was identified as significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independent factors for preoperative elevations in plasma D-dimer levels. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE. Massive ascites and the presence of co-morbidities were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in ovarian cancer. Advanced age and stage were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in endometrial cancer. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in cervical cancer. Plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of preoperative VTE were higher in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those with other gynecological cancers. Advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated CRP levels were significant factors associated with elevated plasma D-dimer levels and age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in gynecological cancer.

KODAMA, JUNICHI; SEKI, NORIKO; FUKUSHIMA, CHIKAKO; KUSUMOTO, TOMOYUKI; NAKAMURA, KEIICHIRO; HONGO, ATSUSHI; HIRAMATSU, YUJI

2013-01-01

247

Marked elevation of urinary zinc levels and pleural-friction rub in metal fume fever.  

PubMed

Zinc fume is a well-recognized cause of metal fume fever, characterized by acute or subacute symptoms of respiratory tract inflammation, myalgias and fever (similar to influenza) associated with a variety of metal oxide fumes. A welder of galvanized steel developed metal fume fever, a pleural friction rub and markedly elevated urinary zinc excretion despite work-site surveillance data indicating exposures close to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Permissible Exposure Limit. This patient suggests that exposure data may be misleading. This case had the highest urine zinc levels reported in the literature and a previously unreported coexistent pleural friction rub. The symptoms resolved with administrative and engineering controls to decrease exposure. PMID:10839322

Fuortes, L; Schenck, D

2000-06-01

248

Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics and cholinomimetics.  

PubMed

Oral pretreatment of mice with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and oxiracetam in a dose-related manner, without, however, impairing the animals' learning performance. The improvement of memory induced by physostigmine, arecoline, and tacrine (THA) was similarly inhibited. The fact that elevated steroid levels suppress the memory-enhancing effects of entirely different substances could indicate that these substances have a common site of action. In the light of new observations showing increased cortisol concentrations in Alzheimer patients, this steroid dependency of the effects of memory enhancers might explain why only a limited number of these patients respond to therapy with nootropics or cholinomimetics. PMID:1410129

Mondadori, C; Ducret, T; Häusler, A

1992-01-01

249

Locked nucleic acid antisense inhibitor targeting apolipoprotein C-III efficiently and preferentially removes triglyceride from large very low-density lipoprotein particles in murine plasma.  

PubMed

A 20-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide having locked nucleic acids (LNA-AON) was used to reduce elevated serum triglyceride levels in mice. We repeatedly administered LNA-AON, which targets murine apolipoprotein C-III mRNA, to high-fat-fed C57Bl/6J male mice for 2 weeks. The LNA-AON showed efficient dose-dependent reductions in hepatic apolipoprotein C-III mRNA and decreased serum apolipoprotein C-III protein concentrations, along with efficient dose-dependent reductions in serum triglyceride concentrations and attenuation of fat accumulation in the liver. Through precise lipoprotein profiling analysis of sera, we found that serum reductions in triglyceride and cholesterol levels were largely a result of decreased serum very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglycerides and -cholesterol. It is noteworthy that larger VLDL particles were more susceptible to removal from blood than smaller particles, resulting in a shift in particle size distribution to smaller diameters. Histopathologically, fatty changes were markedly reduced in antisense-treated mice, while moderate granular degeneration was frequently seen the highest dose of LNA-AON. The observed granular degeneration of hepatocytes may be associated with moderate elevation in the levels of serum transaminases. In conclusion, we developed an LNA-based selective inhibitor of apolipoprotein C-III. Although it remains necessary to eliminate its potential hepatotoxicity, the present LNA-AON will be helpful for further elucidating the molecular biology of apolipoprotein C-III. PMID:24269597

Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Obika, Satoshi; Nakatani, Moeka; Yasuhara, Hidenori; Wada, Fumito; Shibata, Eiko; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Harada-Shiba, Mariko

2014-01-15

250

If blocking potency of ivabradine is preserved under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial myocytes.  

PubMed

Lower heart rate is associated with better survival in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a disease mostly caused by sepsis. The benefits of heart rate reduction by ivabradine during MODS are currently being investigated in the MODIfY clinical trial. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current If and since If is impaired by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), a trigger of sepsis, we aimed to explore If blocking potency of ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in human atrial cardiomyocytes. Treatment of myocytes with S-LPS (containing the lipid A moiety, a core oligosaccharide and an O-polysaccharide chain) but not R595 (an O-chain lacking LPS-form) caused If inhibition under acute and chronic septic conditions. The specific interaction of S-LPS but not R595 to pacemaker channels HCN2 and HCN4 proves the necessity of O-chain for S-LPS-HCN interaction. The efficacy of ivabradine to block If was reduced under septic conditions, an observation that correlated with lower intracellular ivabradine concentrations in S-LPS- but not R595-treated cardiomyocytes. Computational analysis using a sinoatrial pacemaker cell model revealed that despite a reduction of If under septic conditions, ivabradine further decelerated pacemaking activity. This novel finding, i.e. If inhibition by ivabradine under elevated endotoxin levels in vitro, may provide a molecular understanding for the efficacy of this drug on heart rate reduction under septic conditions in vivo, e.g. the MODIfY clinical trial. PMID:24583250

Scheruebel, Susanne; Koyani, Chintan N; Hallström, Seth; Lang, Petra; Platzer, Dieter; Mächler, Heinrich; Lohner, Karl; Malle, Ernst; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Pelzmann, Brigitte

2014-07-01

251

Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic conditions whereas the total annual sum is not climatically dependent. Nutrient cycles of Kilimanjaro forest ecosystems are significantly altered by land use and the associated changes of dominant tree species.

Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

252

Elevated circulating levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We evaluated the status of circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models adjusted for age were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status (PCOS vs. controls) and weight-class (obese vs. lean) on MIF and other parameters. MIF levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher in women with PCOS (lean: 37.7+/-10.6 ng/ml; obese: 54.6+/-15.2 ng/ml) compared to controls (lean: 4.8+/-0.6 ng/ml; obese: 17.5+/-8.0 ng/ml) regardless of weight-class. CRP levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher in obese subjects (PCOS: 6.2+/-1.9 mg/l; controls: 6.7+/-1.4 mg/l) compared to lean subjects (PCOS: 0.9+/-0.4 mg/l; controls: 0.2+/-01 mg/l) after controlling for PCOS status. MIF levels directly correlated with % truncal fat (r=0.41, p<0.05), and plasma levels of CRP (r=0.42, p=0.05), LH (r=0.45, p=0.04), testosterone (r=0.53, p<0.008), androstendione (r=0.58, p<0.005). IS(OGTT) inversely correlated with plasma levels of MIF (r=-0.51, p<0.02) and CRP (r=-0.73, p<0.001). Circulating MIF is elevated in PCOS independent of obesity, but both PCOS and obesity contribute to a proatherogenic state. In PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:20598902

González, Frank; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi; Weaver, Amy L; Kirwan, John P

2010-09-01

253

Pyometra in bitches induces elevated plasma endotoxin and prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite levels.  

PubMed

Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17beta) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The gamma-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A S

2006-01-01

254

Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2? Metabolite Levels  

PubMed Central

Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2? metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2? (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17?) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The ?-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

2006-01-01

255

Elevated vaspin and leptin levels are associated with obesity in prepubertal Korean children.  

PubMed

Adipokines are associated with obesity. However, the relationships between adipokines, specifically vaspin, obesity, and obesity-related variables remain controversial, and only a few studies have been conducted which examines them in children. We investigated the relationships between obesity in prepubertal Korean children and three types of adipokines: vaspin, leptin, and visfatin. In this cross-sectional study, 168 nine-year-old boys and 176 nine-year-old girls participated in a school-based health examination program. Children were classified as overweight using the Korean Pediatric Society 2007 guidelines. Overweight boys and girls had higher leptin and vaspin levels than both boys and girls of normal weight, whereas only overweight boys had higher visfatin levels than normal weight boys. Leptin, visfatin and vaspin concentrations were correlated with obesity-related variables. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, and vaspin were associated with an increased risk of being overweight, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was associated with a decreased risk of being overweight. Elevated vaspin and leptin levels are associated with obesity in prepubertal Korean children. PMID:23318644

Ko, Byung-Joon; Lee, Myoungsook; Park, Hye Soon; Han, Kyungdo; Cho, Geum Joo; Hwang, Taik Gun; Kim, Jung Hwan; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Seon Mee

2013-01-01

256

The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression  

SciTech Connect

Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

257

Elevated Circulating Levels and Tissue Expression of Pentraxin 3 in Uremia: A Reflection of Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Elevated systemic pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels appear to be a powerful marker of inflammatory status and a superior outcome predictor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As previous data imply that PTX3 is involved in vascular pathology and that adipose tissue mass may influence circulating PTX3 levels, we aimed to study the importance of adipose tissue expression of PTX3 in the uremic milieu and its relation to endothelial dysfunction parameters. Plasma PTX3 and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) PTX3 mRNA levels were quantified in 56 stage 5 CKD patients (median age 57 [range 25–75] years, 30 males) and 40 age and gender matched controls (median age 58 [range 20–79] years, 27 males). Associations between PTX3 measures and an extensive panel of clinical parameters, including surrogate markers of endothelial function, were assessed. Functional ex vivo studies on endothelial status and immunohistochemical staining for PTX3 were conducted in resistance subcutaneous arteries isolated from SAT. SAT PTX3 mRNA expression correlated with plasma PTX3 concentrations (rho?=?0.54, p?=?0.0001) and was increased (3.7 [0.4–70.3] vs. 1.2 [0.2–49.3] RQ, p?=?0.02) in CKD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but was not significantly different between patients and controls. The association to CVD was lost after adjustments. SAT PTX3 mRNA levels were independently correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine and basal resistance artery tone developed after inhibition with nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (rho?=??0.58, p?=?0.002). Apparent positive PTX3 immunoreactivity was observed in both patient and control arteries. In conclusion, fat PTX3 mRNA levels are associated with measures of endothelial cell function in patients with CKD. PTX3 may be involved in adipose tissue-orchestrated mechanisms that are restricted to the uremic milieu and modify inflammation and vascular complications in CKD patients.

Witasp, Anna; Ryden, Mikael; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Nordfors, Louise; Naslund, Erik; Hammarqvist, Folke; Arefin, Samsul; Kublickiene, Karolina; Stenvinkel, Peter

2013-01-01

258

Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

Gesch, Dean B.

2013-01-01

259

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in ?-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of ?-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol. PMID:21548801

Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

2011-09-01

260

Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT?1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT?1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve?=?0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve?=?0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

2012-01-01

261

Variations in plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels are strong correlates of the triglyceride response to a high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet and a high-carbohydrate diet.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine how a diet rich in carbohydrates (high-CHO) vs a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (high MUFA) consumed ad libitum modulated plasma apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) levels and to examine the extent to which diet-induced changes in plasma apo C-III were associated with concurrent variations in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Forty-seven men (mean age, 35.7 +/- 11.4 years; body mass index, 29.0 +/- 5.1 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a high-CHO diet (CHO, 58%; fat, 26%; n = 23) or a high-MUFA diet (CHO, 45%; fat, 40%; MUFA, 22.5%; n = 24), which they consumed for 6 to 7 weeks. Fasting and postprandial lipemia after an oral fat load and fasting plasma apo C-III were measured at the beginning and at the end of the dietary intervention. Ad libitum consumption of the high-CHO diet induced a significant reduction in body weight (-2.6%, P < .0001), but had no impact on plasma apo C-III concentrations and on fasting and postprandial plasma TG levels. In contrast, ad libitum consumption of the high-MUFA diet also resulted in a significant reduction in body weight (-2.3%, P < .01) as well as in significant reductions in plasma apo C-III (-11%, P = .05) and fasting plasma TG (-17%, P < .01). Diet-induced variations in plasma apo C-III concentrations were correlated with changes in fasting and postprandial TG levels both in the high-CHO (r > 0.70, P < .001) and the high-MUFA groups (r > 0.42, P < .05). These results indicate that variations in plasma apo C-III levels are strong correlates of the fasting and postprandial plasma TG responses to high-MUFA and high-CHO diets. PMID:16154441

Archer, W Roodly; Desroches, Sophie; Lamarche, Benoît; Dériaz, Olivier; Landry, Nancy; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Bergeron, Jean; Couture, Patrick; Bergeron, Nathalie

2005-10-01

262

Elevated Estradiol Plasma Levels in Women with Restless Legs during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Pregnant women have an increased risk of experiencing restless legs syndrome (RLS). Aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between pregnancy-related hormonal and metabolic changes and RLS symptomatology. Design: Blood measurements and overnight polysomnography were performed during the third trimester of pregnancy and again 3 months after delivery. We investigated blood hormonal levels (estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinizing hormone [LH], iron, ferritin, hemoglobin) and polysomnographic sleep parameters. Subjective sleep quality and RLS symptoms were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the International RLS study group (IRLSSG) rating scale. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Ten pregnant women fulfilling the IRLSSG criteria for RLS diagnosis and 9 pregnant healthy controls underwent the protocol. Interventions: N/A. Results: Women with RLS showed higher levels of estradiol during pregnancy compared to controls (34,211 ± 6,397 pg/mL vs. 25,475 ± 7,990 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Patients also showed more periodic limb movements (PLMs) before and after delivery, particularly during sleep stage 1 and wakefulness (P < 0.05). PLMs decreased postpartum in subjects with RLS only (P < 0.05); sleep efficiency increased in women without RLS and remained unchanged in patients (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between groups before or after delivery in plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, FSH, LH, iron, ferritin or hemoglobin. Conclusions: RLS in pregnant women goes along with transiently increased estradiol levels and PLM indices suggesting that estrogens play a pathophysiological role for triggering RLS symptoms during pregnancy. Citation: Dzaja A; Wehrle R; Lancel M; Pollmächer T. Elevated estradiol plasma levels in women with restless legs during pregnancy. SLEEP 2009;32(2):169-174.

Dzaja, Andrea; Wehrle, Renate; Lancel, Marike; Pollmacher, Thomas

2009-01-01

263

Identification of highly elevated levels of melatonin in bone marrow: its origin and significance.  

PubMed

Bone marrow is an important tissue in generation of immunocompetent and peripheral blood cells. The progenitors of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow exhibit continuous proliferation and differentiation and they are highly vulnerable to acute or chronic oxidative stress. In this investigation, highly elevated levels of the antioxidant melatonin were identified in rat bone marrow using immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay, high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and mass spectrometry. Night-time melatonin concentrations (expressed as pg melatonin/mg protein) in the bone marrow of rats were roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those in peripheral blood. Measurement of the activities of the two enzymes (N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methoxyltransferase (HIOMT)) which synthesize melatonin from serotonin showed that bone marrow cells have measurable NAT activity, but they have very low levels of HIOMT activity (at the one time they were measured). From these studies we could not definitively determine whether melatonin was produced in bone marrow cells or elsewhere. To investigate the potential pineal origin of bone marrow melatonin, long-term (8-month) pinealectomized rats were used to ascertain if the pineal gland is the primary source of this antioxidant. The bone marrow of pinealectomized rats, however, still exhibited high levels of melatonin. These results indicate that a major portion of the bone marrow's melatonin is of extrapineal origin. Immunocytochemistry clearly showed a positive melatonin reaction intracellularly in bone marrow cells. A melatonin concentrating mechanism in these cells is suggested by these findings and this may involve a specific melatonin binding protein. Since melatonin is an endogenous free radical scavenger and an immune-enhancing agent, the high levels of melatonin in bone marrow cells may provide on-site protection to reduce oxidative damage to these highly vulnerable hematopoietic cells and may enhance the immune capacity of cells such as lymphocytes. PMID:10572942

Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Reiter, R J; Qi, W B; Zhang, M; Weintraub, S T; Cabrera, J; Sainz, R M; Mayo, J C

1999-10-18

264

ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels  

PubMed Central

The sense of hearing is remarkable for its auditory dynamic range, which spans more than 1012 in acoustic intensity. The mechanisms that enable the cochlea to transduce high sound levels without damage are of key interest, particularly with regard to the broad impact of industrial, military, and recreational auditory overstimulation on hearing disability. We show that ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 receptor subunits in the cochlea are necessary for the development of temporary threshold shift (TTS), evident in auditory brainstem response recordings as sound levels rise. In mice null for the P2RX2 gene (encoding the P2X2 receptor subunit), sustained 85-dB noise failed to elicit the TTS that wild-type (WT) mice developed. ATP released from the tissues of the cochlear partition with elevation of sound levels likely activates the broadly distributed P2X2 receptors on epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic compartment. This purinergic signaling is supported by significantly greater noise-induced suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions derived from outer hair cell transduction and decreased suprathreshold auditory brainstem response input/output gain in WT mice compared with P2RX2-null mice. At higher sound levels (?95 dB), additional processes dominated TTS, and P2RX2-null mice were more vulnerable than WT mice to permanent hearing loss due to hair cell synapse disruption. P2RX2-null mice lacked ATP-gated conductance across the cochlear partition, including loss of ATP-gated inward current in hair cells. These data indicate that a significant component of TTS represents P2X2 receptor-dependent purinergic hearing adaptation that underpins the upper physiological range of hearing.

Housley, Gary D.; Morton-Jones, Rachel; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M.; Telang, Ravindra S.; Paramananthasivam, Vinthiya; Tadros, Sherif F.; Wong, Ann Chi Yan; Froud, Kristina E.; Cederholm, Jennie M. E.; Sivakumaran, Yogeesan; Snguanwongchai, Peerawuth; Khakh, Baljit S.; Cockayne, Debra A.; Thorne, Peter R.; Ryan, Allen F.

2013-01-01

265

Elevated level of fibrinogen increases caveolae formation; role of matrix metalloproteinase-9.  

PubMed

The role of the inflammatory agent fibrinogen (Fg) in increased pial venular permeability has been shown previously. It was suggested that an activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is involved in Fg-induced enhanced transcytosis through endothelial cells (ECs). However, direct link between Fg, caveolae formation, and MMP-9 activity has never been shown. We hypothesized that at an elevated level, Fg enhances formation of functional caveolae through activation of MMP-9. Male wild-type (WT, C57BL/6J) or MMP-9 gene knockout (MMP9-/-) mice were infused with Fg (4 mg/ml, final blood concentration) or equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). After 2 h, mice were sacrificed and brains were collected for immunohistochemical analyses. Mouse brain ECs were treated with 4 mg/ml of Fg or PBS in the presence or absence of MMP-9 activity inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-4 (TIMP-4, 12 ng/ml). Formation of functional caveolae was assessed by confocal microscopy. Fg-induced increased formation of caveolae, which was defined by an increased co-localization of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and plasmalemmal vesicle-associated protein-1 and was associated with an increased phosphorylation of Cav-1, was ameliorated in the presence of TIMP-4. These results suggest that at high levels, Fg enhances formation of functional caveolae that may involve Cav-1 signaling and MMP-9 activation. PMID:24307281

Muradashvili, Nino; Benton, Richard L; Tyagi, Reeta; Tyagi, Suresh C; Lominadze, David

2014-06-01

266

Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 ?g/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 ?g/dL vs 20%, 7.1 ?g/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.

Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

2011-01-01

267

A Case of Levofloxacin-Induced Anaphylaxis With Elevated Serum Tryptase Levels  

PubMed Central

Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone and L-isomer of the racemate ofloxacin, has been approved for the treatment of acute and chronic bacterial infections. Gastrointestinal complaints are the most frequently reported adverse drug reactions to fluoroquinolones. Other adverse events include headache, dizziness, increased liver enzyme levels, photosensitivity, tachycardia, QT prolongation, and eruptions. Anaphylaxis has been documented as a rare adverse drug reaction to levofloxacin; however, diagnostic tests are needed to evaluate whether these reactions are the result of levofloxacin treatment. While the results of skin tests are considered unreliable due to false-positive responses, the oral provocation test is currently considered to be the most reliable test. Tryptase, a neutral protease, is the dominant protein component of secretory granules in human mast cells, and an increased serum concentration of tryptase is a highly sensitive indicator of anaphylaxis. Herein, we report a case of levofloxacin-induced anaphylaxis in which the patient exhibited elevated serum tryptase levels and a positive oral levofloxacin challenge test result. As anaphylaxis is potentially life-threatening, the administration of fluoroquinolones to patients who have experienced a prior reaction to this type of agent should be avoided.

Lee, Ji-Ho; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Shin, Kye Chul; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Kim, Chong Whan

2013-01-01

268

Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition  

PubMed Central

Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition - via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

Poisbleau, Maud; Muller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel

2012-01-01

269

Prolonged anorexia and elevated plasma cytokine levels following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.  

PubMed

Myeloablative conditioning regimens commonly lead to prolonged anorexia and poor oral intake. In a prospective study of 147 patients receiving CY, total body irradiation and allogeneic hematopoietic cells, we determined the extent of decline in oral intake and assessed plasma cytokine levels and development of acute GVHD as explanations for protracted anorexia. For each patient, daily oral caloric intake was expressed as a percent of estimated basal requirements, calculated as basal energy expenditure, through day 20. Oral caloric intake was significantly reduced in 92% of patients and remained low. The nadir in oral intake occurred at days 10-12, when median oral caloric intake was 3% of basal energy requirements. Plasma cytokines known to affect appetite (IL2, IL6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were significantly elevated above normal following conditioning therapy (P<0.001 for each cytokine). Acute GVHD did not appear to affect oral intake to transplant day 20 in this cohort of patients; however, plasma levels of IL6 rose steeply before the clinical onset of GVHD. Persistent fever occurred with the greatest frequency in patients with most profound reduction in oral intake. We conclude that prolonged alterations in oral intake following this myeloablative regimen may be related to circulating cytokines known to alter eating behavior. PMID:17700598

Malone, F R; Leisenring, W M; Storer, B E; Lawler, R; Stern, J M; Aker, S N; Bouvier, M E; Martin, P J; Batchelder, A L; Schoch, H G; McDonald, G B

2007-10-01

270

Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating ?3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/?mol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/?mol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r?=?0.287, P?=?0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/?mol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/?mol Cr, P?=?0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated with the urine of patients with FSGS at presentation, and the signal could be reduced by a blocking antibody specific to uPAR. Conclusions Urinary suPAR was specifically elevated in patients with primary FSGS and was associated with disease severity. The elevated urinary suPAR could activate ?3 integrin on human podocytes. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/82.

2014-01-01

271

Elevated serum levels of soluble CD154 in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Cytokines play important roles in mediating inflammation in autoimmunity. Several cytokines are elevated in serum and synovial fluid samples from children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Soluble CD154 (sCD154) is elevated in other autoimmune disorders, but has not been characterized in JIA. Our objectives were to determine if sCD154 is elevated in JIA, and to examine correlations between sCD154

Sampath Prahalad; Thomas B Martins; Anne E Tebo; April Whiting; Bronte Clifford; Andrew S Zeft; Bernadette McNally; John F Bohnsack; Harry R Hill

2008-01-01

272

Experimental study of vane heat transfer and aerodynamics at elevated levels of turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four vane subsonic cascade was used to investigate how free stream turbulence influences pressure surface heat transfer. A simulated combustor turbulence generator was built to generate high level (13 percent) large scale (Lu approximately 44 percent inlet span) turbulence. The mock combustor was also moved upstream to generate a moderate level (8.3 percent) of turbulence for comparison to smaller scale grid generated turbulence (7.8 percent). The high level combustor turbulence caused an average pressure surface heat transfer augmentation of 56 percent above the low turbulence baseline. The smaller scale grid turbulence produced the next greatest effect on heat transfer and demonstrated the importance of scale on heat transfer augmentation. In general, the heat transfer scaling parameter U(sub infinity) TU(sub infinity) LU(sub infinity)(exp -1/3) was found to hold for the turbulence. Heat transfer augmentation was also found to scale approximately on Re(sub ex)(exp 1/3) at constant turbulence conditions. Some evidence of turbulence intensification in terms of elevated dissipation rates was found along the pressure surface outside the boundary layer. However, based on the level of dissipation and the resulting heat transfer augmentation, the amplification of turbulence has only a moderate effect on pressure surface heat transfer. The flow field turbulence does drive turbulent production within the boundary layer which in turn causes the high levels of heat transfer augmentation. Unlike heat transfer, the flow field straining was found to have a significant effect on turbulence isotropy. On examination of the one dimensional spectra for u' and v', the effect to isotropy was largely limited to lower wavenumber spectra. The higher wavenumber spectra showed little or no change. The high level large scale turbulence was found to have a strong influence on wake development. The free stream turbulence significantly enhanced mixing resulting in broader and shallower wakes than the baseline case. High levels of flow field turbulence were found to correlate with a significant increase in total pressure loss in the core of the flow. Documenting the wake growth and characteristics provides boundary conditions for the downstream rotor.

Ames, Forrest E.

1994-01-01

273

Effect of Chromium Niacinate and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, TNF-?, IL-6, CRP, Glycated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides and Cholesterol Levels in blood of Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitate normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-?, IL-6, CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N or Cr-P (400 µg Cr/Kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 wks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-?, IL-6, glucose, HbA1, cholesterol, TG and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-? (p=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.02), CRP (p=0.02) LP (p=0.01), HbA1 (p=0.02), TG (p=0.04) and cholesterol (p=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-? (p=0.02), IL-6 (p=0.02) and LP (p=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be more effective form of Cr3+-supplementation. This study suggests that Cr3+-supplementation can lower risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes.

Jain, Sushil K.; Rains, Justin L.; Croad, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

274

Elevated Remnant-Like Particle Cholesterol Concentration A Characteristic Feature of the Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

atients at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) frequently exhibit an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype characterized by elevated plasma levels of both triglyceride- rich lipoproteins (TRL) and small, dense LDL and low concentrations of HDL cholesterol. Recently, in a large observational study, the calculated non-HDL plasma choles- terol concentration (the sum of the cholesterol contents of LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL),

T. B. Twickler; G. M. Dallinga-Thie; J. S. Cohn; M. J. Chapman

2010-01-01

275

Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

2014-01-01

276

Serum HE4 levels are less frequently elevated than CA125 in women with benign gynecologic disorders  

PubMed Central

Introduction HE4 is a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer. This study measured HE4 and CA125 levels in women with benign gynecologic disorders. Methods Sera were obtained from women prior to surgery for a pelvic mass and HE4 and CA125 levels were determined. The proportions of patients with elevated biomarker levels were compared. Results There were 1042 women with benign disease. HE4 levels were less often elevated than CA125 (8% versus 29%, p<0.001). A marked difference was observed in patients with endometriosis where HE4 was elevated in 3% of cases and CA125 in 67% (p<0.0001). Serous ovarian tumors were associated with elevated levels of HE4 in 8% of cases and CA125 in 20% (p=0.0002); uterine fibroids in 8% versus 26% (p=0.0083); dermoids in 1% versus 21% (p=0.0004); and inflammatory disease in 10% versus 37% (p=0.014). Conclusion HE4 is elevated less frequently than CA125 in benign disease, particularly in premenopausal patients.

Moore, Richard G.; Miller, M. Craig; Steinhoff, Margaret M.; Skates, Steven J.; Lu, Karen H.; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Bast, Robert C.

2014-01-01

277

Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients’ mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study.

Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

2014-01-01

278

The effect of elevated plasma phenylalanine levels on protein synthesis rates in adult rat brain.  

PubMed Central

Increasing the plasma phenylalanine concentration to levels as high as 0.560-0.870 mM (over ten times normal levels) had no detectable effect on the rate of brain protein synthesis in adult rats. The average rates for 7-week-old rats were: valine, 0.58 +/- 0.05%/h, phenylalanine, 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h, and tyrosine, 0.60 +/- 0.09%/h, or 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h overall. Synthesis rates calculated on the basis of the specific activity of the tRNA-bound amino acid were slightly lower (4% lower for phenylalanine) than those based on the brain free amino acid pool. Similarly, the specific activities of valine and phenylalanine in microdialysis fluid from striatum were practically the same as those in the brain free amino acid pool. Thus the specific activities of the valine and phenylalanine brain free pools are good measures of the precursor specific activity for protein synthesis. In any event, synthesis rates, whether based on the specific activities of the amino acids in the brain free pool or those bound to tRNA, were unaffected by elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine. Brain protein synthesis rates measured after the administration of quite large doses of phenylalanine (> 1.5 mumol/g) or valine (15 mumol/g) were in agreement (0.62 +/- 0.01 and 0.65 +/- 0.01%/h respectively) with the rates determined with infusions of trace amounts of amino acids. Thus the technique of stabilizing precursor-specific activity, and pushing values in the brain close to those of the plasma, by the administration of large quantities of precursor, appears to be valid.

Dunlop, D S; Yang, X R; Lajtha, A

1994-01-01

279

Nitrogen budget under elevated CO(sub 2) levels: regulation by absorption and assimilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus of this research was to investigate plant nitrogen budget under elevated CO(sub 2) concentration. Of particular interest were the following: (1) Does elevated CO(sub 2) increase root carbohydrate availability. (2) Does such an enhancement increa...

H. BassiriRad V. Gutschick

2001-01-01

280

Elevated levels of RDW is associated with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Red cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Only a few trials have investigated the correlation of these parameters with postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the correlation of these parameters in non-valvular AF is still unclear. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive AF patients from medical records and included 117 non-valvular AF patients (103 paroxysmal and 14 chronic AF). All subjects underwent physical examination and echocardiographic imaging. Complete blood counts (CBCs) were analyzed for hemoglobin, RDW, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts as well as mean corpuscular volume. Results of CBC tests within the previous year were also included and the averages were used. The demographic and echocardiographic properties of non-valvular AF group were comparable to the control group except for left atrial volumes which were increased in AF (median 33.1, IQR 26.3-41.1 cm(3) vs. median 26.4, IQR 24.2-28.9 cm(3); p = 0.01). RDW levels were significantly higher in the AF group (median 13.4 %, IQR 12.9-14.1 %) compared to the control (median 12.6 %, IQR 12.0-13.1 %; p = 0.01). NLR was not statistically different in the AF group and the controls (2.04 ± 0.94 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64, respectively; p = 0.32). Hs-CRP levels were higher in the AF group compared to the controls (median 0.84, IQR 0.30-1.43 mg/L vs. median 0.29, IQR 0.18-0.50 mg/L, respectively; p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed RDW (OR 4.18, 95 % CI 2.15-8.15; p = 0.01), hs-CRP (OR 3.76, 95 % CI 1.43-9.89; p = 0.01) and left atrial volume (OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.06-1.21; p = 0.01) as the independent markers of non-valvular AF. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that hemoglobin levels (standardized ? coefficient = -0.252; p = 0.01) and the presence of AF (standardized ? coefficient = 0.336; p = 0.01) were the independent correlates of RDW levels. Elevated RDW levels, not NLR, may be an independent risk marker for non-valvular AF. PMID:23821044

Güngör, Bar??; Ozcan, Kaz?m Serhan; Erdinler, Izzet; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Alper, Ahmet Taha; Osmonov, Damirbek; Cal?k, Nazmi; Akyuz, Sukru; Toprak, Ercan; Y?lmaz, Hale; Y?ld?r?m, Ayd?n; Bolca, Osman

2014-05-01

281

Inhibition of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Elevates Brain Anandamide Levels and Produces Analgesia  

PubMed Central

The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Ralph, Brian P.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T.; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W.; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C.; Deutsch, Dale G.; Ojima, Iwao

2014-01-01

282

Causes of the elevated nitrate aerosol levels during episodic days in Taichung urban area, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible reasons accounting for elevated nitrate aerosol levels during high particulate days (HPD) in Taichung urban area of central Taiwan. To achieve this goal, simultaneous measurements of particulate and gaseous pollutants were carried out from September 2004 to April 2005 using an annular denuder system (ADS). The formation rate of NO 2 to nitrate aerosol, calculated using the relevant chemical reactions, was employed to interpret enhanced nitrate aerosol concentrations during HPD. The observations showed that nitrate concentration during HPD was 14 times higher than that during low particulate days (LPD). The average formation rate during HPD was 4.0% h -1, which was 3.1 times higher than that during LPD. The quantitative analysis showed that the formation rate was mainly influenced by temperature and relative humidity. Lower temperature and higher relative humidity led much nitrate aerosol formation in HPD. Moreover, the residence time analysis of air masses staying over the studied area showed that the slow-motion air retained high nitrate concentrations due to more nitrate aerosol converted from the precursors in NOx-rich areas.

Lin, Yu Chi; Cheng, Man Ting; Lin, Wei Hsiang; Lan, Yung-Yao; Tsuang, Ben-Jei

2010-05-01

283

Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W  

PubMed Central

Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, S?ren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Kramer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

2012-01-01

284

Glycemic variability in normal glucose regulation subjects with elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose levels.  

PubMed

Subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), whose 1-h postload plasma glucose is ?8.6 mmol/L (155 mg/dL, NGR 1 h ? 8.6) during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and subclinical organ damage. And, the deficiency in islet ? cell function is responsible for glycemic disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate glycemic variability in NGR subjects with elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose levels and its association with islet ? cell function. The 29 NGR subjects with 1-h postload plasma glucose ?8.6 mmol/L (NGR 1 h ? 8.6) and 29 age- and sex-matched NGR subjects with 1-h postload plasma glucose <8.6 mmol/L (NGR 1 h < 8.6) were recruited in the study. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index ?I30/?G30), and integrated ? cell function measured by the oral disposition index (?I30/?G30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 h. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), mean blood glucose (MBG), mean of daily differences (MODD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). MAGE is considered as a gold standard of glycemic variability. Glycemic variability parameters SDBG, MBG, MODD, and MAGE in NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group were higher than those in NGR 1 h < 8.6 group (p < 0.05), and oral disposition index in NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group was lower than that in NGR 1 h < 8.6 group (p < 0.05). SDBG, MBG, MODD, MAGE, and 1-h postload plasma glucose all negatively associated with oral disposition index in the separate group (p < 0.05) and in the whole subjects (p < 0.05). After multivariate regression analysis, oral disposition index was the strongest independent contributor to MAGE and 1-h postload plasma glucose in the separate group (p < 0.05) and in the whole subjects (p < 0.05). It is concluded that NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group had higher glycemic variability and lower oral disposition index, compared with NGR 1 h < 8.6 group. Increased glycemic variability parameters and elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose consistently associated with declined oral disposition index in subjects from NGR 1 h < 8.6 to NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group. PMID:24030695

Su, Jian-Bin; Chen, Tong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xue-Qin; Chen, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Hua

2014-06-01

285

Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones. Fringe mangrove forests are most susceptible to sea-level rise, such that protection of these outer zones from anthropogenic disturbances (for example, harvesting) may slow the rate at which these zones convert to open water. ?? 2010 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center.

Krauss, K. W.; Cahoon, D. R.; Allen, J. A.; Ewel, K. C.; Lynch, J. C.; Cormier, N.

2010-01-01

286

Elevated levels of circulating biomarkers of cell death (nucleosomes) in the patients with plaque psoriasis treated with the Goeckerman regimen.  

PubMed

 Background: Nucleosomes are complexes that are formed during apoptosis. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and anti-apoptotic features. Presented study was focused to expression of circulating biomarkers of cell death (circulating nucleosomes, CN) during Goeckerman therapy of psoriasis (UV, PAHs). Methods: In a group of patients with psoriasis (19), treated with Goeckerman regimen (GR), we evaluated their level of CN, level of chromosomal aberration in peripheral lymphocytes (CA), level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and their value of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Results: Following the treatment, the serum level of CN and urinary level of 1-OHP (p<0.05) were significantly increased (p<0.01). We found significant correlation between CN and urinary level of 1-OHP after GR (r=0.57; p<0.05). Immediately after the treatment we found significantly increased total numbers of abnormal chromosomes (ABB; p<0.01) and structurally abnormal chromosomes (SAB; p<0.05).Conclusions: We found slightly (but statistically significant) elevated level of circulating biomarkers of cell death (nucleosomes) in patients with plaque psoriasis treated with GR (PAHs, UV radiation). We suppose that elevated level of CN is a result of combination of the positive effects of GR and its weak genotoxic effect (mainly PAHs). Conclusions are supported by significant correlation between CN and urinary level of 1-OHP after GR and significantly elevated level of CA after GR (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 28). Keywords: psoriasis, apoptosis, nucleosomes, biomarker. PMID:24797598

Ranna, D; Andrys, C; Krejsek, J; Hamakova, K; Kremlacek, J; Fiala, Z; Borsky, P; Borska, L

2014-01-01

287

The role of triglycerides in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Hypertriglyceridemia is a prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increasingly important in the setting of current obesity and insulin resistance epidemics. High triglyceride (TG) levels are markers for several types of atherogenic lipoproteins. Patients who have hypertriglyceridemia may be at significant risk for CVD even if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are at goal, and therefore warrant treatment that optimizes diet, reduces overweight, and promotes regular exercise. High-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia, such as those with diabetes, CVD, or metabolic syndrome, may benefit from additional drug treatment aside from a statin to address other lipid abnormalities. In this discussion, we review the role of hypertriglyceridemia and its associated atherogenic lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the relevance of a high TG level as a predictor of CVD, the cardiovascular outcomes from TG-lowering intervention trials, and the current guidelines for treating hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:21968696

Talayero, Beatriz G; Sacks, Frank M

2011-12-01

288

Short-term influence of elevation of plasma homocysteine levels on cognitive function in young healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Acute homocysteine elevation has been shown to have a significant impact on cognitive function in animal models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Investigation of the short-term impact of elevation of plasma homocysteine levels through a dietary intervention on cognitive\\u000a abilities of young healthy adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  100 healthy medical students of both genders were enrolled in the study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and Measurements  Homocysteine levels and cognitive abilities were measured

P. Alexopoulos; S. Lehrl; T. Richter-Schmidinger; A. Kreusslein; T. Hauenstein; F. Bayerl; P. Jung; T. Kneib; A. Kurz; J. Kornhuber; S. Bleich

289

Elevated factor VIII level and stroke in patients without traditional risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemostasis is affected by interactions between physiological processes, including those connected with the coagulation system, whose essence is converting fibrinogen into fibrin. The role of factor VIII (FVIII) consists in activating factor X, which directly participates in the generation of thrombin, which is able to produce stable fibrin, which in turn forms blood clots. There are divergent opinions regarding the significance of high levels of FVIII in stroke pathogenesis. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate FVIII activity in individuals with cryptogenic stroke in order to determine a potential relationship between it and cerebral ischemia. Material and methods Nine patients suffering with stroke were used in this study: six women and three men aged 49–63 years. In all of the patients, the presence of known and potential risk factors for stroke had been excluded during previous diagnostic procedures. These patients accounted for 1.2% of the 719 people who suffered a stroke and were hospitalized in 2011 at the Stroke Unit. FVIII activity was examined in each of the nine qualified subjects within 1–2 months of the occurrence of stroke (the first test) and repeated (the second test) in five patients with abnormal results obtained from the first examination. Results Increased activity of FVIII was found in 5 out of 9 patients. In patients with abnormal results, elevated FVIII was found in follow-up examinations in the 8th–10th month following stroke. Hemodynamic abnormalities in carotid or cerebral artery (presence of thrombus) were found in 3 of the 5 patients with increased FVIII levels. In the first 24 hours following stroke the neurological state of patients with abnormal FVIII was worse than individuals with normal FVIII activity. The patients with abnormal FVIII levels were found to be more disabled in the examination of self-dependence on the 90th day after stroke. Conclusion When searching for the causes of stroke, it is worth examining the coagulation system, including FVIII concentration, the abnormality of which may play a significant part in brain ischemia. More research is needed to determine the relationship between abnormal FVIII activity and stroke.

Anetta, Lasek-Bal; Przemyslaw, Puz; Zofia, Kazibutowska

2013-01-01

290

Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0.016 to 0.19 +/- 0.10 microg/g). This was confirmed in one of these villages where we sampled manioc paste (just before roasting) and the roasted farinha (0.05 microg/g vs 0.20 microg/g). While there may be other sources (ammunition, sinkers for fishing nets), the high concentrations in farinha, a dietary staple, assuredly makes an important contribution. Further action needs to reduce Pb sources in this region. PMID:19389665

Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

2009-07-01

291

Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 ?mol mol?1) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high ?9-THC yielding varieties of Cannabis sativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 ?mol mol?1) significantly (p?P\\u000a N), water use efficiency (WUE) and internal CO2 concentration

Suman Chandra; Hemant Lata; Ikhlas A. Khan; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

2011-01-01

292

Elevated Plasma Levels of Endostatin Are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or presence of albuminuria (?30 mg/24 h). Results After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3–357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7–134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = ?0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of ?26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (?131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2–45.5; p < 0.0001). Conclusion These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk.

Chen, Jing; Hamm, L. Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A.; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T.; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E.; He, Jiang

2012-01-01

293

Role of elevated liver transaminase levels in the diagnosis of liver injury after blunt abdominal trauma  

PubMed Central

The liver is the second most commonly injured organ following blunt abdominal trauma. The stable patient with minimal physical findings with a history of blunt abdominal trauma presents a challenge for diagnosis of liver injury. This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of hepatic transaminases in predicting the presence of liver injury and its severity following blunt abdominal trauma. In this retrospective study, we included all patients who had sustained blunt abdominal injury and were treated at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. The grading of the liver injury was verified using CT scans or surgical findings. One hundred and eighty-two patients with blunt abdominal trauma underwent the required blood tests and were included in the study. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessment, optimum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) thresholds were determined to be >57 U/l, 113 U/l, 595 U/l and 50 U/l. ALT >57 U/l (OR, 66.1; P<0.001) and AST >113 U/l (OR, 30.6; P<0.001) were strongly associated with the presence of liver injuries. This association was also observed in patients with elevated LDH >595 U/l (OR, 3.8; P<0.001) and GGT >50 U/l (OR, 3.0; P<0.05). None of the laboratory tests were related to the severity of the liver injuries. In patients with blunt abdominal trauma, abnormal hepatic transaminase levels are associated with liver injuries. Patients with ALT >57 U/l and AST >113 U/l are strongly associated with liver injury and require further imaging studies and close management.

TIAN, ZHIQIANG; LIU, HONG; SU, XIAOFANG; FANG, ZHENG; DONG, ZHITAO; YU, CHANGCHUN; LUO, KUNLUN

2012-01-01

294

Angiopoietin-2 and Biliary Diseases: Elevated Serum, but Not Bile Levels Are Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is challenging especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and often delayed due to the lack of reliable markers. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) has been employed as a biomarker of angiogenesis and might be involved in tumor neoangiogenesis. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of Angpt-2 as a biomarker to detect patients with CC. Methods Bile and serum Angpt-2 levels were measured in patients with CC (n?=?45), PSC (n?=?74), CC complicating PSC (CC/PSC) (n?=?11) and patients with bile duct stones (n?=?37) in a cross sectional study. Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 was compared to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry from human CC liver tissue samples was performed to localize the origin of Angpt-2. Results Serum Angpt-2 concentration was significantly elevated in patients with CC compared to control patients (p<0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of Angpt-2 as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis resulted in a higher area under the curve (AUC) value compared to CA19-9 (AUC: 0.85 versus 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74–0.93 versus 0.65–0.87, respectively). Angpt-2 was also detectable in bile, but was not associated with the presence of CC. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong induction of Angpt-2 expression in the tumor vasculature. Conclusions Circulating Angpt-2 in serum might be a promising protein candidate locally derived from the tumor vasculature in patients with CC. Measurement of Angpt-2 in serum may be useful for diagnosis and further clinical management of patients with CC.

Thamm, Kristina; Schlue, Jerome; Metzger, Jochen; Manns, Michael P.; Lankisch, Tim O.

2014-01-01

295

Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

Gesch, D. B.

2009-01-01

296

Construction and expression of synthetic DNA fragments coding for polypeptides with elevated levels of essential amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypeptides, with elevated levels of essential amino acids, could be useful as partial protein supplements to food and feeds. To obtain DNA fragments coding for these polymers, oligonucleotides were constructed by random synthesis of a mixture of appropriate codon pairs and inserted into a bacterial plasmid in E. coli. Two of the isolated fragments were subjected to DNA sequence analysis

J. M. Jaynes; P. Langridge; K. Anderson; C. Bond; D. Sands; C. W. Newman; R. Newman

1985-01-01

297

Elevated Levels of Shed Membrane Microparticles With Procoagulant Potential in the Peripheral Circulating Blood of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Apoptotic microparticles are responsible for almost all tissue factor activity of the plaque lipid core. We hypothesized that elevated levels of procoagulant microparticles could also circulate in the peripheral blood of patients with recent clinical signs of plaque disruption and thrombosis. Methods and Results—We studied 39 patients with coronary heart disease, including 12 patients with stable angina and 27 patients

Ziad Mallat; Hakim Benamer; Benedicte Hugel; Joelle Benessiano; P. Gabriel Steg; Jean-Marie Freyssinet; Alain Tedgui

298

Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Blood Lead Screening Among US Children Aged One to Five Years: 1988 -1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To estimate the proportion of children 1 to 5 years of age who received blood lead testing during 1988 -1994 and to assess whether predic- tors of testing coincided with predictors of elevated blood lead levels. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur- vey. Participants. US children 1 to 5 years of

Rachel B. Kaufmann; Timothy L. Clouse; David R. Olson; Thomas D. Matte

2010-01-01

299

Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature  

PubMed Central

The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20%) and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C). The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 ?g mL–1) and biomass (210 ?g mL–1), which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%), were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30°C under elevated CO2 (6%). Although increases in temperature above 30°C resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30°C, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures.

Chinnasamy, Senthil; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, Keshav C.

2009-01-01

300

Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and Elevated CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine onion cultivars of four Allium species (Allium cepa, A. fistulosum, A. schoenoprasum, and A. tuberosum) were evaluated for use in Advanced Life Support (ALS) applications by hydroponic propagation in environmental growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass, phytochemical and folate levels, and sensory characteristics of scallions harvested at

Leslie Thompson; Ellen Peffley; Cary Green; Paul Paré; David Tissue

301

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

302

The spectrum of severe preeclampsia: Comparative analysis by HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count) syndrome classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the spectrum of maternal disease with a triple classification system of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet count) syndrome and compare these classes with severe preeclampsia without HELLP syndrome. Study Design: In this retrospective analytic study the pregnancies of 777 patients with class 1, 2, or 3 HELLP syndrome were

James N. Martin; Brian K. Rinehart; Warren L. May; Everett F. Magann; Dom A. Terrone; Pamela G. Blake

1999-01-01

303

Differences in responses of summer and winter spinach to elevated UV-B at varying soil NPK levels.  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in response of spinach to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) during summer and winter were assessed with respect to growth, biomass, yield, NPK uptake and NPK use efficiencies at varying NPK levels. The nutrient amendments were recommended NPK (RNPK) and 1.5 times recommended NPK (1.5 RNPK). Season significantly affected the measured parameters except the number of leaves. Under ambient UV-B, the growth performance of summer spinach was better in both the NPK levels, higher being at 1.5 RNPK leading to higher nutrient uptake. However, more reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B in 1.5 RNPK was recorded during summer, while during winter in RNPK. Reduction in biomass under elevated UV-B was accompanied by the modification in its partitioning with more biomass allocation to root during summer compared to winter at both the NPK levels. NPK uptake was higher in summer, while NPK use efficiencies were higher during winter. At higher than recommended NPK level, better NPK use efficiencies were displayed during both the seasons. Increased NPK supply during winter enabled spinach to capitalize light more efficiently and hence increased biomass accumulation. Strategies for surviving elevated UV-B in winter differ from those that provided protection from the same stress when it occurs in summer. PMID:24474564

Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

2014-05-01

304

Triglyceride accumulation and altered composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids in the skin of tenascin-X-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Tenascin-X (TNX) is a member of the tenascin family of glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. Here, we observed abnormalities in the skin of TNX-deficient mice in comparison with that of wild-type mice. Histological analysis with Oil Red O staining demonstrated that there was considerable accumulation of lipid in the skin of TNX-deficient (TNX-/-) mice. By thin-layer chromatography of total lipids, it was found that the level of triglyceride was significantly increased in TNX-/- mice. The mRNA levels of most of the lipogenic enzyme genes examined were remarkably increased in TNX-/- mice. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of triglyceride-associated fatty acids in the skin, saturated fatty acid palmitoic acid was decreased, whereas unsaturated fatty acids palmitoleic acid and oleic acid were increased in TNX-/- mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Conversely, fibroblast cell lines transfected with TNX showed a significant decrease in the amount of triglyceride. An increase in the saturated fatty acid stearic acid and decreases in the unsaturated fatty acids palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, compared to those in mock-transfected cells were also caused by over-expression of TNX. These results indicate that TNX is involved in the regulation of triglyceride synthesis and the regulation of composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids. PMID:15298681

Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Sato, Takashige; Oka, Seiko; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Kabayama, Kazuya; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

2004-08-01

305

Vector Percolation Analysis of Triglyceride-based Thermoset Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermosetting Acrylated triglycerides (ATG) were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The distribution of acrylate groups was calculated from the distribution of unsaturation sites on unmodified oils, assuming a binomial distribution of acrylate groups. The ATG were both homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link density v, of the polymers was calculated using the recursive method of Miller and Macosko from a knowledge of the acrylate distribution. The cross-link density was found to increase with the level of acrylation A, in a vector percolation manner, and the trends in the cross-link density predictions matched the experimental results. The deviation in the experimental results and model predictions were the result of intramolecular cross-linking. Approximately 0.5 and 0.8 acrylates per triglyceride were lost to intramolecular cyclization for homopolymerized acrylated triglycerides and triglycerides copolymerized with styrene, respectively. Equations for the level of perfection p, of the triglyceride networks and the percolation threshold pc, were developed using the calculated number of acrylates lost to cyclization. Polymers with p < 0.1 without styrene, and p < 0.39 with styrene did not have mechanical integrity, validating the definition of the level of perfection and percolation threshold pc. The tensile strength, S ˜ [p-p]^1/2 and modulus E ˜ [p-pc]^3 , were in accord with vector percolation theory, where p could be derived experimentally via A ˜ [p-pc] , v ˜ A and FTIR analysis of the extent of reaction of the C=C groups. These results also indicated how mechanical properties were controlled by the fatty acid distribution function of the plant oils, and which oil would give the best particular property. Supported by EPA and DoE.

Lascala, John J.; Wool, Richard P.

2003-03-01

306

Elevated CC Chemokine Level in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Is Predictive of a Poor Outcome of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CC chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Elevated CC chemokine levels have been observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Objectives:We aimed to examine whether the levels of four CC chemokines, i.e. monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1\\/CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?\\/CCL3), thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC\\/CCL17), and macrophage-derived chemokine

Hiromi Shinoda; Sadatomo Tasaka; Seitaro Fujishima; Wakako Yamasawa; Keisuke Miyamoto; Yasushi Nakano; Hirofumi Kamata; Naoki Hasegawa; Akitoshi Ishizaka

2009-01-01

307

Elevated Levels of G-Quadruplex Formation in Human Stomach and Liver Cancer Tissues  

PubMed Central

Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, we show that BG4, a G-quadruplex-specific antibody, can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a significantly elevated number of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our results suggest that G-quadruplex formation can be detected and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers.

Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; Miller, Jodi; Howat, William J.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

2014-01-01

308

Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection  

PubMed Central

Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27?U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27?U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, ?-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27?U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC.

Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

2013-01-01

309

Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

1988-01-01

310

PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.  

PubMed

The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ?40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7 %, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4 % in normal weight, 19.9 % in overweight and 24.5 % in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. PMID:24691744

Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

2014-07-01

311

A patient with abdominal pain and markedly elevated transaminase levels after cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A 33-year-old white female with a history of cholecystectomy presented to the emergency department with intermittent severe abdominal pain radiating from the left upper quadrant to the right upper quadrant, associated with nausea and emesis. Three weeks previously the patient had presented to the emergency department with similar pain in the abdomen. Laboratory investigations had revealed elevated bilirubin, transaminase,

John Hart; Smruti R Mohanty; Rajesh N Keswani

2006-01-01

312

Serum Level of Interleukin 8 Is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Indicates Disease Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that interleukin 8 (IL-8) is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pa- tients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and there is increasing evidence that it is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. To date, no data are available as to whether IL-8 is elevated in sera of IPF patients. We obtained sera from 42

MANFRED W. ZIEGENHAGEN; PETER ZABEL; GERNOT ZISSEL; MAX SCHLAAK; JOACHIM MÜLLER-QUERNHEIM

313

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

SciTech Connect

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

1993-12-01

314

Direct Antidiabetic Effect of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from

Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger

1997-01-01

315

A risk factor for atherosclerosis: triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.  

PubMed

Compelling evidence from meta-analysis of a number of clinical studies on a large aggregate of patients has established an increased level of triglycerides as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease. The finding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in human atheromata has provided substantial pathophysiologic evidence for a direct role in atherogenesis. Hypertriglyceridemia is commonly embedded in the context of a metabolic syndrome that includes central obesity, insulin resistance, low levels of HDL cholesterol, and often hypertension. Hypertriglyceridemia also appears to underlie the phenomenon of small dense LDL in most instances. Therapeutic interventions must be directed at underlying obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes when present, as well as addressing metabolic determinants of dyslipidemia per se. Diet, exercise, weight loss, and avoidance of alcohol are the cornerstones of treatment. The choice of medication should be based on the lipoprotein phenotype. Niacin, fibric acid derivatives, and omega-3 fatty acids are most useful in treating severe hypertriglyceridemia. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are useful in some phenotypes with moderately increased triglyceride levels. Evidence from a number of clinical trials indicates that mitigation of risk of coronary heart disease, and possibly stroke, can be effected by reducing levels of plasma triglycerides. PMID:11795072

Malloy, M J; Kane, J P

2001-01-01

316

Comparison of DNA Adduct Levels in Human Placenta from Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposed Women and Smokers in Which CYP 1A1 Levels Are Similarly Elevated.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cigarette smoking is associated with high elevations in levels of both cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and DNA adducts in human placenta. The identity of the smoking related adducts is not known. The DNA adducts identified in placenta of smokers could resul...

J. E. Gallagher R. B. Everson J. Lewtas M. George G. W. Lucier

1994-01-01

317

COMPARISON OF DNA ADDUCT LEVELS IN HUMAN PLACENTA FROM POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSED WOMEN AND SMOKERS IN WHICH CYP 1A1 LEVELS ARE SIMILARLY ELEVATED  

EPA Science Inventory

Cigarette smoking is associated with high elevations in levels of both cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and DNA adducts in human placenta. he identity of the smoking related adducts is not known. he DNA adducts identified in placenta of smokers could result from chemicals resent in ...

318

Overweight and obesity and elevated serum cystatin C levels in US adults  

PubMed Central

Background Although high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, limited data exist on the association of overweight and obesity with early stages of kidney disease. Methods Cross-sectional data for 5083 participants of the nationally representative Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ? 60 ml/min/1.73m2 without micro- or macro-albuminuria were analyzed to determine the association between BMI and elevated serum cystatin C. Normal weight, overweight, class I obesity, and class II–III obesity were defined as a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2, 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 and ? 35.0 kg/m2, respectively. Elevated serum cystatin C was defined as ? 1.09 mg/L (?99th percentile for participants 20 to 39 years of age without diabetes, hypertension, micro- or macro-albuminuria or stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease). Results The age-standardized prevalence of elevated serum cystatin C was 9.6%, 12.9%, 17.4%, and 21.5% among adults of normal weight, overweight, class I obesity, and class II–III obesity, respectively (p-trend<0.001). After multivariate adjustment for demographics, behaviors, systolic blood pressure and serum biomarkers and compared to normal weight participants, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of elevated serum cystatin C was 1.46 (1.02–2.10) for overweight, 2.36 (1.56–3.57) for class I obesity, and 2.82 (1.56–5.11) for class II–III obesity. Conclusion A graded association exists between higher BMI and elevated serum cystatin C. Further research is warranted to assess whether reducing BMI favorably impacts elevated serum cystatin C and the development of chronic kidney disease.

Muntner, Paul; Winston, Jonathan; Uribarri, Jaime; Mann, Devin; Fox, Caroline S.

2011-01-01

319

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

1985-12-31

320

Response of the floating aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides to elevated CO 2 , temperature, and phosphorus levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azolla filiculoides is a floating aquatic fern growing in tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. As A. filiculoides has symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena azollae) within its leaf cavities, it is cultivated in rice paddies to improve N availability and suppress other wetland weeds. To\\u000a understand how C assimilation and N accumulation in A. filiculoides respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

Weiguo Cheng; Hidemitsu Sakai; Miwa Matsushima; Kazuyuki Yagi; Toshihiro Hasegawa

2010-01-01

321

Elevated levels of activated NHE1 protect the myocardium and improve metabolism following ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

In the myocardium, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH. Inhibition of NHE1 activity has been shown to be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. However, recent reports have suggested that elevation of NHE1 levels has beneficial effects in hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. We determined if activated and non-activated NHE1 proteins have varying cardioprotective and metabolic effects with ischemia/reperfusion in the isolated perfused working mouse heart. We used transgenic mice hearts that specifically expressed wild type NHE1 (N-line) or activated NHE1 protein (K-line). Intact hearts 10-12 weeks of age were perfused under working conditions, with fatty acids and glucose present as substrates. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of aerobic perfusion, followed by 20 min of global no-flow ischemia and 40 min of aerobic reperfusion. We examined changes in contractility and substrate use and ATP levels. K-line hearts expressing activated NHE1, recovered to a much greater extent than N-line and control hearts recovering almost 75% of their preischemic function. In addition, K-line hearts had elevated fatty acid oxidation, increased glycolysis rates and elevated ATP levels relative to N-line mice or controls. An examination of kinase activation showed that there were no differences between controls and transgenics in ERK, p38, p90(rsk) or pGSK3? levels. The results demonstrate that elevated levels of NHE1 induce cardioprotection and alter cardiac metabolism. However, in the working heart model, with glucose and fatty acid as substrates, this required an activated NHE1 protein. PMID:20974148

Mraiche, Fatima; Wagg, Cory S; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Fliegel, Larry

2011-01-01

322

Tinnitus, Diminished Sound-Level Tolerance, and Elevated Auditory Activity in Humans With Clinically Normal Hearing Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Phantom sensations and sensory hypersensitivity are disordered perceptions that characterize a variety of intractable conditions involving the somatosensory, visual, and auditory modalities. We report physiological correlates of two perceptual abnormalities in the auditory domain: tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, and hyperacusis, a decreased tolerance of sound based on loudness. Here, subjects with and without tinnitus, all with clinically normal hearing thresholds, underwent 1) behavioral testing to assess sound-level tolerance and 2) functional MRI to measure sound-evoked activation of central auditory centers. Despite receiving identical sound stimulation levels, subjects with diminished sound-level tolerance (i.e., hyperacusis) showed elevated activation in the auditory midbrain, thalamus, and primary auditory cortex compared with subjects with normal tolerance. Primary auditory cortex, but not subcortical centers, showed elevated activation specifically related to tinnitus. The results directly link hyperacusis and tinnitus to hyperactivity within the central auditory system. We hypothesize that the tinnitus-related elevations in cortical activation may reflect undue attention drawn to the auditory domain, an interpretation consistent with the lack of tinnitus-related effects subcortically where activation is less potently modulated by attentional state. The data strengthen, at a mechanistic level, analogies drawn previously between tinnitus/hyperacusis and other, nonauditory disordered perceptions thought to arise from neural hyperactivity such as chronic neuropathic pain and photophobia.

Halpin, Christopher F.; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Levine, Robert A.; Melcher, Jennifer R.

2010-01-01

323

Mechanisms of Disease: lessons from ethnicity in the role of triglyceride metabolism in ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean risk factor levels in various ethnic groups illustrate the potential importance of triglyceride metabolism in the risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Serum triglyceride concentrations are a surrogate for a range of potentially atherogenic disturbances in lipoprotein species, including increased concentrations of remnants of VLDL and chylomicron metabolism, increased small, dense LDL concentrations and reduced HDL concentrations. Differences between

Desmond G Johnston; Nishi Chaturvedi; Ian F Godsland

2007-01-01

324

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

2013-11-01

325

Short-term influence of elevation of plasma homocysteine levels on cognitive function in young healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Acute homocysteine elevation has been shown to have a significant impact on cognitive function in animal models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Investigation of the short-term impact of elevation of plasma homocysteine levels through a dietary intervention on cognitive\\u000a abilities of young healthy adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  100 healthy medical students of both genders were enrolled in the study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and Measurements  Homocysteine levels and cognitive abilities were measured

P. Alexopoulos; S. Lehrl; T. Richter-Schmidinger; A. Kreusslein; T. Hauenstein; F. Bayerl; P. Jung; T. Kneib; A. Kurz; J. Kornhuber; S. Bleich

2010-01-01

326

Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-?, IL6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-?, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats

Sushil K. Jain; Justin L. Rains; Jennifer L. Croad

2007-01-01

327

Elevated IgE level in relationship to nutritional status and immune parameters in early human immunodeficiency virus–1 disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation of IgE has been associated with T-cell dysregulation and with the occurrence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The precise cause of IgE overproduction during the early stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 disease, however, has not been established. In light of reports demonstrating that IgE production may be affected by vitamin E levels in an

Gail Shor-Posner; Maria Jose Miguez-Burbano; Ying Lu; Daniel Feaster; MaryAnn Fletcher; Howerde Sauberlich; Marianna K. Baum

1995-01-01

328

Elevation of circulating plasma cytokines in cancer patients with high plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein\\/peptide (PTHrP) bind to the same PTH\\/PTHrP receptor and stimulate osteoblasts to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6. In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, elevation of plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-6 was also described. We, therefore, postulated that PTHrP secreted from cancer cells stimulates the secretion of cytokines and causes increases in

S Takahashi; M Hakuta; K Aiba; Y Ito; N Horikoshi; M Miura; K Hatake; E Ogata

2003-01-01

329

Increased prevalence of combined MTR and MTHFR genotypes among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine plasma levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of the methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A?G polymorphism among individuals with severely elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels is unknown. Therefore, 1,716 subjects, including 415 hemodialysis patients, 179 peritoneal dialysis patients, 733 kidney graft recipients, and 389 healthy subjects, were investigated. The distribution of MTR 2756A?G, as well as 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C?T\\/1298A?C, genotypes among study participants with extremely

Alexandra Feix; Robert Fritsche-Polanz; Josef Kletzmayr; Andreas Vychytil; Walter H. Hörl; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Manuela Födinger

2001-01-01

330

Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study?  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L). Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ?4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs), and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years) entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD) serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo) from 3.57 (0.30) mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41) mmol/L (change, ?19.9%). Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%]) achieved a ?15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%]) (P<0.001). Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD) serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22) mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44) mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo) (change, ?12.3%); the mean (SD) triglyceride (TG) level decreased significantly, from 1.59 (0.57) mmol/L to 1.48 (0.57) mmol/L (P<0.01 vs baseline; P<0.05 vs placebo) (change, ?6.9%); and the mean (SD) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level increased significantly from 1.05 (0.18) mmol/L to 1.16 (0.21) mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo) (change, +10.5%). The percentage changes were significantly different between the policosanol and placebo groups for serum LDL-C, TC, and HDL-C levels (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.05, respectively), but not for TG. In the placebo group, changes in lipid profile variables from baseline were not significant. Policosanol did not significantly impair any safety indicator and was well tolerated. Three patients (3%) (1 patient [2%] in the policosanol group; 2 patients [4%] in the placebo group) withdrew from the trial, none because of AEs. Two patients (1 patient [2%] each in the policosanol and placebo groups) withdrew from the study because of an unwillingness to return for follow-up; 1 patient (2%) in the placebo group had a change of address and could not be followed up. Overall, 4 patients (4%) (1 patient [2%] in the policosanol group; 3 [6%], placebo) reported AEs; all were mild. Of the patients who received placebo and reported AEs, all 3 (6%) experienced heartburn, and 1 (2%) also experienced dry skin, while the policosanol-treated patient (2%) who reported an AE experienced headache. Conclusions In this study of patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels, based on the criterion that ?70% of policosanol-treated patients reached the LDL-C goal of a decrease ?15% from baseline whenever this proportion was different with respect to placebo, 8 weeks of treatment with policosanol 5 mg/d was effective. The decreased LDL-C, TC, and TG levels, increased HDL-C level, and good tolerability found with this treatment support its use in such patients.

Castano, Gladys; Mas, Rosa; Fernandez, Julio; Lopez, Ernesto; Illnait, Jose; Fernandez, Lilia; Mesa, Meylin

2003-01-01

331

Elevated Vitamin D Receptor Levels in Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats Are Associated With Downregulation of Snail  

PubMed Central

Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) and genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats, an animal model of IH, are both characterized by normal serum Ca, hypercalciuria, Ca nephrolithiasis, reduced renal Ca reabsorption, and increased bone resorption. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels are elevated or normal in IH and are normal in GHS rats. In GHS rats, vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein levels are elevated in intestinal, kidney, and bone cells, and in IH, peripheral blood monocyte VDR levels are high. The high VDR is thought to amplify the target-tissue actions of normal circulating 1,25(OH)2D levels to increase Ca transport. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby Snail may contribute to the high VDR levels in GHS rats. In the study, Snail gene expression and protein levels were lower in GHS rat tissues and inversely correlated with VDR gene expression and protein levels in intestine and kidney cells. In human kidney and colon cell lines, ChIP assays revealed endogenous Snail binding close to specific E-box sequences within the human VDR promoter region, whereas only one E-box specifically bound Snail in the rat promoter. Snail binding to rat VDR promoter E-box regions was reduced in GHS compared with normal control intestine and was accompanied by hyperacetylation of histone H3. These results provide evidence that elevated VDR in GHS rats likely occurs because of derepression resulting from reduced Snail binding to the VDR promoter and hyperacetylation of histone H3. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Bai, Shaochun; Wang, Hongwei; Shen, Jikun; Zhou, Randal; Bushinsky, David A; Favus, Murray J

2010-01-01

332

Elevated serum homocysteine level has a positive correlation with serum cardiac troponin I in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to find out whether the increased serum homocysteine level is associated with the increased serum troponin I as a surrogate marker of extent of myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction patients. Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with increased thrombosis. In patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), it is not known whether this association is reflected in the degree of myocardial injury. This was a cross sectional study conducted among the patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Department of Cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital during the period of October 2009 to September 2010 and which included 194 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. The mean (+/- SD) serum homocysteine level was 20.2 +/- 14.3 micromol/L with range from 7.4 to 129.1 micromol/L. Mean serum troponin-I level was classified according to normal (<15 micromol/L) and high (> or = 15 micromol/L) levels of serum homocysteine values. The mean serum troponin-I level was 8.9 +/- 8.6 ng/ml in the patients having normal serum homocysteine level and 18.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml in the patients having high serum homocysteine level. A significant positive correlation (r=0.273; p<0.001) was found between serum troponin-I level with homocysteine level. Patients with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (> or = 15 micromol/L) was found to be 7.09 times more likely to have increased serum troponin-I (a surrogate marker of extent of myocardial injury). The main observation of the present study was that elevated serum homocysteine level has a positive correlation with serum cardiac troponin-I in patients with acute myocardial infarction. So serum homocysteine is associated with increased extent of myocardial injury as measured by serum cardiac troponin-I level, a surrogate marker in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22545344

Alam, N; Khan, H I L R; Chowdhury, A W; Haque, M S; Ali, M S; Sabah, K M N; Amin, M G

2012-04-01

333

Elevated level of lysine 9-acetylated histone H3 at the MDR1 promoter in multidrug-resistant cells.  

PubMed

Failure of chemotherapy in breast cancer presents a major problem and is often due to elevated expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC)-type transporters, such as MDR1 protein. It has been shown that MDR1/ABCB1 gene expression is regulated at the chromatin level by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. However, the modified histone residues have not been identified and the role of various histone acetyl transferases (HATs) is not fully understood. By studying a breast carcinoma model cell line and its MDR1-overexpressing derivative, we show that the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation level is elevated 100-fold in the promoter and first exon of the MDR1 gene in the drug-resistant cell line compared to the drug-sensitive cell line. The acetylation level of the other examined lysine residues (H3K4, H3K14, H4K8, and H4K12) is weakly or not at all elevated in the MDR1 locus, although their acetylation is generally increased genome-wide in the drug-resistant cell. Downregulation of the expression of HATs PCAF and GCN5 by RNAi effectively reduces the expression of MDR1. Unexpectedly, treatment with a p300-selective inhibitor (HAT inhibitor II) further increases MDR1 expression and drug efflux in the drug-resistant cells. Our data suggest that repeated exposure to chemotherapy may result in deregulated histone acetylation genome-wide and in the MDR1 promoter. PMID:22320423

Toth, Monika; Boros, Imre M; Balint, Eva

2012-04-01

334

Peritoneal tuberculosis with elevated serum Ca125 level mimicking advanced stage ovarian cancer: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tuberculosis is still a common problem in immigrant population with peritoneal tuberculosis as the most common presentation\\u000a of extrapulmonary disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A 36-year-old woman presented with abdominal distention, night sweats and weight loss. Physical examination and radiologic\\u000a studies revealed ascites, omental caking and bilateral enlarged ovaries with an elevated serum Ca-125 of 353 U\\/mL. Acid-fast\\u000a stain and culture were negative for Mycobacterium

Orkun Tan; Edward Luchansky; Stephen Rosenman; Tarah Pua; Masoud Azodi

2009-01-01

335

Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary  

PubMed Central

Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery.

Sinha, Navin Kumar

2014-01-01

336

Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.  

PubMed

Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

Sinha, Navin Kumar

2014-03-01

337

Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides.  

PubMed

Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration is reemerging as an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. More complete understanding of the genes and variants that modulate plasma TG should enable development of markers for risk prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies and might help specify new directions for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified both known and novel loci associated with plasma TG concentration. However, genetic variation at these loci explains only ?10% of overall TG variation within the population. As the GWAS approach may be reaching its limit for discovering genetic determinants of TG, alternative genetic strategies, such as rare variant sequencing studies and evaluation of animal models, may provide complementary information to flesh out knowledge of clinically and biologically important pathways in TG metabolism. Herein, we review genes recently implicated in TG metabolism and describe how some of these genes likely modulate plasma TG concentration. We also discuss lessons regarding plasma TG metabolism learned from various genomic and genetic experimental approaches. Treatment of patients with moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia with existing therapies is often challenging; thus, gene products and pathways found in recent genetic research studies provide hope for development of more effective clinical strategies. PMID:21041806

Johansen, Christopher T; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A

2011-02-01

338

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management.  

PubMed

Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (? 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; Descamps, Olivier S; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ray, Kausik K; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F

2011-06-01

339

Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.  

PubMed

Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia. PMID:24984153

Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

2014-07-25

340

Circulating Heat Shock Protein 60 Levels Are Elevated in HIV Patients and Are Reduced by Anti-Retroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Circulating heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10) have been associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. To determine whether these heat shock proteins might be associated with the immune activation seen in HIV-infected patients, the plasma levels of Hsp60 and Hsp10 were determined in a cohort of 20 HIV-infected patients before and after effective combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). We show for the first time that circulating Hsp60 levels are elevated in HIV-infected patients, with levels significantly reduced after cART, but still higher than those in HIV-negative individuals. Hsp60 levels correlated significantly with viral load, CD4 counts, and circulating soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide levels. No differences or correlations were seen for Hsp10 levels. Elevated circulating Hsp60 may contribute to the immune dysfunction and non-AIDS clinical events seen in HIV-infected patients.

Anraku, Itaru; Rajasuriar, Reena; Dobbin, Caroline; Brown, Richard; Lewin, Sharon R.; Suhrbier, Andreas

2012-01-01

341

NO-dependent and -independent elevation of plasma levels of insulin and glucose in rats by L-arginine.  

PubMed Central

1. L-Arginine elevates plasma insulin in man. Recent in vitro data indicate that this is based on stimulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) with subsequent pancreatic release of insulin by L-arginine. L-Arginine also raises plasma glucose. 2. We studied plasma levels of insulin, glucose and NO metabolites, as well as systemic blood pressure, in anaesthetized rats during i.v. infusion of L-arginine (25-200 mg kg-1 min-1) or glucose (55 mg kg-1 min-1), before and after administration of the NO synthesis inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg kg-1). 3. Before L-NAME, L-arginine elevated plasma insulin from about 15 to 65 ul-1 and glucose from 5.2 to 6.7 mmol l-1. These effects of L-arginine were not dose-related. 4. L-NAME alone had no effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels, but diminished the effects of a low dose (25 mg kg-1 min-1) of L-arginine on plasma insulin by about 40%, and that on plasma glucose by more than 90%. In contrast, the effects of a high dose (200 mg kg-1 min-1) of L-arginine on plasma insulin and glucose levels were not affected by L-NAME. 5. L-NAME elevated systemic blood pressure by about 35 mmHg. L-Arginine (25-100 mg kg-1 min-1) had no effect on systemic blood pressure, either before or after L-NAME. L-Arginine (200 mg kg-1 min-1) lowered systemic blood pressure, both before and after L-NAME. 6. Glucose infusion elevated plasma glucose from about 5.5 to 6.8 mmol l-1, and plasma insulin from about 18 to 26 ul-1. 7. The basal plasma levels of the NO metabolite nitrate (18 +/- 4 mumol l-1) were not affected by L-arginine (200 mg kg-1 min-1). Plasma nitrosohaemoglobin was likewise unaffected by L-arginine (200 mg kg-1 min-1). 8. We conclude that L-arginine separately elevates plasma insulin and glucose levels, both by NO-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

Jun, T; Wennmalm, A

1994-01-01

342

MRI-Guided Biopsy of the Prostate Increases Diagnostic Performance in Men with Elevated or Increasing PSA Levels after Previous Negative TRUS Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesRepeatedly negative prostate biopsies in individuals with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels can be frustrating for both the patient and the urologist. This study was performed to investigate if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transrectal biopsy increases diagnostic performance in individuals with elevated or increasing PSA levels after previous negative conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies.

Aristotelis G. Anastasiadis; Matthias P. Lichy; Udo Nagele; Markus A. Kuczyk; Axel S. Merseburger; Joerg Hennenlotter; Stefan Corvin; Karl-Dietrich Sievert; Claus D. Claussen; Arnulf Stenzl; Heinz-Peter Schlemmer

2006-01-01

343

Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?  

PubMed

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet. PMID:15091467

Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

1995-01-01

344

Elevated Cyclic AMP Levels in T Lymphocytes Transformed by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1?  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), transforms CD4+ T cells to permanent growth through its transactivator Tax. HTLV-1-transformed cells share phenotypic properties with memory and regulatory T cells (T-reg). Murine T-reg-mediated suppression employs elevated cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels as a key regulator. This led us to determine cAMP levels in HTLV-1-transformed cells. We found elevated cAMP concentrations as a consistent feature of all HTLV-1-transformed cell lines, including in vitro-HTLV-1-transformed, Tax-transformed, and patient-derived cells. In transformed cells with conditional Tax expression, high cAMP levels coincided with the presence of Tax but were lost without it. However, transient ectopic expression of Tax alone was not sufficient to induce cAMP. We found specific downregulation of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in HTLV-1-transformed cells, which was independent of Tax in transient expression experiments. This is in line with the notion that PDE3B transcripts and cAMP levels are inversely correlated. Overexpression of PDE3B led to a decrease of cAMP in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Decreased expression of PDE3B was associated with inhibitory histone modifications at the PDE3B promoter and the PDE3B locus. In summary, Tax transformation and its continuous expression contribute to elevated cAMP levels, which may be regulated through PDE3B suppression. This shows that HTLV-1-transformed cells assume biological features of long-lived T-cell populations that potentially contribute to viral persistence.

Kress, Andrea K.; Schneider, Grit; Pichler, Klemens; Kalmer, Martina; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Grassmann, Ralph

2010-01-01

345

Elevated serum IGF-1 levels synergize PTH action on the skeleton only when the tissue IGF-1 axis is intact  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that IGF-1 and PTH have synergistic actions on bone and that part of the anabolic effects of PTH are mediated by local production of IGF-1. In this study we analyzed the skeletal response to PTH in mouse models with manipulated endocrine or autocrine/paracrine IGF-1. We utilized mice carrying a hepatic IGF-1 transgene (HIT), which results in a 3-fold increase in serum IGF-1 levels and normal tissue IGF-1 expression, and IGF-1 null mice with blunted IGF-1 expression in tissues but 3-fold increases in serum IGF-1 levels (KO-HIT). Evaluation of skeletal growth showed that elevations in serum IGF-1 in mice with igf-1 gene ablation in all tissues except the liver (KO-HIT) resulted in a restoration of skeletal morphology and mechanical properties by adulthood. Intermittent PTH treatment of adult HIT mice resulted in increases in serum osteocalcin levels, femoral total cross-sectional area, cortical bone area and cortical bone thickness, as well as bone mechanical properties. We found that the skeletal response of HIT mice to PTH was significantly higher than that of control mice, suggesting synergy between IGF-1 and PTH on bone. In sharp contrast, although PTH-treated KO-HIT mice demonstrated an anabolic response in cortical and trabecular bone compartments compared to vehicle treated KO-HITs, their response was identical to that of PTH-treated control mice. We conclude that 1) in the presence of elevated serum IGF-1 levels, PTH can exert an anabolic response in bone even in the total absence of tissue IGF-1 and, 2) elevations in serum IGF-1 levels synergize PTH action on bone only if the tissue IGF-1 axis is intact, thus enhancement of PTH anabolic actions is tissue IGF-1-dependent.

Elis, Sebastien; Courtland, Hayden-William; Wu, Yingjie; Sun, Hui; Rosen, Clifford J; Yakar, Shoshana

2011-01-01

346

Genipin crosslinking elevates the strength of electrochemically aligned collagen to the level of tendons.  

PubMed

Collagen-based tissue mimics are important in clinical research because collagen is the main structural element in tendons. The current study aimed to improve the mechanical strength of Electronically Aligned Collagen (ELAC) threads by optimizing several crosslinking parameters. The results indicated that elevating the concentration of genipin to 2% and the solvent to 90% ethanol significantly enhanced the wet ultimate tensile stress of ELAC threads to 109 MPa with a crosslinking degree of 65%. Furthermore, significantly higher adhesion and proliferation of hMSCs was observed in ELAC threads crosslinked with 2% genipin in 90% ethanol compared to 0.625% genipin in 1X PBS. In conclusion, ELAC threads with mechanical strength on par with native tendon have significant potential to be used as scaffolds in tendon tissue engineering applications. PMID:23032437

Alfredo Uquillas, Jorge; Kishore, Vipuil; Akkus, Ozan

2012-11-01

347

Influence of elevated levels of C-reactive protein on circulating endothelial progenitor cell function.  

PubMed

In vitro, C-reactive protein (CRP) impairs endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function; however, the influence of CRP on EPCs in vivo is unclear. We determined whether EPC function is impaired in adults with elevated plasma CRP concentrations, independent of other risk factors. EPCs were harvested from 75 adults (43 males, 32 females): 25 with low CRP (<1.0 mg/L); 25 with moderate CRP (1.0-3.0 mg/L); and 25 with high CRP (>3.0 mg/L). The capacity of EPCs to form colonies (colony assay), migrate (Boyden chamber), release angiogenic growth factor (ELISA) and resist apoptosis (active caspase-3) was determined. There were no significant differences between the CRP groups in EPC colony formation (CFU), migration (AU) or the ability to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; pg/mL): low (13 ± 3 CFU; 1255 ± 100 AU; 126 ± 24 pg/mL); moderate (11 ± 3 CFU; 1137 ± 85 AU; 97 ± 14 pg/mL); and high (13 ± 4 CFU; 1071 ± 80 AU; 119 ± 22 pg/mL) CRP. Staurosporine-stimulated activation of caspase-3 was also similar between the low (2.3 ± 0.2 ng/mL), moderate (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/mL), and high (2.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL) CRP groups. These results indicate that elevations in plasma CRP are not associated with impaired EPC function. EPC dysfunction may not play a role in CRP-related cardiovascular risk. PMID:24422709

Fasing, Kevin A; Nissan, Benjamin J; Greiner, Jared J; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

2014-04-01

348

Elevated natural killer cell levels and autoimmunity synergistically decrease uterine blood flow during early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether natural killer (NK) cell and autoimmune antibody acts synergistically, by the action of autoantibodies to increase NK cell number and cytotoxicity, to decrease uterine blood flow during early pregnancy in pregnant women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Methods Seventy-five pregnant women (between 5 and 7 weeks gestation) with a history of unexplained RSA were included in the study group. Forty-one pregnant women without a history of RSA were included as controls. All women with a history of RSA were tested for autoantibodies and number of peripheral blood natural killer (pbNK) cell by flow cytometry. Study populations were stratified into four groups by existence of autoantibody and degree of increase of pbNK cells. The uterine radial artery resistance index (RI) was measured by color-pulsed Doppler transvaginal ultrasound. Results The mean RI of the autoimmune antibody-positive (AA+) group (0.63±0.09) was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (0.53±0.10, P=0.001). The mean RI of the AA+/only-NK elevated (eNK) group (0.63±0.09) was significantly higher than those of the only-AA+ group (0.55±0.07, P=0.019) and the only-eNK group (0.57±0.07, P=0.021). Conclusion Concurrent elevation in NK cells and autoimmunity results in decreased uterine blood flow during early pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of RSA remain unexplained and larger scale studies are needed to confirm our conclusion and to develop diagnostic and therapeutic plans for women with a history of RSA.

Yi, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Jung Hyun; Koo, Hwa Seon; Bae, Ju Youn; Cha, Sun Wha

2014-01-01

349

Recognition of facial expressions in individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms: an eye-movement study.  

PubMed

Previous studies consistently reported abnormal recognition of facial expressions in depression. However, it is still not clear whether this abnormality is due to an enhanced or impaired ability to recognize facial expressions, and what underlying cognitive systems are involved. The present study aimed to examine how individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms differ from controls on facial expression recognition and to assess attention and information processing using eye tracking. Forty participants (18 with elevated depressive symptoms) were instructed to label facial expressions depicting one of seven emotions. Results showed that the high-depression group, in comparison with the low-depression group, recognized facial expressions faster and with comparable accuracy. Furthermore, the high-depression group demonstrated greater leftwards attention bias which has been argued to be an indicator of hyperactivation of right hemisphere during facial expression recognition. PMID:22288009

Wu, Lingdan; Pu, Jie; Allen, John J B; Pauli, Paul

2012-01-01

350

Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

NONE

1998-08-01

351

Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region.

Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

2011-01-01

352

Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.  

PubMed

Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients. PMID:24047564

Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

2013-01-01

353

The serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan elevates serum leptin levels in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a serotonin (5-HT) precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on serum leptin levels were investigated in mice. 5-HTP dose dependently increased serum leptin levels in mice. Pretreatment of the peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa suppressed 5-HTP-induced hyperleptinemia. These results suggest that the secretion of leptin may be modified by serotonergic mechanisms.

Jun Yamada; Yumi Sugimoto; Masanori Ujikawa

1999-01-01

354

Elevated gastrin levels in patients with colon cancer or adenomatous polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrin has been shown to stimulate the growth of carcinogenic-induced colon cancer in animals, and some human colon cancers grown in vitroor as xenografts in nude mice. We determined fasting plasma gastrin levels in control subjects and patients with adenomatous polyps or adenocarcinoma of the colon to determine whether abnormal levels occurred in either patient group. Blood samples were obtained

Jill Palmer Smith; John G. Wood; Travis E. Solomon

1989-01-01

355

Glucocorticoid Regulation of Leptin Synthesis and Secretion in Humans: Elevated Plasma Leptin Levels in Cushing's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin, the obese (ob) gene product, is an adipocyte-derived satiety factor that is involved in the regulation of food ingestion and body weight. To investigate glucocorticoid regulation of leptin syn- thesis and secretion in humans, we measured plasma leptin levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome with adrenal or pituitary adenoma and in patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Plasma leptin levels

HIROAKI MASUZAKI; YOSHIHIRO OGAWA; KIMINORI HOSODA; TAKASHI MIYAWAKI; IKUKO HANAOKA; JUNKO HIRAOKA; AKIKO YASUNO; HARUO NISHIMURA; YASUNAO YOSHIMASA; SHIGEO NISHI; KAZUWA NAKAO

356

Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

2011-01-01

357

An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels. PMID:20019590

Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

2010-01-01

358

PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)  

EPA Science Inventory

Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the F...

359

21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triglyceride test system. 862.1705 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

360

21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Triglyceride test system. 862.1705 Section...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended...

2009-04-01

361

Chitinase 3-Like 1 Protein Levels Are Elevated in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background Currently there are few studies characterising the nature and aetiology of human schistosome-related inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), also known as YKL-40, a molecule associated with inflammatory processes, and schistosome infection, morbidity and systemic cytokine levels. Methods Serological levels of CHI3L1 and a panel of cytokines (IFN-y, IL-4/5/6/9/10/13 and 17) were measured in two Zimbabwean populations resident in a high and low schistosome infection area. CHI3L1 levels were related to schistosome infection, haematuria status and cytokine levels after allowing for confounding variables. The effect of antihelminthic treatment with praziquantel on CHI3L1 levels was determined in 246 participants 6 weeks post-treatment. Results CHI3L1 levels increased with age in both areas but were significantly higher in the high infection areas compared to the low infection area. CHI3L1 levels were also higher in infected compared to uninfected individuals with this difference being significant in the youngest age group. Curative antihelminthic treatment resulted in a significant decrease in CHI3L1 levels. Of the cytokines, only IL-10 and IL-17 had a significant association with CHI3L1 levels, and this association was negative. Conclusions Serum CHI3L1 levels differ between infected and uninfected people before and after antihelminthic treatment. The greatest difference occurs in the youngest age group, in keeping with the period when schistosome-related pathological processes are initiated. Following from previous studies in non-infectious diseases showing that CHI3L1 is a biomarker for the inflammatory process, this study suggests that the potential for CHI3L1 as a biomarker for schistosome-related pathology should be explored further.

Appleby, Laura J.; Nausch, Norman; Bourke, Claire D.; Rujeni, Nadine; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Allen, Judith E.; Mutapi, Francisca

2012-01-01

362

Elevated serum levels of interleukin-17A in children with autism  

PubMed Central

Background The T-helper (Th)1/Th2 dichotomy dominated the field of immune regulation until interleukin (IL)-17-expressing T cells (Th17) were proposed to be a third lineage of helper T cells, the key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Autoimmunity to brain tissue may play a pathogenic role in autism. IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of IL-17A in relation to the degree of the severity of autism. Methods Serum IL-17A levels were measured by ELISA in 45 children with autism and 40 matched healthy controls. Results Children with autism had significantly higher serum IL-17A levels than healthy controls (P <0.001), with increased serum levels of IL-17A found in 48.9% of the autism group. Patients with severe autism had significantly higher serum IL-17A levels than those with mild to moderate autism (P?=?0.01), and raised serum IL-17A levels were significantly more common in children with severe autism (67.9%) than in those with mild to moderate autism (17.6%), P?=?0.001. Conclusions Serum IL-17A levels were raised in the group with autism, and the levels correlated significantly with the severity of autism. This is the first study to measure levels of IL-17A in relation to the severity of autism, to our knowledge. Further research, with a larger subject population, is warranted to determine whether the increase of serum IL-17A levels plasma has a pathogenic role in autism, and whether anti- IL-17A therapy could be useful

2012-01-01

363

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-07-01

364

Early childhood stress is associated with elevated antibody levels to herpes simplex virus type 1.  

PubMed

It is well known that children need solicitous parenting and a nurturing rearing environment to ensure their normal behavioral development. Early adversity often negatively impacts emotional and mental well-being, but it is less clearly established how much the maturation and regulation of physiological systems is also compromised. The following research investigated the effect of 2 different types of adverse childhood experiences, early deprivation through institutionalization and physical abuse, on a previously unexplored outcome: the containment of herpes simplex virus (HSV). The presence of HSV-specific antibody in salivary specimens was determined in 155 adolescents, including 41 postinstitutionalized, 34 physically-abused, and 80 demographically-similar control youth. Across 4 school and home days, HSV antibody was higher in both postinstitutionalized and physically-abused adolescents when compared with control participants. Because the prevalence of HSV infection was similar across the groups, the elevated antibody was likely indicative of viral recrudescence from latency. Total secretory Ig-A secretion was associated with HSV, but did not account for the group differences in HSV-specific antibody. These findings are likely caused by a failure of cellular immune processes to limit viral reactivation, indicating a persistent effect of early rearing on immune functioning. The fact that antibody profiles were still altered years after adoption into a more benevolent setting with supportive families suggests these results were not caused by contemporaneous factors, but rather reflect a lingering influence of earlier life experiences. PMID:19188604

Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Coe, Christopher L; Pollak, Seth D

2009-02-24

365

Serial Plasma Levels of Angiogenic Factors in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Patients with acute myocardial infarction show varying degrees of collateral development. However, the relationships between angiogenic factors and degree of collaterals are not well known. Subjects and Methods Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 59±10 years) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into one of 2 groups: group I (Rentrop collateral grade 0/1, n=34) or group II (grade 2/3, n=25). Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble VEGF receptor (sFlt-1), angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and soluble Tie-2 at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after PCI were measured. Results There were fewer diabetic patients and higher incidence of previous angina and multi-vessel disease in group II. Group II had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction and a trend toward longer pain-to-balloon time. Plasma levels of Ang-2, sFlt-1 were elevated prior to primary PCI and decreased after PCI, whereas plasma level of VEGF was relatively low initially, however rose after PCI. sTie-2 levels showed no significant interval change in group I, but decreased over time in group II. VEGF, sFlt-1, and Tie-2 levels did not differ between the groups at each time point. However, plasma levels of Ang-2 were higher in group I than in group II at baseline and at 48 hours. Conclusion Presence of collaterals in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI was associated with lesser rise in Ang-2 plasma level. VEGF showed a delayed response to acute ischemia compared to Ang-2. Clinical implications of our findings need to be investigated in further studies.

Kim, Bo Hyun; Her, Ae-Young; Kim, Jung-Sun; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Choi, Donghoon; Ha, Jong-Won; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo

2012-01-01

366

Pluronic L-81 ameliorates diabetic symptoms in db/db mice through transcriptional regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein  

PubMed Central

AIM: To test whether oral L-81 treatment could improve the condition of mice with diabetes and to investigate how L-81 regulates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity in the liver. METHODS: Genetically diabetic (db/db) mice were fed on chow supplemented with or without L-81 for 4 wk. The body weight, plasma glucose level, plasma lipid profile, and adipocyte volume of the db/db mice were assessed after treatment. Toxicity of L-81 was also evaluated. To understand the molecular mechanism, HepG2 cells were treated with L-81 and the effects on apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion and mRNA level of the MTP gene were assessed. RESULTS: Treatment of db/db mice with L-81 significantly reduced and nearly normalized their body weight, hyperphagia and polydipsia. L-81 also markedly decreased the fasting plasma glucose level, improved glucose tolerance, and attenuated the elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride. At the effective dosage, little toxicity was observed. Treatment of HepG2 cells with L-81 not only inhibited apoB secretion, but also significantly decreased the mRNA level of the MTP gene. Similar to the action of insulin, L-81 exerted its effect on the MTP promoter. CONCLUSION: L-81 represents a promising candidate in the development of a selective insulin-mimetic molecule and an anti-diabetic agent.

Au, Wo-Shing; Lu, Li-Wei; Tam, Sidney; Ko, Otis King Hung; Chow, Billy KC; He, Ming-Liang; Ng, Samuel S; Yeung, Chung-Man; Liu, Ching-Chiu; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie C

2009-01-01

367

Elevated serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of serum soluble interleukin 2 re- ceptor (sIL-2R) provide a reliable marker of disease activity in patients with hairy cell leukemia and adult T-cell leukemia\\/ lymphoma. The malignant cells in pa- tients with anaplastic large cell lym- phoma (ALCL) express CD30 and are usually positive for expression of CD25. We measured serum sIL-2R and soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels in

John E. Janik; John C. Morris; Stefania Pittaluga; Kristin McDonald; Mark Raffeld; Elaine S. Jaffe; Nicole Grant; Martin Gutierrez; Thomas A. Waldmann; Wyndham H. Wilson

368

Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03?±?10.41 ?g/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81?±?10.21 ?g/dL), p?=?0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04?±?4.11 ?g/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99?±?3.28 ?g/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 ?g/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention.

2014-01-01

369

Elevated Preoperative Phosphorus Levels Are an Independent Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with adverse long-term outcome in several populations, however, no prior studies evaluated short-term postoperative outcome. The present study evaluated the predictive value of phosphorus levels on 30-day outcome after vascular surgery. Methods: The study included patients scheduled for major vascular surgery (aortic aneurysm repair, lower extremity revascularization or carotid surgery), divided into four

Jan-Peter van Kuijk; Willem-Jan Flu; Michel Chonchol; Tabita M. Valentijn; Hence J. M. Verhagen; Jeroen J. Bax; Don Poldermans

2010-01-01

370

Elevated neurofilament light chain (NFL) mRNA levels in prediabetic peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that peripheral nerve injury occurs during the early stages of disease with mild glycemic dysregulation. Two proteins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neurofilament light chain (NFL), have been examined previously as possible markers of neuronal damage in the pathophysiology of neuropathies. Herein, we aimed to determine the potential value of circulatory NSE and NFL mRNA levels in prediabetic patients and in those with peripheral neuropathy. This prospective clinical study included 45 prediabetic patients and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. All prediabetic patients were assessed with respect to diabetes-related microvascular complications, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. mRNA levels of NSE and NFL were determined in the blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. NSE mRNA levels were similar between prediabetic and control groups (p > 0.05), whereas NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics than in controls (p < 0.001). NSE mRNA levels did not significantly differ between prediabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy (p > 0.05), while NFL mRNA levels were significantly higher in prediabetics with peripheral neuropathy than in those without (p = 0.038). According to correlation analysis, NFL mRNA levels were positively correlated with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire score in prediabetic patients (r = 0.302, p = 0.044). This is the first study to suggest blood NFL mRNA as a surrogate marker for early prediction of prediabetic peripheral neuropathy, while NSE mRNA levels may be of no diagnostic value in prediabetic patients. PMID:24733614

Celikbilek, Asuman; Tanik, Nermin; Sabah, Seda; Borekci, Elif; Akyol, Lutfi; Ak, Hakan; Adam, Mehmet; Suher, Murat; Yilmaz, Neziha

2014-06-01

371

Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic  

SciTech Connect

Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were rec