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1

Triglycerides  

MedlinePLUS

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

2

Rare LPL gene variants attenuate triglyceride reduction and HDL cholesterol increase in response to fenofibric acid therapy in  

E-print Network

Rare LPL gene variants attenuate triglyceride reduction and HDL cholesterol increase in response t Objective: Individuals with mixed dyslipidemia have elevated triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipo reserved. 1. Introduction Multiple studies have shown that genetic variants can affect triglycerides (TG

Keinan, Alon

3

CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid  

SciTech Connect

Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2013-01-15

4

Adiponectin Reduces Plasma Triglyceride by Increasing VLDL Triglyceride Catabolism  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. The main aims of this study are to investigate the effects of adiponectin on VLDL triglyceride (VLDL-TG) metabolism and the underlying mechanism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Adenoviruses were used to generate a mouse model with elevated circulating adiponectin. HepG2 and C2C12 cells were treated with recombinant human adiponectin. RESULTS—Three days after Ad-mACRP30 adenovirus injection, plasma adiponectin protein levels were increased 12-fold. All three main multimeric adiponectin molecules were proportionally elevated. Fasting plasma TG levels were significantly decreased (?40%) in the mice with elevated adiponectin in circulation, as were the plasma levels of large and medium VLDL subclasses. Although apolipoprotein B mRNA levels were robustly suppressed in the livers of adiponectin-overexpressing mice and in cultured HepG2 cells treated with recombinant human adiponectin, hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rates were not altered by elevated plasma adiponectin. However, Ad-mACRP30–treated mice exhibited a significant increase of postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity compared with mice that received control viral vector. Skeletal muscle LPL activity and mRNA levels of LPL and VLDL receptor (VLDLr) were also increased in Ad-mACRP30–treated mice. Recombinant human adiponectin treatment increased LPL and VLDLr mRNA levels in differentiated C1C12 myotubes. CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that adiponectin decreases plasma TG levels by increasing skeletal muscle LPL and VLDLr expression and consequently VLDL-TG catabolism. PMID:18375436

Qiao, Liping; Zou, Chenhui; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R.; Shao, Jianhua

2008-01-01

5

Triglycerides Test  

MedlinePLUS

... high triglyceride levels. Some risk factors for heart disease include: Cigarette smoking Age (men 45 years or older or ... cholesterol Being physically inactive, overweight, and/or obese Cigarette smoking Increased alcohol ... factors When triglycerides are very high ( ...

6

Glucokinase-activating GCKR polymorphisms increase plasma levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids, but do not elevate cardiovascular risk in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.  

PubMed

Two strongly correlated polymorphisms located within the gene of the glucokinase regulator protein (GKRP), rs780094 and rs1260326, are associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels and provide a genetic model for the long-term activation of hepatic glucokinase. Because pharmacological glucokinase activators are evaluated for the treatment of diabetes, the aim of the study was to assess if these polymorphisms could provide evidence for an increased cardiovascular risk of long-term glucokinase activation. Therefore, these polymorphisms were tested in 3 500 patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study, which was designed to assess cardiovascular risk factors. The two variants were associated with a significant increase of both plasma triglycerides (p<0.0001) and VLDL triglyceride levels (p<0.0001). Plasma free fatty acid concentrations were also significantly elevated (p<0.0078). LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were unchanged. No association was found with respect to coronary stenosis, myocardial infarction, left ventricular wall hypertrophy, and hypertension. In conclusion, long-term genetic glucokinase activation by the GKRP polymorphisms was not associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in the study population. PMID:20352598

Kozian, D H; Barthel, A; Cousin, E; Brunnhöfer, R; Anderka, O; März, W; Böhm, B; Winkelmann, B; Bornstein, S R; Schmoll, D

2010-06-01

7

Supplementary Figure 1 TC HDL-C N-HDL-C TG  

E-print Network

-cholesterol, N-HDL-C : non-HDL-cholesterol, TG : triglycerides *** *** inserm-00591959,version1-10May2011 Author-density lipoprotein cholesterol; N-HDL-C, non-HDL-C; TG, triglycerides. inserm-00591959,version1-10May2011 #12 cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; N-HDL-C, non-HDL-C; TG, triglycerides. inserm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP). Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism. PMID:25383314

Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Kaai; Ando, Midori; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

2014-01-01

9

A fatty acid-dependent hypothalamic-DVC neurocircuitry that regulates hepatic secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.  

PubMed

The brain emerges as a regulator of hepatic triglyceride-rich very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG). The neurocircuitry involved as well as the ability of fatty acids to trigger a neuronal network to regulate VLDL-TG remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that infusion of oleic acid into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) activates a MBH PKC-??KATP-channel signalling axis to suppress VLDL-TG secretion in rats. Both NMDA receptor-mediated transmissions in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and hepatic innervation are required for lowering VLDL-TG, illustrating a MBH-DVC-hepatic vagal neurocircuitry that mediates MBH fatty acid sensing. High-fat diet (HFD)-feeding elevates plasma TG and VLDL-TG secretion and abolishes MBH oleic acid sensing to lower VLDL-TG. Importantly, HFD-induced dysregulation is restored with direct activation of either MBH PKC-? or KATP-channels via the hepatic vagus. Thus, targeting a fatty acid sensing-dependent hypothalamic-DVC neurocircuitry may have therapeutic potential to lower hepatic VLDL-TG and restore lipid homeostasis in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25580573

Yue, Jessica T Y; Abraham, Mona A; LaPierre, Mary P; Mighiu, Patricia I; Light, Peter E; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

2015-01-01

10

Downregulation of adipose triglyceride lipase promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by triggering the accumulation of ceramides.  

PubMed

Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme of triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis, plays an important role in TG metabolism. ATGL knockout mice suffer from TG accumulation and die from heart failure. However, the mechanisms underlying cardiac hypertrophy caused by ATGL dysfunction remain unknown. In this study, we found that ATGL expression declined in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. ATGL knockdown led to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, while ATGL overexpression prevented PE-induced hypertrophy. In addition, ATGL downregulation increased but ATGL overexpression reduced the contents of ceramide, which has been proved to be closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, the accumulation of ceramide was due to elevation of free fatty acids in ATGL-knockdown cardiomyocytes, which could be explained by the reduced activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? leading to imbalance of fatty acid uptake and oxidation. These observations suggest that downregulation of ATGL causes the decreased PPAR? activity which results in the imbalance of FA uptake and oxidation, elevating intracellular FFA contents to promote the accumulation of ceramides, and finally inducing cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of ATGL could be a strategy for ameliorating lipotoxic damage in cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25436917

Gao, Hui; Feng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Zhuo-Ming; Li, Min; Gao, Si; He, Yan-Hong; Wang, Jiao-Jiao; Zeng, Si-Yu; Liu, Xue-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Shao-Rui; Liu, Pei-Qing

2015-01-01

11

Direct Antidiabetic Effect of Leptin through Triglyceride Depletion of Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from

Michio Shimabukuro; Kazunori Koyama; Guoxun Chen; May-Yun Wang; Falguni Trieu; Young Lee; Christopher B. Newgard; Roger H. Unger

1997-01-01

12

Early hyperactivity in lateral entorhinal cortex is associated with elevated levels of A?PP metabolites in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly today. One of the earliest symptoms of AD is olfactory dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of amyloid ? precursor protein (A?PP) metabolites, including amyloid-? (A?) and A?PP C-terminal fragments (CTF), on olfactory processing in the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) using the Tg2576 mouse model of human A?PP over-expression. The entorhinal cortex is an early target of AD related neuropathology, and the LEC plays an important role in fine odor discrimination and memory. Cohorts of transgenic and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice at 3, 6, and 16months of age (MO) were anesthetized and acute, single-unit electrophysiology was performed in the LEC. Results showed that Tg2576 exhibited early LEC hyperactivity at 3 and 6MO compared to WT mice in both local field potential and single-unit spontaneous activity. However, LEC single-unit odor responses and odor receptive fields showed no detectable difference compared to WT at any age. Finally, the very early emergence of olfactory system hyper-excitability corresponded not to detectable A? deposition in the olfactory system, but rather to high levels of intracellular A?PP-CTF and soluble A? in the anterior piriform cortex (aPCX), a major afferent input to the LEC, by 3MO. The present results add to the growing evidence of A?PP-related hyper-excitability, and further implicate both soluble A? and non-A? A?PP metabolites in its early emergence. PMID:25500142

Xu, Wenjin; Fitzgerald, Shane; Nixon, Ralph A; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

2015-02-01

13

The impact of plasma triglyceride and apolipoproteins concentrations on high-density lipoprotein subclasses distribution  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of triglyceride (TG) integrates with plasma major components of apolipoproteins in HDL subclasses distribution and further elicited the TG-apolipoproteins (apos) interaction in the processes of high density lipoprotein (HDL) mature metabolic and atherosclerosis related diseases. Methods Contents of plasma HDL subclasses were quantities by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with immunodetection in 500 Chinese subjects. Results Contents of pre?1-HDL, HDL3a, and apoB-100 level along with apoB-100/A-I ratio were significantly increased, whereas there was a significant reduction in the contents of HDL2, apoA-I level as well as apoC-III/C-II ratio with increased TG concentration. Moreover, pre?1-HDL contents is elevated about 9 mg/L and HDL2b contents can be reduced 21 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TG concentration. Moreover, with increase of apoA-I levels, HDL2b contents were marginally elevated in any TG concentration group. Furthermore, despite of in the apoB-100/A-I < 0.9 group, the contents of pre?1-HDL increased, and those of HDL2b decreased significantly for subjects in both high and very high TG levels compared to that in normal TG levels. Similarly, in the apoB-100/A-I ? 0.9 group, the distribution of HDL subclasses also showed abnormality for subjects with normal TG levels. Conclusions The particle size of HDL subclasses tend to small with TG levels increased which indicated that HDL maturation might be impeded and efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT) might be weakened. These data suggest that TG levels were not only significantly associated with but liner with the contents of pre?1-HDL and HDL2b. They also raise the possibility that the TG levels effect on HDL maturation metabolism are subjected to plasma apolipoproteins and apolipoproteins ratios. PMID:21251287

2011-01-01

14

Ruminal hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in dairy cows fed lipid-supplemented diets  

E-print Network

Ruminal hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in dairy cows fed lipid-supplemented diets D Bauchart1 that of dietary TG but was closely similar to that of rumen solid- adherent bacteria, which seemed to indi- cate that ruminal lipolysis of dietary TG was nearly complete. In high-fat diets, du- odenal TG were probably

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Endogenously labeled low density lipoprotein triglyceride and apoprotein B kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of endogenously labeled low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides (TG) and apoprotein B (apoB) have been studied in four normal and in four hyper- lipemic subjects using double tracers. Analysis of the data suggests that most LDL triglycerides turn over about 10 times faster than apoB (0.003\\/min vs. 0.0003imin) and that about 10% of the LDL particles contain most

Claude Malmendier; Mones Berman

2010-01-01

16

Triglyceride analysis by gas chromatography in assessment of authenticity of goat milk fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triglyceride (TG) composition of 35 samples of milk collected at different times of year from five herds of goats was\\u000a analyzed using short capillary column-gas chromatography. The distribution of TG in goat milk fat was unimodal, peaking at\\u000a C40 (12.6%); the sum of TG from C38 to C44 accounted for about 50%, whereas the three classes of TG from

J. Fontecha; V. Díaz; M. J. Fraga; M. Juárez

1998-01-01

17

Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereospecific analysis determines how the fatty acids of triglycerides are distributed over the three different positions\\u000a of the glycerol. The special problem is the differentiation of position I-1 and L-3 of glycerol. In the presently known methods,\\u000a triglycerides are first degraded to mixtures of diglycerides, either by the action of a lipase or by degradation with a Grignard\\u000a reagent. The

H. Brockerhoff

1971-01-01

18

Intramuscular triglyceride and muscle insulin sensitivity: Evidence for a relationship in nondiabetic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular triglyceride (TG) is an important energy source for skeletal muscle. However, recent evidence suggests that if muscle contains abnormally high TG stores its sensitivity to insulin may be reduced, and this could predispose to type II diabetes. To test this hypothesis, we measured muscle lipid content in 27 women aged 47 to 55 years (mean, 52) and related it

D. I. W. Phillips; S. Caddy; V. Ilic; B. A. Fielding; K. N. Frayn; A. C. Borthwick; R. Taylor

1996-01-01

19

Fenofibrate Increases Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Production Despite Reducing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice*  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (?38%) and TG (?60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[3H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (?68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [3H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver. PMID:20501652

Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; Maas, Annemarie C. E.; van der Hoorn, José W. A.; van Erk, Marjan J.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Havekes, Louis M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M. G.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

2010-01-01

20

Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.  

PubMed

Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified. PMID:25300978

Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

2015-01-01

21

Effects of apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes on the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk for metabolic syndrome in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) have pleiotropic effects on the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). APOA5 SNPs have also been associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here, we constructed haplotypes with SNPs spanning APOA5 and ZNF259, which are approximately 1.3 kb apart, to perform association analyses with the risk for MS and the levels of TG and HDL-C in terms of a TG:HDL-C ratio. Methods The effects of three constructed haplotypes (TAA, CGG, and CGA, in the order of rs662799, rs651821, and rs6589566) on the TG:HDL-C ratio and MS were estimated using multiple regression analyses in 2,949 Koreans and in each gender separately (1,082 men and 1,867 women). Results The haplotypes, CGG and CGA, were associated with the TG:HDL-C ratio and the risk of MS development in both genders. That is, the minor alleles of the rs662799 and rs651821 in APOA5, irrespective of which allele was present at rs6589566, had the marked effects. Interestingly, a C–G–A haplotype at these three SNPs had the most marked effects on the TG:HDL-C ratio and the risk of MS development in women. Conclusions We have identified the novel APOA5-ZNF259 haplotype manifesting sex-dependent effects on elevation of the TG:HDL-C ratio as well as the increased risk for MS. PMID:24618354

2014-01-01

22

Thyrotropin and obesity: increased adipose triglyceride content through glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyrotropin (TSH) is positively correlated with the severity of obesity. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that TSH promoted triglyceride (TG) synthesis in differentiated adipocytes in a thyroid hormone-independent manner. Mice with subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a 35% increase in the total white adipose mass compared with their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, which had normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, resisted high-fat diet-induced obesity. TSH could directly induce the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 3 (GPAT3), the rate-limiting enzyme in TG synthesis, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, following either the knockdown of Tshr and PPAR? or the constitutive activation of AMPK, the changes to TSH-triggered GPAT3 activity and adipogenesis disappeared. The over-expression of PPAR? or the expression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant reversed the TSH-induced changes. Thus, TSH acted as a previously unrecognized master regulator of adipogenesis, indicating that modification of the AMPK/PPAR?/GPAT3 axis via the TSH receptor might serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:25559747

Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Dongqing; Gao, Ling; Li, Yujie; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

23

Thyrotropin and Obesity: Increased Adipose Triglyceride Content Through Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase 3  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyrotropin (TSH) is positively correlated with the severity of obesity. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that TSH promoted triglyceride (TG) synthesis in differentiated adipocytes in a thyroid hormone-independent manner. Mice with subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a 35% increase in the total white adipose mass compared with their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, which had normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, resisted high-fat diet-induced obesity. TSH could directly induce the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 3 (GPAT3), the rate-limiting enzyme in TG synthesis, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, following either the knockdown of Tshr and PPAR? or the constitutive activation of AMPK, the changes to TSH-triggered GPAT3 activity and adipogenesis disappeared. The over-expression of PPAR? or the expression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant reversed the TSH-induced changes. Thus, TSH acted as a previously unrecognized master regulator of adipogenesis, indicating that modification of the AMPK/PPAR?/GPAT3 axis via the TSH receptor might serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:25559747

Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Dongqing; Gao, Ling; Li, Yujie; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

24

Characterization of triglyceride lipase genes of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

Triglycerides (TG) are major storage lipids for eukaryotic cells. In this study, we characterized three genes of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, SPCC1450.16c, SPAC1786.01c, and SPAC1A6.05c, that show high homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae TG lipase genes, TGL3, TGL4, and TGL5. Deletion of each gene increased TG content by approximately 1.7-fold compared to the parental wild-type strain, and their triple deletion mutant further increased TG content to 2.7-fold of the wild-type strain, suggesting that all three genes encode TG lipase and are functioning in S. pombe. The triple deletion mutant showed no growth defect in rich and synthetic medium, but its growth was sensitive to cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis. This growth defect by cerulenin was restored by adding oleic acid in media, suggesting that these genes were involved in the mobilization of TG in S. pombe. When ricinoleic acid was produced in the triple mutant by introducing CpFAH12 fatty acid hydroxylase gene from Claviceps purpurea, percent composition of ricinoleic acid increased by 1.1-fold compared to the wild-type strain, in addition to a 1.6-fold increase in total fatty acid content per dry cell weight (DCW). In total, the ricinoleic acid production per DCW increased by 1.8-fold in the triple deletion mutant. PMID:22592553

Yazawa, Hisashi; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Uemura, Hiroshi

2012-11-01

25

Spatiotemporal dynamics of triglyceride storage in unilocular adipocytes.  

PubMed

The spatiotemporal dynamics of triglyceride (TG) storage in unilocular adipocytes are not well understood. Here we applied ex vivo technology to study trafficking and metabolism of fluorescent fatty acids in adipose tissue explants. Live imaging revealed multiple cytoplasmic nodules surrounding the large central lipid droplet (cLD) of unilocular adipocytes. Each cytoplasmic nodule harbors a series of closely associated cellular organelles, including micro-lipid droplets (mLDs), mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum. Exogenously added free fatty acids are rapidly adsorbed by mLDs and concurrently get esterified to TG. This process is greatly accelerated by insulin. mLDs transfer their content to the cLD, serving as intermediates that mediate packaging of newly synthesized TG in the large interior of a unilocular adipocyte. This study reveals novel cell biological features that may contribute to the mechanism of adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:25298400

Chu, Michael; Sampath, Harini; Cahana, David Y; Kahl, Christoph A; Somwar, Romel; Cornea, Anda; Roberts, Charles T; Varlamov, Oleg

2014-12-15

26

A functional polymorphism affecting the APOA5 gene expression is causally associated with plasma triglyceride levels conferring coronary atherosclerosis risk in Han Chinese Population.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene plays a key role in plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and shows the involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD). A set of single nucleotide polymorphisms around the APOA5 gene was identified to be associated with plasma TG levels. It is of biological and clinical importance to discern the genuine genetic determinants. A polymorphism in 3' untranslated region of the APOA5 gene, rs2266788, is deserving of investigation for suggestive clues from the association in multiple independent studies. In this study, rs2266788 was genotyped in 3222 unrelated subjects consisting of 2062 CAD cases and 1160 controls. The statistical analyses indicated that the minor C allele of rs2266788 was significantly associated with elevated plasma TG levels and higher CAD risk. In normal human liver tissues, comparison of global APOA5 mRNA levels among genotypes and allelic expression imbalance analysis showed the decreased gene expression for the C allele. Luciferase assays confirmed a concordant result that transcriptional activity was lowered for the C allele compared with the T allele in four cell lines. Multiple lines of evidence in our study supported that rs2266788 was causally associated with plasma TG levels conferring CAD risk in Han Chinese population owing to a cis-acting effect to the APOA5 gene expression. PMID:25151233

Shou, Weihua; Wang, Ying; Xie, Fang; Wang, Beilan; Yang, Lin; Wu, Hong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Shi, Jinxiu; Huang, Wei

2014-11-01

27

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels  

PubMed Central

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58–175% increase, P < 0.05–0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64–75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19–38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3–1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101–137% increase, P < 0.05–0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63–192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance. PMID:19237736

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-01-01

28

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with elevated acylation stimulating protein plasma levels.  

PubMed

Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) is an adipose tissue derived hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis. ASP stimulates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by relieving feedback inhibition caused by fatty acids (FA). The present study examines plasma ASP and lipids in male and female LPL-deficient subjects primarily with the P207L mutation, common in the population of Quebec, Canada. We evaluated the fasting and postprandial states of LPL heterozygotes and fasting levels in LPL homozygotes. Homozygotes displayed increased ASP (58-175% increase, P < 0.05-0.01), reduced HDL-cholesterol (64-75% decrease, P < 0.0001), and elevated levels of TG (19-38-fold, P < 0.0001) versus control (CTL) subjects. LPL heterozygotes with normal fasting TG (1.3-1.9 mmol/l) displayed increased ASP (101-137% increase, P < 0.05-0.01) and delayed TG clearance after a fatload; glucose levels remained similar to controls. Hypertriglyceridemics with no known LPL mutation also had increased ASP levels (63-192% increase, P < 0.001). High-TG LPL heterozygotes were administered a fatload before and after fibrate treatment. The treatment reduced fasting and postprandial plasma ASP, TG, and FA levels without changing insulin or glucose levels. ASP enhances adipose tissue fatty-acid trapping following a meal; however in LPL deficiency, high ASP levels are coupled with delayed lipid clearance. PMID:19237736

Paglialunga, Sabina; Julien, Pierre; Tahiri, Youssef; Cadelis, Francois; Bergeron, Jean; Gaudet, Daniel; Cianflone, Katherine

2009-06-01

29

Causes of the triglyceride-lowering effect of exercise training in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies conducted with human subjects and laboratory animals have consistently shown a reduction in serum triglyceride (TG) in exercise-trained subjects. The obtained data have suggested that this decrease was due to a reduction in hepatic TG secretion. The present investigation, which was conducted with rats trained to attain a high level of spontaneous running activity, provides support for the earlier results. In addition, insights are obtained regarding the mechanism by which exercise lowers TG levels. Since the liver accounts for the vast majority of endogenous very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG secretion, the fall in TG secretion rate seen in exercise-trained (ET) rats must be due to a reduction in hepatic TG secretion.

Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Tobey, T.; Reaven, G. M.

1984-01-01

30

LDL and HDL enriched in triglyceride promote abnormal cholesterol transport.  

PubMed

Hypertriglyceridemia induces multiple changes in lipoprotein composition. Here we investigate how one of these modifications, triglyceride (TG) enrichment, affects HDL and LDL function when this alteration occurs under conditions in which more polar components can naturally re-equilibrate. TG-enriched lipoproteins were produced by co-incubating VLDL, LDL, and HDL with cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein. The resulting 2.5-fold increase in TG/CE ratio did not measurably alter the apoprotein composition of LDL or HDL, or modify LDL size. HDL mean diameter increased slightly from 9.1 to 9.4 nm. Modified LDL was internalized by fibroblasts normally, but its protein was degraded much less efficiently. This likely reflects an aberrant apolipoprotein B (apoB) conformation, as suggested by its resistance to V8 protease digestion and altered LDL electrophoretic mobility. TG-enriched LDL ineffectively down-regulated cholesterol biosynthesis compared with control LDL at the same protein concentration, but was equivalent in sterol regulation when compared on a cholesterol basis. TG-enriched HDL promoted greater net cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded J774 cells. However, cholesterol associated with TG-enriched HDL was inefficiently esterified by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and TG-enriched HDLs were poor donors of CE to HepG2 hepatocytes by selective uptake. We conclude that TG-enrichment, in the absence of other significant alterations in lipoprotein composition, is sufficient to alter both cholesterol delivery and removal mechanisms. Some of these abnormalities may contribute to increased coronary disease in hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:12177170

Skeggs, Josephine W; Morton, Richard E

2002-08-01

31

ApoB100 is required for increased VLDL-triglyceride secretion by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in ob/ob mice*  

PubMed Central

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp) is a key player in the assembly and secretion of hepatic very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Here we determined the effects of Mttp overexpression on hepatic triglyceride (TG) and VLDL secretion in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, specifically in relation to apolipoproteinB (apoB) isoforms. We crossed Apobec1?/? mice with congenic ob/ob mice to generate apoB100-only ob/ob mice (A-ob/ob). The obesity phenotype in both genotypes was similar, but A-ob/ob mice had greater hepatic TG content. Administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing murine Mttp cDNA (Ad-mMTP) increased hepatic Mttp content and activity and increased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion in A-ob/ob mice. However, despite equivalent overexpression of Mttp, there was no change in VLDL-TG secretion in ob/ob mice in a wild-type Apobec1 background. Metabolic labeling studies in primary hepatocytes from A-ob/ob mice demonstrated that Ad-mMTP increased triglyceride secretion without changing the synthesis and secretion of apoB100, suggesting greater incorporation of TG into existing VLDL particles rather than increased particle number. Ad-mMTP administration failed to increase hepatic VLDL secretion in lean Apobec1?/? mice or controls. By contrast, VLDL secretion increased and hepatic TG content decreased following Ad-mMTP administration to human APOB transgenic mice crossed into the Apobec1?/? line. These findings demonstrate that Ad-mMTP increases murine hepatic VLDL-TG secretion only in the apoB100 background, and even then only in situations with either increased hepatic TG accumulation or increased apoB100 expression. PMID:18519977

Chen, Zhouji; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Norris, Jin Y.; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Kennedy, Susan M.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

2008-01-01

32

Triglycerides and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio are strong predictors of incident hypertension in Middle Eastern women.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia has been reported as a risk factor for incident hypertension in a few prospective studies, however, no study has specifically assessed different lipid measures including the lipid ratios, that is, total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs)/HDL-C as predictors of hypertension among Middle Eastern women with high prevalences of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The study population consisted of 2831 non-hypertensive women, aged ? 20 years. We measured lipoproteins, and calculated non-HDL-C and the lipid ratios. The risk-factor-adjusted odds ratios for incident hypertension were calculated for every 1 standard deviation (s.d.) change in TC, log-transformed TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Over a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 397 women developed hypertension. An increase of 1 s.d. in TG, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C increased the risk of incident hypertension by 16, 19 and 18%, respectively, and 1 s.d. increase in HDL-C decreased the risk of hypertension by 14% in the multivariable model (all P ? 0.05). In models excluding women with diabetes and central or general obesity, TG, TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C remained as independent predictors of incident hypertension. In conclusion, dyslipidemia, using serum TG and TG/HDL-C, in particular, may be useful in identification of women at risk of hypertension, even in those without diabetes and central or general obesity. PMID:21776016

Tohidi, M; Hatami, M; Hadaegh, F; Azizi, F

2012-09-01

33

Influence of nicotinic acid on metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides in man1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms for the hypolipidemic action of nicotinic acid were examined in 12 patients with hyper- lipidemia. Most patients were studied in the hospital on a metabolic ward. The first month was a control period followed by 1 month on nicotinic acid. During treatment with nicotinic acid, the triglycerides (TG) decreased in total plasma by an average of 52% and

Scott M. Grundy; Henry Y. I. Mok; Loren Zech; Mones Berman

34

Triglycerides-based diesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts are under way in many countries, including India, to search for suitable alternative diesel fuels that are environment friendly. The need to search for these fuels arises mainly from the standpoint of preserving the global environment and the concern about long-term supplies of conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. Among the different possible sources, diesel fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils\\/animal

Anjana Srivastava; Ram Prasad

2000-01-01

35

The Paradox of ApoA5 Modulation of Triglycerides: Evidences from Clinical and Basic Research  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides (TG), although its plasma concentration is very low compared to other known apoproteins. Over the years, researchers have attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ApoA5 regulates plasma TG in vivo. Though still under debate, two theories broadly describe how ApoA5 modulates TG levels: (i) ApoA5 enhances the catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and (ii) it inhibits the rate of production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the major carrier of TGs. This review will summarize the basic and clinical studies that have attempted to describe the importance of ApoA5 in TG metabolism. Population studies conducted in various countries have demonstrated an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ApoA5 and the increased risk to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (including diabetes and obesity). ApoA5 is also highly expressed during liver regeneration and is an acute phase protein associated with HDL which was independent of its effects on TG metabolism. Conclusion Despite considerable evidences available from clinical and basic research studies, on the role of ApoA5 in TG metabolism and its indirect link to metabolic diseases, additional investigations are needed to understand the paradoxical role of this important apoprotein shown modulated by diet and from it polymorphism variants. PMID:23000317

Garelnabi, Mahdi; Lor, Kenton; Jin, Jun; Chai, Fei; Santanam, Nalini

2012-01-01

36

Influence of light absorption rate by Nannochloropsis oculata on triglyceride production during nitrogen starvation.  

PubMed

This study aims to understand the role of light transfer in triglyceride fatty-acid (TG-FA) cell content and productivity from microalgae during nitrogen starvation. Large amounts of TG-FA can be produced via nitrogen starvation of microalgae in photobioreactors exposed to intense light. First, spectral absorption and scattering cross-sections of N. oculata were measured at different times during nitrogen starvation. They were used to relate the mean volumetric rate of energy absorption (MVREA) per unit mass of microalgae to the TG-FA productivity and cell content. TG-FA productivity correlated with the MVREA and reached a maximum for MVREA of 13 ?mol h?/gs. This indicated that TG-FA synthesis was limited by the photon absorption rate in the PBR. A minimum MVREA of 13 ?mol h?/gs was also necessary at the onset of nitrogen starvation to trigger large accumulation of TG-FA in cells. These results will be instrumental in defining protocols for TG-FA production in scaled-up photobioreactors. PMID:24835743

Kandilian, Razmig; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Pilon, Laurent

2014-07-01

37

Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:8450056

Karpe, F; Steiner, G; Olivecrona, T; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A

1993-01-01

38

New approaches to target microsomal triglyceride transfer protein  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a chaperone for the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins and CD1d, is a therapeutic candidate to decrease plasma lipids and to diminish inflammation. MTP inhibition increases plasma transaminases and tissue lipids, and therefore new approaches are needed to avoid them. Recent findings Inositol requiring enzyme 1? has been identified as a novel intestine-specific regulator of MTP. A new function of MTP in cholesterol ester biosynthesis has been reported. The importance of the phospholipid transfer activity of MTP in the lipidation of apolipoprotein B and CD1d has been indicated. Diurnal variations in MTP expression and its induction by food availability have been observed. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose that upregulation of inositol requiring enzyme 1?, a combined reduction of cellular free cholesterol or triglyceride or both and MTP activity, specific inhibition of phospholipid or triglyceride transfer activities, and targeting of apolipoprotein B–-MTP protein–protein interactions might be pursued to avoid some of the side effects associated with the inhibition of triglyceride transfer activity of MTP. We further speculate that short-lived MTP antagonists may be useful in controlling plasma and tissue lipids and in avoiding steatosis. Summary We have highlighted the importance of addressing the causal relationship between MTP inhibition and aberrant elevations in plasma liver enzymes. The proposed approaches may show that MTP targeting is a viable approach to lower plasma lipids. PMID:18957879

Hussain, M.M.; Bakillah, Ahmed

2009-01-01

39

Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apoE phenotype: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between apoE phenotype and plasma lipid levels was analyzed in the combined data of published studies. Accordingly, 45 population samples from 17 different countries were included in the analysis. The mean plasma values of cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-CH of the apoE 2\\/2, 3\\/2, 4\\/3, 4\\/4, and 4\\/2 groups were compared with the same

J. Dallongeville; S. Lussier-Cacan; J. Davignon

40

Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-? in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare severe heart disease. •PPAR? is up-regulated in myocardium in patients with TGCV. •Possible vicious cycle for fatty acid may be involved in pathophysiology of TGCV. -- Abstract: Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, “Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)”. Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5? splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules’ lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients’ passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG is defective, the marked up-regulation of PPAR? and related genes may lead to increased uptake of LCFAs, the substrates for TG synthesis. This potentially vicious cycle of LCFAs could explain the massive accumulation of TG and severe clinical course for this rare disease.

Hirano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: khirano@cnt-osaka.com [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan) [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Tatsuya [Center for Medical Research and Education, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Center for Medical Research and Education, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshihiko [Department of Pathology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita 565-8565 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita 565-8565 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Satoshi [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan) [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zaima, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Kinki University, 3327-204, Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Kinki University, 3327-204, Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuhiro [Division of Neurology/Molecular Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)] [Division of Neurology/Molecular Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Suzuki, Akira [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan) [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakata, Yasuhiko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1, Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); and others

2014-01-10

41

Dietary triglycerides act on mesolimbic structures to regulate the rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding.  

PubMed

Circulating triglycerides (TGs) normally increase after a meal but are altered in pathophysiological conditions, such as obesity. Although TG metabolism in the brain remains poorly understood, several brain structures express enzymes that process TG-enriched particles, including mesolimbic structures. For this reason, and because consumption of high-fat diet alters dopamine signaling, we tested the hypothesis that TG might directly target mesolimbic reward circuits to control reward-seeking behaviors. We found that the delivery of small amounts of TG to the brain through the carotid artery rapidly reduced both spontaneous and amphetamine-induced locomotion, abolished preference for palatable food and reduced the motivation to engage in food-seeking behavior. Conversely, targeted disruption of the TG-hydrolyzing enzyme lipoprotein lipase specifically in the nucleus accumbens increased palatable food preference and food-seeking behavior. Finally, prolonged TG perfusion resulted in a return to normal palatable food preference despite continued locomotor suppression, suggesting that adaptive mechanisms occur. These findings reveal new mechanisms by which dietary fat may alter mesolimbic circuit function and reward seeking. PMID:24732670

Cansell, C; Castel, J; Denis, R G P; Rouch, C; Delbes, A-S; Martinez, S; Mestivier, D; Finan, B; Maldonado-Aviles, J G; Rijnsburger, M; Tschöp, M H; DiLeone, R J; Eckel, R H; la Fleur, S E; Magnan, C; Hnasko, T S; Luquet, S

2014-10-01

42

Excess S-adenosylmethionine reroutes phosphatidylethanolamine towards phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride synthesis  

PubMed Central

Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) are the primary genes involved in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis and degradation, respectively. Mat1a ablation in mice induces a decrease in hepatic SAMe, activation of lipogenesis, inhibition of triglyceride (TG) release, and steatosis. Gnmt deficient mice, despite showing a large increase in hepatic SAMe, also develop steatosis. We hypothesized that as an adaptive response to hepatic SAMe accumulation, phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway is stimulated in Gnmt?/? mice. We also propose that the excess PC thus generated is catabolized leading to TG synthesis and steatosis via diglyceride (DG) generation. We observed that Gnmt?/? mice present with normal hepatic lipogenesis and increased TG release. We also observed that the flux from PE to PC is stimulated in the liver of Gnmt?/? mice and that this results in a reduction in PE content and a marked increase in DG and TG. Conversely, reduction of hepatic SAMe following the administration of a methionine deficient diet reverted the flux from PE to PC of Gnmt?/? mice to that of wild type animals and normalized DG and TG content preventing the development of steatosis. Gnmt?/? mice with an additional deletion of perilipin2, the predominant lipid droplet protein, maintain high SAMe levels, with a concurrent increased flux from PE to PC, but do not develop liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings indicate that excess SAMe reroutes PE towards PC and TG synthesis, and lipid sequestration. PMID:23505042

Martínez-Uña, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Cano, Ainara; Fernández-Ares, Larraitz; Beraza, Naiara; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Martínez-Arranz, Ibon; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Buqué, Xabier; Mestre, Daniela; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Alonso, Cristina; Finnell, Richard H; Lu, Shelly C; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, José M

2013-01-01

43

Intestinal DGAT1 deficiency reduces postprandial triglyceride and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion and delaying gastric emptying  

PubMed Central

Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 catalyzes the final step of triglyceride (TG) synthesis. We show that acute administration of a DGAT1 inhibitor (DGAT1i) by oral gavage or genetic deletion of intestinal Dgat1 (intestine-Dgat1?/?) markedly reduced postprandial plasma TG and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion in mice. Loss of DGAT1 activity did not affect the efficiency of retinol esterification, but it did reduce TG and retinoid accumulation in the small intestine. In contrast, inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) reduced chylomicron secretion after oral fat/retinol loads, but with accumulation of dietary TG and retinoids in the small intestine. Lack of intestinal accumulation of TG and retinoids in DGAT1i-treated or intestine-Dgat1?/? mice resulted, in part, from delayed gastric emptying associated with increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. However, neither bypassing the stomach through duodenal oil injection nor inhibiting the receptor for GLP-1 normalized postprandial TG or retinyl esters excursions in the absence of DGAT1 activity. In summary, intestinal DGAT1 inhibition or deficiency acutely delayed gastric emptying and inhibited chylomicron secretion; however, the latter occurred when gastric emptying was normal or when lipid was administered directly into the small intestine. Long-term hepatic retinoid metabolism was not impacted by DGAT1 inhibition. PMID:22911105

Ables, Gene P.; Yang, Kryscilla Jian Zhang; Vogel, Silke; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Yu, Shuiqing; Yuen, Jason J.; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K.; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Blaner, William S.; Huang, Li-Shin; Ginsberg, Henry N.

2012-01-01

44

JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi) have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG). However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group) were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P < 0.05). Atorvastatin had the most pronounced hypolipidemic effects with a 35% reduction in LDL cholesterol and 40% reduction in TG. JTT-130 did not induce hepatic lipid accumulation compared to controls. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was reduced in a dose dependent manner by increasing doses of MTPi and guinea pigs treated with atorvastatin had the lowest CETP activity (P < 0.01). In addition the number of molecules of cholesteryl ester in LDL and LDL diameter were lower in guinea pigs treated with atorvastatin. In contrast, hepatic enzymes involved in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis were not affected by drug treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations. PMID:16188040

Aggarwal, Dimple; West, Kristy L; Zern, Tosca L; Shrestha, Sudeep; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Fernandez, Maria Luz

2005-01-01

45

Does the association of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with fasting serum insulin differ by race\\/ethnicity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG\\/HDL-C) ratio has been reported to be as closely correlated with insulin resistance as is the fasting serum insulin concentration (FSI), and therefore it is seen as a clinically useful way to identify the concomitant presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, conflicting findings exist for the association of the TG\\/HDL-C ratio with

Chaoyang Li; Earl S Ford; Yuan-Xiang Meng; Ali H Mokdad; Gerald M Reaven

2008-01-01

46

Top Ten Things to Know: Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... reserved. Top Ten Things To Know Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Disease 1. Triglycerides (or blood fats) are an important ... validate triglycerides as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease Miller M, et al; on behalf of the ...

47

PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)  

EPA Science Inventory

Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the F...

48

Reduced Triglyceride Secretion in Response to an Acute Dietary Fat Challenge in Obese Compared to Lean Mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG) storage in tissues such as liver, heart, and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after a 6-h fast. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at 6?h fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage, and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice. PMID:22375122

Uchida, Aki; Whitsitt, Mary C.; Eustaquio, Trisha; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Leary, James F.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K.

2012-01-01

49

Direct antidiabetic effect of leptin through triglyceride depletion of?tissues  

PubMed Central

Leptin is currently believed to control body composition largely, if not entirely, via hypothalamic receptors that regulate food intake and thermogenesis. Here we demonstrate direct extraneural effects of leptin to deplete fat content of both adipocytes and nonadipocytes to levels far below those of pairfed controls. In cultured pancreatic islets, leptin lowered triglyceride (TG) content by preventing TG formation from free fatty acids (FFA) and by increasing FFA oxidation. In vivo hyperleptinemia, induced in normal rats by adenovirus gene transfer, depleted TG content in liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas without increasing plasma FFA or ketones, suggesting intracellular oxidation. In islets of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats with leptin receptor mutations, leptin had no effect in vivo or in vitro. The TG content was ?20 times normal, and esterification capacity was increased 3- to 4-fold. Thus, in rats with normal leptin receptors but not in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, nonadipocytes and adipocytes esterify FFA, store them as TG, and later oxidize them intracellularly via an “indirect pathway” of intracellular fatty acid metabolism controlled by leptin. By maintaining insulin sensitivity and preventing islet lipotoxicity, this activity of leptin may prevent adipogenic diabetes. PMID:9114043

Shimabukuro, Michio; Koyama, Kazunori; Chen, Guoxun; Wang, May-Yun; Trieu, Falguni; Lee, Young; Newgard, Christopher B.; Unger, Roger H.

1997-01-01

50

Quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine optimum operating conditions, an extensive study was made of the variables affecting quantitative recovery and\\u000a resolution of model triglyceride mixtures. Parameters investigated included: flash heater temperature, carrier gas flow rate,\\u000a type of carrier gas, column length, glass and metal columns, temperature program rate, linearity of detector response, physical\\u000a design of gas chromatograph, and molecular species of triglyceride.\\u000a \\u000a Results

Carter Litchfield; R. D. Harlow; Raymond Reiser

1965-01-01

51

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-03-01

52

Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level  

PubMed Central

Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter–enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose–response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16537411

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

2006-01-01

53

Proliferation, differentiation and amyloid-? production in neural progenitor cells isolated from TgCRND8 mice  

PubMed Central

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-? (A?) peptide play central roles in the pathology and etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid-induced impairments in neurogenesis have been investigated in several transgenic mouse models but the mechanism of action remains to be conclusively demonstrated. The changes in neurogenesis during this transition of increasing A? levels and plaque formation were investigated in the present study. We found that the proliferation of newborn cell in the dentate gyrus was enhanced prior to elevations in soluble A? production as well as amyloid deposition in 5-week-old TgCRND8 mice, which are well-established Alzheimer’s disease models, compared to non-transgenic (Non-Tg) mice. The number of BrdU-positive cells remained higher in TgCRND8 vs Non-Tg mice for a period of 8 weeks. The numbers of BrdU/NeuN-positive cells were not significantly different in TgCRND8 compared to Non-Tg mice. A significant decrease in BrdU/GFAP but not in BrdU/S100? was found in Tg vs Non-Tg at 6-weeks of age. In addition, a unique observation was made using isolated neuroprogenitor cells from TgCRND8 mice which were found to be less viable in culture and produced substantial amounts of secreted A? peptides. This suggests that the proliferation of neural progenitors in vivo may be modulated by high levels of APP expression and the resulting A? generated directly by the progenitor cells. These findings indicate that cell proliferation is increased prior to A? deposition and that cell viability is decreased in TgCRND8 mice over time. PMID:24361736

Kanemoto, S.; Griffin, J.; Markham-Coultes, K.; Aubert, I.; Tandon, A.; George-Hyslop, P.S.; Fraser, P.E.

2014-01-01

54

Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Controls Hepatic VLDL-Triglyceride Secretion in Rats via the Sympathetic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Excessive secretion of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG) contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia. Earlier studies have indicated a possible role for the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in the regulation of VLDL-TG. In the current study, we investigated whether the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) release during fasting regulates hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. We report that, in fasted rats, an intact hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and hepatic sympathetic innervation are necessary to maintain VLDL-TG secretion. Furthermore, the hepatic sympathetic innervation is necessary to mediate the stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular administration of NPY on VLDL-TG secretion. Since the intracerebroventricular administration of NPY increases VLDL-TG secretion by the liver without affecting lipolysis, its effect on lipid metabolism appears to be selective to the liver. Together, our findings indicate that the increased release of NPY during fasting stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to maintain VLDL-TG secretion at a postprandial level. PMID:22461566

Bruinstroop, Eveline; Pei, Lei; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Foppen, Ewout; Borgers, Anke J.; Kwakkel, Joan; Alkemade, Anneke; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2012-01-01

55

Triglyceride enrichment of HDL enhances in vivo metabolic clearance of HDL apo A-I in healthy men  

PubMed Central

Triglyceride (TG) enrichment of HDL resulting from cholesteryl ester transfer protein–mediated exchange with TG-rich lipoproteins may enhance the lipolytic transformation and subsequent metabolic clearance of HDL particles in hypertriglyceridemic states. The present study investigates the effect of TG enrichment of HDL on the clearance of HDL-associated apo A-I in humans. HDL was isolated from plasma of six normolipidemic men (mean age: 29.7 ± 2.7 years) in the fasting state and after a five-hour intravenous infusion with a synthetic TG emulsion, Intralipid. Intralipid infusion resulted in a 2.1-fold increase in the TG content of HDL. Each tracer was then whole-labeled with 125I or 131I and injected intravenously into the subject. Apo A-I in TG-enriched HDL was cleared 26% more rapidly than apo A-I in fasting HDL. A strong correlation between the Intralipid-induced increase in the TG content of HDL and the increase in HDL apo A-I fractional catabolic rate reinforced the importance of TG enrichment of HDL in enhancing its metabolic clearance. HDL was separated further into lipoproteins containing apo A-II (LpAI:AII) and those without apo A-II (LpAI). Results revealed that the enhanced clearance of apo A-I from TG-enriched HDL could be largely attributed to differences in the clearance of LpAI but not LpAI:AII. This is, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration in humans that TG enrichment of HDL enhances the clearance of HDL apo A-I from the circulation. This phenomenon could provide an important mechanism explaining how HDL apo A-I and HDL cholesterol are lowered in hypertriglyceridemic states. PMID:10207171

Lamarche, Benoît; Uffelman, Kristine D.; Carpentier, André; Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Steiner, George; Barrett, P. Hugh; Lewis, Gary F.

1999-01-01

56

Acute Administration of n-3 Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Provides Cardioprotection in Murine Models after Ischemia-Reperfusion  

PubMed Central

Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT). In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5g/kg body weight), immediately after ischemia and 1h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (p<0.05). In the LT model, administration of n-3 TG emulsion (300mgTG/100ml) during reperfusion significantly improved functional recovery (p<0.05). In both models, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3? proteins (p<0.05). Acute n-3 TG emulsion treatment also increased Bcl-2 protein level and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (p<0.05). Additionally, cardioprotection by n-3 TG emulsion was linked to changes in PPAR? protein expression (p<0.05). Rosiglitazone and p-AKT inhibitor counteracted the positive effect of n-3 TG; GSK3? inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction. PMID:25559887

Zirpoli, Hylde; Abdillahi, Mariane; Quadri, Nosirudeen; Ananthakrishnan, Radha; Wang, Lingjie; Rosario, Rosa; Zhu, Zhengbin; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Ramasamy, Ravichandran

2015-01-01

57

Acute Administration of n-3 Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Provides Cardioprotection in Murine Models after Ischemia-Reperfusion.  

PubMed

Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT). In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5g/kg body weight), immediately after ischemia and 1h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (p<0.05). In the LT model, administration of n-3 TG emulsion (300mgTG/100ml) during reperfusion significantly improved functional recovery (p<0.05). In both models, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3? proteins (p<0.05). Acute n-3 TG emulsion treatment also increased Bcl-2 protein level and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (p<0.05). Additionally, cardioprotection by n-3 TG emulsion was linked to changes in PPAR? protein expression (p<0.05). Rosiglitazone and p-AKT inhibitor counteracted the positive effect of n-3 TG; GSK3? inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction. PMID:25559887

Zirpoli, Hylde; Abdillahi, Mariane; Quadri, Nosirudeen; Ananthakrishnan, Radha; Wang, Lingjie; Rosario, Rosa; Zhu, Zhengbin; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Ramasamy, Ravichandran

2015-01-01

58

Elevating your elevator talk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

59

Regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle size distribution in NIDDM and coronary disease: importance of serum triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An increase of low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (LDL-Tg) was found to be an independent coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients in a recent prospective study. We examined the composition and size of LDL particles in 50 NIDDM men with angiographically verified CAD (NIDDM+ CAD+) and in 50 NIDDM men without CAD (NIDDM+ CAD–) as compared to

S. LahdenperÄ; M. SyvÄnne; J. Kahri; M.-R. Taskinen

1996-01-01

60

Acylation-stimulating protein\\/C5L2-neutralizing antibodies alter triglyceride metabolism in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP), a lipogenic hormone, stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport upon activation of C5L2, a GPCR receptor. ASP -deficient mice have reduced adiposetissue massdue to increasedenergy,expenditure in spite of increasedfood intake. The objective of this study was to evaluate the blocking of ASP-C5L2 interaction via neutralizing antibodies (antiASP and antiC5L2-L1 against C5L2 extracellular loop 1).

Wei Cui; Sabina Paglialunga; David Kalant; HuiLing Lu; Christian Roy; Mathieu Laplante; Yves Deshaies; Katherine Cianflone

2007-01-01

61

Novel unbiased equations to calculate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol from routine non-fasting lipids  

PubMed Central

Background Non-fasting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins cholesterol (TRL-C) contributes to cardiovascular risk, in that it includes remnant cholesterol (RC). TRL-C is computed as total C - [LDL-C?+?HDL-C]. Such calculation applies only if LDL-C is directly measured, or obtained from a non-Friedewald’s formula, a method as yet never benchmarked against independent markers of TRL burden. Methods The Discriminant Ratio (DR) methodology was used in 120 type 2 diabetic patients in order: (i) to compute TRL-C from non-fasting lipids; (ii) to establish the performance of TRL-C and TRL-C/apoA-I (vs. TG-based markers) to grade TRLs and atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD); and (iii) to relate TRL-C with non-fasting TG. Results Depending on apoB100 availability, TRL-C (mg/dL) can be derived from non-fasting lipids in two ways: (a) total cholesterol (TC) - [(0.0106 * TC - 0.0036 * TG?+?0.017 * apoB100 - 0.27) * 38.6] - HDL-C; and (b) TC - [(0.0106 * TC - 0.0036 * TG?+?0.017 * [0.65 * (TC - HDL-C)?+?6.3] - 0.27) * 38.6] - HDL-C. Discrimination between log[TG] and TRL-C was similar (DR 0.94 and 0.84, respectively), whereas that of log[TG]/HDL-C was better than TRL-C/apoA-I (DR 1.01 vs. 0.65; p 0.0482). All Pearson’s correlations between pairs reached unity, allowing formulation of two unbiased equivalence equations: (a) TRL-C?=?97.8 * log[TG] - 181.9; and (b) TRL-C/apoA-I?=?8.15 * (log[TG]/HDL-C) - 0.18. Conclusions TRL-C and log[TG] are as effective and interchangeable for assessing remnant atherogenic particles. For grading TRL-AD, it is best to use log[TG]/HDL-C, inherently superior to TRL-C/apoA-I, while measuring the same underlying variable. PMID:24612479

2014-01-01

62

Pleiotropic regulation of mitochondrial function by adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis?  

PubMed Central

Lipolysis is defined as the catabolism of triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Recent discoveries of essential lipolytic enzymes and characterization of numerous regulatory proteins and mechanisms have fundamentally changed our perception of lipolysis and its impact on cellular metabolism. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for TG catabolism in most cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the (patho)physiological impact due to defective lipolysis by ATGL deficiency on mitochondrial (dys)function. Depending on the type of cells and tissues investigated, absence of ATGL has pleiotropic roles in mitochondrial function. PMID:23827855

Kratky, Dagmar; Obrowsky, Sascha; Kolb, Dagmar; Radovic, Branislav

2014-01-01

63

Altered Hepatic Triglyceride Content After Partial Hepatectomy Without Impaired Liver Regeneration in Multiple Murine Genetic Models  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration is impaired following partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice with genetic obesity and hepatic steatosis and also in wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings contrast with other data showing that liver regeneration is impaired in mice in which hepatic lipid accumulation is suppressed by either pharmacologic leptin administration or by disrupted glucocorticoid signaling. These latter findings suggest that hepatic steatosis may actually be required for normal liver regeneration. We have reexamined this relationship using several murine models of altered hepatic lipid metabolism. Liver fatty acid (FA) binding protein knockout mice manifested reduced hepatic triglyceride (TG) content compared to controls, with no effect on liver regeneration or hepatocyte proliferation. Examination of early adipogenic messenger RNAs revealed comparable induction in liver from both genotypes despite reduced hepatic steatosis. Following PH, hepatic TG was reduced in intestine-specific microsomal TG transfer protein deleter mice, which fail to absorb dietary fat, increased in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha knockout mice, which exhibit defective FA oxidation, and unchanged (from wild-type mice) in liver-specific FA synthase knockout mice in which endogenous hepatic FA synthesis is impaired. Hepatic TG increased in the regenerating liver in all models, even in animals in which lipid accumulation is genetically constrained. However, in no model—and over a >90-fold range of hepatic TG content—was liver regeneration significantly impaired following PH. Conclusion Although hepatic TG content is widely variable and increases during liver regeneration, alterations in neither exogenous or endogenous lipid metabolic pathways, demonstrated to promote or diminish hepatic steatosis, influence hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:18697204

Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Kennedy, Susan M.; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Stanley, Susan E.; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Crooke, Roseanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

2008-01-01

64

Association between Myocardial Triglyceride Content and Cardiac Function in Healthy Subjects and Endurance Athletes  

PubMed Central

Ectopic fat accumulation plays important roles in various metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies reported that myocardial triglyceride (TG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is associated with aging, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac dysfunction. However, myocardial TG content in athletes has not yet been investigated. We performed 1H-MRS and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 10 male endurance athletes and 15 healthy male controls. Serum markers and other clinical parameters including arterial stiffness were measured. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was also performed. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics including age, anthropometric parameters, blood test results, or arterial stiffness between the two groups. Peak oxygen uptakes, end–diastolic volume (EDV), end–systolic volume (ESV), left ventricular (LV) mass, peak ejection rates and peak filling rates were significantly higher in the athlete group than in the control group (all P<0.02). Myocardial TG content was significantly lower in the athlete group than in the control group (0.60±0.20 vs. 0.89±0.41%, P<0.05). Myocardial TG content was negatively correlated with EDV (r?=??0.47), ESV (r?=??0.64), LV mass (r?=??0.44), and epicardial fat volume (r?=?0.47) (all P<0.05). In conclusion, lower levels of myocardial TG content were observed in endurance athletes and were associated with morphological changes related to physiological LV alteration in athletes, suggesting that metabolic imaging for measurement of myocardial TG content by 1H-MRS may be a useful technique for noninvasively assessing the “athlete’s heart”. PMID:23613879

Sai, Eiryu; Shimada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Sato, Shuji; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Hiki, Makoto; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Aoki, Shigeki; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Daida, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

65

Differences in the Triglyceride to HDL-Cholesterol Ratio between Palestinian and Israeli Adults  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL), thought to be a proxy measure of insulin resistance, between Palestinian and Israeli adults in view of the greater incidence of coronary heart disease and high prevalence of diabetes in Palestinian Arabs. Research Methods A population-based observational prevalence study of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in Jerusalem. Participants (968 Palestinians, 707 Israelis, sampled at ages 25-74 years) underwent fasting and 2h post-75g oral challenge plasma glucose determinations. Metabolic risk was assessed using the surrogate index TG/HDL. Sex-specific comparisons were stratified by categories of body mass index and sex-specific waist circumference quartiles, adjusted by regression for age, glucose tolerance status and use of statins. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially larger in Palestinians (p = 0.005). Prevalence of diabetes was 2.4 and 4 fold higher among Palestinian men and women, respectively (p<0.001). Adjusted TG/HDL was higher in Palestinians than Israelis across BMI and waist circumference categories (p<0.001 for both). Higher TG/HDL in Palestinians persisted in analyses restricted to participants with normal glucose tolerance and off statins. Notably, higher TG/HDL among Palestinians prevailed at a young age (25-44 years) and in normal weight individuals of both sexes. Conclusions Palestinians have a higher TG/HDL ratio than Israelis. Notably, this is evident also in young, healthy and normal weight participants. These findings indicate the need to study the determinants of this biomarker and other measures of insulin resistance in urban Arab populations and to focus research attention on earlier ages: childhood and prenatal stages of development. PMID:25635396

Weiss, Ram; Nassar, Hisham; Sinnreich, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D.

2015-01-01

66

Intramyocardial triglyceride quantification by magnetic resonance spectroscopy: in vivo and ex vivo correlation in human subjects  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in heart tissue has been associated with changes in left ventricular function. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is currently the only non-invasive in vivo method to measure myocardial TG content. The primary aim of this study was to determine if these in vivo measurements are specific to myocardial TG in human subjects. Thus, in vivo 1H-MRS measurements were conducted on orthotopic heart transplant patients (n = 8) immediately before they underwent routine biopsies and ex vivo measurements were made on the endomyocardial biopsy samples. The correlation coefficient between the two measurements was 0.97, with p < 0.005, demonstrating for the first time the specificity of the in vivo measurement in human heart. From accompanying reliability experiments, the standardized typical error for the in vivo 1H-MRS method was estimated to be 7.0%, with a 95% confidence interval from 5.5 to 9.4%. These results suggest that 1H-MRS provides a specific and reliable measurement of myocardial TG content and is suitable for routine studies. PMID:21500254

O’Connor, Robert D.; Xu, Jian; Ewald, Gregory A.; Ackerman, Joseph J. H.; Peterson, Linda R.; Gropler, Robert J.; Bashir, Adil

2013-01-01

67

Impaired secretion of very low density lipoprotein-triglycerides by apolipoprotein E- deficient mouse hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

To explore mechanisms underlying triglyceride (TG) accumulation in livers of chow-fed apo E-deficient mice (Kuipers, F., J.M. van Ree, M.H. Hofker, H. Wolters, G. In't Veld, R.J. Vonk, H.M.G. Princen, and L.M. Havekes. 1996. Hepatology. 24:241-247), we investigated the effects of apo E deficiency on secretion of VLDL-associated TG (a) in vivo in mice, (b) in isolated perfused mouse livers, and (c) in cultured mouse hepatocytes. (a) Hepatic VLDL-TG production rate in vivo, determined after Triton WR1339 injection, was reduced by 46% in apo E-deficient mice compared with controls. To eliminate the possibility that impaired VLDL secretion is caused by aspecific changes in hepatic function due to hypercholesterolemia, VLDL-TG production rates were also measured in apo E-deficient mice after transplantation of wild-type mouse bone marrow. Bone marrow- transplanted apo E-deficient mice, which do not express apo E in hepatocytes, showed normalized plasma cholesterol levels, but VLDL-TG production was reduced by 59%. (b) VLDL-TG production by isolated perfused livers from apo E-deficient mice was 50% lower than production by livers from control mice. Lipid composition of nascent VLDL particles isolated from the perfusate was similar for both groups. (c) Mass VLDL-TG secretion by cultured apo E-deficient hepatocytes was reduced by 23% compared with control values in serum-free medium, and by 61% in the presence of oleate in medium (0. 75 mM) to stimulate lipogenesis. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed a smaller average size for VLDL particles produced by apo E-deficient cells compared with control cells in the presence of oleate (38 and 49 nm, respectively). In short-term labeling studies, apo E-deficient and control cells showed a similar time-dependent accumulation of [3H]TG formed from [3H]glycerol, yet secretion of newly synthesized VLDL-associated [3H]TG by apo E-deficient cells was reduced by 60 and 73% in the absence and presence of oleate, respectively. We conclude that apo E, in addition to its role in lipoprotein clearance, has a physiological function in the VLDL assembly-secretion cascade. PMID:9389759

Kuipers, F; Jong, M C; Lin, Y; Eck, M; Havinga, R; Bloks, V; Verkade, H J; Hofker, M H; Moshage, H; Berkel, T J; Vonk, R J; Havekes, L M

1997-01-01

68

Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.  

PubMed

Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24059726

Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

2013-10-01

69

Triglyceride level affecting shared susceptibility genes in metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is characterized primarily by abdominal obesity, high triglyceride- and low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and increased fasting glucose levels, which are often associated with coronary heart diseases. Several factors, such as physical inactivity, age, and several endocrine and genetic factors can increase the risk of the development of the disease. Gathered evidence shows, that metabolic syndrome is not only a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but often both of them have the same shared susceptibility genes, as several genetic variants have shown a predisposition to both diseases. Due to the spread of robust genome wide association studies, the number of candidate genes in metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease susceptibility increases very rapidly. From the growing spectrum of the genes influencing lipid metabolism (like the LPL; PPARA; APOE; APOAI/CIII/AIV genecluster and APOAS5), the current review focuses on shared susceptibility variants involved in triglyceride metabolism and consequently the effects on the circulating triglyceride levels. As the elevated levels of triglycerides can be associated with disease phenotypes, some of these SNPs can have susceptibility features in both metabolic syndrome and in coronary heart disease, thereby some of them can even represent a kind of susceptibility link between metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. PMID:20738247

Kisfali, P; Polgár, N; Sáfrány, E; Sümegi, K; Melegh, B I; Bene, J; Wéber, A; Hetyésy, K; Melegh, B

2010-01-01

70

Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

Forrest, Lolita M.; Lough, Christopher M.; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S.

2013-01-01

71

Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

Farines, Marie; And Others

1988-01-01

72

Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates lipid metabolism in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the initial step in the lipid lipolysis process, hydrolyzing triglyceride (TG) to produce diacylglycerol (DG) and free fatty acids (FFA). In addition, ATGL regulates lipid storage and release in adipocyte cells. However, its role in mammary gland tissue remains unclear. To assess the role of the ATGL gene in the goat mammary gland, this study analyzed the tissue distribution and expression of key genes together with lipid accumulation after knockdown of the ATGL gene. The mRNA of ATGL was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue, the lung and the mammary gland with a significant increase in expression during the lactation period compared with the dry period of the mammary gland. Knockdown of the ATGL gene in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) using siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in both ATGL mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of the ATGL gene markedly increased lipid droplet accumulation and intracellular TG concentration (P<0.05), while it reduced FFA levels in GMECs (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of HSL for lipolysis, FABP3 for fatty acid transport, PPAR? for fatty acid oxidation, ADFP, BTN1A1, and XDH for milk fat formation and secretion was down-regulated (P<0.05) after knockdown of the ATGL gene, with increased expression of CD36 for fatty acid uptake (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that the ATGL gene plays an important role in triglyceride lipolysis in GMECs and provides the first experimental evidence that ATGL may be involved in lipid metabolism during lactation. PMID:25307872

Li, Jun; Luo, Jun; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Sun, Yuting; Yu, Kang; Yao, Dawei

2015-01-01

73

Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are an essential component of our body composition and necessary in our daily food intake. Conventional fats and oils\\u000a are composed of glycerides of long chain fatty acids and are designated as long chain triglycerides (LCT). Body fat as well\\u000a as the fats and oils in our daily intake fall into this category. In enteral and parenteral hyperalimentation, we

Vigen K. Babayan

1987-01-01

74

Population-based estimates of breast cancer risks associated with ATM gene variants c.7271T>G and c.1066-6T>G (IVS10-6T>G) from the Breast Cancer Family Registry.  

PubMed

The ATM gene variants segregating in ataxia-telangiectasia families are associated with increased breast cancer risk, but the contribution of specific variants has been difficult to estimate. Previous small studies suggested two functional variants, c.7271T>G and c.1066-6T>G (IVS10-6T>G), are associated with increased risk. Using population-based blood samples we found that 7 out of 3,743 breast cancer cases (0.2%) and 0 out of 1,268 controls were heterozygous for the c.7271T>G allele (P=0.1). In cases, this allele was more prevalent in women with an affected mother (odds ratio [OR]=5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2-25.5; P=0.04) and delayed child-bearing (OR=5.1; 95% CI=1.0-25.6; P=0.05). The estimated cumulative breast cancer risk to age 70 years (penetrance) was 52% (95% CI=28-80%; hazard ratio [HR]=8.6; 95% CI=3.9-18.9; P<0.0001). In contrast, 13 of 3,757 breast cancer cases (0.3%) and 10 of 1,268 controls (0.8%) were heterozygous for the c.1066-6T>G allele (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2-1.0; P=0.05), and the penetrance was not increased (P=0.5). These findings suggest that although the more common c.1066-6T>G variant is not associated with breast cancer, the rare ATM c.7271T>G variant is associated with a substantially elevated risk. Since c.7271T>G is only one of many rare ATM variants predicted to have deleterious consequences on protein function, an effective means of identifying and grouping these variants is essential to assess the contribution of ATM variants to individual risk and to the incidence of breast cancer in the population. PMID:16958054

Bernstein, J L; Teraoka, S; Southey, M C; Jenkins, M A; Andrulis, I L; Knight, J A; John, E M; Lapinski, R; Wolitzer, A L; Whittemore, A S; West, D; Seminara, D; Olson, E R; Spurdle, A B; Chenevix-Trench, G; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Concannon, P

2006-11-01

75

Quantitative analysis of metabolism of hepatic triglyceride in ethanol-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

An acute intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.7 or 2.1g/kg body wt.) causes the reversible, dose-dependent accumulation of hepatic triglyceride in rats. By using a pulse of [14C]palmitate injected into a tail vein, it was found that ethanol (2.1g/kg)had no effect on the flux of unesterified fatty acid of serum (4.3mumol/min per 100g body wt.). However, either dose increased the fraction of the total flux going to liver from 0.16 to0.27 as rapidly as could be measured (30s), and it remained elevated until all ethanol had been cleared from the blood. The fraction of the total radioactivity in lipids of liver that was in triglyceride increased linearly for 1 h from 30 to 50% and there was a simultaneous decrease in phospholipid from 60 to 40%. The rate of synthesis of hepatic triglyceride derived directly from unesterified fatty acid of serum was calculated by using the flux rate of unesterified fatty acid in serum, the fractional hepatic uptake of this flux, and the percentage of liver fatty acid esterified to triglyceride. This contribution is related to the total synthetic rate of hepatic triglyceride (rate of accumulation+rate of release) to determine quantitatively how much of the developing fatty liver is attributable to increased uptake of unesterfied fatty acid of serum. At the higher dose of ethanol, about half of the accumulating triglyceride is derived from this source, whereas with the lower dose of ethanol it can account for all of the build-up. PMID:942401

Abrams, M A; Cooper, C

1976-01-01

76

Construction of triglyceride biosensor based on nickel oxide-chitosan/zinc oxide/zinc hexacyanoferrate film.  

PubMed

A method is described for construction of an amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor based on co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase (GK) and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) onto nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs)-chitosan (CHIT) nanocomposite adsorbed onto zinc oxide/zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnO-ZnHCF) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of an Au electrode. The NiONPs-CHIT/ZnO-ZnHCF hybrid film was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The biosensor showed optimum response within 4 s at pH 6.0 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.4 V against Ag/AgCl. There was a linear relationship between sensor response and triolein concentration in the range 50-700 mg/dl with sensitivity of 0.05 ?A/mg/dl. The sensor was employed for determination of TG in serum. The detection limit of the biosensor was 10 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated with 95-96% recovery of added triolein in sera and 2% and 3% within and between batch coefficients of variation (CVs) respectively. There was a good correlation (r=0.99) between serum TG values by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present method. The biosensor lost 50% of its initial activity after its 100 uses over a period of 180 days, when stored at 4 °C. PMID:23707748

Narang, J; Chauhan, N; Pundir, C S

2013-09-01

77

Short-term overexpression of CD36 in the liver augments hepatic lipid storage and VLDL-triglyceride secretion: Implications for diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The management of dyslipidemia in T2D is one element in the multifactorial approach to prevent coronary heart disease. Since the levels of plasma fatty acids (FA), triglycerides (TG). and lipoproteins are primarily contr...

78

Failure simulations of triglyceride-based adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of natural plant oils in the production of adhesives has been the focus of a large amount of research because the natural oils are a renewable resource which have environmental and economic advantages over the petroleum-derived chemicals used in traditional adhesives. An off-lattice Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the formation of networks consisting of the triglycerides found in soybean, linseed and olive oils and networks made from other `theoretical' natural oils. Each of these networks has a different number of carbon-carbon double bonds n present in a given triglyceride molecule. The stress-strain behavior of these networks is studied using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Tensile strains are applied to the networks and it is observed that with increasing n the failure stress increases but the failure strain decreases. Also, at low values of n, the systems have large voids form while the system is strained and then the system fails cohesively. However for large n, no significant voiding is observed and the system fails close to the interface. The simulation results are shown to be consistent with vector percolation theoretical predictions for how the failure stress and the crosslink density relate to n.

Lorenz, Christian D.; Stevens, Mark J.; Wool, Richard P.

2004-03-01

79

Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency.  

PubMed

Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPAR? agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

2014-06-01

80

Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency  

PubMed Central

Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~ 50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPAR? agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

2014-01-01

81

Noninvasive Measurement of Plasma Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids from Exhaled Breath  

PubMed Central

Background Although altered metabolism has long been known to affect human breath, generating clinically usable metabolic tests from exhaled compounds has proven challenging. If developed, a breath-based lipid test would greatly simplify management of diabetes and serious pathological conditions (e.g., obesity, familial hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), in which systemic lipid levels are a critical risk factor for onset and development of future cardiovascular events. Methods We, therefore, induced controlled fluctuations of plasma lipids (insulin-induced lipid suppression or intravenous infusion of Intralipid) during 4-h in vivo experiments on 23 healthy volunteers (12 males/11 females, 28.0 ± 0.3 years) to find correlations between exhaled volatile organic compounds and plasma lipids. In each subject, plasma triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations were both directly measured and calculated via individualized prediction equations based on the multiple linear regression analysis of a cluster of 4 gases. In the lipid infusion protocol, we also generated common prediction equations using a maximum of 10 gases. Results This analysis yielded strong correlations between measured and predicted values during both lipid suppression (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.90 for FFA) and lipid infusion (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.94 for FFA) studies. In our most accurate common prediction model, measured and predicted TG and FFA values also displayed very strong statistical agreement (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring plasma lipids through breath analysis. Optimization of this technology may ultimately lead to the development of portable breath analyzers for plasma lipids, replacing blood-based bioassays. PMID:22401327

Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Oliver, Stacy R; Flores, Rebecca L; Ngo, Jerry; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Midyett, Jason; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

2012-01-01

82

High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).  

PubMed

We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 ± 190mgL(-1)and 1610 ± 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (p<0.001), and LDL levels as low as 43 mgL(-1) were measured in seals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting. PMID:21596155

Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

2011-08-01

83

Age effects on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride profiles and metabolite concentrations in dogs  

PubMed Central

Background In dogs, occurrence of lipid metabolism disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus has increased markedly in recent years. Hyperlipidemia has been regarded as a common characteristic for obese animals and hyperlipidemic condition may be associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid composition changes. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) profiles and metabolite concentrations in 24 dogs (young group: 0-7 years old, n?=?12, aged group: 8-13 years old, n?=?12). Results Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations were significantly lower in aged dogs than those in young dogs (mean?±?SD, 17.2?±?10.0 ?g mL-1 vs 29.3?±?12.5 ?g mL-1, respectively; P <0.05). Although there were no significant differences statistically, aged dogs showed significantly higher plasma alpha1- acid glycoprotein (alpah1-AG) levels compared to those in young dogs. Plasma cholesterol lipoprotein and TG lipoprotein were divided into four fractions by biphasic agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The levels of the third TG-lipoprotein fraction from the positive pole (TG Fraction 3) were significantly higher in aged dogs than in young dogs (mean?±?SD, 143.0?±?109.3 mg dL-1 vs 55.2?±?31.3 mg dL-1, respectively; P <0.05). On the correlation coefficient analysis by Peason’s method, moderate positive correlations were seen between the age and TG (r?=?0.446, P?=?0.029), TG Fraction 3 (r?=?0.516, P?=?0.010), malondialdehyde (r?=?0.146, P?=?0.043), alpha-1 AG (r?=?0.448, P?=?0.028) levels, respectively. Moderate negative correlations were seen the age and total cholesterol (TC) Fraction 2 (r?=?-0.446, P?=?0.029), glucose (r?=?-0.637, P?=?0.001), ADN (r?=?-0.408, P?=?0.048), respectively. Conclusions Present data suggest biochemical characteristics of lipid metabolism disorder may be affected by aging in dogs. PMID:24597741

2014-01-01

84

Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

1964-01-01

85

Bioconversion of Xylan to Triglycerides by Oil-Rich Yeasts  

PubMed Central

A series of lipid-accumulating yeasts was examined for their potential to saccharify xylan and accumulate triglyceride. Of the genera tested, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Trichosporon, only Cryptococcus and Trichosporon isolates saccharified xylan. All of the strains could assimilate xylose and accumuate triglyceride under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were found to be especially useful for a one-step saccharification of xylan coupled to triglyceride synthesis. Cryptococcus terricolus, a strain constitutive for lipid accumulation, lacked extracellular xylanase, but did assimilate xylose and xylobiose and was able to continuously convert xylan to triglyceride if the culture medium was supplemented with xylanase. PMID:16346541

Fall, Ray; Phelps, Patricia; Spindler, Diane

1984-01-01

86

An inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibits apoB secretion from HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein (MTP) is a heterodimeric lipid transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phosphatidylcholine between membranes. Previous studies showing that the proximal cause of abetalipoproteinemia is an absence of MTP indicate that MTP function is required for the assembly of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing plasma lipoproteins, i.e., very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. However, the precise role of MTP in lipoprotein assembly is not known. In this study, the role of MTP in lipoprotein assembly is investigated using an inhibitor of MTP-mediated lipid transport, 2-[1-(3, 3-diphenylpropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-o ne (BMS-200150). The similarity of the IC50 for inhibition of bovine MTP-mediated TG transfer (0.6 microM) to the Kd for binding of BMS-200150 to bovine MTP (1.3 microM) strongly supports that the inhibition of TG transfer is the result of a direct effect of the compound on MTP. BMS-200150 also inhibits the transfer of phosphatidylcholine, however to a lesser extent (30% at a concentration that almost completely inhibits TG and cholesteryl ester transfer). When BMS-200150 is added to cultured HepG2 cells, a human liver-derived cell line that secretes apoB containing lipoproteins, it inhibits apoB secretion in a concentration dependent manner. These results support the hypothesis that transport of lipid, and in particular, the transport of neutral lipid by MTP, plays a critical role in the assembly of apoB containing lipoproteins. PMID:8876250

Jamil, H; Gordon, D A; Eustice, D C; Brooks, C M; Dickson, J K; Chen, Y; Ricci, B; Chu, C H; Harrity, T W; Ciosek, C P; Biller, S A; Gregg, R E; Wetterau, J R

1996-10-15

87

An inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibits apoB secretion from HepG2 cells.  

PubMed Central

The microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein (MTP) is a heterodimeric lipid transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phosphatidylcholine between membranes. Previous studies showing that the proximal cause of abetalipoproteinemia is an absence of MTP indicate that MTP function is required for the assembly of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing plasma lipoproteins, i.e., very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. However, the precise role of MTP in lipoprotein assembly is not known. In this study, the role of MTP in lipoprotein assembly is investigated using an inhibitor of MTP-mediated lipid transport, 2-[1-(3, 3-diphenylpropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-o ne (BMS-200150). The similarity of the IC50 for inhibition of bovine MTP-mediated TG transfer (0.6 microM) to the Kd for binding of BMS-200150 to bovine MTP (1.3 microM) strongly supports that the inhibition of TG transfer is the result of a direct effect of the compound on MTP. BMS-200150 also inhibits the transfer of phosphatidylcholine, however to a lesser extent (30% at a concentration that almost completely inhibits TG and cholesteryl ester transfer). When BMS-200150 is added to cultured HepG2 cells, a human liver-derived cell line that secretes apoB containing lipoproteins, it inhibits apoB secretion in a concentration dependent manner. These results support the hypothesis that transport of lipid, and in particular, the transport of neutral lipid by MTP, plays a critical role in the assembly of apoB containing lipoproteins. PMID:8876250

Jamil, H; Gordon, D A; Eustice, D C; Brooks, C M; Dickson, J K; Chen, Y; Ricci, B; Chu, C H; Harrity, T W; Ciosek, C P; Biller, S A; Gregg, R E; Wetterau, J R

1996-01-01

88

Knockdown of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with antisense oligonucleotide reduces VLDL TG and ApoB secretion in mice.  

PubMed

Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are enzymes that catalyze the formation of triglyceride (TG) from acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol. Two DGATs have been identified which belong to two distinct gene families and both are ubiquitously expressed. DGAT2 knockout mice are lipopenic and die shortly after birth. In the current study, wild type mice were treated with increasing doses (25-60 mg/kg twice weekly) of a DGAT2 gene-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Treatment resulted in a dose dependent decrease in hepatic DGAT2 gene expression (up to 80%) which was associated with a 40% decrease in hepatic DGAT2 activity and a 45% decrease in hepatic TG. Decreased levels of DGAT2 resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in VLDL TG secretion (up to 52%) and reduced plasma TG, total cholesterol, and ApoB. Similar results were obtained when DGAT1 KO mice were treated with the DGAT2 ASO. Treatment of ob/ob mice with the DGAT2 ASO resulted in significant decreases in weight gain (10%), adipose weight (25%) and hepatic TG content (80%). Our findings indicate that the majority of TG destined for secretion by liver is synthesized by DGAT2 and suggests that DGAT2 may be a therapeutic target for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis and obesity. PMID:18252207

Liu, Ying; Millar, John S; Cromley, Debra A; Graham, Mark; Crooke, Rosanne; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J

2008-03-01

89

Cholecystokinin Elevates Mouse Plasma Lipids  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR?/?) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR?/? mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, Zhongmao

2012-01-01

90

N-3 Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Are Neuroprotective after Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice  

PubMed Central

We questioned if acute administration of n-3 fatty acids (FA) carried in n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions provides neuroprotection in neonatal mice subjected to hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) brain injury. We examined specificity of FA, optimal doses, and therapeutic windows for neuroprotection after H/I. H/I insult was induced in C57BL/6J 10-day-old mice by right carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 15 minutes at 37°C. Intraperitoneal injection with n-3-rich TG emulsions, n-6 rich TG emulsions or saline for control was administered at different time points before and/or after H/I. In separate experiments, dose responses were determined with TG containing only docosahexaenoic acid (Tri-DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (Tri-EPA) with a range of 0.1–0.375 g n-3 TG/kg, administered immediately after H/I insult. Infarct volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured. Treatment with n-3 TG emulsions both before- and after- H/I significantly reduced total infarct volume by a mean of 43% when administered 90 min prior to H/I and by 47% when administered immediately after H/I. In post-H/I experiments Tri-DHA, but not Tri-EPA exhibited neuroprotective effects with both low and high doses (p<0.05). Moreover, delayed post-H/I treatment with Tri-DHA significantly decreased total infarct volume by a mean of 51% when administered at 0 hr, by 46% at 1 hr, and by 51% at 2 hr after H/I insult. No protective effect occurred with Tri-DHA injection at 4 hr after H/I. There were no n-3 TG related differences in CBF. A significant reduction in brain tissue death was maintained after Tri-DHA injection at 8 wk after the initial brain injury. Thus, n-3 TG, specifically containing DHA, is protective against H/I induced brain infarction when administered up to 2 hr after H/I injury. Acute administration of TG-rich DHA may prove effective for treatment of stroke in humans. PMID:23437099

Vannucci, Susan J.; Mastropietro, Christopher; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Ten, Vadim S.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

2013-01-01

91

Molecular characterization and association analysis of porcine adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) gene.  

PubMed

The adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2, also known as ATGL) is a novel triacylglycerol (TG) lipase which specifically removes the first fatty acid from the triglyceride molecule generating free fatty acid and diglyceride (DG) in mammalian cells. Here we describe the molecular characterization of the porcine ATGL gene. The full-length cDNA sequence contains a 1,461 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 486 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 53.2 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.90. The porcine ATGL protein shares high identity with other mammalian ATGL. The ATGL gene contains 9 coding exons, spans approximately 6 kb. The porcine ATGL mRNA was expressed predominantly in backfat, mildly in muscle, small intestine and heart, and almost absent in liver, spleen, lung, stomach, kidney and ovary. Statistical analysis showed the ATGL gene polymorphism (G/A(392)) was different between Chinese indigenous and introduced commercial western pig breeds, and was highly associated with almost all the fat deposition and carcass traits, including subcutaneous fat thickness, viscera adipose tissue, lean percentage, loin eye traits and even rib numbers. PMID:20480242

Dai, Li He; Xiong, Yuan Zhu; Jiang, Si Wen; Chen, Jun Feng

2011-02-01

92

Adipose triglyceride lipase activity is inhibited by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A  

PubMed Central

Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is required for efficient mobilization of triglyceride (TG) stores in adipose tissue and non-adipose tissues. Therefore, ATGL strongly determines the availability of fatty acids for metabolic reactions. ATGL activity is regulated by a complex network of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic hormones. These signals control enzyme expression and the interaction of ATGL with the regulatory proteins CGI-58 and G0S2. Up to date, it was unknown whether ATGL activity is also controlled by lipid intermediates generated during lipolysis. Here we show that ATGL activity is inhibited by long-chain acyl-CoAs in a non-competitive manner, similar as previously shown for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the rate-limiting enzyme for diglyceride breakdown in adipose tissue. ATGL activity is only marginally inhibited by medium-chain acyl-CoAs, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and free fatty acids. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that acyl-CoAs do not disrupt the protein–protein interaction of ATGL and its co-activator CGI-58. Furthermore, inhibition of ATGL is independent of the presence of CGI-58 and occurs directly at the N-terminal patatin-like phospholipase domain of the enzyme. In conclusion, our results suggest that inhibition of the major lipolytic enzymes ATGL and HSL by long-chain acyl-CoAs could represent an effective feedback mechanism controlling lipolysis and protecting cells from lipotoxic concentrations of fatty acids and fatty acid-derived lipid metabolites. PMID:24440819

Nagy, Harald M.; Paar, Margret; Heier, Christoph; Moustafa, Tarek; Hofer, Peter; Haemmerle, Guenter; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf; Oberer, Monika; Zimmermann, Robert

2014-01-01

93

Inhibitory activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) by the flavonoid, taxifolin, in HepG2 cells: potential role in the regulation of apolipoprotein B secretion.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of taxifolin, a plant flavonoid, on several aspects involving apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion and triglyceride (TG) availability in HepG2 cells. Taxifolin was shown by ELISA to markedly reduce apoB secretion under basal and lipid-rich conditions up to 63% at 200 micromol/L. As to the mechanism underlying this effect, we examined whether taxifolin exerted its effect by limiting TG availability in the microsomal lumen essential for lipoprotein assembly. Taxifolin was shown to inhibit microsomal TG synthesis by 37% and its subsequent transfer into the lumen (-26%). The reduction in synthesis was due to a decrease in diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity (-35%). The effect on DGAT activity was found to be non-competitive and non-transcriptional in nature. Both DGAT-1 and DGAT-2 mRNA expression remained essentially unchanged suggesting the point of regulation may be at the post-transcriptional level. Evidence is accumulating that microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is also involved in determining the amount of lumenal TG available for lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Taxifolin was shown to inhibit this enzyme by 41%. Whether the reduction in TG accumulation in the microsomal lumen is predominantly due to DGAT and/or MTP activity remains to be addressed. In summary, taxifolin reduced apoB secretion by limiting TG availability via DGAT and MTP activity. PMID:15380446

Casaschi, Adele; Rubio, Brent K; Maiyoh, Geoffrey K; Theriault, Andre G

2004-10-01

94

Quantitative proteomic analysis of cultured skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare disease, characterized by the massive accumulation of triglyceride (TG) in multiple tissues, especially skeletal muscle, heart muscle and the coronary artery. TGCV is caused by mutation of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is an essential molecule for the hydrolysis of TG. TGCV is at high risk for skeletal myopathy and heart dysfunction, and therefore premature death. Development of therapeutic methods for TGCV is highly desirable. This study aims to discover specific molecules responsible for TGCV pathogenesis. Methods To identify differentially expressed proteins in TGCV patient cells, the stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method coupled with LC-MS/MS was performed using skin fibroblast cells derived from two TGCV patients and three healthy volunteers. Altered protein expression in TGCV cells was confirmed using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis was simultaneously performed to identify changes in gene expression in TGCV cells. Results Using SILAC proteomics, 4033 proteins were quantified, 53 of which showed significantly altered expression in both TGCV patient cells. Twenty altered proteins were chosen and confirmed using SRM. SRM analysis successfully quantified 14 proteins, 13 of which showed the same trend as SILAC proteomics. The altered protein expression data set was used in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and significant networks were identified. Several of these proteins have been previously implicated in lipid metabolism, while others represent new therapeutic targets or markers for TGCV. Microarray analysis quantified 20743 transcripts, and 252 genes showed significantly altered expression in both TGCV patient cells. Ten altered genes were chosen, 9 of which were successfully confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Biological networks of altered genes were analyzed using an IPA search. Conclusions We performed the SILAC- and SRM-based identification-through-confirmation study using skin fibroblast cells derived from TGCV patients, and first identified altered proteins specific for TGCV. Microarray analysis also identified changes in gene expression. The functional networks of the altered proteins and genes are discussed. Our findings will be exploited to elucidate the pathogenesis of TGCV and discover clinically relevant molecules for TGCV in the near future. PMID:24360150

2013-01-01

95

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through the PKA Pathway.  

PubMed

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) metabolism in adipose tissue. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme controlling the hydrolysis of TG. Thus far, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on the expression of ATGL. Because TSH function is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), TSHR knockout mice (Tshr-/- mice) (supplemented with thyroxine) were used in this study to determine the effects of TSHR deletion on ATGL expression. These effects were verified in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and potential underlying mechanisms were explored. In the Tshr-/- mice, ATGL expression in epididymal adipose tissue was significantly increased compared with that in Tshr+/+ mice. ATGL expression was observed to increase with the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TSH significantly suppressed ATGL expression at both the protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Forskolin, which is an activator of adenylate cyclase, suppressed the expression of ATGL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The inhibitory effects of TSH on ATGL expression were abolished by H89, which is a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These results indicate that TSH has an inhibitory effect on ATGL expression in mature adipocytes. The associated mechanism is related to PKA activation. PMID:25590597

Jiang, Dongqing; Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Yan, Fang; Wang, Aihong; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

96

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through the PKA Pathway  

PubMed Central

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) metabolism in adipose tissue. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme controlling the hydrolysis of TG. Thus far, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on the expression of ATGL. Because TSH function is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), TSHR knockout mice (Tshr-/- mice) (supplemented with thyroxine) were used in this study to determine the effects of TSHR deletion on ATGL expression. These effects were verified in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and potential underlying mechanisms were explored. In the Tshr-/- mice, ATGL expression in epididymal adipose tissue was significantly increased compared with that in Tshr+/+ mice. ATGL expression was observed to increase with the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TSH significantly suppressed ATGL expression at both the protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Forskolin, which is an activator of adenylate cyclase, suppressed the expression of ATGL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The inhibitory effects of TSH on ATGL expression were abolished by H89, which is a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These results indicate that TSH has an inhibitory effect on ATGL expression in mature adipocytes. The associated mechanism is related to PKA activation. PMID:25590597

Jiang, Dongqing; Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Yan, Fang; Wang, Aihong; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

97

Effect of the APOC3 Sst I SNP on fasting triglyceride levels in men heterozygous for the LPL P207L deficiency.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a major role in triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein catabolism. A mutation at codon 207 (P207L) in the exon 5 of the LPL gene has been associated with 50% reduction in postheparin plasma LPL activity and significant increase in plasma TG levels in heterozygous individuals with low HDL. However, heterogeneity in fasting TG concentrations among these carriers suggests that other factors may be involved in the expression of this hypertriglyceridemic state. Indeed, previous studies have shown that the rare S2 allele of the APOC3 Sst I polymorphism was associated with higher concentrations of TG levels in noncarriers of LPL defect. Therefore, we investigated the association of the APOC3 Sst I variant on fasting lipoprotein-lipid levels in a sample of 35 heterozygous men bearing the LPL P207L mutation. Genetic association analyses were performed using the two-genotype groups S1/S1 and S1/S2. The genotype S1/S2 group was characterized by greater plasma cholesterol (plasma-C, P=0.02), plasma-TG (P=0.04), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)-C (P=0.004), VLDL-TG (P=0.01), VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P=0.001) levels and cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (P=0.008), as well as lower VLDL-TG/VLDL-apoB ratio compared to the S1/S1 genotype group. These results support an exacerbating effect of the APOC3 Sst I single-nucleotide polymorphism on fasting TG levels since a large number of smaller VLDL particles are observed in LPL-deficient men bearing the APOC3 S2 allele. PMID:16015281

Garenc, Christophe; Couillard, Charles; Laflamme, Nathalie; Cadelis, François; Gagné, Claude; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Bergeron, Jean

2005-10-01

98

Comparison between TG-51 and TG-21: Calibration of photon and electron beams in water using cylindrical chambers.  

PubMed

A new calibration protocol, developed by the AAPM Task Group 51 (TG-51) to replace the TG-21 protocol, is based on an absorbed-dose to water standard and calibration factor (N(D,w)), while the TG-21 protocol is based on an exposure (or air-kerma) standard and calibration factor (N(x)). Because of differences between these standards and the two protocols, the results of clinical reference dosimetry based on TG-51 may be somewhat different from those based on TG-21. The Radiological Physics Center has conducted a systematic comparison between the two protocols, in which photon and electron beam outputs following both protocols were compared under identical conditions. Cylindrical chambers used in this study were selected from the list given in the TG-51 report, covering the majority of current manufacturers. Measured ratios between absorbed-dose and air-kerma calibration factors, derived from the standards traceable to the NIST, were compared with calculated values using the TG-21 protocol. The comparison suggests that there is roughly a 1% discrepancy between measured and calculated ratios. This discrepancy may provide a reasonable measure of possible changes between the absorbed-dose to water determined by TG-51 and that determined by TG-21 for photon beam calibrations. The typical change in a 6 MV photon beam calibration following the implementation of the TG-51 protocol was about 1%, regardless of the chamber used, and the change was somewhat smaller for an 18 MV photon beam. On the other hand, the results for 9 and 16 MeV electron beams show larger changes up to 2%, perhaps because of the updated electron stopping power data used for the TG-51 protocol, in addition to the inherent 1% discrepancy presented in the calibration factors. The results also indicate that the changes may be dependent on the electron energy. PMID:11674825

Cho, S H; Lowenstein, J R; Balter, P A; Wells, N H; Hanson, W F

2000-01-01

99

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . Author manuscript Rexinoid bexarotene modulates triglyceride but not cholesterol  

E-print Network

triglyceride but not cholesterol metabolism via gene-specific permissivity of the RXR/LXR heterodimer is an increase in plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The molecular ; chemistry ; physiology ; Tetrahydronaphthalenes ; pharmacology ; Triglycerides ; metabolism Author Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

101

Medium Chain Triglycerides in Paediatric Practice  

PubMed Central

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) bypass the steps necessary for the absorption of long chain fats (LCT), and so have theoretical grounds for their use in various disease states, particularly malabsorptive disorders. In childhood, MCT have particular advantages since they allow restriction of dietary long chain fats without limiting the intake of protein necessary for growth while providing adequate calories. In malabsorptive states, MCT have been used mostly in cystic fibrosis, where they may reduce steatorrhoea. However, the long-term growth patterns of these children are dependent on the extent and severity of their chest disease. MCT may be a useful source of calories for those with anorexia due to infection or liver disease and in babies recovering from meconium ileus. The decrease in offensive stools, flatus, and abdominal discomfort improves well-being and social acceptability which is important for many schoolchildren and adolescents. Rectal prolapse may be helped. Where there is loss of the small intestinal absorptive surface, particularly after massive small bowel resection, MCT can help to maintain weight and nutrition. They may also be a useful supplementary nutritional measure in patients severely affected with coeliac disease while awaiting response to a gluten-free diet, and in patients with regional enteritis. In children with liver disease, MCT provide a ready source of calories while avoiding the loss of fat in their stools. Infants with neonatal hepatitis or biliary atresia remain well nourished, and some older children with liver disease grow more rapidly and have fewer and less offensive stools and less abdominal discomfort. Where an abnormal number of faecal organisms colonize the small intestine (`contaminated small bowel syndrome' or `blind loop syndrome') intraluminal bile salts become deconjugated and cause steatorrhoea. A combination of antibiotic and surgical treatment is usually indicated, but MCT can be used to improve nutrition before operation and may be indicated for associated conditions, such as massive intestinal resection. MCT have also been helpful in patients with defective chylomicron formation due to a-?-lipoproteinaemia. In the congenital and less commonly encountered acquired lymphatic disorders in childhood, MCT have given encouraging results. This group includes patients with gross protein and fat loss due to intestinal lymphangiectasia and others with lymphatic anomalies at other sites. Hyperchylomicronaemia (familial fat-induced hypertriglyceridaemia) responds well to dietary treatment with MCT. PMID:4918706

Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Anderson, Charlotte M.

1970-01-01

102

High performance reversed-phase chromatography of natural triglyceride mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance reversed-phase chromatography (HPRC) is an efficient and powerful tool gaining momentum in the separation\\u000a of triglycerides and other lipid components. In the present study the effect of different variables in triglyceride separation\\u000a has been studied. It was found that a longer hydrocarbon chain bonded to silica gel as well as the percent coverage improved\\u000a the separation. Smaller particle

A. H. El-Hamdy; E. G. Perkins

1981-01-01

103

Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: Influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in...

104

The Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL)-mediated Lipid Mobilization and Enhances the ATGL Interaction with Comparative Gene Identification 58 (CGI-58) and Lipid Droplets.  

PubMed

Liver steatosis is a common health problem associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and an important risk factor for the development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Steatosis is caused by triglycerides (TG) accumulating in lipid droplets (LDs), cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. The HCV nucleocapsid core localizes to the surface of LDs and induces steatosis in cultured cells and mouse livers by decreasing intracellular TG degradation (lipolysis). Here we report that core at the surface of LDs interferes with the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key lipolytic enzyme in the first step of TG breakdown. Expressing core in livers or mouse embryonic fibroblasts of ATGL(-/-) mice no longer decreases TG degradation as observed in LDs from wild-type mice, supporting the model that core reduces lipolysis by engaging ATGL. Core must localize at LDs to inhibit lipolysis, as ex vivo TG hydrolysis is impaired in purified LDs coated with core but not when free core is added to LDs. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that core does not directly interact with the ATGL complex but, unexpectedly, increased the interaction between ATGL and its activator CGI-58 as well as the recruitment of both proteins to LDs. These data link the anti-lipolytic activity of the HCV core protein with altered ATGL binding to CGI-58 and the enhanced association of both proteins with LDs. PMID:25381252

Camus, Gregory; Schweiger, Martina; Herker, Eva; Harris, Charles; Kondratowicz, Andrew S; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Farese, Robert V; Herath, Kithsiri; Previs, Stephen F; Roddy, Thomas P; Pinto, Shirly; Zechner, Rudolf; Ott, Melanie

2014-12-26

105

The relationship of apolipoprotein B and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride with hyperuricemia and gout.  

PubMed

IntroductionGout results from an innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints. Increased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) has been associated with gout. The apolipoprotein B (apo B), which is present on VLDL, regulates neutrophil response to MSU crystals and has been positively associated with gout. Furthermore, the gene (A1CF) encoding the complementation factor for the APOB mRNA-editing enzyme is associated with urate levels. However, the relationship of apo B and VLDL with gout and hyperuricemia (HU) is still unclear. Therefore, we tested the association of VLDL and apo B with HU and with gout compared to HU.MethodsNew Zealand European (n =90) and M¿ori and Pacific Island (Polynesian) (n =90) male gout case and control sample sets were divided into normouricemia (NU), asymptomatic HU and gout groups. Size exclusion chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay was used to measure VLDL and apo B. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the risk of gout and HU per unit change in VLDL and apo B.ResultsIncreased levels of VLDL triglycerides (Tg) were observed in the gout sample set compared to NU and HU in European (P =1.8¿×¿10¿6 and 1¿×¿10¿3, respectively), but only compared to NU in Polynesian (P =0.023). This increase was driven by increased number of VLDL particles in the European participants and by the Tg-enrichment of existing VLDL particles in the Polynesian participants. Each mmol/L increase in VLDL Tg was significantly associated with gout in the presence of HU in Europeans, with a similar trend in Polynesians (OR =7.61, P =0.011 and 2.84, P =0.069, respectively). Each ¿mol/L increase in total apo B trended towards decreased risk of HU (OR =0.47; P =0.062) and, conversely, with increased risk of gout compared to HU (OR =5.60; P =0.004).ConclusionsIncreased VLDL Tg is associated with the risk of gout compared to HU. A genetic approach should be taken to investigate the possibility for causality of VLDL in gout. Apolipoprotein B may have pleiotropic effects in determining HU and gout. PMID:25432151

Rasheed, Humaira; Hsu, Angela; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa K; McCormick, Sally; Merriman, Tony R

2014-11-29

106

Impact of Serum Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Normoglycemic and Prediabetic Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Increased triglycerides (TGs) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are established as diabetic risks for nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, and early-phase insulin secretion in normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects. Methods We evaluated 663 Japanese subjects who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. On the basis of these results, the subjects were divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=341), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG; n=211), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT; n=71), and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT; n=40). Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) (?insulin/?glucose [30 to 0 minutes]) and disposition index (DI) (IGI/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Results In prediabetic subjects (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG+IGT), linear regression analyses revealed that IGI and DI were positively correlated with HDL-C levels. Moreover, in subjects with i-IGT and (IFG+IGT), but not with i-IFG, the indices of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with the log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. In both the subjects with i-IGT, multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that DI was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively with log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. On the other hand, in subjects with NGT, there was no association between insulin secretion and lipid profiles. Conclusion These results revealed that serum TG and HDL-C levels have different impacts on early-phase insulin secretion on the basis of their glucose tolerance status. PMID:25215276

Niwa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Hanyu, Norinao; Nakayama, Tomohiro

2014-01-01

107

Ultra high efficiency/low pressure supercritical fluid chromatography with superficially porous particles for triglyceride separation.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of the separation of vegetable oil triglycerides (TG) in supercritical chromatography (SFC), using superficially porous particles (SPPs). The SPP, having a small diameter (2-3?m), provide a higher theoretical plate number (N), which allows to improve separation of critical pairs of compounds. However, compared to fully porous particles of larger diameter (5?m), the pressure drop is also increased. Fortunately, supercritical fluids have a low viscosity, which allows coupling several columns to achieve high N values, while maintaining flow rate above 1ml/min, ensuring a ultra high efficiency (UHE) at low pressure (LP) (below 40MPa), with regards to the one reached with liquid and sub-two micron particles (around 100MPa). The use of two detector systems (UV and ELSD) connected in series to the UHE-LP-SFC system provides complementary responses, due to their specific detection principles. Working in a first part with three coupled Kinetex C18 columns (45cm total length), the effect of modifier nature and percentage were studied with two reference oils, argan and rapeseed, chosen for their different and well-known TG composition. The analytical method was developed from previous studies performed with fully porous particles (FPP). Optimized conditions with three Kinetex were as follows: 17°C, 12% of ACN/MeOH (90/10; v/v). With these conditions, and by using an increased length of Kinetex C18 column (60cm), another additional column was selected from ten different commercial SPP C18 bonded phases, by applying a Derringer function on varied parameters: theoretical plate number (TPN), separation index (SI) for critical pairs of peaks (the peaks of compounds difficult to separate due to subtle structural differences), the analysis duration, and the total peak number. This function normalizes the values of any parameters, between 0 and 1, from the worst value to the better, allowing to take account of various parameters in the final choice. Finally, by using four Kinetex C18 plus one Accucore C18 (75cm total column length), a high-performance separation of triglycerides was achieved, with reasonable analysis duration and isocratic conditions. These conditions can be applied to varied vegetable oils. Identification of the numerous separated peaks of rapeseed oil was achieved by using published data and chromatographic retention behaviour. PMID:24411089

Lesellier, E; Latos, A; de Oliveira, A Lopes

2014-01-31

108

Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2  

E-print Network

Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence

Snapp, Erik Lee

109

Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project  

PubMed Central

We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

2013-01-01

110

Application of AAPM TG 119 to volumetric arc therapy (VMAT).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to create AAPM TG 119 benchmark plans for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and to compare VMAT plans with IMRT plan data. AAPM TG 119 proposes a set of test clinical cases for testing the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two treatment plans, the first plan using 7-9 static dMLC IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing one- or two-arc VMAT technique. Dose optimization and calculations performed using 6 MV photons and Eclipse treatment planning system. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG 119 goals. Plans were scored based on TG 119 planning objectives. Treatment plans were compared using conformity index (CI) for reference dose and homogeneity index (HI) (for D(5)-D(95)). For test cases prostate, head-and-neck, C-shape and multitarget prescription dose are 75.6 Gy, 50.4 Gy, 50 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. VMAT dose distributions were comparable to dMLC IMRT plans. Our planning results matched TG 119 planning results. For treatment plans studied, conformity indices ranged from 1.05-1.23 (IMRT) and 1.04-1.23 (VMAT). Homogeneity indices ranged from 4.6%-11.0% (IMRT) and 4.6%-10.5% (VMAT). The ratio of total monitor units necessary for dMLC IMRT to that of VMAT was in the range of 1.1-2.0. AAPM TG 119 test cases are useful to generate VMAT benchmark plans. At preclinical implementation stage, plan comparison of VMAT and IMRT plans of AAPM TG 119 test case allowed us to understand basic capabilities of VMAT technique. PMID:22955639

Mynampati, Dinesh Kumar; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Hong, Linda; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Mah, Dennis

2012-01-01

111

Vector Percolation Analysis of Triglyceride-based Thermoset Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermosetting Acrylated triglycerides (ATG) were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The distribution of acrylate groups was calculated from the distribution of unsaturation sites on unmodified oils, assuming a binomial distribution of acrylate groups. The ATG were both homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link density v, of the polymers was calculated using the recursive method of Miller and Macosko from a knowledge of the acrylate distribution. The cross-link density was found to increase with the level of acrylation A, in a vector percolation manner, and the trends in the cross-link density predictions matched the experimental results. The deviation in the experimental results and model predictions were the result of intramolecular cross-linking. Approximately 0.5 and 0.8 acrylates per triglyceride were lost to intramolecular cyclization for homopolymerized acrylated triglycerides and triglycerides copolymerized with styrene, respectively. Equations for the level of perfection p, of the triglyceride networks and the percolation threshold pc, were developed using the calculated number of acrylates lost to cyclization. Polymers with p < 0.1 without styrene, and p < 0.39 with styrene did not have mechanical integrity, validating the definition of the level of perfection and percolation threshold pc. The tensile strength, S ˜ [p-p]^1/2 and modulus E ˜ [p-pc]^3 , were in accord with vector percolation theory, where p could be derived experimentally via A ˜ [p-pc] , v ˜ A and FTIR analysis of the extent of reaction of the C=C groups. These results also indicated how mechanical properties were controlled by the fatty acid distribution function of the plant oils, and which oil would give the best particular property. Supported by EPA and DoE.

Lascala, John J.; Wool, Richard P.

2003-03-01

112

Effect of dialysis on serum carnitine, free fatty acids, and triglyceride levels in man and the rat.  

PubMed

Serum free carnitine, free fatty acid and triglyceride values were followed in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis therapy. During dialysis a decrease in serum carnitine was documented. Whereas the elevated triglyceride concentration remained constant, there was a sharp rise in free fatty acids during the dialysis procedure. This pattern occurred whether patients were subjected to hemodialysis or intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis was performed in a rat model and produced results similar to those observed in human subjects. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that peritoneal dialysis initiated the hypertriglyceridemia in the otherwise normal animal within a short time period. Whereas the abnormalities observed in carnitine and fatty acid metabolism may or may not be causally related in rat or man, they both seem to result from dialysis therapy. PMID:7121265

Bartel, L L; Hussey, J L; Shrago, E

1982-09-01

113

The absence of myelin basic protein promotes neuroinflammation and reduces amyloid ?-protein accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal accumulation of amyloid ?-protein (A?) in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis \\of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A? monomers assemble into oligomers and fibrils that promote neuronal dysfunction. This assembly pathway is influenced by naturally occurring brain molecules, the A? chaperone proteins, which bind to A? and modulate its aggregation. Myelin basic protein (MBP) was previously identified as a novel A? chaperone protein and a potent inhibitor for A? fibril assembly in vitro. Methods In this study, we determined whether the absence of MBP would influence A? pathology in vivo by breeding MBP knockout mice (MBP-/-) with Tg-5xFAD mice, a model of AD-like parenchymal A? pathology. Results Through biochemical and immunohistochemical experiments, we found that bigenic Tg-5xFAD/MBP-/- mice had a significant decrease of insoluble A? and parenchymal plaque deposition at an early age. The expression of transgene encoded human A?PP, the levels of C-terminal fragments generated during A? production and the intracellular A? were unaffected in the absence of MBP. Likewise, we did not find a significant difference in plasma A? or cerebrospinal fluid A?, suggesting these clearance routes were unaltered in bigenic Tg-5xFAD/MBP-/- mice. However, MBP-/- mice and bigenic Tg-5xFAD/MBP-/- mice exhibited elevated reactive astrocytes and activated microglia compared with Tg-5xFAD mice. The A? degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), which is expressed by activated glial cells, was significantly increased in the Tg-5xFAD/MBP-/- mice. Conclusions These findings indicate that the absence of MBP decreases A? deposition in transgenic mice and that this consequence may result from increased glial activation and expression of MMP-9, an A? degrading enzyme. PMID:24188129

2013-01-01

114

Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (<50 kV) brachytherapy system used in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Breast tissue is a heterogeneous tissue in terms of density and composition. Dosimetric calculations of seven APBI patients treated with Axxent were made using a model-based Monte Carlo platform for a number of tissue models and dose reporting methods and compared to TG-43 based plans. Methods: A model of the Axxent source, the S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (D{sub w,m}) and dose to medium (D{sub m,m}), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D{sub 90} to PTV was reduced by between ?4% and ?40%, depending on the scoring method, compared to the TG-43 result. Peak skin dose is also reduced by 10%–15% due to the absence of backscatter not accounted for in TG-43. The balloon applicator also contributed to the reduced dose. Other ROIs showed a difference depending on the method of dose reporting. Conclusions: TG-186-based calculations produce results that are different from TG-43 for the Axxent source. The differences depend strongly on the method of dose reporting. This study highlights the importance of backscatter to peak skin dose. Tissue heterogeneities, applicator, and patient geometries demonstrate the need for a more robust dose calculation method for low energy brachytherapy sources.

White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.reniers@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil)] [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil); Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States)] [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2014-06-15

115

Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG) suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) and peroxidase (HRP) directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35°C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99) was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4°C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also. PMID:24927348

Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Jagriti; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

2014-01-01

116

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the triglyceride-lowering component and in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis  

PubMed Central

Background In folklore, some people take the decoction of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis (CSFP) for lowering blood lipids. The present study is designed to evaluate the lipid-lowering activities of CSFP, and search for its pharmacodynamical material. Methods CSFP was extracted by water and 75% ethanol, respectively. The extracts of CSFP for reducing serum lipid levels were evaluated on mouse model of hyperlipidemia. The optimized extract was subjected to the bioactivity-guided fractionation in which the liquid-liquid extraction, collumn chromatography, the in vivo and in vitro models of hyperlipidemia were utilized. The structure of active component was determined by 13 C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Results The 75% ethanol extract of CSFP decreased the serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Followed a separation process for the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP, the fraction B was proved to be an active fraction for lowering lipid in vivo and in vitro experiments, which could significantly decrease the serum TC and TG levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and remarkably decrease the increase of TG in primary mouse hepatocytes induced by high glucose and the increase of TG in HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid. The fraction B2, isolated from B on bioactivity-guided fractionation, could significantly decrease TG level in HepG2 cells. One compound with the highest content in B2 was isolated and determined as luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by NMR spectra. It could significantly reduce the TG level in HepG2 cells, and inhibited the accumulation of lipids by oil red O stain. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP could improve in vitro and in vivo lipid accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside might be a leading pharmacodynamical material of CSFP for lowering lipids. PMID:22413998

2012-01-01

117

Reduced Serum Levels of Triglyceride, Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in Parkinson’s Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown a lower incidence of stroke in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The role of the lipids and lipoproteins as risk factors for stroke is uncertain in the lower prevalence of stroke in PD patients. Objectives To explore the lipids and lipoproteins serum levels in PD patients. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 110 PD patients (PD group), 130 controls with non-cerebrovascular neurological diseases (OD group), 140 acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients (ICH group) and 140 acute cerebral infarction patients (CI group). The records about serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed. Results There were significant differences for the serum level of triglyceride (F = 5.031, p=0.002), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (F = 5.313, p=0.001), apolipoprotein B (F = 16.038, p<0.0001) in the four groups. PD group had a significantly lower serum level of triglyceride (TG) than the OD (p=0.032), ICH (p=0.00047) and CI (p=0.001) groups. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) serum level was significantly lower in PD group than in OD (p=0.039), ICH (p=0.00021) and CI (p=0.001) groups. There was a significantly lower serum level of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in PD group than in OD (p=0.002), ICH (p<0.0001) and CI (p<0.0001) groups. Conclusions There are reduced serum levels of TG, VLDL-C and apo B in PD patients, which may be related to the decreased prevalence of stroke in PD patients. PMID:24086623

Tian, Yanghua; Xu, Fangcheng; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai

2013-01-01

118

Which memory task for my mouse? A systematic review of spatial memory performance in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's mouse model.  

PubMed

We review studies testing performance on tasks putatively tapping spatial memory in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This model exhibits age-dependent elevation of amyloid-? in the hippocampal formation and elsewhere in the brain. From 49 articles in all, we reviewed Tg2576 performance on five spatial memory tasks: the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, continuous Y-maze alternation, discrete forced-choice T-maze alternation, the radial arm water maze, and the circular platform maze (Barnes maze). Proportionally, the likelihood of detecting significant impairment in Tg2576 mice (relative to age-matched controls) was found to be: highest with the use of T-maze alternation and the radial arm water maze; intermediate when using the Morris water maze and continuous Y-maze alternation; and lowest when using the circular platform maze. These results are indicative rather than conclusive, but have implications for testing cognitive function in Tg2576 mice and, potentially, other AD rodent models. The apparent sensitivity of the T-maze alternation task and reduced sensitivity of the Morris water maze task (reference memory version) are discussed. We also consider limitations and potential improvements in assessing cognitive impairment in dementia models. PMID:21558645

Stewart, Sarah; Cacucci, Francesca; Lever, Colin

2011-01-01

119

Absence of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Individuals with Abetalipoproteinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abetalipoproteinemia is a human genetic disease that is characterized by a defect in the assembly or secretion of plasma very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which is located in the lumen of microsomes isolated from the liver and intestine, has been proposed to function in lipoprotein assembly. MTP activity and the 88-kilodalton component of

John R. Wetterau; Lawrence P. Aggerbeck; Marie-Elisabeth Bouma; Claude Eisenberg; Anne Munck; Michel Hermier; Jacques Schmitz; Gerard Gay; Daniel J. Rader; Richard E. Gregg

1992-01-01

120

Triglyceride accumulation protects against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues is associated with insulin resistance, pancreatic -cell apoptosis and heart failure. Here, we demonstrate in cultured cells that the relative toxicity of two common dietary long chain fatty acids is related to channeling of these lipids to distinct cellular metabolic fates. Oleic acid supplementation leads to triglyceride accumulation and is well tolerated, whereas excess

Laura L. Listenberger; Xianlin Han; Sarah E. Lewis; Sylvaine Cases; Robert V. Farese Jr.; Daniel S. Ory; Jean E. Schaffer

2003-01-01

121

Short-term overexpression of DGAT1 or DGAT2 increases hepatic triglyceride but not VLDL triglyceride or apoB production.  

PubMed

Increased triglyceride synthesis resulting from enhanced flux of fatty acids into liver is frequently associated with VLDL overproduction. This has led to the common belief that hepatic triglyceride synthesis can directly modulate VLDL production. We used adenoviral vectors containing either murine acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol transferase 1 (DGAT1) or DGAT2 cDNA to determine the effect of a short-term increase in hepatic triglyceride synthesis on VLDL triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB) production in female wild-type mice. Hepatic DGAT1 and DGAT2 overexpression resulted in 2.0-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the triglyceride content of liver, respectively. However, the increase in hepatic triglyceride content had no effect on the production rate of VLDL triglyceride or apoB in either case. Liver subfractionation showed that DGAT1 and DGAT2 overexpression significantly increased the content of triglyceride within the cytoplasmic lipid fraction, with no change in the triglyceride content of the microsomal membrane or microsomal VLDL. The increased cytoplasmic triglyceride content was observed in electron micrographs of liver sections from mice overexpressing DGAT1 or DGAT2. Overexpression of DGAT1 or DGAT2 resulted in enhanced [(3)H]glycerol tracer incorporation into triglyceride within cytoplasmic lipids. These results suggest that increasing the cytoplasmic triglyceride pool in hepatocytes does not directly influence VLDL triglyceride or apoB production. In the presence of adequate cytoplasmic lipid stores, factors other than triglyceride synthesis are rate-limiting for VLDL production. PMID:16877777

Millar, John S; Stone, Scot J; Tietge, Uwe J F; Tow, Bryan; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Wong, Jinny S; Hamilton, Robert L; Farese, Robert V; Rader, Daniel J

2006-10-01

122

Fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl5) regulates hepatic triglyceride catabolism in obese C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a major public health concern in the obese and type 2 diabetic populations. The high-fat lard diet induces obesity and fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice and suppresses expression of the PPAR-target gene, FA elongase 5 (Elovl5). Elovl5 plays a key role in MUFA and PUFA synthesis. Increasing hepatic Elovl5 activity in obese mice lowered hepatic TGs and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (X-box binding protein 1 and cAMP-dependent transcription factor 6?) and increased TG catabolism and fatty acyl carnitines. Increased hepatic Elovl5 activity did not increase hepatic capacity for ?-oxidation. Elovl5 effects on hepatic TG catabolism were linked to increased protein levels of adipocyte TG lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI58). Elevated hepatic Elovl5 activity also induced the expression of some (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and fibroblast growth factor 21), but not other cytochrome P450 4A10 (CYP4A10), PPAR-target genes. FA products of Elovl5 activity increased ATGL, but not CGI58, mRNA through PPAR?-dependent mechanisms in human HepG2 cells. Treatment of mouse AML12 hepatocytes with the PPAR? agonist (GW0742) decreased (14)C-18:2,n-6 in TGs but did not affect ?-oxidation. These studies establish that Elovl5 activity regulates hepatic levels of FAs controlling PPAR? activity, ATGL expression, and TG catabolism, but not FA oxidation. PMID:24814977

Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A; Stevens, Robert D; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; Greenberg, Andrew S; Huang, Li-Shin; Jump, Donald B

2014-05-01

123

TG69: Radiographic film for megavoltage beam dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

TG-69 is a task group report of the AAPM on the use of radiographic film for dosimetry. Radiographic films have been used for radiation dosimetry since the discovery of x-rays and have become an integral part of dose verification for both routine quality assurance and for complex treatments such as soft wedges (dynamic and virtual), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),

Sujatha Pai; Indra J. Das; James F. Dempsey; Kwok L. Lam; Thomas J. Losasso; Arthur J. Olch; Jatinder R. Palta; Lawrence E. Reinstein; Dan Ritt; Ellen E. Wilcox

2007-01-01

124

Relaxation of silica above and below Tg: light scattering studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pure silica glass, different fictive temperatures are achieved between 1500 and 1100°C. These temperatures are checked by the position of the Si - O - Si Raman band. Light scattering for the different samples due to density fluctuations is determined by the Landau-Placzek ratio which decreases when Tf decreases. Further relaxation occurs in this glass 300°C below Tg;

Ph. Guenot; B. Champagnon; R. Le Parc

2002-01-01

125

T.G . BEVER Aesthetic Basis for CognitiveStructures  

E-print Network

T.G . BEVER Aesthetic Basis for CognitiveStructures 3 15 The Aesthetic Basis for Cognitive is develop- mental: they facilitatethe experienceof languageacquisitionasan aesthetic and problem aestheticjudgments, a be- havior with no apparent direct hction. Aesthetic behavior reveals to us what the mind does

Bever, Thomas G.

126

Heterozygous lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to a missense mutation as the cause of impaired triglyceride tolerance with multiple lipoprotein abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

In 16 members of two Austrian families affected by a missense mutation at codon 188 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene (8 heterozygous and 8 normal subjects), carrier status for the mutation as determined by DNA analysis was related to LPL activity in postheparin plasma, to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, and to concentration, composition, and size of the major lipoprotein classes of postabsorptive plasma. Carriers exhibited clearly reduced LPL activity, normal fasting triglycerides, but pronounced postprandial lipemia. The carriers' impaired triglyceride tolerance, as evident in the postprandial state of challenge only, was associated with a fasting lipoprotein constellation characterized by (a) enrichment of HDL2 with triglycerides, (b) reduced HDL2-cholesterol, (c) enrichment of VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) with cholesteryl esters, (d) elevated IDL levels, and (e) small-sized LDL. Within any given individual, the degrees of expression of these characteristics were quantitatively and continuously related with each other as well as with the magnitude of lipemia and with LPL activity. PMID:8432854

Miesenböck, G; Hölzl, B; Föger, B; Brandstätter, E; Paulweber, B; Sandhofer, F; Patsch, J R

1993-01-01

127

Association of dietary pattern and physical activity level with triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio among adults in Jiangsu, China: a cross-sectional study with sex-specific differences.  

PubMed

Our study aims to explore the association between dietary patterns and physical activity levels (PAL) with a triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, and to examine whether the association is sex dependent among Chinese adults. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected through questionnaires, anthropometric measurement, and biochemical tests. Four food patterns ("meat," "healthy," "high-energy," and "traditional Chinese") were established through factor analysis. Physical activity level was categorized as "active," "moderate," and "inactive." Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between food patterns and PAL with TG/HDL-C ratio. Compared with quartile 1, quartiles 2 and 3 of meat pattern among men were found to be associated with lower risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio (the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C ratio). Similar decreased risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio was also observed in the highest quartile 4 of healthy pattern among women. Active PAL was protective against high TG/HDL-C ratio among both men (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.86) and women (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96). Although no statistically significant interaction was observed, we found that individuals with active PAL and low healthy diet had a similar OR with those with inactive PAL and high healthy diet (0.62 vs 0.68). In conclusion, dietary patterns were associated with TG/HDL-C ratio in a sex-specific way, and active PAL was consistently related to decreased risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio across genders. PMID:25176039

Lyu, Shurong; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Wu, Ming

2014-08-01

128

Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)  

MedlinePLUS

... Triglycerides are fats in the blood (also called lipids). Your body needs some blood fats for energy. ... Also, many people with high triglycerides have other lipid problems or other risk factors for heart disease. ...

129

IDENTIFICATION OF A TRIGLYCERIDE (GLYCERYL-1,2-DIOLEATE-3-PALMITATE)  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION OF A TRIGLYCERIDE (GLYCERYL-1,2-DIOLEATE-3-PALMITATE) AS A BROOD PHEROMONE OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Identifizierung eines Tri-Glycerids (Glyceryl-1, 2-dioleat-3-palmitat) als

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Brown adipose tissue takes up plasma triglycerides mostly after lipolysis.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning TGs that are stored within intracellular lipid droplets and need to be replenished by the uptake of TG-derived FA from plasma. It is currently unclear whether BAT takes up FA via uptake of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), after lipolysis-mediated liberation of FA, or via a combination of both. Therefore, we generated glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate and [(14)C]cholesteryl oleate double-labeled TRL-mimicking particles with an average diameter of 45, 80, and 150 nm (representing small VLDL to chylomicrons) and injected these intravenously into male C57Bl/6J mice. At room temperature (21°C), the uptake of (3)H-activity by BAT, expressed per gram of tissue, was much higher than the uptake of (14)C-activity, irrespective of particle size, indicating lipolysis-mediated uptake of TG-derived FA rather than whole particle uptake. Cold exposure (7°C) increased the uptake of FA derived from the differently sized particles by BAT, while retaining the selectivity for uptake of FA over cholesteryl ester (CE). At thermoneutrality (28°C), total FA uptake by BAT was attenuated, but the specificity of uptake of FA over CE was again largely retained. Altogether, we conclude that, in our model, BAT takes up plasma TG preferentially by means of lipolysis-mediated uptake of FA. PMID:25351615

Khedoe, P Padmini S J; Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Dijk, Wieneke; Buijs, Jeroen T; Kersten, Sander; Havekes, Louis M; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N

2015-01-01

131

Calibration of the Gamma Knife using a new phantom following the AAPM TG51 and TG21 protocols  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare calibration of the Leksell Gamma Knife according to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Groups 21 and 51 protocols. A new phantom was fabricated for this purpose. Its design, physical properties, and composition are described. Materials and methods: The Gamma Knife TG-51 calibration phantom is designed to be filled with water and support an ionization chamber positioned at its center. The phantom is thimble-shaped, with a 2 mm plastic wall to contain water. The phantom and chamber assembly was mounted in a LeksellTM stereotactic frame. The location of the chamber's sensitive volume was determined using computed tomography. The chamber-phantom assembly was attached to the 18 mm helmet in the Gamma Knife by the stereotactic frame. The phantom's geometry allowed radiation beams from each of the 201 Gamma Knife cobalt-60 sources to converge after an 8 cm path to the ionization chamber's sensitive volume. This is similar to the arrangement by which one calibrates the Gamma Knife using the manufacturer-supplied polystyrene phantom. Results: The phantom was attached to the Gamma Knife so that the ionization chamber was reproducibly positioned at the convergence of the radiation beams. Because of the phantom's design, the phantom could be affixed to either trunnions or the automatic patient positioning system, once mounted in the LeksellTM stereotectic frame. Comparisons using different phantoms and protocols resulted in the following calibration ratios for TG-21 in the polystyrene sphere phantom, TG-21 in the water phantom, and TG-51 in the water phantom, respectively: 1.000, 1.008, 0.986, when corrected for transmission through the plastic water reservoir wall and using the same ionization chamber. Transmission measurements using a 1 cm thickness of the same material in the Co-60 beam determined that the phantom's 2 mm plastic wall resulted in a reduction in the measured the output by 0.5%. Conclusions: Calibration of the Gamma Knife can be performed in liquid water using the AAPM TG-51 protocol and this new phantom, thereby eliminating uncertainties with respect to the composition of the manufacturer's phantom. Perturbation of calibration measurements by nonwater materials was characterized and could be corrected. Calibration values for the Gamma Knife that were obtained using the three methods for our phantoms agree to within 1.4%. TG21 and TG51 calibration of the Gamma Knife using the water phantom agreed to within 2.2%.

Drzymala, R. E.; Wood, R. C.; Levy, J. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, New York 12865 (United States)

2008-02-15

132

The Effect of Alcohol on Postprandial and Fasting Triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Alcohol has a significant additive effect on the postprandial triglyceride peak when it accompanies a meal containing fat, especially saturated fat. This results from a decrease in the breakdown of chylomicrons and VLDL remnants due to an acute inhibitory effect of alcohol on lipoprotein lipase activity. Furthermore, alcohol increases the synthesis of large VLDL particles in the liver, which is the main source of triglycerides in the hypertriglyceridemia associated with chronic excessive alcohol intake. In case of chronic consumption, lipoprotein lipase activity seems to adapt itself. The effect of alcohol on adipose tissues is less clear. Sometimes, a severe hypertriglyceridemia induced by alcohol (SHIBA) can be observed, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity increasing the risk of pancreatitis. PMID:21961068

Van de Wiel, Albert

2012-01-01

133

Association of Serum Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with Risk for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) levels (serum lipid profile) in subjects with chronic periodontitis and the possible association for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: Total of 80 participants (42 males and 38 females) who were in the age range of 30-65 years were divided into test group (group I- 40 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control group (group II- 40 subjects with healthy periodontium), based on their periodontal disease statuses. Three ml of venous blood samples were taken for measurement of parameters of lipid metabolism [serum cholesterol (chol); triglycerides (Tg); HDL and LDL. Results: Significant increase in serum cholesterol and LDL (P<0.05) were observed in test group (group I), whereas serum triglycerides and HDL (P>0.66) showed no significant increase in test group (group I) as compared to their values in the control group (group II). A P-value of < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Conclusions: Subjects with chronic periodontitis showed increased serum cholesterol and LDL levels. This may suggest that these subjects are potentially at a risk of getting CVD. PMID:24596778

Sandi, R.M.; Pol, K.G.; Basavaraj, P.; Khuller, Nitin; Singh, Shilpi

2014-01-01

134

Triglyceride accumulation in injured renal tubular cells: Alterations in both synthetic and catabolic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride accumulation in injured renal tubular cells: Alterations in synthetic and catabolic pathways.BackgroundTriglycerides can accumulate in injured tissues, a process thought to represent flux of excess, cytotoxic, free fatty acids into nontoxic triglyceride storage pools. However, this view may be overly simplistic, given that multiple pathways may impact triglyceride levels. This study sought new insights into this issue.MethodsCultured human proximal

Ali C. M. Johnson; ANDREAS STAHL; Richard A. Zager

2005-01-01

135

Inhibition of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Familial Hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a dose-escalation study to examine the safety, tolerability, and effects on lipid levels of BMS-201038, an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, in six patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. All lipid- lowering therapies were suspended 4 weeks before treatment. The patients received BMS-201038 at four different doses (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg per kilogram of body

Marina Cuchel; LeAnne T. Bloedon; Philippe O. Szapary; Daniel M. Kolansky; Megan L. Wolfe; Antoine Sarkis; John S. Millar; Katsunori Ikewaki; Evan S. Siegelman; Richard E. Gregg; Daniel J. Rader

2007-01-01

136

Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Protein Expression Is Decreased in the Obese  

E-print Network

Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Protein Expression Is Decreased discovered adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). The aim of the present study was to examine whether ATGL non- HSL lipase adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), being pre- dominantly expressed in adipose tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Fat Mobilization in Adipose Tissue Is Promoted by Adipose Triglyceride Lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. Dysfunctional lipolysis affects energy homeostasis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Until now, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the only enzyme known to hydrolyze triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissue. Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial

Robert Zimmermann; Juliane G. Strauss; Guenter Haemmerle; Gabriele Schoiswohl; Ruth Birner-Gruenberger; Monika Riederer; Achim Lass; Georg Neuberger; Frank Eisenhaber; Albin Hermetter; Rudolf Zechner

2004-01-01

138

Rapid and sensitive enzymatic-radiochemical assay for the determination of triglycerides  

SciTech Connect

An enzymatic-radiochemical method suitable for the determination of triglyceride levels of cells in culture is described. The method is based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids which then complex with /sup 63/Ni. The method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. The procedure extends the sensitivity of triglyceride measurement to as low as 0.25 nanomoles.

Khoo, J.C.; Miller, E.; Goldberg, D.I.

1987-07-01

139

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Prime Aortic Endothelium for an Enhanced Inflammatory Response to Tumor  

E-print Network

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Prime Aortic Endothelium for an Enhanced Inflammatory Response, Anne A. Knowlton, Anthony G. Passerini, Scott I. Simon Abstract--High levels of triglyceride. (Circ Res. 2007;100:381-390.) Key Words: triglyceride-rich lipoprotein endothelium monocyte NF B

Simon, Scott I.

140

Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high fat meal2  

E-print Network

1 Endothelial inflammation correlates with subject triglycerides and waist size1 following a high © 2010 by the American Physiological Society. #12;2 Abstract17 A rise in postprandial serum triglycerides triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (PP-TGRLs) in subjects ranging from normal to21 hypertriglyceridemic

Passerini, Tony

141

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

142

Postprandial lipemia in the elderly involves increased incorporation of ingested fat in plasma free fatty acids and small (Sf 20–400) triglyceride-rich lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

In the elderly, the rise in postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations is increased, contributing to their increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the incorporation of ingested fat (whipping cream enriched with [1,1,1-13C]triolein) into plasma lipids during the postprandial period in six healthy elderly (67 ± 1 yr old) and six healthy young (23 ± 2 yr old) subjects. Blood and expired air samples were taken before and at 2-h intervals during the 8-h postprandial period. As expected, the area under the curve of postprandial plasma TG concentrations was larger in the elderly compared with the young subjects (152 ± 38 vs. 66 ± 27 mg·dl?1·h, P < 0.05). The incorporation of [13C]oleate in plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) and TG of the small (Sf = 20–400) triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was significantly higher in the elderly compared with the young subjects, resulting in increased postprandial contributions of the ingested lipid to plasma FFAs (41 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 6%, P < 0.05) and the small TRL fraction (36 ± 5 vs. 21 ± 3%, P < 0.05) in elderly. Plasma apoB-100 concentration was higher, whereas the rate of oxidation of the ingested lipid was lower (P < 0.05) in the elderly. We conclude that increased postprandial lipemia in the elderly involves increased contribution of ingested lipid to the plasma small TRLs. This appears to be driven at least in part by increased appearance of the ingested fat as plasma FFA and increased availability of apo B-100 lipoproteins in the elderly. PMID:21558545

Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J.

2011-01-01

143

Construction of an amperometric TG biosensor based on AuPPy nanocomposite and poly (indole-5-carboxylic acid) modified Au electrode.  

PubMed

A method is described for construction of an amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor based on covalent co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase onto gold polypyrrole nanocomposite decorated poly indole-5-carboxylic acid electrodeposited on the surface of a gold electrode. The enzyme electrode was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Biosensor showed optimum response within 4 s at pH 6.5 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.1 V against Ag/AgCl. There was a linear relationship between sensor response and triolein concentration in the range 50-700 mg/dl. Biosensor was employed for determination of TG in serum. Detection limit of the biosensor was 20 mg/dl. Biosensor was evaluated with 91-95 % recovery of added triolein in sera and 4.14 and 5.85 % within and between batch coefficients of variation, respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera TG values by standard method (Enzymic colorimetric) and the present method. The biosensor was unaffected by a number of serum substances at their physiological concentration. Biosensor lost 50 % of its initial activity after its 100 uses over 7 months, when stored at 4 °C. PMID:22903594

Narang, Jagriti; Chauhan, Nidhi; Rani, Poonam; Pundir, C S

2013-04-01

144

Relaxation of silica above and below Tg: Light scattering studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pure silica glass, different fictive temperatures are achieved between 1500 and 1100°C. These temperatures are checked by the position of the Si–O–Si Raman band. Light scattering for the different samples due to density fluctuations is determined by the Landau-Placzek ratio which decreases when Tf decreases. Further relaxation occurs in this glass 300°C below Tg; it is interpreted in

B. Champagnon; R. Le Parc; Ph. Guenot

2002-01-01

145

Effect of sesamin on serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels in LDL receptor-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Background Sesamin, a major lignan from sesame seeds has been associated with cholesterol reduction in previous reports, but recent studies suggested differences in the response to sesamin intake depending on the model studied as well as the nature of the sesamin preparation used. Aim The effect of pure sesamin epimer on serum lipids was studied in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor-knockout mice under cholesterol fed condition. Design Animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups, fed an atherogenic diet containing stanol ester, sesamin, combination of stanol ester and sesamin or a control diet with no additions. Results The control group showed an almost 3-fold increase in serum cholesterol levels due to the atherogenic diet but no effect was seen for triglyceride levels. Stanol ester alone or together with sesamin significantly attenuated the elevation of the cholesterol levels. Conclusion Sesamin alone did not affect the elevation of the diet-induced cholesterol level and it did not enhance the effect of stanol ester. PMID:17039285

Hopia, Anu; Adlercreutz, Herman

2006-01-01

146

Comparison of chloroform-methanol-extracted and solvent-free triglyceride determinations in four fish species.  

PubMed

Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform-methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform-methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body fractions were measured in four fish species: northern pike Esox lucius, burbot Lota lota, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and spottail shiners Notropis hudsonius. Determinations of total body lipids were consistently greater than those of total body triglycerides when measured in the same solvent-extracted fraction, although both measures followed similar trends. In an effort to eliminate the need for extraction with organic solvents, we compared the performance of an enzyme-based triglyceride assay in both the solvent-extracted fraction and a whole-body unextracted homogenate for each fish. The chloroform-methanol-extracted triglyceride values were consistently lower than triglycerides measured in the unextracted whole-body homogenate. In addition, comparison of triglyceride measurements revealed limitations to the solvent extraction and subsequent triglyceride determinations in lean fish. Thus, in addition to being simple, rapid, and not requiring organic solvents, determination of triglycerides in an unextracted whole-fish homogenate may be a useful alternative to chloroform-methanol-based methods of lipid extraction and subsequent triglyceride measurement. PMID:18201059

Bennett, Pamela M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

2007-09-01

147

Omega3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. This study was under- taken to determine whether this effect was due to reduced production or increased clearance of chylomicrons. Healthy subjects (n ? 33) began with a 4-week, olive oil placebo (4 g\\/d) run-in period. After a 4-week wash-out period, subjects were randomized to supplementation with 4 g\\/d of ethyl

Yongsoon Park; William S. Harris

2003-01-01

148

ApoC-III and visceral adipose tissue contribute to paradoxically normal triglyceride levels in insulin-resistant African-American women  

PubMed Central

Background African-Americans are more insulin-resistant than whites but have lower triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The metabolic basis for this is unknown. Our goal was to determine in a cross-sectional study the effect of insulin resistance, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the apolipoproteins, B, C-III and E, on race differences in TG content of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Methods The participants were 31 women (16 African-American, 15 white) of similar age (37?±?9 vs. 38?±?11y (mean?±?SD), P =?0.72) and BMI (32.4?±?7.2 vs. 29.3?±?6.0 kg/m2, P =?0.21). A standard diet (33% fat, 52% carbohydrate, 15% protein) was given for 7 days followed by a test meal (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate, 20% protein) on Day 8. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from the minimal model. VAT was measured at L2-3. The influence of race, SI, VAT and apolipoproteins on the TG content of VLDL was determined by random effects models (REM). Results African-Americans were more insulin-resistant (SI: 3.6?±?1.3 vs. 5.6?±?2.6 mU/L-1.min-1, P TG, apoB and apoC-III content of light and dense VLDL were lower in African-Americans (all P TG concentration of VLDL. In models with race, SI, VAT and all apolipoproteins entered, race was not significant but apoC-III and VAT remained significant determinants of TG concentration in light and dense VLDL. Conclusions Low concentrations of apoC-III and VAT in African-Americans contribute to race differences in TG concentrations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00484861 PMID:24365086

2013-01-01

149

Synthesis and characterization of triglyceride based thermosetting polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant oils, which are found in abundance in all parts of the world and are easily replenished annually, have the potential to replace petroleum as a chemical feedstock for making polymers. Within the past few years, there has been growing interest to use triglycerides as the basic constituent of thermosetting polymers with the necessary rigidity, strength and glass transition temperatures required for engineering applications. Plant oils are not polymerizable in their natural form, however various functional groups that can polymerize can easily be attached to the triglyceride structure making them ideal cross-linking monomers for thermosetting liquid molding resins. Through this research project a number of thermosetting liquid molding resins based on soybean and castor oil, which is a specialty oil with hydroxyls on its fatty acids, have been developed. The triglyceride based monomers were prepared via the malination of the alcoholysis products of soybean and castor oil with various polyols, such as pentaerythritol, glycerol, and Bisphenol A propoxylate. The malinated glycerides were then cured in the presence of a reactive diluent, such as styrene, to form rigid glassy materials with a wide range of properties. In addition to maleate half-esters, methacrylates were also introduced to the glyceride structure via methacrylation of the soybean oil glycerolysis product with methacrylic anhydride. This product, which contains methacrylic acid as by-product, and its blends with styrene also gave rigid materials when cured. The triglyceride based monomers were characterized via conventional spectroscopic techniques. Time resolved FTIR analysis was used to determine the curing kinetics and the final conversions of polymerization of the malinated glyceride-styrene blends. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determine the thermomechanical behavior of these polymers and other mechanical properties were determined via standard mechanical tests. The use of lignin, another renewable resource, as a filler and its effects on the mechanical properties of the polymers based on soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates and styrene (SOPERMA) was also explored. These novel soybean and castor oil based thermosetting resins show comparable properties to those of commercially successful unsaturated polyester resins and show promise as an alternative to replace these completely petroleum based materials.

Can, Erde

2005-07-01

150

A New Multi Enzyme Type Biosensor for Triglyceride Determination.  

PubMed

An amperometric multi-enzyme biosensor for determination of triglycerides (TGs) was constructed by mounting gelatine membrane bound three enzymes on a glassy carbon electrode (working electrode), then connecting it to electrometer along with Ag/AgCl reference electrode and Pt auxiliary electrode. Characterization and optimization of the multi-enzyme biosensor which is prepared with glycerol kinase (GK) (E.C.2.7.1.30), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) (E.C.1.1.3.21) and lipase (E.C.3.1.1.3) were studied. In the optimization studies for the bioactive layer components of the prepared biosensor, the optimum amounts of gelatin, BSA and glutaraldehyde was calculated as 1 mg/cm(2), 1 mg/cm(2) and % 2.5 respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of the reaction of biosensor was determined as 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. Linear range of triolein for the biosensor was found from the calibration curve between several substrate concentration and ? Current. After optimization and characterization of the biosensor, its operationability in triglycerides was also tested. PMID:25397961

Yücel, Alp; Ozcan, Hakk? Mevlüt; Sa??ro?lu, Ayten

2014-11-14

151

Analysis of olive oil and seed oil triglycerides by capillary gas chromatography as a tool for the detection of the adulteration of olive oil.  

PubMed

Individual triglyceride (TG) species of olive oil and several seed oils (corn, cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean, and sunflower) are baseline separated on a WCOT TAP CB fused-silica capillary column by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a flame-ionization detector (FID) and either cold on-column or split injection. An adulteration of olive oil with a low content (< 5%) of these seed oils (except peanut oil) can be verified by the detection of the increasing levels of trilinolein or tripalmitin in olive oil in which these TG species are normally absent or present at very low levels (< 0.5%). An adulteration with over 20% peanut oil can be detected by the increasing levels of palmitodilinolein. TG species that can be coeluted with trilinolein in the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) mode are baseline separated by the CGC technique, and their structures are identified by selective ion monitoring mass spectrometry. The following comparisons--the CGC-FID and RP-HPLC methods for detection of adulteration, cold on-column and split-injection modes for CGC-FID, and silylation or thin-layer chromatography pretreatment and simple dilution of one or more of the oil samples--are also presented. The normalized percentage area of the TG species is sufficient for the method limits used in this study. Mixtures of virgin olive oil with refined or residue olive oil could not be distinguished from the virgin type by the method used in this study. PMID:11318065

Andrikopoulos, N K; Giannakis, I G; Tzamtzis, V

2001-04-01

152

FLYWAY-SCALE VARIATION IN PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS AS AN INDEX OF REFUELING RATE IN SPRING-MIGRATING  

E-print Network

886 FLYWAY-SCALE VARIATION IN PLASMA TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS AS AN INDEX OF REFUELING RATE IN SPRING in putative fattening rates (estimated as plasma triglyceride levels) at the flyway scale in Western, triglyceride levels were higher in the spring than in the winter. Mean plasma triglyceride varied among

153

High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A.  

PubMed

This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8?g/Kg/day) for two weeks. HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients. PMID:24191325

El-Sayed, Mohamed Mohammed; Ghareeb, Doaa Ahmad; Talat, Heba Allah; Sarhan, Eman Mohammed

2013-11-01

154

Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database.  

PubMed

Toxicogenomics focuses on assessing the safety of compounds using gene expression profiles. Gene expression signatures from large toxicogenomics databases are expected to perform better than small databases in identifying biomarkers for the prediction and evaluation of drug safety based on a compound's toxicological mechanisms in animal target organs. Over the past 10 years, the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consortium (TGP) has been developing a large-scale toxicogenomics database consisting of data from 170 compounds (mostly drugs) with the aim of improving and enhancing drug safety assessment. Most of the data generated by the project (e.g. gene expression, pathology, lot number) are freely available to the public via Open TG-GATEs (Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System). Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the database, including both gene expression data and metadata, with a description of experimental conditions and procedures used to generate the database. Open TG-GATEs is available from http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/english/index.html. PMID:25313160

Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Tomoya; Ono, Atsushi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Yamada, Hiroshi

2015-01-28

155

miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting HMGCR.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health issue with a prevalence of 15-30% in Western populations and 6-25% in Asian populations. Certain studies have revealed the alteration of microRNA (miRNA or miR) profiles in NAFLD and it has been suggested that miR-21 is associated with NAFLD. In the present study, we measured the serum levels of miR-21 in patients with NAFLD and also performed in vitro experiments using a cellular model of NAFLD to further investigate the effects of miR-21 on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, a novel target through which miR-21 exerts its effects on NAFLD was identified. The results revealed that the serum levels of miR-21 were lower in patients with NAFLD compared with the healthy controls. In addition, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase (HMGCR) expression was increased in the serum of patients with NAFLD both at the mRNA and protein level. To mimic the NAFLD condition in vitro, HepG2 cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). Consistent with the results obtained in the in vivo experiments, the expression levels of miR-21 were decreased and those of HMGCR were increased in the in vitro model of NAFLD. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that HMGCR was a direct target of miR-21 and that miR-21 exerted an effect on both HMGCR transcript degradation and protein translation. Furthermore, the results from the in vitro experiments revealed that miR-21 decreased the levels of triglycerides (TG), free cholesterol (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in the PA/OA-treated HepG2 cells and that this effect was attenuated by HMGCR overexpression. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in an in vitro model of NAFLD, and that this effect is achieved by the inhibition of HMGCR expression. We speculate that miR-21 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD. PMID:25605429

Sun, Chuanzheng; Huang, Feizhou; Liu, Xunyang; Xiao, Xuefei; Yang, Mingshi; Hu, Gui; Liu, Huaizheng; Liao, Liangkan

2015-03-01

156

Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Summary Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild type and clock-disrupted mice, fed either ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (~17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g. PPAR?) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ~50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, however oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock. PMID:24506873

Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

2014-01-01

157

Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides of Glycine max, Glycine soya, Avena sativa and Avena sterilis strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for the stereospecific analysis of triglycerides based on enzymatic hydrolysis on thin layer plates was applied\\u000a to a number ofGlycine max, Glycine soya, Avena sativa andAvena sterilis strains. The percentage of each fatty acid on thesn-1,sn-2- andsn-3-positions was linearly related to the total percentage of the fatty acid in the triglyceride. Large deviations from the\\u000a common triglyceride

W. P. Pan; E. G. Hammond

1983-01-01

158

Medium-chain fatty acids: evidence for incorporation into chylomicron triglycerides in humans13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose ofthis study was to evaluate the fatty acid composition of chylomicron triglycerides isolated from subjects fed liquid-formula diets containing 40% of total energy as medium- (C8:0 and C I 0:0) or long-chain (C16-C18) triglycerides (MCT, LCT) for 6 d. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) comprised 8% of total chylomicron triglyceride fatty acids after the first MCT meal. After 6

Larry L Swift; John C Peters; Harry L Greene

159

Comparison of Chloroform–Methanol-Extracted and Solvent-Free Triglyceride Determinations in Four Fish Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform–methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform–methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body

Pamela M. Bennett; Lynn P. Weber; David M. Janz

2007-01-01

160

Targeted intestinal overexpression of the immediate early gene tis7 in transgenic mice increases triglyceride absorption and adiposity.  

PubMed

Following loss of functional small bowel surface area due to surgical resection, the remnant gut undergoes an adaptive response characterized by increased crypt cell proliferation and enhanced villus height and crypt depth, resulting in augmented intestinal nutrient absorptive capacity. Previous studies showed that expression of the immediate early gene tis7 is markedly up-regulated in intestinal enterocytes during the adaptive response. To study its role in the enterocyte, transgenic mice were generated that specifically overexpress TIS7 in the gut. Nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein promoter were used to direct abundant overexpression of TIS7 into small intestinal upper crypt and villus enterocytes. TIS7 transgenic mice had increased total body adiposity and decreased lean muscle mass compared with normal littermates. Oxygen consumption levels, body weight, surface area, and small bowel weight were decreased. On a high fat diet, transgenic mice exhibited a more rapid and proportionately greater gain in body weight with persistently elevated total body adiposity and increased hepatic fat accumulation. Bolus fat feeding resulted in a greater increase in serum triglyceride levels and an accelerated appearance of enterocytic, lamina propria, and hepatic fat. Changes in fat homeostasis were linked to increased expression of genes involved in enterocytic triglyceride metabolism and changes in growth with decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 expression. Thus, TIS7 overexpression in the intestine altered growth, metabolic rate, adiposity, and intestinal triglyceride absorption. These results suggest that TIS7 is a unique mediator of nutrient absorptive and metabolic adaptation following gut resection. PMID:16085642

Wang, Yuan; Iordanov, Hristo; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Wang, Lihua; Fritsch, Christine; Coleman, Trey; Semenkovich, Clay F; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

2005-10-14

161

Bioconversion of Xylan to triglycerides by oil-rich yeasts. [Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus terricoluus; Trichosporon  

SciTech Connect

A series of lipid-accumulating yeasts was examined for their potential to saccharify xylan and accumulate triglyceride. Of the genera tested, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Trichosporon, only Crytococcus and Trichosporon isolates saccharified xylan. All of the strains could assimilate xylose and accumuate triglyceride under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were found to be especially useful for a one-step saccharification of xylan coupled to triglyceride synthesis. Crytococcus terricolus, a strain constitutive for lipid accumulation, lacked extracellular xylanase, but did assimilate xylose and xylobiose and was able to continuously convert xylan to triglyceride if the culture medium was supplemented with xylanase. 22 references.

Fall, R.; Phelps, P.; Spindler, D.

1984-05-01

162

Fracture Simulation of Highly Crosslinked Polymer Networks: Triglyceride-Based Adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACRES program at the U. of Delaware has shown that triglyceride oils derived from plants are a favorable alternative to the traditional adhesives. The triglyceride networks are formed from an initial mixture of styrene monomers, free-radical initiators and triglycerides. We have performed simulations to study the effect of physical composition and physical characteristics of the triglyceride network on the strength of triglyceride network. A coarse-grained, bead-spring model of the triglyceride system is used. The average triglyceride consists of 6 beads per chain, the styrenes are represented as a single bead and the initiators are two bead chains. The polymer network is formed using an off-lattice 3D Monte Carlo simulation, in which the initiators activate the styrene and triglyceride reactive sites and then bonds are randomly formed between the styrene and active triglyceride monomers producing a highly crosslinked polymer network. Molecular dynamics simulations of the network under tensile and shear strains were performed to determine the strength as a function of the network composition. The relationship between the network structure and its strength will also be discussed.

Lorenz, Christian; Stevens, Mark; Wool, Richard

2003-03-01

163

A reversible early oxidized redox state that precedes macromolecular ROS damage in aging non-transgenic and 3xTg-AD mouse neurons  

PubMed Central

The brain depends on redox electrons from NADH to produce ATP and oxyradicals (ROS). Since ROS damage and mitochondrial dysregulation are prominent in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their relationship to redox state is unclear, we wanted to know whether an oxidative redox shift precedes these markers and leads to macromolecular damage in a mouse model of AD. We used the 3xTg-AD mouse model that displays cognitive deficits beginning at 4 months. Hippocampal/cortical neurons were isolated across the age-span and cultured in common nutrients to control for possible hormonal and vascular differences. We found an increase of NAD(P)H levels and redox state in non-transgenic neurons until middle age, followed by a decline in old age. The 3xTg-AD neurons maintained much lower resting NAD(P)H and redox state after 4 months, but the NADH regenerating capacity continuously declined with age beginning at 2 months. These redox characteristics were partially reversible with nicotinamide, a biosynthetic precursor of NAD+. Nicotinamide also protected against glutamate excitotoxicity. Compared to non-transgenic neurons, 3xTg-AD neurons possessed more mitochondria/neuron and lower glutathione levels which preceeded age-related increases in ROS levels. These glutathione deficits were again reversible with nicotinamide in 3xTg-AD neurons. Surprisingly, low macromolecular ROS damage was only elevated after 4 months in the 3xTg-AD neurons if anti-oxidants were removed. The present data suggest that a more oxidized redox state and a lower antioxidant glutathione defense can be dissociated from neuronal ROS damage, changes that precede the onset of cognitive deficits in the 3xTg-AD model. PMID:22539844

Ghosh, D.; LeVault, K.; Barnett, A.; Brewer, G.J.

2012-01-01

164

Fatty acid synthase and liver triglyceride metabolism: housekeeper or messenger?  

PubMed

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In the liver, FAS has long been categorized as a housekeeping protein, producing fat for storage of energy when nutrients are present in excess. Most previous studies of FAS regulation have focused on the control of gene expression. However, recent findings suggest that hepatic FAS may also be involved in signaling processes that include activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Moreover, reports of rapid alterations in FAS activity as well as findings of post-translational modifications of the FAS protein support the notion that dynamic events in addition to transcription impact FAS regulation. These results indicate that FAS enzyme activity can impact liver physiology through signaling as well as energy storage and that its regulation may be complex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. PMID:22009142

Jensen-Urstad, Anne P L; Semenkovich, Clay F

2012-05-01

165

TRIGLYCERIDE, NEFA, AND PREDIABETIC NEUROPATHY: ROLE FOR OXIDATIVE-NITROSATIVE STRESS  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy develops in human subjects with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome, prior to overt hyperglycemia. The contributions of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, hypertriglyceridemia and/or increased NEFA, and hypercholesterolemia to this condition remain unknown. Niacin and its derivatives alleviate dyslipidemia with a minor effect on glucose homeostasis. This study evaluated the roles of impaired glucose tolerance versus dyslipidemia in prediabetic neuropathy using Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats and the niacin derivative acipimox, as well as the interplay of hypertriglyceridemia, increased NEFA, and oxidative-nitrosative stress. 16 wk-old Zucker fatty rats with impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and increased NEFA, displayed sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. Acipimox (100 mgkg?1d?1, 4 weeks) reduced serum insulin, NEFA, and triglyceride concentrations without affecting glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia. It alleviated sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, changes in behavioral measures of sensory function, and corrected oxidative-nitrosative stress, but not impaired insulin signaling, in peripheral nerve. Elevated NEFA increased total and mitochondrial superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in cultured human Schwann cells. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemia and/or increased NEFA concentrations cause prediabetic neuropathy through oxidative-nitrosative stress. Lipid-lowering agents and antioxidants may find use in management of this condition. PMID:22366714

Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Hasanova, Nailia; Julius, Ulrich; G.Obrosova, Irina

2012-01-01

166

Uniaxial Extension of Entangled Polymer Melts close to Tg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient (nonlinear) responses of entangled polymers to startup deformation indicate a transition from the initial elastic deformation to irreversible deformation (flow) [1-3]. This yielding behavior varies with the applied rate: at a higher rate the entanglement network can be strained to a higher degree before its breakdown. In this work, we subject entangled melts such as polystyrene to startup uniaxial extension to show how yielding takes place as a function of temperature. The objective is to explore whether there would be any mechanical signature of emergence of any secondary structure as the glass transition temperature Tg is approached from above. [4pt] [1] S. Q. Wang, S. Ravindranath, Y. Wang and P. Boukany, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064903 (2007).[0pt] [2] Y. Y. Wang and S. Q. Wang, J. Rheol. 53, 1389 (2009).[0pt] [3] S. Q. Wang, S. Ravindranath and P. E. Boukany, Macromolecules 44, 183 (2011).

Sun, Hao; Wang, Shi-Qing

2013-03-01

167

The orbital evolution of NEA 30825 1900 TG1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbital evolution of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 30825 1990 TG1 has been studied by numerical integration of the equations of its motion over the 100 000-year time interval with allowance for perturbations from eight major planets and Pluto, and the variations in its osculating orbit over this time interval were determined. The numerical integrations were performed using two methods: the Bulirsch-Stoer method and the Everhart method. The comparative analysis of the two resulting orbital evolutions of motion is presented for the time interval examined. The evolution of the asteroid motion is qualitatively the same for both variants, but the rate of evolution of the orbital elements is different. Our research confirms the known fact that the application of different integrators to the study of the long-term evolution of the NEA orbit may lead to different evolution tracks.

Timoshkova, E. I.

2008-02-01

168

TG-DSC-FTIR Analysis of Cyanobacteria Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrolysis of cyanobacteria from Dianchi lake was investigated by TG-DSC-FTIR analysis at different heating rates (10, 20, 40°C/min). The results indicated that the pyrolysis of cyanobacteria can be divided into four stages: evaporation, depolymerization, devolatilization and carbonization. Meanwhile, the initial weight-loss temperature, weight-loss extreme position, endothermic and exothermic peaks were moved to higher temperature with the increaseing of the heating rate. The kinetic analysis was made with Popescu method. It indicated that the best kinetic model for the pyrolysis of cyanobacteria was the cylindrical symmetry of the phase boundary reaction model. The main pyrolysis gases checked with real-time online FTIR were HCN, NH3, CO, CO2, water vapor and hydrocarbons.

Supeng, Luo; Guirong, Bao; Hua, Wang; Fashe, Li; Yizhe, Li

169

Calculated absorbed-dose ratios, TG51/TG21, for most widely used cylindrical and parallel-plate ion chambers over a range of photon and electron energies.  

PubMed

Task Group 51 (TG51), of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), has developed a calibration protocol for high-energy photon and electron therapy beams based on absorbed dose standards. This protocol is intended to replace the air-kerma based protocol developed by an earlier AAPM task group (TG21). Conversion to the newer protocol introduces a change in the determined absorbed dose. In this work, the change in dose is expressed as the ratio of the doses (TG51/TG21) based on the two protocols. Dose is compared at the TG-51 reference depths of 10 cm for photons and d(ref) for electrons. Dose ratios are presented for a variety of ion chambers over a range of photon and electron energies. The TG51/TG21 dose ratios presented here are based on the dosimetry factors provided by the two protocols and the chamber-specific absorbed dose and exposure calibration factors (N60Co(D,w) and Nx) provided by the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL) at The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). As such, the values presented here represent the expected discrepancies between the two protocols due only to changes in the dosimetry parameters and the differences in chamber-specific dose and air-kerma standards. These values are independent of factors such as measurement uncertainties, setup errors, and inconsistencies arising from the mix of different phantoms and ion chambers for the two protocols. Therefore, these ratios may serve as a guide for institutions performing measurements for the switch from TG21-to-TG51 based calibration. Any significant deviation in the ratio obtained from measurements versus those presented here should prompt a review to identify possible errors and inconsistencies. For all cylindrical chambers included here, the TG51/TG21 dose ratios are the same within +/-0.6%, irrespective of the make and model of the chamber, for each photon and electron beam included. Photon beams show the TG51/TG21 dose ratios decreasing with energy, whereas electrons exhibit the opposite trend. The dose ratio for photons is near 1.00 at 18 mV increasing to near 1.01 at 4 mV while the dose ratio for electrons is near 1.02 at 20 MeV decreasing only 0.5% to near 1.015 at 6 MeV. For parallel-plate chambers, the situation is complicated by the two possible methods of obtaining calibration factors: through an ADCL or through a cross-comparison with a cylindrical chamber in a high-energy electron beam. For some chambers, the two methods lead to significantly different calibration factors, which in turn lead to significantly different TG51/TG21 results for the same chamber. Data show that if both N60Co(D,w) and Nx are obtained from the same source, namely an ADCL or a cross comparison, the TG51/TG21 results for parallel-plate chambers are similar to those for cylindrical chambers. However, an inconsistent set of calibration factors, i.e., using N60Co(D,w) x k(ecal) from an ADCL but Ngas from a cross comparison or vice versa, can introduce an additional uncertainty up to 2.5% in the TG51/TG21 dose ratios. PMID:12148727

Tailor, R C; Hanson, W F

2002-07-01

170

Making the Tg-Confinement Effect Disappear in Thin Polystyrene Films: Good Physics vs. Inappropriate Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tg-confinement effect in polymers was first characterized in supported polystyrene (PS) films by Keddie et al. in 1994. Since then, many researchers have shown that (pseudo-)thermodynamic Tg measurements of supported PS films taken on cooling consistently yield the same qualitative results, with a decrease from bulk Tg beginning at 40-60 nm thickness and becoming very strong below 20 nm thickness. Some quantitative differences have been noted between studies, which may be ascribed to measurement method or the analysis employed. In 2004, we showed that the Tg-confinement effect in PS may be suppressed by adding several wt% of small-molecule diluents such as dioctyl phthalate. Recently, Kremer and co-workers (Macromolecules 2010, 43, 9937) reported that there was no Tg-confinement in supported PS films based on an analysis of the second derivative of ellipsometry data and use of a ninth order polynomial fit. Here, we demonstrate a new method for suppressing the Tg-confinement effect. In particular, PS made by emulsion polymerization yields no Tg-confinement effect as measured by ellipsometry or fluorescence, while PS made by anionic or conventional free radical polymerization yield strong Tg-confinement effects. The difference is hypothesized to result from surfactant in the emulsion polymerized PS. We also show that the absence of the Tg-confinement effect reported by Kremer is due to inappropriate analysis of ellipsometry data and that correct analysis yields Tg-confinement effects.

Torkelson, John; Chen, Lawrence

2013-03-01

171

Effects of dietary zinc and copper supplementation on serum triglyceride, total-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations on young Sprague Dawley male rats  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effects of the level of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) supplementation and of Zn/Cu ratio on serum triglycerides (TG), total-cholesterol (TC), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, groups of weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 4 levels of Cu (0, 0.56, 1.68, and 5.04 ppm) and 4 levels of Zn (0, 5, 10 and 20 ppm) for 6 weeks (Low supplementation, Expt I), or a high Zn and Cu supplements each at 4 levels (0, 5.6, 16.8, and 50.4 ppm Cu, plus 0, 50, 100, and 200 ppm Zn) for 6 weeks (Expt II). The effects of Zn/Cu ratios on the parameters were evaluated by combining data from Expt I and Expt II treatments with the same Zn/Cu ratios but different levels of Zn and Cu. Results of the combined data indicated that an increase in dietary Zn was associated with significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) increase in serum triglyceride concentrations, while an increase in dietary Cu was associated with significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) decrease in serum TC and HDL-C concentrations. Dietary Zn/Cu ratios had no significant effect on serum lipids. There is the indication that the absolute levels of the minerals in the diet may be more important in lipid metabolism. These results are in agreement with previous reports.

Frimpong, N.A.; Magee, A.C.

1986-03-01

172

Improved Triglycerides and Insulin Sensitivity with 3 Months of Acipimox in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia  

PubMed Central

Context Metabolic abnormalities such as hypertriglyceridemia remain a challenge for optimizing long-term health in HIV-infected patients. Objective Elevation of free fatty acids (FFAs) may contribute to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in HIV. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of chronic inhibition of lipolysis in HIV-infected men and women with hypertrigyceridemia. We hypothesized that acipimox would lead to significant reductions in triglycerides and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with placebo. Design A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of acipimox (250 mg thrice daily) vs. placebo was conducted in 23 HIV-infected men and women with hypertriglyceridemia (>150 mg/dl), abnormal fat distribution, and no current lipid-lowering therapy. The primary outcome variable was triglyceride concentration, and insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was a secondary outcome. Setting The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Results Acipimox resulted in significant reductions in FFAs [mean change ?0.38 (0.06) vs. 0.08 (0.06) mEq/liter with placebo, ?68 vs. +17% change from mean baseline, P < 0.0001], decreased rates of lipolysis (P < 0.0001), and a median triglyceride decrease from 238 mg/dl at baseline to 190 mg/dl, compared with an increase from 290 to 348 mg/dl in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Acipimox improved insulin sensitivity [acipimox +2.31 (0.74) vs. placebo ?0.21 (0.90) mg glucose per kilogram lean body mass per minute, or +31 vs. ?2% change from mean baseline values, P = 0.04]. Improvements in insulin sensitivity were significantly correlated with reductions in FFAs (r = ?0.62, P = 0.003) and lipolysis (r = ?0.59, P = 0.005). Conclusions Acipimox resulted in significant sustained reductions in lipolysis, improved glucose homeostasis, and significant but modest reductions in triglycerides in HIV-infected individuals with abnormal fat distribution and hypertriglyceridemia. Improvement in overall metabolic profile with acipimox suggests a potential clinical utility for this agent that requires further investigation. PMID:16940448

Hadigan, Colleen; Liebau, James; Torriani, Martin; Andersen, Rebecca; Grinspoon, Steven

2011-01-01

173

Effects of Teucrium polium Ethyl acetate Extract on Serum, Liver and Muscle Triglyceride Content of Sucrose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat  

PubMed Central

Possessing putative hypolipidemic effects, Teucrium polium (TP) have been traditionally used as a medicinal plant in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect on the sucrose-induced insulin resistance male rat model. Thirty Wistar male rats weighting 180 ± 20 g were divided into five groups of six each. Four groups were given sucrose 50% in drinking water for 10 weeks. In 8th week of treatment, three groups of them were randomly selected and treated with Teucrium polium (T. polium) ethyl acetate extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg for two weeks). Control animals were fed using normal rat chow. After ten weeks, blood samples were collected from the heart. Blood Glucose, insulin, leptin, lipid content and fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) as well as liver and muscle glycogen and lipid contents were determined. Final data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test. Liver glycogen contents and blood levels of glucose and insulin were significantly increased in high sucrose (HS) group compared with control group. A significant decrease was observed in blood glucose and insulin levels, FIRI, serum total lipid, triglyceride and VLDL-c as well as the liver triglyceride level, muscle and liver glycogen contents in 100 and 200 mg/Kg of TP-treated groups compared with HS group. Leptin level was significantly decreased in 50 and 100 mg/Kg groups compared with HS group. The treatment with T. polium ethyl acetate extract (TP-EAE) induced a dose-dependent reduction in serum, liver and muscle triglyceride (TG) and liver glycogen content levels, as well as serum insulin. These effects may be attributed, in part, to the hypolipidemic effect of TP flavonoids; otherwise, the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of TP-EAE may improve the liver function and reverse harmful sucrose effects. PMID:24250458

Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Shahriari, Ali; Ahangarpour, Akram; Vatanpour, Hossein; Jolodar, Abbas

2012-01-01

174

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10?8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David

2013-01-01

175

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

2013-11-01

176

Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of ˜120° between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h?-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h? conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T?=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy ?H. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of ?H in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h? model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h? model gave a value of ?H that was too small by a factor of ˜3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm-1 Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman bands in the temperature range of -20 °C?T ?90 °C. The experimental results were in accord with the predictions of the h-Y model and support the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)] that the liquid state is made up of molecules that are each, on average, in a Y conformation. Finally, we carried out computer simulations of minimal-model TLs in the liquid phase, and concluded that although the individual TL molecules are, on average, Y conformers, long-range discotic order is unlikely to exist.

Pink, David A.; Hanna, Charles B.; Sandt, Christophe; MacDonald, Adam J.; MacEachern, Ronald; Corkery, Robert; Rousseau, Dérick

2010-02-01

177

Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied to determine the critical parameters of pure substances and their acentric factors. The parameters obtained were used to calculate the phase diagrams and critical parameters of mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters, at various alcohol/oil ratios. The conditions of triglyceride transesterification in various lower alcohols providing the supercritical state of reaction mixtures were selected.

Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.; Anikeev, V. I.

2011-01-01

178

Involvement of Phospholipids in Triglyceride Biosynthesis by Developing Soybean Cotyledons 12  

PubMed Central

The incorporation of phospholipids specifically labeled with glycerol-23H and acyl-14C by whole cell tissues of developing soybean cotyledons (Glycine max L.) reveals that phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid can be metabolized to diglyceride. The diglyceride formed may be recylced into phospholipid or acylated to triglyceride. Diglyceride from phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylethanolamine is used readily in triglyceride biosynthesis compared to the other phospholipids. Incorporation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine having [9-10-3H(N)]oleic acid esterified at sn-3 in cotyledons shows rapid acyltransfer of 3H into triglyceride and therefore N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine appears to participate in triglyceride biosynthesis as an acyl donor. These studies emphasize phospholipid metabolism in developing soybean cotyledons is a dynamic process which plays a key role in triglyceride formation. PMID:16659525

Wilson, Richard F.; Rinne, Robert W.

1976-01-01

179

Statistical Analysis of Skin Tumor Data from Tg.AC Mouse Bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies for identifying chemical carcinogens and assess- ing risk have been proposed based on the Tg.AC (zetaglobin promoted v-Ha-ras) transgenic mouse. Preliminary studies suggest that the Tg.AC mouse bioassay may be an effective means of quickly evaluating the carcinogenic potential of a test agent. The skin of the Tg.AC mouse is genetically initiated, and the induction of epidermal papillomas

David B. Dunson; Joseph K. Haseman; Angelique P. J. M. van Birgelen; Stanley Stasiewicz; Raymond W. Tennant

2000-01-01

180

Pressure Dependence of Tg in Silicate Glasses From Electrical Impedance Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in silicates correlates with a pressure dependence of viscosity. For example, albite glass has a negative pressure dependence of shear viscosity and Tg, diopside and sodium trisilicate glasses have positive pressure dependence of Tg and viscosity. Electrical conductivity measurements are easier to conduct at high pressures than rheological measurements. By means of electrical impedance measurements Tg in glasses may be estimated from the temperature dependence of impedance, if the mobility of charged defects correlates with structural defects. Below Tg activation energy of electrical conductivity is less than that at T> Tg. The intersection point of two Arrhenius dependencies of electrical conductivity as function of 1/T defines Tg. In this study Tg has been estimated for anorthite, albite, haplo-granitic and silica glasses in atmospheric furnace and in 3 types of high-pressure apparatus: piston-cylinder, belt and multi-anvil presses. Electrical impedance measurements were conducted in the frequency range 100 kHz - 0.01 Hz. The measured glass transition temperature in anorthite varies with pressure P (in GPa): Tg= 850\\deg C + 5\\deg/GPa xP, in albite glass the pressure dependence on Tg = 685\\deg C - 8\\deg /GPaxP; in HPG8 Tg = 777\\deg C - 45\\deg/GPaxP; and in silica glass Tg =1050\\deg C + 17\\deg/GPaxP. Dielectric relaxation times calculated from the imaginary component of the dielectric modulus are three orders of magnitude smaller than structural relaxation times and increases at high pressures. With the pressure increase activation energy of dielectric relaxation in anorthite increases having the activation volume of ca. 10\\pm±5cm3/mol, in albite glass the activation volume is small and negative -2\\pm±1 cm3/mol.

Bagdassarov, N. S.; Maumus, J.; Poe, B.; Sloutskiy, A. B.; Boulatov, V. K.

2001-12-01

181

Effect of fatty acid composition and positional distribution within the triglyceride on selected physical properties of dry-cured ham subcutaneous fat.  

PubMed

Analysis of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within the triglyceride (TG) and selected physical properties of dry-cured ham subcutaneous fat (SF) were carried out. The slip point (SP) of the SF was related to the concentration and positional distribution of FA. When C16:0 was in Sn-2, the SP depended on the FA present in Sn-1,3. Hardness was related to the FA concentration in external positions of TG. A significant direct linear correlation between hardness against C18:0, SFA and average chain length (ACL) and inverse against C18:1, C18:2 and PUFA and unsaturation index (UI) in external positions was found. Adhesiveness was related to SFA, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, MUFA, UI and ACL exclusively in Sn-2 position. A different role of FA in Sn-2 and Sn-1,3 positions on SP and texture properties of fat was found. PMID:25644667

Segura, J; Escudero, R; Romero de Ávila, M D; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

2015-05-01

182

Modeling the liquid-solid transition in saturated triglycerides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corkery et al. have proposed that the high-temperature state of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL) is a Y-conformer, in which the three hydrocarbon chains are dynamically twisted with an average angle of ˜120 between them. Using computer simulations, we first show that the high-temperature state is indeed the Y conformation. We then develop a theory of the liquid-solid transition of this system, in which TL molecules are in a chair (h) conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and are in a Y conformation in the liquid phase at temperatures higher than the transition temperature, T* 319K. We map this ``h-Y model'' onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, perform a mean-field approximation, and calculate the transition enthalpy, which is in good agreement with experiment. We also predict the temperature-dependence of the 1132 cm-1 Raman band. Our results support the proposal that the liquid state is made up of molecules in the Y conformation.

Hanna, C. B.; Pink, D. A.; MacDonald, A. J.; Thillainadarajah, K.; Corkery, R.; Rousseau, D.

2007-03-01

183

Polymorphism and kinetic behavior of binary mixtures of triglycerides.  

PubMed

The work is aimed at investigating the polymorphism and the phase transition kinetics of binary lipid mixtures with potential application in controlled drug delivery. The lipid systems, constituted of glyceryl tristearate (GTS) added with different amounts (1.0-7.5% w/w) of a medium-chain liquid triglyceride (C10-C12 acyl derivative - MCT), were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, by X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. The liquid lipid, although present in small amount, modified the thermal profile and the diffraction pattern of the systems, indicating that it promoted the formation of the GTS stable polymorph, ?, during the re-solidification of the melted mixture. This promotion effect of MCT was concentration-dependent and evident for systems containing MCT>2.5%. Also the kinetics of transformation of GTS polymorphs was affected by the percentage of the liquid component. The ? ? ?-transition was a biphasic process which for GTS-MCT mixture (99:1) superimposed that of pure GTS, while followed a different trend for systems containing percentages of MCT higher than 2.5. PMID:24971693

Pattarino, Franco; Bettini, Ruggero; Foglio Bonda, Andrea; Della Bella, Andrea; Giovannelli, Lorella

2014-10-01

184

New chromone and triglyceride from Cucumis melo seeds.  

PubMed

Re-investigation of the MeOH extract of the seeds of Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus (Cucurbitaceae) led to the isolation of a new chromone derivative (5,7- dihydroxy-2-[2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (5) and a triglyceride (1,3-di-(6Z,9Z)-docosa-6,9-dienoyl-2-(6Z) hexacos-6-enoylglycerol (1), together with three known compounds; alpha-spinasterol (2), stigmasta-7,22,25-trien-3-ol (3), and D:B-friedoolean-5-ene-3-beta-ol (4), are reported from this species for the first time. Their structures were determined by extensive 1D (1H, 13C, and DEPT) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR and mass spectral measurements. Compound 5 displayed significant cytotoxic activity against L5178Y cells, with an ED50 of 5 microM. The MeOH extract and 5 showed antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. PMID:24689290

Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

2014-02-01

185

TG-69: Radiographic film for megavoltage beam dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

TG-69 is a task group report of the AAPM on the use of radiographic film for dosimetry. Radiographic films have been used for radiation dosimetry since the discovery of x-rays and have become an integral part of dose verification for both routine quality assurance and for complex treatments such as soft wedges (dynamic and virtual), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and small field dosimetry like stereotactic radiosurgery. Film is convenient to use, spatially accurate, and provides a permanent record of the integrated two dimensional dose distributions. However, there are several challenges to obtaining high quality dosimetric results with film, namely, the dependence of optical density on photon energy, field size, depth, film batch sensitivity differences, film orientation, processing conditions, and scanner performance. Prior to the clinical implementation of a film dosimetry program, the film, processor, and scanner need to be tested to characterize them with respect to these variables. Also, the physicist must understand the basic characteristics of all components of film dosimetry systems. The primary mission of this task group report is to provide guidelines for film selection, irradiation, processing, scanning, and interpretation to allow the physicist to accurately and precisely measure dose with film. Additionally, we present the basic principles and characteristics of film, processors, and scanners. Procedural recommendations are made for each of the steps required for film dosimetry and guidance is given regarding expected levels of accuracy. Finally, some clinical applications of film dosimetry are discussed.

Pai, Sujatha; Das, Indra J.; Dempsey, James F.; Lam, Kwok L.; LoSasso, Thomas J.; Olch, Arthur J.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Reinstein, Lawrence E.; Ritt, Dan; Wilcox, Ellen E. [Radiation Therapy Department, Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, Texas 77024 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Radiation Oncology Program, Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, SUNY Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Radiological Imaging Technology, Inc., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80907 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, St. Francis Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06105 (United States)

2007-06-15

186

Current status and future directions in lipid management: emphasizing low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides as targets for therapy.  

PubMed

Current lipid management guidelines are focused on decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels as the primary target for reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Yet, many recent studies suggest that low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) are a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. According to several clinical trials, a 1% increase in HDL-C is associated with a 0.7%-3% decrease in CHD events. The direct link between high levels of triglycerides (TG) and CHD, on the other hand, is less well defined. A large reduction in TG is needed to show a difference in CHD events, especially in men. Evidence for a shift in lipid management toward targeting both LDL-C and HDL-C as primary targets for therapy is presented. Currently, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) have proven to significantly decrease LDL-C levels, reduce CHD morbidity/mortality and improve overall survival. However, improvement of survival with statins may be due to other pleiotropic effects beyond LDL-C lowering. Fibric acid derivatives and niacin are primarily used to increase HDL-C levels, although with side effects. Future therapies targeting HDL-C may have profound results on reducing CHD morbidity and mortality. This article highlights existing and future targets in lipid management and is based on available clinical data. There is an urgent need for new treatments using a combination of drugs targeting both LDL-C and HDL-C. Such treatments are expected to have a superior outcome for dyslipidemia therapy, along with TG management. PMID:20234782

Lin, Yun; Mousa, Shaymaa S; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Mousa, Shaker A

2010-01-01

187

[Effect of decamethoxine, decamine and levorin on the content of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in albino rat liver].  

PubMed

It has been shown in experiments that intramuscular injection of guaternary ammonium compounds (decamethoxine and decamine) and levorin changed the content of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in the liver of white rats. Decamethoxine decreased the content of phospholipids and cholesterol and raised the concentration of triglycerides. Decamine decreased the level of phospholipids and raised the content of cholesterol and triglycerides, while levorin minimized the content of phospholipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:6628663

Kovtuniak, N A; Bordiakovskaia, L G; Stadni?chuk, R F

1983-01-01

188

Male gender, increased blood viscosity, body mass index and triglyceride levels are independently associated with systemic relative hypertension in sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

Lamarre, Yann; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

2013-01-01

189

Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report  

E-print Network

Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 Company (currently a consultant) Kevin Corrigan Loyola University Michael J. Flynn Henry Ford Health artifacts. Geometric distortions are evalu- ated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which

190

Liver triglyceride accumulation after chronic ethanol administration: a possible protective role of metadoxina and ubiquinone.  

PubMed

Hepatoprotective actions of metadoxina and ubiquinone have been studied in alcoholic rats by evaluating hepatic triglyceride accumulation and serum biochemical parameters of liver function. The two drug-treated groups displayed significantly lower triglyceride concentrations as compared to the ethanol-treated group. No significant differences were found among the two drug-treated and the control groups. Electron-microscopic abnormalities were found only in ethanol-treated rats. Serum biochemical parameters of liver function did not show any significant difference among all four groups. These results suggest a possible protective role of metadoxina and ubiquinone in ethanol-induced liver triglyceride accumulation. PMID:2283204

Marchi, S; Polloni, A; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Bonifazi, V; Tumino, E; Grassi, B; Romano, M R; De Bartolo, G; Bertelli, A

1990-01-01

191

Successful Treatment of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia with a Formula Diet Rich in Omega–3 Fatty Acids and Medium-Chain Triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with highly increased plasma triglyceride levels are at risk of developing serious complications such as pancreatitis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore it is important to rapidly decrease plasma triglyceride levels. A sufficient control of triglyceride levels with drugs like fibrates, statins or nicotinic acid can usually only be attained after a couple of weeks. Plasma exchange appears

Annette Hauenschild; Reinhard G. Bretzel; Henning Schnell-Kretschmer; Hans-Ulrich Kloer; Philip D. Hardt; Nils Ewald

2010-01-01

192

Rexinoid bexarotene modulates triglyceride but not cholesterol metabolism via gene-specific permissivity of the RXR/LXR heterodimer in the liver  

E-print Network

Rexinoid bexarotene modulates triglyceride but not cholesterol metabolism via gene is an increase in plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor of cardio- vascular disease. The molecular, bexarotene administration induces an undesirable increase in plasma triglycerides7, 8 , an independent risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

USGS Elevation Monument  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

194

Configuring elevator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To configure an elevator system, one must assemble a collection of components that satisfies both customer demands and safety regulations. Complex interactions among elevator system components complicate the configuration process. Not all components are compatible, and certain combinations will not meet functional or safety requirements. This document describes how a configuration engineer configures elevator systems. It describes what initial information

Gregg R. Yost; Thomas R. Rothenfluh

1996-01-01

195

Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)  

MedlinePLUS

... fats are found in fatty fish such as salmon. In high doses, they can treat high triglycerides. ... cfm). EditorS Lars Berglund, MD, PhD, University of California, Davis • John Brunzell, MD, University of Washington Department ...

196

Esterification kinetics of triglycerides in n-hexane catalyzed by an immobilized lipase  

E-print Network

The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed esterification of triglycerides over immobilized lipase in n-hexane was investigated. The reaction kinetics were described in terms of a mechanism developed following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW...

Gomez Ruiz, Alejandro

1998-01-01

197

Measurement of triglycerides concentration in human serum using near-infrared transmission spectroscopy and interval PLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to measurement of Triglycerides in human serum with reagent-less using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Interval partial least square (iPLS) was proposed as an effective variable selection approach for multivariate calibration. For this purpose, an independent sample set was employed to evaluate the prediction ability of the resulting model. The spectrum was split into different interval. Then, the informative region of Triglycerides (1654-1746nm), in which the PLS model has a low RMSEP with 0.157mmol/L and a high R with 0.967, is selected with 18 intervals. The results show that the informative region of Triglycerides can be obtained by iPLS and applied to design the simpler reagent-less NIR instruments for inexpensive Triglycerides measurement in future.

Huang, Furong; Yu, Jianhui; Li, Shiping

2011-11-01

198

Phase behaviour in binary mixed Langmuir Blodgett monolayers of triglycerides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary mixed monolayers of the triglycerides (TAGs)-tripalmitin (PPP), tristearin (SSS) and triarachidin (AAA) at the air-water interface are investigated with the Langmuir method. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) layers obtained by deposition on mica are investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Combining Langmuir and AFM results the relation between the phase behaviour of binary mixed TAGs and their chain length is established. TAG mixtures form monolayers with molecules in trident conformation at the air-water interface, like pure TAGs. The area Acond=63 Å 2 and the pressure ?cond=8-10 mN/m that separate "gas" and "condensed" film structures are the same for all mixtures and pure systems. In the ?- A isotherms the sharpness of the transition from "gas" to "condensed" phase decreases with the average chain length for all systems. Using AFM data the monolayer thicknesses for mixtures and pure systems is found to be linearly dependent on the average chain length of the TAG molecules. A linear relation between film thickness and applied AFM force is established. The corresponding coefficient K˜ is higher for mixed monolayers ( K˜=0.08±0.01 nN) than for pure systems ( K˜=0.07±0.01 nN). AFM images show phase separation in the systems PPP-SSS and PPP-AAA. The solubility of the shorter PPP molecules in the "long" (SSS- and AAA-rich) phase is significant. For the mixture SSS-AAA, phase separation is not observed. In that mixture the monolayer thickness varies linearly with composition, supporting the conclusion that SSS and AAA mix almost ideally. The main driving force for phase separation is the difference in the alkyl chain length. Indeed PPP-AAA (length difference 4 C atoms) shows the most clear phase separation. The relatively weak phase separation in PPP-SSS and the absence of phase separation in SSS-AAA show that the influence of chain length difference decreases with increasing average chain length. In air PPP-SSS and PPP-AAA mixed monolayers are unstable and crystals with ?- and ?-like structure are formed on top of the monolayer as in pure PPP and SSS systems.

Zdravkova, Aneliya N.; van der Eerden, J. P. J. M.

2007-09-01

199

Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

J. Edward Hunter

2001-01-01

200

Gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides from erucic acid oils and fish oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

By critically selecting optimum operating conditions, quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides has been extended\\u000a to molecules containing substantial amounts of C20, C22, and C24 fatty acids. The triglycerides of four erucic acid oils (water cress, rapessed, nasturtium, andLunaria annua) and two fully hydrogenated fish oils (menhaden and tuna) have been quantitatively analyzed by this technique. The average\\u000a fatty acid chain

R. D. Harlow; Carter Litchfield; Raymond Reiser

1966-01-01

201

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in â16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare

Len A. Pennacchio; Michael Olivier; Jaroslav A. Hubacek; Ronald M. Krauss; Edward M. Rubin; Jonathan C. Cohen

2002-01-01

202

Cloning and gene defects in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein associated with abetalipoproteinaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which catalyses the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester and phospho-lipid between phospholipid surfaces, is a heterodimer composed of the multifunctional protein, protein disulphide isomerase, and a unique large subunit with an apparent Mr of 88K (refs 1-3). It is isolated as a soluble protein from the lumen of the microsomal fraction of liver and

Daru Sharp; Laura Blinderman; Kelly A. Combs; Bernadette Kienzle; Beverly Ricci; Karen Wager-Smith; Cleris M. Gil; Christoph W. Turck; Marie-Elizabeth Boumas; Daniel J. Rader; Lawrence P. Aggerbeck; Richard E. Gregg; David A. Gordon; John R. Wetterau

1993-01-01

203

Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

SciTech Connect

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

2002-09-16

204

Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed at answering the question why feeding rats an oligofructose (OFS) supplemented diet could cause\\u000a a significant reduction in plasma lipid levels. Daily administration of a 10% (w\\/w) OFS-containing diet to normolipidemic\\u000a male rats resulted in a decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect\\u000a was observed after one week and lasted for at

Maria Fiordaliso; Nadine Kok; Jean-Pierre Desager; Fabienne Goethals; Dominique Deboyser; Marcel Roberfroid; Nathalie Delzenne

1995-01-01

205

Analysis of apolipoprotein A5, C3 and plasma triglyceride concentrations in genetically engineered mice  

SciTech Connect

To address the relationship between the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed or completely lacked both genes. We report both lines display normal triglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Together, these data support that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

Baroukh, Nadine; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Afzal, Veena; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

2004-03-11

206

Thermodyanmic Scaling of Polymer Dynamics versus Shifting by T-Tg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A universal scaling law for the relaxation time (?) of amorphous liquids as a function of temperature and volume has been proposed by Roland and coworkers: ?(T,V) = F(TV^?), where ? is a material-dependent constant. We test this law for four materials, linear polystyrene, star polystyrene, and two polycyanurate networks using PVT data obtained in our laboratory coupled with the temperature dependent shift factors used to reduce the viscoelastic bulk modulus at different pressures and the dynamic shear properties at ambient pressure. In all cases, ? can be reduced both by the scaling law and by shifting to account for the changes in Tg with pressure, i.e., by plotting versus T - Tg(P). In the polycyanurate case, time-crosslink density superposition holds and ? for the two materials can be reduced simply by shifting the temperature with respect to Tg to account for the changes in Tg with crosslink density; however, the thermodynamic scaling for the two materials does not superpose unless the thermodynamic function is normalized by TgVg^?. The validity of the scaling function and its relationship to T - Tg will be further examined. In addition, the impact of errors in T, Tg, and V on the ability to satisfactorily reduce data and obtain universal scaling will be discussed.

Guo, Jiaxi; Simon, Sindee

2011-03-01

207

Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice  

PubMed Central

Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

2014-01-01

208

Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.  

PubMed

Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. PMID:25038053

Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

2014-09-01

209

Appropriate blood sampling sites for measuring Tg concentrations for forensic diagnosis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported that thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations in heart blood are high in cases of asphyxia caused by neck compression such as hanging, strangulation, and throttling and in those with fatal traumatic brain injuries. However, even in cases without these findings presumed to increase the Tg concentration in the previous studies, we previously reported that in some cases the Tg concentration in right heart blood (RHB) and left heart blood (LHB) exceeded the standard value for diagnosis (200ng/mL) defined in previous studies and the Tg concentration in RHB was significantly higher than that in LHB. In the present study, in our 46 forensic autopsy cases without findings presumed to increase Tg concentration, we separately collected external iliac venous blood (IVB) and external iliac arterial blood (IAB) in addition to RHB and LHB, measured Tg concentrations in RHB, LHB, IVB, and LAB (TRHB, TLHB, TIVB, and TIAB, respectively), and investigated the appropriate blood sampling site for measuring Tg concentrations for forensic diagnosis. TRHB, TLHB, TIVB, and TIAB were 386.3±674.1, 105.8±179.0, 109.2±166.8, and 43.7±90.9ng/mL, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between TRHB and TLHB, TIVB and TIAB, TRHB and TIVB, and TLHB and TIAB. Tg is more readily diffused by the venous system (RHB, IVB) than by the arterial system (LHB, IAB) because the venous system retains more blood volume after death. Tg is more readily diffused to heart blood (RHB, LHB) than to peripheral blood (IVB, IAB) because of the proximity of the heart to the thyroid gland. Therefore, we conclude that Tg leaks into the vessels around the thyroid gland because of the influences of postmortem changes and subsequently diffuses through the blood after death, and therefore the Tg concentration increases after death. When Tg concentration values are used for forensic diagnosis, it is appropriate to measure them using peripheral arterial blood situated distant from the thyroid gland. PMID:25287273

Hayakawa, Akira; Matoba, Kotaro; Horioka, Kie; Murakami, Manabu; Terazawa, Koichi

2015-01-01

210

Green tea catechin leads to global improvement among Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in NSE/hAPP-C105 Tg mice.  

PubMed

Amyloid ? (??) has been reported to be responsible for the functional and structural abnormalities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the induction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not treatment of transgenic (Tg) mice with green tea catechin (GTC), a radical scavenger, improves AD phenotypes. To test this, 7-month-old Tg mice were treated with a low (1 mg) or high (10 mg) dose of GTC for 6 months. Surprisingly, GTC-treated Tg mice exhibited significant decreases in behavioral impairment, A?-42 production, APP-C99/89 expression, ?-secretase component and Wnt protein levels, ?-secretase activity and MAPK activation. In contrast, the levels of APP-C83 protein and enzyme activities (?-secretase, neprilysin and Pin1) were elevated in the GTC-treated groups. Moreover, GTC-treated groups showed lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased. These results provide the first experimental evidence that GTC improves AD phenotypes, thereby suggesting that GTC can be used in the prevention of AD or treatment of AD patients. PMID:23333093

Lim, Hwa Ja; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Lim, Chul Ju; Hong, Jin Tae; Sheen, Yhun Yong; Hwang, Dae Youn

2013-07-01

211

Paradoxical Lower Serum Triglyceride Levels and Higher Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Susceptibility in Obese Individuals with the PNPLA3 148M Variant  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is highly associated with elevated serum triglycerides, hepatic steatosis and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The I148M (rs738409) genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) is known to modulate hepatic triglyceride accumulation, leading to steatosis. No association between PNPLA3 I148M genotype and T2D in Europeans has been reported. Aim of this study is to examine the relationship between PNPLA3 I148M genotypes and serum triglycerides, insulin resistance and T2D susceptibility by testing a gene-environment interaction model with severe obesity. Methods and Findings PNPLA3 I148M was genotyped in a large obese cohort, the SOS study (n?=?3,473) and in the Go-DARTS (n?=?15,448), a T2D case-control study. Metabolic parameters were examined across the PNPLA3 I148M genotypes in participants of the SOS study at baseline and at 2- and 10-year follow up after bariatric surgery or conventional therapy. The associations with metabolic parameters were validated in the Go-DARTS study. Serum triglycerides were found to be lower in the PNPLA3 148M carriers from the SOS study at baseline and from the Go-DARTS T2D cohort. An increased risk for T2D conferred by the 148M allele was found in the SOS study (O.R. 1.09, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.39, P?=?0.040) and in severely obese individuals in the Go-DARTS study (O.R. 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.13-1.66, P?=?0.001). The 148M allele was no longer associated with insulin resistance or T2D after bariatric surgery in the SOS study and no association with the 148M allele was observed in the less obese (BMI<35) individuals in the Go-DARTS study (P for interaction ?=?0.002). This provides evidence for the obesity interaction with I48M allele and T2D risk in a large-scale cross-sectional and a prospective interventional study. Conclusions Severely obese individuals carrying the PNPLA3 148M allele have lower serum triglyceride levels, are more insulin resistant and more susceptible to T2D. This study supports the hypothesis that obesity-driven hepatic lipid accumulation may contribute to T2D susceptibility. PMID:22724004

Pirazzi, Carlo; Burza, Maria Antonella; Adiels, Martin; Burch, Lindsay; Donnelly, Louise A.; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alexander S.; Dillon, John F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; McCarthy, Mark; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Frayling, Tim; Morris, Andrew D.; Peltonen, Markku; Svensson, Per-Arne; Jacobson, Peter; Borén, Jan; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena M. S.; Romeo, Stefano

2012-01-01

212

Low erucic acid canola oil does not induce heart triglyceride accumulation in neonatal pigs fed formula.  

PubMed

Canola oil is not approved for use in infant formula largely because of concerns over possible accumulation of triglyceride in heart as a result of the small amounts of erucic acid (22:1n-9) in the oil. Therefore, the concentration and composition of heart triglyceride were determined in piglets fed from birth for 10 (n = 4-6) or 18 (n = 6) d with formula containing about 50% energy fat as 100% canola oil (0.5% 22:1n-9) or 100% soybean oil, or 26% canola oil or soy oil (blend) with palm, high-oleic sunflower and coconut oil, providing amounts of 16:0 and 18:1 closer to milk, or a mix of soy, high-oleic sunflower and flaxseed oils with C16 and C18 fatty acids similar to canola oil but without 22:1. Biochemical analysis found no differences in heart triglyceride concentrations among the groups at 10 or 18 d. Assessment of heart triglycerides using Oil Red O staining in select treatments confirmed no differences between 10-d-old piglets fed formula with 100% canola oil (n = 4), 100% soy oil (n = 4), or the soy oil blend (n = 2). Levels of 22:1n-9 in heart triglyceride and phospholipid, however, were higher (P<0.01) in piglets fed 100% canola oil or the canola oil blend, with higher levels found in triglycerides compared with phospholipids. The modest accumulation of 22:1n-9 associated with feeding canola oil was not associated with biochemical evidence of heart triglyceride accumulation at 10 and 18 d. PMID:10901421

Green, T J; Innis, S M

2000-06-01

213

Functional Analysis of the TRIB1 Associated Locus Linked to Plasma Triglycerides and Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The TRIB1 locus has been linked to hepatic triglyceride metabolism in mice and to plasma triglycerides and coronary artery disease in humans. The lipid?associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified by genome?wide association studies, are located ?30 kb downstream from TRIB1, suggesting complex regulatory effects on genes or pathways relevant to hepatic triglyceride metabolism. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional relationship between common SNPs at the TRIB1 locus and plasma lipid traits. Methods and Results Characterization of the risk locus reveals that it encompasses a gene, TRIB1?associated locus (TRIBAL), composed of a well?conserved promoter region and an alternatively spliced transcript. Bioinformatic analysis and resequencing identified a single SNP, rs2001844, within the promoter region that associates with increased plasma triglycerides and reduced high?density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk. Further, correction for triglycerides as a covariate indicated that the genome?wide association studies association is largely dependent on triglycerides. In addition, we show that rs2001844 is an expression trait locus (eQTL) for TRIB1 expression in blood and alters TRIBAL promoter activity in a reporter assay model. The TRIBAL transcript has features typical of long noncoding RNAs, including poor sequence conservation. Modulation of TRIBAL expression had limited impact on either TRIB1 or lipid regulatory genes mRNA levels in human hepatocyte models. In contrast, TRIB1 knockdown markedly increased TRIBAL expression in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. Conclusions These studies demonstrate an interplay between a novel locus, TRIBAL, and TRIB1. TRIBAL is located in the genome?wide association studies identified risk locus, responds to altered expression of TRIB1, harbors a risk SNP that is an eQTL for TRIB1 expression, and associates with plasma triglyceride concentrations. PMID:24895164

Douvris, Adrianna; Soubeyrand, Sébastien; Naing, Thet; Martinuk, Amy; Nikpay, Majid; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie; Yauk, Carole; McPherson, Ruth

2014-01-01

214

View below Tg correlated to the one above Tg in chalcogenides Punit Boolchand (Univ of Cincinnati), DMR-Award # 08-53957  

E-print Network

) liquids glass compositions outside the IP give rise to fragile (high m) liquids Bonding constraints (panel (b)). In contrast, fragility of melts, m(x) near Tg accessed from Complex Cp measurements2, 3396-3399 (a)Viscosity derived fragility m () 3. are unable to access fragility m at x > 25% unlike

Boolchand, Punit

215

Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.  

PubMed

In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls. PMID:18977397

Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P

2009-02-11

216

Ocular Changes in TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in learning, memory, and executive functions. In addition to cognitive and behavioral deficits, vision disturbances have been reported in early stage of AD, well before the diagnosis is clearly established. To further investigate ocular abnormalities, a novel AD transgenic rat model was analyzed. Methods. Transgenic (Tg) rats (TgF344-AD) heterozygous for human mutant APPswe/PS1?E9 and age-matched wild type (WT) rats, as well as 20 human postmortem retinal samples from both AD and healthy donors were used. Visual function in the rodent was analyzed using the optokinetic response. Immunohistochemistry on retinal and brain sections was used to detect various markers including amyloid-? (A?) plaques. Results. As expected, A? plaques were detected in the hippocampus, cortex, and retina of Tg rats. Plaque-like structures were also found in two AD human whole-mount retinas. The choroidal thickness was significantly reduced in both Tg rat and in AD human eyes when compared with age-matched controls. Tg rat eyes also showed hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and upregulation of complement factor C3. Although visual acuity was lower in Tg than in WT rats, there was no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell number and retinal vasculature. Conclusions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the significance and mechanisms of this pathological change and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus. PMID:24398104

Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Cohen, Robert M.; Wang, Shaomei

2014-01-01

217

NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET HILLSHADE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed bymerging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital E...

218

NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET  

EPA Science Inventory

The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed by merging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital ...

219

Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: executive summary of AAPM TG18 report.  

PubMed

Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (Lamb) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/ secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m2, LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to ascertain the viewing cone within which contrast conformance to the GSDF is better than 30%/60% and LR is greater than 175/70 for primary/secondary displays, or alternatively, within which the on-axis contrast thresholds of the TG18-CT test pattern remain discernible. The evaluation of luminance spatial uniformity at two distinct luminance levels across the display faceplate using TG18-UNL test patterns should yield nonuniformity coefficients smaller than 30%. The resolution evaluation includes the visual scoring of the CX test target in the TG18-QC or TG18-CX test patterns, which should yield scores greater than 4/6 for primary/secondary displays. Noise evaluation includes visual evaluation of the contrast threshold in the TG18-AFC test pattern, which should yield a minimum of 3/2 targets visible for primary/secondary displays. The guidelines also include methodologies for more quantitative resolution and noise measurements based on MTF and NPS analyses. The display glare test, based on the visibility of the low-contrast targets of the TG18-GV test pattern or the measurement of the glare ratio (GR), is expected to yield scores greater than 3/1 and GRs greater than 400/150 for primary/secondary displays. Chromaticity, measured across a display faceplate or between two display devices, is expected to render a u',v' color separation of less than 0.01 for primary displays. The report offers further descriptions of prior standardization efforts, current display technologies, testing prerequisites, streamlined procedures and timelines, and TG18 test patterns. PMID:15895604

Samei, Ehsan; Badano, Aldo; Chakraborty, Dev; Compton, Ken; Cornelius, Craig; Corrigan, Kevin; Flynn, Michael J; Hemminger, Bradley; Hangiandreou, Nick; Johnson, Jeffrey; Moxley-Stevens, Donna M; Pavlicek, William; Roehrig, Hans; Rutz, Lois; Shepard, Jeffrey; Uzenoff, Robert A; Wang, Jihong; Willis, Charles E

2005-04-01

220

Genomic interval engineering of mice identified a novel modulator of triglyceride production  

SciTech Connect

To accelerate the biological annotation of novel genes discovered in sequenced of mammalian genomes, we are creating large deletions in the mouse genome targeted to include clusters of such genes. Here we describe the targeted deletion of a 450 kb region on mouse chromosome 11 which, based on computational analysis of the deleted murine sequences and human 5q orthologous sequences, codes for nine putative genes. Mice homozygous for the deletion had a variety of abnormalities including severe hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic and cardiac enlargement, growth retardation and premature mortality. Analysis of triglyceride metabolism in these animals demonstrated a several-fold increase in hepatic very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride secretion, the most prevalent mechanism responsible for hypertriglyceridemia in humans. A series of mouse BAC and human YAC transgenes covering different intervals of the 450 kb deleted region were assessed for their ability to complement the deletion induced abnormalities. These studies revealed that OCTN2, a gene recently shown to play a role in carnitine transport, was able to correct the triglyceride abnormalities. The discovery of this previously unappreciated relationship between OCTN2, carnitine and hepatic triglyceride production is of particular importance due to the clinical consequence of hypertriglyceridemia and the paucity of genes known to modulate triglyceride secretion.

Zhu, Y.; Jong, M.C.; Frazer, K.A.; Gong, E.; Krauss, R.M.; Cheng, J.F.; Boffelli, D.; Rubin, E.M.

1999-10-01

221

Comparative gene identification-58/?/? hydrolase domain 5: more than just an adipose triglyceride lipase activator?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that controls intracellular triglyceride levels by its ability to activate adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Additionally, CGI-58 was described to exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase (LPAAT) activity. This review focuses on the significance of CGI-58 in energy metabolism in adipose and nonadipose tissue. Recent findings Recent studies with transgenic and CGI-58-deficient mouse strains underscored the importance of CGI-58 as a regulator of intracellular energy homeostasis by modulating ATGL-driven triglyceride hydrolysis. In accordance with this function, mice and humans that lack CGI-58 accumulate triglyceride in multiple tissues. Additionally, CGI-58-deficient mice develop an ATGL-independent severe skin barrier defect and die soon after birth. Although the premature death prevented a phenotypical characterization of adult global CGI-58 knockout mice, the characterization of mice with tissue-specific CGI-58 deficiency revealed new insights into its role in neutral lipid and energy metabolism. Concerning the ATGL-independent function of CGI-58, a recently identified LPAAT activity for CGI-58 was shown to be involved in the generation of signaling molecules regulating inflammatory processes and insulin action. Summary Although the function of CGI-58 in the catabolism of cellular triglyceride depots via ATGL is well established, further studies are required to consolidate the function of CGI-58 as LPAAT and to clarify the involvement of CGI-58 in the metabolism of skin lipids. PMID:24565921

Zierler, Kathrin A.; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Guenter

2014-01-01

222

Acute hyperinsulinemia and reduced plasma free fatty acid levels decrease intramuscular triglyceride synthesis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of acute hyperinsulinemia and the resulting decrease in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on intramuscular TG synthesis. Materials/Methods U-13C16-palmitate was infused for 3 hours in anesthetized rabbits after overnight food deprivation. Arterial blood and leg muscle were sampled during the tracer infusion. Plasma samples were analyzed for free and TG-bound palmitate enrichments and concentrations. The enrichments and concentrations of palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-carnitine as well as the enrichment of palmitate bound to TG were measured in muscle samples. Fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of intramuscular TG was calculated using the tracer incorporation method. The rabbits were divided into a control group and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp group. Results Insulin infusion decreased the rate of appearance of plasma free palmitate (2.00 ± 0.15 vs. 0.68 ± 0.20 µmol . kg?1 . min?1; p<.001), decreased plasma FFA concentration (327 ± 61 vs. 72 ± 25 nmol/mL; p<.01), decreased the total concentration of intramuscular fatty acyl-CoA plus fatty acyl-carnitine (12.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 0.7 nmol/g; p<.05), and decreased intramuscular TG FSR (0.48 ± 0.05 vs. 0.21 ± 0.06 %/h; p<.01) in comparison with the control group. Intramuscular TG FSR was correlated (p<.01) with both plasma FFA concentrations and intramuscular fatty acyl-CoA concentrations. Conclusion Fatty acid availability is a determinant of intramuscular TG synthesis. Insulin infusion decreases plasma and intramuscular fatty acid availability and thereby decreases TG synthesis. PMID:22898252

Zhang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Lijian; Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Wu, Zhanpin; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Herndon, David N.; Wolfe, Robert R.

2012-01-01

223

Role of Fragility and Neighboring Domains on the Tg and Surface Wave Dynamics of Nanoconfined Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the glass transition temperature (Tg) and dynamics of polymers confined to the nanoscale have been studied for twenty years, a physical understanding is still lacking. The reason for a polymer species dependent Tg-confinement effect and the role of neighboring polymer domains in perturbing the Tg of a confined species are areas with a need for greater study as they will inform many of the decisions regarding the use of polymers in nanomaterials. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy is used as the primary tool to characterize Tg in a number of systems. First, micelle core Tg and critical micelle temperatures can be determined via pyrenyl label fluorescence for block copolymers in organic solvent at polymer contents which cannot be reliably characterized by other standard methods. Next, measurements were extended to miscible polymer-polymer blend systems where two component Tgs can be determined via a single pyrene-labeled component. Fluorescence can characterize systems with small component Tg differences and near-infinitely dilute blend components unlike scanning calorimetry. Studies of the near-infinitely dilute blend components reveal that a 0.1 wt% polystyrene component can have its Tg tuned over a 150 °C range depending on the blend partner. Analogous tunability of Tg is also reported in multilayer film systems with an ultrathin PS layer surrounding by bulk neighboring domains. The same limiting Tg is reported by PS for a given neighbor indicating a common physical origin of perturbations in both systems. The perturbations are correlated with fragility which also tracks with the magnitude of Tg-confinement effects in single layer polymer films. Thus, fragility provides a unifying explanation of confinement effects in multilayer films, blends, and single layer films (in the absence of attractive interactions). Surface wave dynamics are also examined in ultrathin polystyrene layers on various substrates. It is demonstrated that surface dynamics become much slower than anticipated by capillary wave theory as the film thickness decreases. Additionally, surface wave dynamics become orders of magnitude faster as the modulus of the supporting substrate decrease.

Evans, Christopher Michael

224

Deletion of CGI-58 or adipose triglyceride lipase differently affects macrophage function and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Cellular TG stores are efficiently hydrolyzed by adipose TG lipase (ATGL). Its coactivator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) strongly increases ATGL-mediated TG catabolism in cell culture experiments. To investigate the consequences of CGI-58 deficiency in murine macrophages, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of CGI-58 in myeloid cells (macCGI-58(-/-) mice). CGI-58(-/-) macrophages accumulate intracellular TG-rich lipid droplets and have decreased phagocytic capacity, comparable to ATGL(-/-) macrophages. In contrast to ATGL(-/-) macrophages, however, CGI-58(-/-) macrophages have intact mitochondria and show no indications of mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that TG accumulation per se lacks a significant role in processes leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Another notable difference is the fact that CGI-58(-/-) macrophages adopt an M1-like phenotype in vitro. Finally, we investigated atherosclerosis susceptibility in macCGI-58/ApoE-double KO (DKO) animals. In response to high-fat/high-cholesterol diet feeding, DKO animals showed comparable plaque formation as observed in ApoE(-/-) mice. In agreement, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of CGI-58 in LDL receptor(-/-) mice did not alter atherosclerosis burden in the aortic root. These results suggest that macrophage function and atherosclerosis susceptibility differ fundamentally in these two animal models with disturbed TG catabolism, showing a more severe phenotype by ATGL deficiency. PMID:25316883

Goeritzer, Madeleine; Schlager, Stefanie; Radovic, Branislav; Madreiter, Corina T; Rainer, Silvia; Thomas, Gwynneth; Lord, Caleb C; Sacks, Jessica; Brown, Amanda L; Vujic, Nemanja; Obrowsky, Sascha; Sachdev, Vinay; Kolb, Dagmar; Chandak, Prakash G; Graier, Wolfgang F; Sattler, Wolfgang; Brown, J Mark; Kratky, Dagmar

2014-12-01

225

A serial analysis of gene expression profile of the Alzheimer's disease Tg2576 mouse model.  

PubMed

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a technique that allows for the simultaneous detection of expression levels of the entire genome without a priori knowledge of gene sequences, was used to examine the transcriptional expression pattern of the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pairwise comparison between the Tg2576 and nontransgenic SAGE libraries identified a number of differentially expressed genes in the Tg2576 SAGE library, some of which were not previously revealed by the microarray studies. Real-time PCR was used to validate a panel of genes selected from the SAGE analysis in the Tg2576 mouse brain, as well as the hippocampus and temporal cortex of sporadic AD and normal age-matched controls. NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 5 (NDUFA5) and FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) were found to be significantly decreased in the Tg2576 mouse brain and AD hippocampus. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP), crystalline mu (CRYM), and neurogranin (NRGN) were significantly decreased in AD tissues. The gene ontologies represented in the Tg2576 data were statistically analyzed and demonstrated a significant under-representation of genes involved with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and odorant binding, while genes significantly over-represented were focused on cellular communication and cellular physiological processes. The novel approach of profiling the Tg2576 mouse brain using SAGE has identified different genes that could subsequently be examined for their potential as peripheral diagnostic and prognostic markers for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19760337

George, Amee J; Gordon, Lavinia; Beissbarth, Tim; Koukoulas, Irene; Holsinger, R M Damian; Perreau, Victoria; Cappai, Roberto; Tan, Seong-Seng; Masters, Colin L; Scott, Hamish S; Li, Qiao-Xin

2010-05-01

226

Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.  

PubMed

Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-?1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-?1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-?1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-?1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice. PMID:23874826

McCarville, Justin L; Clarke, Sandra T; Shastri, Padmaja; Liu, Yi; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Green-Johnson, Julia M

2013-01-01

227

Metabolic Imaging of Human Kidney Triglyceride Content: Reproducibility of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility of renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of triglyceride content and to compare spectral quality and reproducibility without and with respiratory motion compensation in vivo. Materials and Methods The Institutional Review Board of our institution approved the study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. After technical optimization, a total of 20 healthy volunteers underwent renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the renal cortex both without and with respiratory motion compensation and volume tracking. After the first session the subjects were repositioned and the protocol was repeated to assess reproducibility. Spectral quality (linewidth of the water signal) and triglyceride content were quantified. Bland-Altman analyses and a test by Pitman were performed. Results Linewidth changed from 11.5±0.4 Hz to 10.7±0.4 Hz (all data pooled, p<0.05), without and with respiratory motion compensation respectively. Mean % triglyceride content in the first and second session without respiratory motion compensation were respectively 0.58±0.12% and 0.51±0.14% (P?=?NS). Mean % triglyceride content in the first and second session with respiratory motion compensation were respectively 0.44±0.10% and 0.43±0.10% (P?=?NS between sessions and P?=?NS compared to measurements with respiratory motion compensation). Bland-Altman analyses showed narrower limits of agreement and a significant difference in the correlated variances (correlation of ?0.59, P<0.05). Conclusion Metabolic imaging of the human kidney using renal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a feasible tool to assess cortical triglyceride content in humans in vivo and the use of respiratory motion compensation significantly improves spectral quality and reproducibility. Therefore, respiratory motion compensation seems a necessity for metabolic imaging of renal triglyceride content in vivo. PMID:23620813

de Heer, Paul; Bizino, Maurice B.; Wolterbeek, Ron; Rabelink, Ton J.; Doornbos, Joost; Lamb, Hildo J.

2013-01-01

228

Colipase enhances hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the absence of bile salts.  

PubMed Central

This study explores how dietary lipids are digested when intraduodenal bile salts are low or absent. Long-chain triglycerides emulsified with phosphatidylcholine were found to be hydrolyzed very slowly by pancreatic lipase alone, as if the surface layer of phospholipids enveloping the triglycerides impeded the action of the enzyme. Colipase enhanced triglyceride hydrolysis severalfold, both when added before or after the lipase. Hydrolysis became even more rapid when the emulsion was first incubated with pancreatic phospholipase. Hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides was also severely impeded when other proteins were added to the system, probably because they adsorbed to the oil-water interface of the emulsion droplets. It was previously known that bile salts can relieve such inhibition, presumably by desorbing the adsorbed proteins. Colipase was found to enhance hydrolysis severalfold in a dose-dependent manner even in the absence of bile salts, i.e., it could partially or completely relieve the inhibition depending upon the amount and the type of inhibitory protein added to the system. Prior exposure of a protein-coated triglyceride emulsion to another lipase also enhanced the rate at which pancreatic lipase could then hydrolyze the lipids. Most dietary triglycerides are probably presented for intestinal digestion in emulsions covered by proteins and/or phospholipids. These emulsions would be hydrolyzed slowly by pancreatic lipase alone. However, through the action of the lipase in stomach contents and of pancreatic phospholipase and through the lipolysis-promoting effects of collipase, these triglycerices can be rather efficiently hydrolyzed, even in the absence of bile salts. PMID:500812

Bläckberg, L; Hernell, O; Bengtsson, G; Olivecrona, T

1979-01-01

229

GCKR Variants Increase Triglycerides While Protecting from Insulin Resistance in Chinese Children  

PubMed Central

Background Variants in gene encoding glucokinase regulator protein (GCKR) were found to have converse effects on triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits. We aimed to investigate the influence of GCKR variants for triglycerides and glucose metabolic traits in Chinese children and adults. Methods and Results We genotyped two GCKR variants rs1260326 and rs1260333 in children and adults, and analyzed the association between two variants and triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR using linear regression model, and estimated the effect on insulin resistance using logistic regression model. Rs1260326 and rs1260333 associated with increased triglycerides in children and adults (p<0.05). In children, both variants significantly reduced insulin (p<0.05. for rs1260326, ??=??0.07; for rs1260333, ??=??0.07) and HOMA-IR (p<0.05. for rs1260326, ??=??0.03; for rs1260333, ??=??0.03). There were significant associations between two variants and insulin resistance for children. Under co-dominant model, for CT vs. CC, OR is 0.83 (95%CI 0.69–1.00) for rs1260326, and 0.83 (95%CI 0.68–1.00) for rs1260333; for TT vs. CC, OR is 0.72 (95%CI 0.58–0.88) for rs1260326, and 0.72 (95%CI 0.58–0.89) for rs1260333. Under allele model, for allele T vs. C, the ORs are 0.85 (95%CI 0.76–0.94) and 0.85 (95%CI 0.76–0.94) for rs1260326 and rs1260333, respectively). Conclusions Our study confirmed the associations between GCKR variants and triglycerides in Chinese children and adults. Triglycerides-increasing alleles of GCKR variants reduce insulin and HOMA-IR index, and protect from insulin resistance in children. Our results suggested GCKR has an effect on development of insulin resistance in Chinese children. PMID:23383164

Shen, Yue; Wu, Lijun; Xi, Bo; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

2013-01-01

230

Introduction to Grain Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

1998-01-01

231

Determination of mono-, di-, and triglycerides by molecular distillation and thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides by molecular distillation and thin-layer chromatography is described.\\u000a \\u000a Mono- and diglycerides undergo appreciable acyl migration through the effect of heat during molecular distillation. Nevertheless\\u000a this technique may be used for the quantitative analysis of mixtures of mono-, di-, and triglycerides, provided there are\\u000a no substances present which catalyze, disproportionation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC)

O. S. Privett; M. L. Blank; W. O. Lundberg

1961-01-01

232

Analysis of triglycerides by consecutive chromatographic techniques. i. cuphea llavia seed fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triglycerides ofCuphea llavia var.miniata seed fat were separated according to the number of double bonds\\/molecule using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC)\\u000a on silicic acid impregnated with silver ion. The recovered frac-tions were quantitated by the chromotropic acid technique.\\u000a Each fraction was then separated ac-cording to mol wt using gas-liquid chromatog-raphy (GLC). This multiple chromatography\\u000a procedure resolvedC. llavia triglycerides into

Carter Litchfield; Margaret Farquhar; Raymond Reiser

1964-01-01

233

A Nanotube Space Elevator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, find out about the discovery of a new building material, the carbon nanotube, whose physical properties could theoretically enable the creation of a 22,000-mile elevator to space.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2008-09-08

234

Sub-Tg relaxation patterns in Cu-based metallic glasses far from equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the sub-Tg relaxation patterns (RPs) in binary and quaternary Cu-based glass ribbons (GRs) by using the hyperquenching-sub-Tg annealing-calorimetric approach. This study contributes to revealing the structural or dynamic evolution in liquids related to the observed three-stage sub-Tg relaxation processes in GRs. In this work, we have achieved the following three findings. First, the abnormal three-stage relaxation behavior is not a general phenomenon for Cu-based metallic glasses and could not be simply predicted by the large difference in the enthalpy of mixing between different elements in alloys. Second, the abnormal three-stage RP is associated with the non-monotonic change of cluster size with medium range order in supercooled liquids. Third, the existence of the liquid-liquid phase transition depicted by anomalous viscosity drop during cooling in superheated liquids could be a signature of the unusual structural change causing the abnormal three-step sub-Tg RP in the GRs. This work helps to better understand the complex structural evolution from superheated to supercooled liquids approaching Tg.

Wang, Caiwei; Hu, Lina; Wei, Chen; Tong, Xu; Zhou, Chao; Sun, Qijing; Hui, Xidong; Yue, Yuanzheng

2014-10-01

235

Stabilisation of TG- and AG-containing antiparallel DNA triplexes by triplex-binding ligands  

PubMed Central

We have used DNase I footprinting to examine the interaction of several triplex-binding ligands with antiparallel TG- and AG-containing triplexes. We find that although a 17mer TG-containing oligonucleotide on its own fails to produce a footprint at concentrations as high as 30 µM, this interaction can be stabilised by several ligands. Within a series of disubstituted amidoanthraquinones we find that the 2,7- regioisomer affords the best stabilisation of this TG triplex, though the 1,8- isomer also stabilises this interaction to some extent. By contrast the 1,5- and 2,6- regioisomers show no interaction with TG triplexes. Similar studies with a 13mer AG-containing oligonucleotide show the opposite pattern of stabilisation: the 2,6- and 1,5- isomers stabilise this triplex, but the 2,7- and 1,8-compounds do not. The polycyclic compound BePI strongly stabilises TG- but not AG-containing triplexes, while a substituted naphthylquinoline interacts with both antiparallel triplex motifs. PMID:11328877

Keppler, Melanie D.; Neidle, Stephen; Fox, Keith R.

2001-01-01

236

Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

237

Combination Therapy of an Intestine-Specific Inhibitor of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist in Diabetic Rat  

PubMed Central

We investigated effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in combination of JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, and pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, JTT-130 treatment group, pioglitazone treatment group, and combination group. The Zucker diabetic fatty rats were fed a regular powdered diet with JTT-130 and/or pioglitazone as a food admixture for 6 weeks. Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were compared mainly between JTT-130 treatment group and combination group. JTT-130 treatment showed good glycemic control, while the plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in combination group were significantly decreased as compared with those JTT-130 treatment group. The reduction in the plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in combination group was higher than that in JTT-130 treatment group, and glucose utilization was significantly elevated in adipose tissues. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, combination treatment of JTT-130 and pioglitazone showed better glycemic control and a strong hypolipidemic action with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy of MTP inhibitor and PPAR? agonist might be more useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes accompanied with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:24772450

Sakata, Shohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

2014-01-01

238

Order relaxation of a poled azo dye in a high Tg, fully aromatic polyimide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A guest-host polymer system with potential use in electro-optic devices is discussed. The polymer host is a high Tg, fully aromatic polyimide and the guest chromophore is disperse red 19. Relaxation mechanisms of polar order after electric field alignment procedure have been investigated by measuring the isothermal decay of the macroscopic nonlinear optical coefficient d333 at different temperatures below glass transition temperature (Tg), upon the removal of the poling electric field. All the decay curves can be fitted by a double exponential function. Below Tg, the slower relaxation time shows an Arrhenius temperature dependence. An extrapolation to room temperature allows to predict the time stability which results to be longer than 30years. In addition, absorption spectra measurements of the films were performed before and immediately after poling procedure to estimate independently the polar order of the dipoles through the decrease of the absorption coefficients.

Quatela, Alessia; De Matteis, Fabio; Casalboni, Mauro; Stella, Federica; Colombo, Marco; Zaopo, Antonio

2007-01-01

239

A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements  

SciTech Connect

A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Kinrade, Stephen D., E-mail: stephen.kinrade@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

2013-06-15

240

Comparative effects of some carbohydrates on serum sugars, triglycerides and digestive hydrolases  

E-print Network

Comparative effects of some carbohydrates on serum sugars, triglycerides and digestive hydrolases carbohydrate in the form of starch (wheat flour), purified sucrose, commercial sugar or a commercial sweetner. Introduction. The nutritional impact of the dietary carbohydrate source has been widely studied

Boyer, Edmond

241

Genetic APOC3 mutation, serum triglyceride concentrations, and coronary heart disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent decades have witnessed an increased awareness of the importance of lowering triglyceride concentrations in conjunction with lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to achieve optimal reduction of the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Historically, LDL-C was the only target of pharmacologic ther...

242

Effects of amount of dietary triglycerides on postprandial serum vitamin A in  

E-print Network

Effects of amount of dietary triglycerides on postprandial serum vitamin A in heathly adults. P-Marguerite, 13000 Marseille, France) Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is generally claimed to be dependent, no definite evi- dence has been established for vitamin A. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population  

SciTech Connect

The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

Albrink, M.J. (West Virgina Unov., Morgantown); Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

1980-01-01

244

CTRP3 attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating triglyceride metabolism  

PubMed Central

CTRP3 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that helps regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and is downregulated in a diet-induced obese state. However, the role of CTRP3 in regulating lipid metabolism has not been established. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model to address the potential function of CTRP3 in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Both transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet showed similar body weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. Despite similar adiposity to wild-type mice upon diet-induced obesity (DIO), CTRP3 transgenic mice were strikingly resistant to the development of hepatic steatosis, had reduced serum TNF-? levels, and demonstrated a modest improvement in systemic insulin sensitivity. Additionally, reduced hepatic triglyceride levels were due to decreased expression of enzymes (GPAT, AGPAT, and DGAT) involved in triglyceride synthesis. Importantly, short-term daily administration of recombinant CTRP3 to DIO mice for 5 days was sufficient to improve the fatty liver phenotype, evident as reduced hepatic triglyceride content and expression of triglyceride synthesis genes. Consistent with a direct effect on liver cells, recombinant CTRP3 treatment reduced fatty acid synthesis and neutral lipid accumulation in cultured rat H4IIE hepatocytes. Together, these results establish a novel role for CTRP3 hormone in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and highlight its protective function and therapeutic potential in attenuating hepatic steatosis. PMID:23744740

Peterson, Jonathan M.; Seldin, Marcus M.; Wei, Zhikui; Aja, Susan

2013-01-01

245

Effects of CETP inhibition on triglyceride-rich lipoprotein composition and apoB-48 metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of HDL cholesteryl ester (CE) to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This study aimed to determine the effects of CETP inhibition with torcetrapib on TRL composition and apoB-48 metabolism. Study subjects with low HDL cholesterol...

246

Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

2015-01-01

247

Increased chylomicron triglyceride hydrolysis by connective tissue flow in perfused rat hindlimb: implications for lipid storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal muscle has two circulatory routes, nutri- tive (in contact with muscle) and non-nutritive (part of which is located in the connective tissue), and the balance of flow between the two is controlled by neural input and circulating vasomodulators. The purpose of this study was to assess muscle triglyceride hydrolysis given that the two circuits may have a differing vascular

L. H. Clerk; M. E. Smith; S. Rattigan; M. G. Clark

248

Effect of exercise on metabolism of glycogen and triglycerides in the respiratory muscles.  

PubMed

It was shown that during muscular exertion the diaphragm muscle and the intercostal muscles utilize endogenous glycogen whereas only the diaphragm muscle utilizes endogenous triglycerides. The post-excercise glycogen repletion in the diaphragm muscle was much faster than in the intercostal muscles. In the diaphragm muscle, marked overshoot of the glycogen level occurred early after the exercise. PMID:569818

Górski, J; Namiot, Z; Giedroj?, J

1978-11-30

249

Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

2011-10-01

250

Reactivity of triglycerides and fatty acids of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalyst-free biodiesel production method with supercritical methanol has been developed that allows a simple process and high yield because of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of fatty acids. From these lines of evidence, we expected that similar results would be attained with the use of various alcohols by the supercritical treatment. However, it still remains unclear which

Yuichiro Warabi; Dadan Kusdiana; Shiro Saka

2004-01-01

251

Correlation between liver and plasma fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides in rats.  

PubMed

Considering the changes in the fatty acid profile of liver lipids related to age, gender and nutritional status or occurring in pathological situations, this study aimed at investigating whether such changes could be judged from measurements conducted in plasma lipids. The fatty acid profile of both liver and plasma phospholipids and triglycerides was measured in 16 control animals and 26 rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids. Within each group of rats, significant correlations prevailed between the percentage of each fatty acid in liver versus plasma phospholipids or triglycerides. However, the plasma/liver ratio for the relative content of C20:5(n-3), C22:5(n-3) and C22:6(n-3) in triglycerides displayed abnormally high values in 2 control animals. The fatty acid profile of liver phospholipids and triglycerides can, as a rule, be judged from measurements made in the corresponding plasma lipids. For instance, measurements in plasma phospholipids could help to identify subjects deficient in (n-3) fatty acids and to assess the dietary correction of this defect. PMID:18636182

Carpentier, Yvon A; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

2008-08-01

252

Effects of dietary cholesterol on hepatic metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipopro-  

E-print Network

Effects of dietary cholesterol on hepatic metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipopro- teins to stimulate hepatic production of VLDL, cholesterol was given to 5 male Frie- sian preruminant calves (1 month replacer with or without cholesterol in which lipids (tallow) con- stituted 22.1 % dry matter (DM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy  

E-print Network

the first Elevate America offering--a partnership with state governments to provide computer skills trainElevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Lessons Learned April 2011 #12 ...............................................................................................................................15 Additional information about Elevate America is available at: http

Bernstein, Phil

254

Cholinotrophic basal forebrain system alterations in 3xTg-AD transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

The cholinotrophic system, which is dependent upon nerve growth factor and its receptors for survival, is selectively vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease (AD). But, virtually nothing is known about how this deficit develops in relation to the hallmark lesions of this disease, amyloid plaques and tau containing neurofibrillary tangles. The vast majority of transgenic models of AD used to evaluate the effect of beta amyloid (A?) deposition upon the cholinotrophic system over-express the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, nothing is known about how this system is affected in triple transgenic (3xTg)-AD mice, an AD animal model displaying A? plaque- and tangle-like pathology in the cortex and hippocampus, which receive extensive cholinergic innervation. We performed a detailed morphological and biochemical characterization of the cholinotrophic system in young (2-4 months), middle-aged (13-15 months), and old (18-20 months) 3xTg-AD mice. Cholinergic neuritic swellings increased in number and size with age, and were more conspicuous in the hippocampal-subicular complex in aged female than in 3xTg-AD male mice. Stereological analysis revealed a reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive cells in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca in aged 3xTg-AD mice. ChAT enzyme activity levels decreased significantly in the hippocampus of middle-aged 3xTg-AD mice compared to age-matched ntg mice. ProNGF protein levels increased in the cortex of aged 3xTg-AD mice, whereas TrkA protein levels were reduced in a gender-dependent manner in aged mutant mice. In contrast, p75NTR protein cortical levels were stable but increased in the hippocampus of aged 3xTg-AD mice. These data demonstrate that cholinotrophic alterations in 3xTg-AD mice are age and gender dependent and more pronounced in the hippocampus, a structure more severely affected with A? plaque pathology. PMID:20937383

Perez, Sylvia E.; He, Bin; Muhammad, Nadeem; Oh, Kwang-Jin; Fahnestock, Margaret; Ikonomovic, Milos; Mufson, Elliott J.

2010-01-01

255

Triglyceride Concentration and Ischemic Heart Disease An Eight-Year Follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The role of triglycerides as a risk factor of ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains controversial. For the present study, we examined the relation between fasting triglycerides and risk of IHD in the Copenhagen Male Study. Methods and Results—Baseline measurements of fasting lipids and other IHD risk factors were obtained for 2906 white men (age range, 53 to 74 years) who

Jørgen Jeppesen; Hans Ole Hein; Poul Suadicani; Finn Gyntelberg

2010-01-01

256

Perturbations of triglycerides but not of cholesterol metabolism are prevented by anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment in rats bearing an ascites hepatoma (Yoshida AH-130).  

PubMed Central

Rats transplanted with the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 developed a severely progressive cachexia, characterised by marked alterations in protein and lipid metabolism. In particular, high levels of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids were associated with altered levels and distribution of plasma cholesterol, with increased total and very low-density lipoprotein-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL) cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The tumour cells showed high rates of cholesterol synthesis and elevated content of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol synthesis was reduced in the host liver. To determine whether these perturbations could be related to the elevation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) previously shown in the AH-130 bearers (Tessitore L, Costelli P, Baccino FM 1993, Br J Cancer, 67, 15-23), either anti-TNF polyclonal antibodies or non-immune IgGs were injected daily after tumour transplantation. The anti-TNF treatment neither affected tumour growth nor prevented the serum cholesterol changes, while attenuating the hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevated serum free fatty acid levels. These data indicate that TNF does not appear to be directly involved in the altered cholesterol metabolism in AH-130 hosts, thus supporting the view that cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism are regulated differently during tumour growth. PMID:7577459

Dessì, S.; Batetta, B.; Spano, O.; Bagby, G. J.; Tessitore, L.; Costelli, P.; Baccino, F. M.; Pani, P.; Argilès, J. M.

1995-01-01

257

Perturbations of triglycerides but not of cholesterol metabolism are prevented by anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment in rats bearing an ascites hepatoma (Yoshida AH-130).  

PubMed

Rats transplanted with the ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 developed a severely progressive cachexia, characterised by marked alterations in protein and lipid metabolism. In particular, high levels of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids were associated with altered levels and distribution of plasma cholesterol, with increased total and very low-density lipoprotein-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL) cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The tumour cells showed high rates of cholesterol synthesis and elevated content of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol synthesis was reduced in the host liver. To determine whether these perturbations could be related to the elevation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) previously shown in the AH-130 bearers (Tessitore L, Costelli P, Baccino FM 1993, Br J Cancer, 67, 15-23), either anti-TNF polyclonal antibodies or non-immune IgGs were injected daily after tumour transplantation. The anti-TNF treatment neither affected tumour growth nor prevented the serum cholesterol changes, while attenuating the hypertriglyceridaemia and the elevated serum free fatty acid levels. These data indicate that TNF does not appear to be directly involved in the altered cholesterol metabolism in AH-130 hosts, thus supporting the view that cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism are regulated differently during tumour growth. PMID:7577459

Dessì, S; Batetta, B; Spano, O; Bagby, G J; Tessitore, L; Costelli, P; Baccino, F M; Pani, P; Argilès, J M

1995-11-01

258

Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n?=?10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10?8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10?8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]?=?1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p?=?0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR?=?0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p?=?0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR?=?1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p?=?0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR?=?0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p?=?0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

2014-01-01

259

TG2-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling has a critical role in warfarin-induced vascular calcification  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent from oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1,prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic trans-differentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification. PMID:22034513

Beazley, Kelly E.; Deasey, Stephanie; Lima, Florence; Nurminskaya, Maria V.

2011-01-01

260

Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.  

PubMed

Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF? production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages. PMID:24129399

Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

2013-12-01

261

Age-dependent molecular alterations in the autophagy pathway in HIVE patients and in a gp120 tg mouse model: reversal with beclin-1 gene transfer.  

PubMed

Aged (>50 years old) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients are the fastest-growing segment of the HIV-infected population in the USA and despite antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) prevalence has increased or remained the same among this group. Autophagy is an intracellular clearance pathway for aggregated proteins and aged organelles; dysregulation of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and HAND. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulated autophagy may contribute to aging-related neuropathology in HIV-infected individuals. To explore this possibility, we surveyed autophagy marker levels in postmortem brain samples from a cohort of well-characterized <50 years old (young) and >50 years old (aged) HIV+ and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. Detailed clinical and neuropathological data showed the young and aged HIVE patients had higher viral load, increased neuroinflammation and elevated neurodegeneration; however, aged HIVE postmortem brain tissues showed the most severe neurodegenerative pathology. Interestingly, young HIVE patients displayed an increase in beclin-1, cathepsin-D and light chain (LC)3, but these autophagy markers were reduced in aged HIVE cases compared to age-matched HIV+ donors. Similar alterations in autophagy markers were observed in aged gp120 transgenic (tg) mice; beclin-1 and LC3 were decreased in aged gp120 tg mice while mTor levels were increased. Lentivirus-mediated beclin-1 gene transfer, that is known to activate autophagy pathways, increased beclin-1, LC3, and microtubule-associated protein 2 expression while reducing glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba1 expression in aged gp120 tg mice. These data indicate differential alterations in the autophagy pathway in young versus aged HIVE patients and that autophagy reactivation may ameliorate the neurodegenerative phenotype in these patients. PMID:23341224

Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Spencer, Brian; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ron; Letendre, Scott; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer

2013-02-01

262

Magnetic Reconnection Theory Left to right: TG Forbes, ER Priest and J Birn  

E-print Network

____ 18 Magnetic Reconnection Theory Left to right: TG Forbes, ER Priest and J Birn Scientific Background Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in a plasma of high magnetic Reynolds number, whereby magnetic field lines (which are normally attached firmly to the plasma as it moves) become

263

Large mobile mining equipment operating on soft ground T.G. Joseph  

E-print Network

1 Large mobile mining equipment operating on soft ground T.G. Joseph School of Mining & Petroleum. The toll on large mobile mining equipment such as > 327 tonne capacity haulers and > 46 m3 electric for large mobile units, a discussion on the extension of the process to shovel undercarriage and carbody

Joseph, Tim Grain

264

Ruthenium Polypyridyl TG6 Dye for the Sensitization of Nanoparticle and Nanocrystallite Spherical Aggregate Photoelectrodes.  

PubMed

A ruthenium polypyridyl dye containing a hexasulfanyl-styryl modified bipyridyl group as ancillary ligand, coded TG6, is investigated as a sensitizer for ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The advantages of this dye are a broad wavelength absorption spectrum, a large loading in ZnO photoelectrodes, a significantly larger extinction coefficient compared to more classical Ru-polypyridyl dyes, and the formation of less agglomerate in the pores of the ZnO layers. TG6 has been used to sensitize ZnO nanorod particle layers of high structural quality and ZnO layers made of submicrometer spheres composed of aggregated nanocrystallites and that develop an internal surface area. The latter are highly light-scattering in the visible wavelength region but more difficult to sensitize correctly. The TG6 dye has been compared with the metal-free D149 dye and has been shown more efficient for photoconversion. The best performances have been obtained by combining TG6 with the nanorod layer, the optimal power conversion efficiency being measured at 5.30% in that case. The cells have been investigated by impedance spectroscopy over a large applied voltage range. We especially show that the submicrometer sphere layers exhibit lower conductivity and lower charge collection efficiency as compared to the nanorod particle ones. PMID:25546020

Hosni, M; Kusumawati, Y; Farhat, S; Jouini, N; Ivansyah, A L; Martoprawiro, M A; Pauporté, Th

2015-01-28

265

Bibliography Amin, T.G. (2001). A cognitive linguistics approach to the layperson's understanding of  

E-print Network

136 Bibliography Amin, T.G. (2001). A cognitive linguistics approach to the layperson Factors in Linguistic Structure. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publictions. Anderson, J.R. and Thompson, R. (1989 of Physics Teachers. Sacramento, CA. AAPT Announcer 33(2). #12;137 Brookes, D.T. (2003). Linguistics

Maryland at College Park, University of

266

Is a distinctive single Tg a reliable indicator for the homogeneity of amorphous solid dispersion?  

PubMed

For an amorphous drug-polymer solid dispersion, a distinctive single T(g) intermediate of the two T(g) values of the two components has been widely considered as an indication of the mixing uniformity, which is critical for the stability of the amorphous drug against crystallization. In this study, two batches of amorphous solid dispersions consisting of BMS-A, a poorly water-soluble drug, and PVP-VA, were made by a twin-screw hot-melt extruder using different processing conditions. Both batches displayed an identical distinctive single T(g) that is consistent with the prediction of Fox equation assuming homogeneous mixing of the two components. Neither DSC nor PXRD detected any drug crystallinity in either batch. However, the two batches exhibited different physical stability against crystallization over time. The application of a Raman mapping method showed that the drug distributed over a much wider concentration range in the less stable solid dispersion. It is therefore experimentally demonstrated that, in the characterization of amorphous solid dispersions, a distinctive single T(g) may not always be a reliable indicator of homogeneity and optimal stability, and more examinations and new techniques may be required other than conventional studies. PMID:20562003

Qian, Feng; Huang, Jun; Zhu, Qing; Haddadin, Raja; Gawel, John; Garmise, Robert; Hussain, Munir

2010-08-16

267

Age-Dependent Neuroplasticity Mechanisms in Alzheimer Tg2576 Mice Following Modulation of Brain Amyloid-? Levels  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of modulating brain amyloid-? (A?) levels at different stages of amyloid pathology on synaptic function, inflammatory cell changes and hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. processes perturbed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Young (4- to 6-month-old) and older (15- to 18-month-old) APPSWE transgenic (Tg2576) mice were treated with the AD candidate drug (+)-phenserine for 16 consecutive days. We found significant reductions in insoluble A?1-42 levels in the cortices of both young and older transgenic mice, while significant reductions in soluble A?1-42 levels and insoluble A?1-40 levels were only found in animals aged 15–18 months. Autoradiography binding with the amyloid ligand Pittsburgh Compound B (3H-PIB) revealed a trend for reduced fibrillar A? deposition in the brains of older phenserine-treated Tg2576 mice. Phenserine treatment increased cortical synaptophysin levels in younger mice, while decreased interleukin-1? and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were detected in the cortices of older mice. The reduction in A?1-42 levels was associated with an increased number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in the hippocampi of both young and older Tg2576 mice. To determine whether the increased cell proliferation was accompanied by increased neuronal production, the endogenous early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) was examined in the dentate gyrus (DG) using immunohistochemical detection. Although no changes in the total number of DCX+-expressing neurons were detected in the DG in Tg2576 mice at either age following (+)-phenserine treatment, dendritic arborization was increased in differentiating neurons in young Tg2576 mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that reducing A?1-42 levels in Tg2576 mice at an early pathological stage affects synaptic function by modulating the maturation and plasticity of newborn neurons in the brain. In contrast, lowering A? levels in Tg2576 mice when A? plaque pathology is prominent mainly alters the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. PMID:23554921

Lilja, Anna M.; Röjdner, Jennie; Mustafiz, Tamanna; Thomé, Carina M.; Storelli, Elisa; Gonzalez, Daniel; Unger-Lithner, Christina; Greig, Nigel H.; Nordberg, Agneta; Marutle, Amelia

2013-01-01

268

Dihydroisoxazole inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae seminal transglutaminase AgTG3  

PubMed Central

Background Current vector-based malaria control strategies are threatened by the rise of biochemical and behavioural resistance in mosquitoes. Researching mosquito traits of immunity and fertility is required to find potential targets for new vector control strategies. The seminal transglutaminase AgTG3 coagulates male Anopheles gambiae seminal fluids, forming a ‘mating plug’ that is required for male reproductive success. Inhibitors of AgTG3 can be useful both as chemical probes of A. gambiae reproductive biology and may further the development of new chemosterilants for mosquito population control. Methods A targeted library of 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxoisoxazole inhibitors were synthesized and screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent, plate-based assay. Positive hits were tested for in vitro activity using cross-linking and mass spectrometry, and in vivo efficacy in laboratory mating assays. Results A targeted chemical library was screened for inhibition of AgTG3 in a fluorescent plate-based assay using its native substrate, plugin. Several inhibitors were identified with IC50?TG3 were verified. Administration of an AgTG3 inhibitor to A. gambiae males by intrathoracic injection led to a 15% reduction in mating plug transfer in laboratory mating assays. Conclusions A targeted screen has identified chemical inhibitors of A. gambiae transglutaminase 3 (AgTG3). The most potent inhibitors are known inhibitors of human transglutaminase 2, suggesting a common binding pose may exist within the active site of both enzymes. Future efforts to develop additional inhibitors will provide chemical tools to address important biological questions regarding the role of the A. gambiae mating plug. A second use for transglutaminase inhibitors exists for the study of haemolymph coagulation and immune responses to wound healing in insects. PMID:24888439

2014-01-01

269

Reference dosimetry in clinical high-energy photon beams: comparison of the AAPM TG-51 and AAPM TG-21 dosimetry protocols.  

PubMed

Task Group 51 (TG-51) of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has recently developed a new protocol for the calibration of high-energy photon and electron beams used in radiation therapy. The formalism and the dosimetry procedures recommended in this protocol are based on the use of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose-to-water in a standards laboratory's 60Co gamma ray beam. This is different from the recommendations given in the AAPM TG-21 protocol, which are based on an exposure calibration factor of an ionization chamber in a 60Co beam. The purpose of this work is to compare the determination of absorbed dose-to-water in reference conditions in high-energy photon beams following the recommendations given in the two dosimetry protocols. This is realized by performing calibrations of photon beams with nominal accelerating potential of 6, 18 and 25 MV, generated by an Elekta MLCi and SL25 series linear accelerator. Two widely used Farmer-type ionization chambers having different composition, PTW 30001 (PMMA wall) and NE 2571 (graphite wall), were used for this study. Ratios of AAPM TG-51 to AAPM TG-21 doses to water are found to be 1.008, 1.007 and 1.009 at 6, 18 and 25 MV, respectively when the PTW chamber is used. The corresponding results for the NE chamber are 1.009, 1.010 and 1.013. The uncertainties for the ratios of the absorbed dose determined by the two protocols are estimated to be about 1.5%. A detailed analysis of the reasons for the discrepancies is made which includes comparing the formalisms, correction factors and quantities in the two protocols, as well as the influence of the implementation of the different standards for chamber calibration. The latter has been found to have a considerable influence on the differences in clinical dosimetry, even larger than the adoption of the new data and recommended procedures, as most intrinsic differences cancel out due to the adoption of the new formalism. PMID:11213922

Saiful Huq, M; Andreo, P

2001-01-01

270

Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.  

PubMed

Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1? was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )). PMID:25433580

Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogo?anu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neam?u, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Bi??, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

2015-02-01

271

Elevation Differences on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of apparent frost phenomena, occurring preferentially in the Martian bright areas, have in the past led to. the conclusion that the bright areas are elevations. The argument hinges on the implicit assumption that, near midday, highlands should be at lower temperatures than lowlands. On the earth, this assumption is valid, because of adiabatic cooling of rising air, a diminished

Carl Sagan; James B. Pollack

1968-01-01

272

PPAR? L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males  

PubMed Central

Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation). Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs) for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPAR? L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004). Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001), but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002), indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPAR? L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPAR? and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004), and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037). PMID:17705849

Uthurralt, Julieta; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Bradbury, Meg; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Devaney, Joseph; Harmon, Brennan; Reeves, Erica K; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hansen, Barbara C; Seip, Richard L; Thompson, Paul D; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Gordon, Paul M; Hoffman, Eric P

2007-01-01

273

Positional analysis of triglycerides and phospholipids rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Four sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) differing in their chemical structure (triglycerides or phospholipids) and in their origin (tuna triglycerides, fungal triglycerides, egg phospholipids, and pig brain phospholipids) were analyzed to determine the distribution of the component fatty acids within the molecule. Lipase and phospholipase A2 hydrolysis was performed to obtain 2-monoacylglycerols and lysophospholipids, respectively, which allowed us to determine the distribution of fatty acids between the sn-2 and sn-1,3 positions of triglycerides or between the sn-1 and sn-2 position of phospholipids. Fatty acids in the LCP sources analyzed were not randomly distributed. In tuna triglycerides, half of the total amount of 22:6n-3 was located at the sn-2 position (49.52%). In fungal triglycerides, 16:0 and 18:0 were esterified to the sn-1,3 (92.22% and 91.91%, respectively)18:1 and 18:2 to the sn-2 position (59.77% and 62.62%, respectively), and 45% of 20:3n-6 and only 21.64% of 20:4n-6 were found at the sn-2 position. In the lipid sources containing phospholipids, LCP were mainly esterified to the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction. In egg phospholipids, most of 20:4n-6 (5.50%, sn-2 vs. 0.91%, sn-1) and 22:6n-3 (2.89 vs. 0.28%) were located at the sn-2 position. In pig brain phospholipids, 22:6n-3 was also esterified to the sn-2 (13.20 vs. 0.27%), whereas 20:4n-6 was distributed between the two positions (12.35 vs. 5.86%). These results show a different fatty acid composition and distribution of dietary LCP sources, which may affect the absorption, distribution, and tissue uptake of LCP, and should be taken into account when supplementing infant formulas. PMID:10529098

Amate, L; Ramírez, M; Gil, A

1999-08-01

274

Overexpression of a cytosolic pyrophosphatase (TgPPase) reveals a regulatory role of PP(i) in glycolysis for Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

PP(i) is a critical element of cellular metabolism as both an energy donor and as an allosteric regulator of several metabolic pathways. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii uses PP(i) in place of ATP as an energy donor in at least two reactions: the glycolytic PP(i)-dependent PFK (phosphofructokinase) and V-H(+)-PPase [vacuolar H(+)-translocating PPase (pyrophosphatase)]. In the present study, we report the cloning, expression and characterization of cytosolic TgPPase (T. gondii soluble PPase). Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the gene encodes a family I soluble PPase. Overexpression of the enzyme in extracellular tachyzoites led to a 6-fold decrease in the cytosolic concentration of PP(i) relative to wild-type strain RH tachyzoites. Unexpectedly, this subsequent reduction in PP(i) was associated with a higher glycolytic flux in the overexpressing mutants, as evidenced by higher rates of proton and lactate extrusion. In addition to elevated glycolytic flux, TgPPase-overexpressing tachyzoites also possessed higher ATP concentrations relative to wild-type RH parasites. These results implicate PP(i) as having a significant regulatory role in glycolysis and, potentially, other downstream processes that regulate growth and cell division. PMID:21831041

Pace, Douglas A; Fang, Jianmin; Cintron, Roxana; Docampo, Melissa D; Moreno, Silvia N J

2011-12-01

275

Major loci influencing serum triglyceride levels on 2q14 and 9p21 localized by  

E-print Network

focused our genetic studies on the Hutterites (18), a young founder population of European descent , Mary Sara McPeek1,2 and Carole Ober1 1 Department of Human Genetics and 2 Department of Statistics and mortality in Western countries. Although genome-wide scans for TG have been conducted in several populations

Abney, Mark

276

Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings  

SciTech Connect

Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion.

Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

1989-03-01

277

Effect of medium-chain triglycerides on calbindin-D9k expression in the intestine.  

PubMed

These studies determined the effect of the saturated fat source in infant formula on the expression of calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k). Piglets were fed from birth to 8 d with milk or formula containing saturated fatty acids as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), coconut oil, palm oil (Palm 1), or synthesized triglycerides with 16:0 directed to the sn-2 position (Palm 2). Levels of intestinal CaBP-9k mRNA were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in piglets fed formula with MCT than in piglets fed the other formula or milk; and higher in piglets fed the Palm-1 than in piglets fed Palm-2 formula. This is the first evidence that MCT alter piglet intestinal CaBP-9k mRNA. PMID:8727649

Devlin, A; Innis, S M; Wall, K; Krisinger, J

1996-05-01

278

Optimization of conjugated linoleic acid triglycerides via enzymatic esterification in no-solvent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared four esterifiable enzymes. The lipase Novozym 435 possessed the highest activity for the conjugated linoleic acid esterification during the synthesis of triglycerides. The triglycerides were synthesized by esterification of glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a no-solvent system using lipase catalysis. We investigated the effects of temperature, enzyme concentration, water content, and time on esterification. Enzyme and water concentrations of up to 1% of the total reaction volume and a system temperature of 60°C proved optimal for esterification. Similarly, when the esterification was carried out for 24 h, the reaction ratio improved to 94.11%. The esterification rate of the rotating screen basket remained high (87.28%) when the enzyme was re-used for the 5th time. We evaluated the substrate selectivity of lipase (NOVO 435) and determined that this lipase prefers the 10,12-octadacadienoic acid to the 9,11-octadecadienoic acid.

Yi, Dan; Sun, Xiuqin; Li, Guangyou; Liu, Fayi; Lin, Xuezheng; Shen, Jihong

2009-09-01

279

Process for enzymatic hydrolysis of fatty acid triglycerides with oat caryopses  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the process for enzymatic hydrolysis of fatty acid triglycerides to obtain free fatty acids and glycerol. It comprises: increasing the water content of dehulled whole oat caryopses to a total water content of 17 to 44% the thus moistened caryopses having active oat lipase associated with the outer surfaces thereof; contacting the moistened whole caryopses with a liquid medium, continuing the contacting until at least 20% by volume of the triglyceride reactant has been hydrolyzed to free fatty acids and glycerol, most of the free fatty acids dissolving in the oil phase external to the caryopses and most of the glycerol being absorbed into the water within the caryopses; and separating the glycerol-containing caryopses from the fatty acid-containing oil phase.

Hammond, E.G.; Lee, I.

1992-02-18

280

Polymorphism and intersolubility of some palmitic, stearic and oleic triglycerides: PPP, PSP and POP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphism and intersolubility of a series of palmitic, stearic and oleic triglycerides have been investigated in order\\u000a to understand the thermal properties of fractions of natural fats. Results are shown for tripalmitin (PPP), 2-stearo-dipalmitin,\\u000a (PSP) and 2-oleo-dipalmitin (POP); these molecules differ essentially in the number of carbons (P?S) and the degree of unsaturation\\u000a of chains (S?O). The different polymorphic

V. Gibon; F. Duranta; Cl. Deroanne

1986-01-01

281

Rescue of cardiac leptin receptors in db/db mice prevents myocardial triglyceride accumulation.  

PubMed

Increased leptin levels have been suggested to contribute to cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate cardiac lipid accumulation in obesity, although it has been difficult to separate leptin's direct effects from those caused by changes in body weight and adiposity. To determine whether leptin attenuates cardiac lipid accumulation in obesity or directly causes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), we generated a novel mouse model in which the long form of the leptin receptor (LepR) was "rescued" only in cardiomyocytes of obese db/db mice. Reexpression of cardiomyocyte leptin receptors in db/db mice did not cause LVH but reduced cardiac triglycerides and improved cardiac function. Compared with lean wild-type (WT) or db/db-cardiac LepR rescue mice, db/db mice exhibited significantly lower E/A ratio, a measurement of early to late diastolic filling, which averaged 1.5 ± 0.07 in db/db vs. 1.9 ± 0.08 and 1.8 ± 0.11 in WT and db/db-cardiac LepR rescue mice, respectively. No differences in systolic function were observed. Although db/db and db/db-cardiac LepR rescue mice exhibited similar increases in plasma triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and body weight, cardiac triglycerides were significantly higher in db/db compared with WT and db/db cardiac LepR rescue mice, averaging 13.4 ± 4.2 vs. 3.8 ± 1.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.7 mg/g, respectively. These results demonstrate that despite significant obesity and increases in plasma glucose and triglycerides, db/db cardiac LepR rescue mice are protected against myocardial lipid accumulation. However, we found no evidence that leptin directly causes LVH. PMID:24939734

Hall, Michael E; Maready, Matthew W; Hall, John E; Stec, David E

2014-08-01

282

Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. fruits at a dose of (20mg\\/kg) on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). After a single oral administration, Carum carvi extract produced a significant decrease on triglycerides levels in normal rats (p<0.05). In

A. Lemhadri; L. Hajji; J.-B. Michel; M. Eddouks

2006-01-01

283

Low-calorie triglyceride synthesis by lipase-catalyzed esterification of monoglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoglycerides of erucic acid (C22:1, ?13), prepared by conventional methods, were reacted with caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8.0) by using lipases as catalysts with the intention of synthesizing a triglyceride that contains two molecules of caprylic\\u000a acid and one molecule of erucic acid (caprucin). The reaction was carried out by mixing lipase powder, a small quantity of\\u000a water, and the

G. P. McNeill; P. E. Sonnet

1995-01-01

284

The analysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in human serum for clinical studies  

E-print Network

particles from lipolysis to liver clearance????.????...???.????...???..... 9 4 Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein TAG hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.. 12 5 Structure of NBD C6-ceramide??.???...???.?????. 20 6 A general schematic of the RLP...??????? 110 44 Changes in the total lipoprotein profile in NaBiEDTA following a 120 minute incubation with 0.11 U/?L of lipoprotein lipase for fasting serum from (a) Subject 2 and (b) Subject 1.?...???.?... 111 45 Changes in TAG and glycerol...

Chandra, Richa

2009-06-02

285

The triglyceride composition, structure, and presence of estolides in the oils of Lesquerella and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genusLesquerella, native to North America, have oils containing large amounts of hydroxy fatty acids and are under investigation as potential\\u000a new crops. The triglyceride structure of oils from twenty-fiveLesquerella species in the seed collection at our research center has been examined after being hydrolysis-catalyzed by reverse micellar-encapsulated\\u000a lipase and alcoholysis-catalyzed by immobilized lipase. These reactions, when coupled

Douglas G. Hayes; Robert Kleiman; Bliss S. Phillips

1995-01-01

286

Marked acceleration of exogenous fatty acid incorporation into cellular triglycerides by fetuin.  

PubMed

Fetuin belongs to a group of fetal glycoproteins whose specific function is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of bovine fetuin on exogenous fatty acid incorporation into lipid classes by fetal rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and human fetal skin fibroblasts. When compared with albumin, the addition of fetuin to the culture medium caused a dramatic increase in labeled fatty acid incorporation (nanomoles/mg of protein) by SMC into triglycerides (albumin (control) 2.8 +/- 0.3 + fetuin 178.3 +/- 13.7). This effect was noted at a wide range of fetuin concentrations (0.2-5%) at oleate:fetuin molar ratios of 3.3-0.13, respectively. Similar effects were noted using human fetal skin fibroblasts with both labeled oleic and arachidonic acids (0.1 mM) as substrates (arachidonic acid incorporation into triglycerides, albumin (control) 76.9 +/- 16.2 + fetuin 684.6 +/- 64.1). Stimulation of fatty acid incorporation into di- and monoglycerides was also noted. Although the amount of unbound fatty acid in the presence of fetuin was greater than with albumin, experiments done under conditions that create identical unbound oleate levels (by varying fatty acid concentration) still showed increased fatty acid incorporation into triglycerides by SMC when exposed to fetuin. This marked effect of fetuin on triglyceride accumulation in cells was confirmed by lipid analysis, strong positive staining with oil red O, and transmission of electron microscopy. Furthermore, the potential physiological role of fetuin in terms of fatty acid and transport was attested by (a) the presence of significant amounts of free fatty acids associated with fetuin; and (b) by the stimulatory effect of fetuin, even when added to culture media containing other fatty acid carriers. These results show that (a) fetuin is far more efficient than albumin in incorporating fatty acids into cells; and (b) this might represent a novel function for fetuin during development. PMID:1690716

Cayatte, A J; Kumbla, L; Subbiah, M T

1990-04-01

287

Porcine adipose triglyceride lipase complementary deoxyribonucleic acid clone, expression pattern, and regulation by resveratrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently identified and described as a major novel trig- lyceride lipase in animals. In this study, we aimed to study the tissue-specific and developmental expres- sion pattern of porcine ATGL (pATGL) and the effect of resveratrol (RES) on expression of pATGL in vitro. The full-length cDNA sequence of pATGL was 1,958 bp (accession no. EF583921),

T. Shan; Y. Wang; T. Wu; J. Guo; J. Liu; J. Feng; Z. Xu

2008-01-01

288

Separation and determination of mono-, Di, and triglycerides in monoglyceride concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Monoglyceride concentrates are quantitatively separated into mono-, di-, and triglyceride components on silica gel columns\\u000a by an adsorption chromatographic technique. The separated glycerides are determined gravimetrically. The adsorption on silica\\u000a gel is dependent on the number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule, and the influence of unsaturation and chain length is minimized.\\u000a Combinations of benzene and ethyl ether are used

Patricia Quinlin; Herman J. Weiser

1958-01-01

289

Production of biodiesel fuel from triglycerides and alcohol using immobilized lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification reaction was performed using triglycerides and short-chain alcohol by immobilized lipase in non-aqueous conditions. The long-chain fatty acid ester, which is the product of this reaction, can be used as a diesel fuel that does not produce sulfur oxide and minimize the soot particulate. Immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase showed the highest activity in this reaction. Immobilization of lipase was

Mamoru Iso; Baoxue Chen; Masashi Eguchi; Takashi Kudo; Surekha Shrestha

2001-01-01

290

Influence of prolonged endurance cycling and recovery diet on intramuscular triglyceride content in trained males  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Intramuscular triglycerides (IMTG) are assumed,to form an important substrate source during prolonged,endurance,exercise in trained males. This study investigated the effects of endurance,exercise and recovery diet on IMTG content in vastus lateralis muscle. Nine male cyclists were provided with a standardized diet for 3d after which they performed a 3h exercise trial at a 55% Wmax workload. Before, immediately after

Luc J. C. van Loon; Vera B. Schrauwen-Hinderling; René Koopman; Anton J. M. Wagenmakers; Matthijs K. C. Hesselink; Gert Schaart; M. Eline Kooi; WHM Saris

2003-01-01

291

The Removal of Triglyceride Fatty Acids from the Circulation of the Supradiaphragmatic Portion of the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

When 14C-labelled chylomicron lipid is injected into the circulation of the supradiaphragmatic portion of the fasting rat a composite disappearance curve which can be represented by two exponential components is obtained. The dominant component, which accounts for the removal of over 90% of the injected label, has a short half-life similar to that observed for the triglyceride fatty acids of

Alyce Bezman-Tarcher; Sheila Otway; D. S. Robinson

1965-01-01

292

Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance: the DIOGENES study.  

PubMed

Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower weight decrease. These findings suggest a specific role of monounsaturated fatty acids in weight management and as weight change predictors. PMID:23098653

Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E; Sta?ková, B; Kalousková, P; Viguerie, N; Larsen, T M; van Baak, M A; Jebb, S A; Martinez, J A; Pfeiffer, A F H; Kafatos, A; Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Hill, M; Langin, D; Zák, A; Astrup, A; Saris, W H M

2012-01-01

293

Expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in lipoprotein-synthesizing tissues of the developing chicken embryo?  

PubMed Central

In contrast to mammals, in the chicken major sites of lipoprotein synthesis and secretion are not only the liver and intestine, but also the kidney and the embryonic yolk sac. Two key components in the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). We have analyzed the expression of MTP in the embryonic liver, small intestine, and kidney, and have studied the expression of MTP in, and the secretion of apoB from, the developing yolk sac (YS). Transcript and protein levels of MTP increase during embryogenesis in YS, liver, kidney, and small intestine, and decrease in YS, embryonic liver, and kidney after hatching. In small intestine, the MTP mRNA level rises sharply during the last trimester of embryo development (after day 15), while MTP protein is detectable only after hatching (day 21). In the YS of 15- and 20-day old embryos, apoB secretion was detected by pulse-chase metabolic radiolabeling experiments and subsequent immunoprecipitation. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of coordinated production of MTP and apoB in chicken tissues capable of secreting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins even before hatching. PMID:24394625

Eresheim, Christine; Plieschnig, Julia; Ivessa, N. Erwin; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Hermann, Marcela

2014-01-01

294

Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids  

PubMed Central

A central paradox in type 2 diabetes is the apparent selective nature of hepatic insulin resistance—wherein insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production yet continues to stimulate lipogenesis, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Although efforts to explain this have focused on finding a branch point in insulin signaling where hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism diverge, we hypothesized that hepatic triglyceride synthesis could be driven by substrate, independent of changes in hepatic insulin signaling. We tested this hypothesis in rats by infusing [U-13C] palmitate to measure rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride while varying plasma fatty acid and insulin concentrations independently. These experiments were performed in normal rats, high fat-fed insulin-resistant rats, and insulin receptor 2?-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide-treated rats. Rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride were found to be dependent on plasma fatty acid infusion rates, independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations and independent of hepatocellular insulin signaling. Taken together, these results obviate a paradox of selective insulin resistance, because the major source of hepatic lipid synthesis, esterification of preformed fatty acids, is primarily dependent on substrate delivery and largely independent of hepatic insulin action. PMID:25564660

Vatner, Daniel F.; Majumdar, Sachin K.; Kumashiro, Naoki; Petersen, Max C.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Gattu, Arijeet K.; Bears, Mitchell; Camporez, João-Paulo G.; Cline, Gary W.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

2015-01-01

295

Glucuronic Acid Epimerase Is Associated with Plasma Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Turks  

PubMed Central

Summary We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in atherogenic dyslipidemic Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with plasma HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (non-permuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n = 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n = 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions on chromosome 15 resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce+/–apoe–/– mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism. PMID:21488854

Hodo?lugil, U?ur; Williamson, David W.; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Mahley, Robert W.

2011-01-01

296

Effect of germinated and heated soybean meals on plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in rats.  

PubMed

Soybean may be useful in diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the treatment of type II hyperlipoproteinemia as it lowers blood cholesterol levels. However, unpleasant organoleptic qualities and the presence of antinutritional substances hinder its use. Some of these problems may be partially solved by germinating the seeds or heating the meals. The effects of the duration of soybean germination and of heating the meal were studied in Wistar rats. Dietary meal composition, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were evaluated after feeding rats with various soybean meal or casein diets containing 10% protein for 6 weeks. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 0.81 +/- 0.11 and 0.82 +/- 0.23 g/l respectively after the casein diet and 0.90 +/- 0.10 and 0.51 +/- 0.17 g/l after the raw soybean diet. Soybean germination had a hypercholesterolemic effect (1.05 +/- 0.11 g/l after 5 d). Heating the raw meal or germinated soybean meal did not affect cholesterol levels, though it suppressed the hypotriglyceridemic effect. The triglyceride-lowering effect of soybean was probably caused by the presence of thermolabile substances or by the quantity of food ingested. The unexpected increase in blood cholesterol levels may have been due to the effect of the low dietary protein levels. PMID:2291809

Chandrasiri, V; Bau, H M; Villaume, C; Giannangeli, F; Méjean, L

1990-01-01

297

Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue Triglycerides After Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance: the DIOGENES Study  

PubMed Central

Summary Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower weight decrease. These findings suggest a specific role of monounsaturated fatty acids in weight management and as weight change predictors. PMID:23098653

KUNEŠOVÁ, M.; HLAVATÝ, P.; TVRZICKÁ, E.; STA?KOVÁ, B.; KALOUSKOVÁ, P.; VIGUERIE, N.; LARSEN, T. M.; VAN BAAK, M. A.; JEBB, S. A.; MARTINEZ, J. A.; PFEIFFER, A. F. H.; KAFATOS, A.; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; HILL, M.; LANGIN, D.; ŽÁK, A.; ASTRUP, A.; SARIS, W. H. M.

2013-01-01

298

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

1985-01-01

299

An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDOmega-3 fatty acids, such as those present in fish oil, have been reported to prolong life in myocardial infarction survivors. These fatty acids can decrease serum triglyceride concentrations, but so far the doses used in trials examining their effects on coronary end points have had only minimal triglyceride lowering effects.OBJECTIVETo examine the triglyceride lowering effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of Omacor,

P N Durrington; D Bhatnagar; M I Mackness; J Morgan; K Julier; M A Khan

2001-01-01

300

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Program is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to hot section components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Progress during the past year included linear-elastic fracture mechanics data reduction on nonlinear crack growth rate data on Alloy 718. The bulk of the analytical work centered on thermal gradient problems and proposed fracture mechanics parameters. Good correlation of thermal gradient experimental displacement data and finite element prediction was obtained.

Malik, S. N.; Vanstone, R. H.; Kim, K. S.; Laflen, J. H.

1987-01-01

301

VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

302

3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

303

33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

304

Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving. PMID:20030903

Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

2010-05-01

305

Pyrolysis of Miscanthus Giganteus and wood pellets: TG-FTIR analysis and reaction kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterisation of two biomass fuels (pelletised Miscanthus Giganteus and wood) was performed using thermogravimetric analysis with measurement of products by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Three heating rate profiles were applied (10, 30 and 100°C\\/min), with a final temperature of 900°C. HCN and HNCO were found to be the major N-products, while the NH3 fraction was detected to

W de Jong; A Pirone; M. A Wójtowicz

2003-01-01

306

LPS- induced inflammation exacerbates phospho-tau pathology in rTg4510 mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammation and microglial activation are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Somewhat surprisingly, injection of a prototypical inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into brains of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice clears some of the pre-existing amyloid deposits. It is less well understood how brain inflammation modulates tau pathology in the absence of A?. These studies examined the role of LPS-induced inflammation on tau pathology. We used transgenic rTg4510 mice, which express the P301L mutation (4R0N TauP301L) and initiate tau pathology between 3-5 months of age. First, we found an age-dependent increase in several markers of microglial activation as these rTg4510 mice aged and tau tangles accumulated. LPS injections into the frontal cortex and hippocampus induced significant activation of CD45 and arginase 1 in rTg4510 and non-transgenic mice. In addition, activation of YM1 by LPS was exaggerated in transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic animals. Expression of Ser199/202 and phospho-tau Ser396 was increased in rTg4510 mice that received LPS compared to vehicle injections. However, the numbers of silver-positive neurons, implying presence of more pre- and mature tangles, was not significantly affected by LPS administration. These data suggest that inflammatory stimuli can facilitate tau phosphorylation. Coupled with prior results demonstrating clearance of A? by similar LPS injections, these results suggest that brain inflammation may have opposing effects on amyloid and tau pathology, possibly explaining the failures (to date) of anti-inflammatory therapies in AD patients. PMID:20846376

2010-01-01

307

Decoupling of relaxational modes near Tg in some fragile glass forming liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical examination of the behaviour of three fragile glass forming liquids viz. Salol, ?-phenyl-o-cresol and o-terphenyl, has been carried out using differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric relaxation technique (frequency: 10-10 Hz). Our study reveals two sub-Tg processes designated as ?- and ?-processes, in addition to the primary (?-) process. The ?-process has an activation energy of 36–50 kJ\\/mol. in

S. S. N. Murthy

1994-01-01

308

Apolipoprotein A-V Deficiency Results in MarkedHypertriglyceridemia Attributable to Decreased Lipolysis ofTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Removal of Their Remnants  

SciTech Connect

Objective--ApoAV, a newly discovered apoprotein, affectsplasma triglyceride level. To determine how this occurs, we studiedtriglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in mice deficient inapoAV. Methods and Results No significant difference in triglycerideproduction rate was found between apoa5_/_ mice and controls. Thepresence or absence of apoAV affected TRL catabolism. After the injectionof 14C-palmitate and 3H-cholesterol labeled chylomicrons and 125I-labeledchylomicron remnants, the disappearance of 14C, 3H, and 125I wassignificantly slower in apoa5_/_ mice relative to controls. This wasbecause of diminished lipolysis of TRL and the reduced rate of uptake oftheir remnants in apoa5_/_ mice. Observed elevated cholesterol level wascaused by increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol inapoa5_/_ mice. VLDL from apoa5_/_ mice were poor substrate forlipoprotein lipase, and did not bind to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)receptor as well as normal very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). LDLreceptor levels were slightly elevated in apoa5_/_ mice consistent withlower remnant uptake rates. These alterations may be the result of thelower apoE-to-apoC ratio found in VLDL isolated from apoa5_/_mice.Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the absence ofapoAV slows lipolysis of TRL and the removal of their remnants byregulating their apoproteins content after secretion.

Grosskopf, Itamar; Baroukh, Nadine; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kamari,Yehuda; Harats, Dror; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cooper, AllenD.

2005-09-01

309

Effects of the C57BL/6 strain background on tauopathy progression in the rTg4510 mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Cross-breeding of transgenic mice is commonly used to assess gene-gene interactions, particularly in the context of disease. Strain background changes can influence the phenotype of mouse models and can confound crossbreeding studies. We sought to determine if changing the strain background of a commonly used mouse model of tauopathy (rTg4510) would significantly impact the originally reported phenotype. On the original F1 FVB/N x 129S6 background, rTg4510 mice present with progressive cognitive decline, increased insoluble tau, robust tau pathology and age-dependent neurodegeneration. One of the most common strains in mouse modeling is C57BL/6. We and others have previously reported that this strain background alters the phenotypes of various models, including the JNPL3 model of tauopathy. To determine if the phenotype of rTg4510 mice was similarly affected by the introduction of the C57BL/6 background, we compared rTg4510 mice on the original F1 FVB/N x 129S6 background to rTg4510 mice on an F1 FVB/N x C57BL/6NTac (B6/NTac) background, herein termed rTg4510B6. Results Despite a small, but significant increase in soluble human tau levels, young rTg4510B6 mice had equivalent levels of tau phosphorylation, aggregation and cognitive impairments as age-matched rTg4510 mice. At 6.5 months of age, rTg4510B6 mice displayed hyperphosphorylated insoluble tau and robust cortical tau neuropathology that was equivalent to age-matched rTg4510 mice; however, 10.5-month-old rTg4510B6 mice had greater amounts of phospho-tau in the cortex and hippocampus when compared to age-matched rTg4510 mice. Non-transgenic (NT) littermates of rTg4510B6 (NTB6) mice also had greater amounts of cortical and hippocampal phospho-tau at 10.5 months of age when compared to NT littermates of rTg4510 mice. Additionally, older rTg4510B6 mice had gross forebrain neurodegeneration that was equivalent to age-matched rTg4510 mice. Conclusions Overall, our data shows that introduction of the C57BL/6 strain into the rTg4510 mouse background modestly alters the tau pathology that was originally reported in rTg4510 on the F1 FVB/129 background. In contrast, behavioral and neurodegenerative outcomes were not altered. These studies support the use of the rTg4510 mouse model on a partial C57BL/6 strain background without losing fidelity of the phenotype and suggest that the C57BL/6 background does not inherently protect against tauopathy. PMID:24428919

2014-01-01

310

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF DETRITAL MICROBIOTA AND THE GRAZING FAUNA BY TRIGLYCERIDE GLYCEROL ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Endogenous lipid storage components are accumulated or utilized by both microorganisms and marine invertebrates, depending upon their nutritional status. Triglycerides are commonly the lipid endogenous storage materials utilized by fungi, marine vertebrates and many invertebrates...

311

Plasma Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is Elevated in Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance and a risk factor for various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In addition to the well known increase in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, recent work in humans and rodents has shown that obesity is associated with elevations in the bioactive class of sphingolipids known as ceramides. However, in obesity little is known about the plasma concentrations of sphinogsine-1-phosphate (S1P), the breakdown product of ceramide, which is an important signaling molecule in mammalian biology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of obesity on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with markers of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Methodology/Principal Findings Plasma S1P levels were determined in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice along with obese humans. Circulating S1P was elevated in both obese mouse models and in obese humans compared with lean healthy controls. Furthermore, in humans, plasma S1P positively correlated with total body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c (%), total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, fasting increased plasma S1P levels in lean healthy mice. Conclusion We show that elevations in plasma S1P are a feature of both human and rodent obesity and correlate with metabolic abnormalities such as adiposity and insulin resistance. PMID:24039766

Kowalski, Greg M.; Carey, Andrew L.; Selathurai, Ahrathy; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.; Bruce, Clinton R.

2013-01-01

312

Carica papaya latex lipase: sn -3 stereoselectivity or short-chain selectivity? Model chiral triglycerides are removing the ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-chain fatty acids are usually located at positionsn-3 in natural triglycerides, particulary in dairy fats. As a result, it is extremely difficult to differentiate betweensn-3 stereospecificity and short-chain typoselectivity in many lipases and acyltransferases that perform in this way. This ambiguity\\u000a can be removed through successive use of a chiral triglyceride with a short fatty acid in positionsn-1 and of

P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; D. Montet; J. Graille

1995-01-01

313

Specificity of digestive lipases in hydrolysis of wax esters and triglycerides studied in anchovy and other selected fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological specificity of fat digestion in several species of marine fish was studied by incubating a variety of synthetic\\u000a and natural lipid substrates in fish intestinal fluid. Wax ester and triglyceride hydrolyses were studied in vivo and in vitro.\\u000a In vivo feeding studies showed triglyceride hydrolyses and reesterification in the gut occurred 4 times faster than wax ester\\u000a metabolism.

J. C. Nevenzel; A. A. Benson

1975-01-01

314

Effects of dietary triglyceride on the properties and lipid composition of plasma lipoproteins: Acute experiments in rats fed safflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male rats were administered 1.5 ml safflower oil by gastric intubation 0, 4, and 8 hr after a 16 hr fast. Plasma, liver, and\\u000a adipose tissue were collected 16 hr after the last fatty meal. Rats fasted for 16 hr served as controls. Following fat feeding,\\u000a the fatty acid composition of the very low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and hepatic triglyceride

G. Dewey Dunn; Henry G. Wilcox; Murray Heimberg

1975-01-01

315

Coordinated alteration of hepatic gene expression in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in LCAT-null mice is associated with altered PUFA metabolism.  

PubMed

Complete lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with fasting hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). We recently reported that, in ldlr(-/-)xlcat(-/-) mice, fasting HTG is associated with hepatic triglyceride overproduction in association with an upregulation of the hepatic srebp1 gene and altered expression of its target genes in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. We further investigated the role of hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism in the modulation of the lipid phenotypes. In the ldlr(-/-)xlcat(-/-) mice, using the ldlr(-/-)xlcat(+/+) littermate as controls, the hepatic level of cholesterol esters (CE) were reduced by 61.0% whereas the 20:4-CE and 22:6-CE contents were each reduced by >80%. In contrast, the hepatic levels of 20:4- and 22:6-containing phospholipid (PL) species were either unchanged or mildly elevated. Similar alterations of the hepatic PUFA in CE and in PL were also observed in the lcat(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type controls. In ldlr(-/-)xlcat(-/-) mice, hepatic mRNA level was markedly reduced for Delta-6 desaturase (fads2) (70.2%) and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (soat2) (57.0%). A similar pattern of gene expression change was also observed in the lcat(-/-) single-knockout mice. In contrast, the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (dgat2) mRNA level was 1.7-fold upregulated in the double-knockout mice. In summary, we observed coordinated alterations in hepatic expression of the gene for fads2, soat2, and dgat2, resulting in a reduction in total hepatic PUFA pool and differentially in the PUFA-CE pool, in association with an increase in dgat2 gene expression for promoting triglyceride synthesis and secretion. Some of the phenotypes are not readily explained by known mechanisms and may represent novel regulatory pathways. PMID:16105858

Song, Hui; Zhu, Liping; Picardo, Clive M; Maguire, Graham; Leung, Vincent; Connelly, Philip W; Ng, Dominic S

2006-01-01

316

The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of signals for both Type 2 Diabetes and related quantitative traits. For the majority of loci, the transition from association signal to mutational mechanism has been difficult to establish. Glucokinase (GCK) regulates glucose storage and disposal in the liver where its activity is regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP; gene name GCKR). Fructose-6 and fructose-1 phosphate (F6P and F1P) enhance or reduce GKRP-mediated inhibition, respectively. A common GCKR variant (P446L) is reproducibly associated with triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational mechanism responsible for this genetic association. Recombinant human GCK and both human wild-type (WT) and P446L-GKRP proteins were generated. GCK kinetic activity was observed spectrophotometrically using an NADP(+)-coupled assay. WT and P446L-GKRP-mediated inhibition of GCK activity and subsequent regulation by phosphate esters were determined. Assays matched for GKRP activity demonstrated no difference in dose-dependent inhibition of GCK activity or F1P-mediated regulation. However, the response to physiologically relevant F6P levels was significantly attenuated with P446L-GKRP (n = 18; P elevating concentrations of malonyl-CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis, providing a mutational mechanism for the reported association of this variant with raised triglycerides and lower glucose levels. PMID:19643913

Beer, Nicola L; Tribble, Nicholas D; McCulloch, Laura J; Roos, Charlotta; Johnson, Paul R V; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gloyn, Anna L

2009-11-01

317

The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of signals for both Type 2 Diabetes and related quantitative traits. For the majority of loci, the transition from association signal to mutational mechanism has been difficult to establish. Glucokinase (GCK) regulates glucose storage and disposal in the liver where its activity is regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP; gene name GCKR). Fructose-6 and fructose-1 phosphate (F6P and F1P) enhance or reduce GKRP-mediated inhibition, respectively. A common GCKR variant (P446L) is reproducibly associated with triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the mutational mechanism responsible for this genetic association. Recombinant human GCK and both human wild-type (WT) and P446L-GKRP proteins were generated. GCK kinetic activity was observed spectrophotometrically using an NADP+-coupled assay. WT and P446L-GKRP-mediated inhibition of GCK activity and subsequent regulation by phosphate esters were determined. Assays matched for GKRP activity demonstrated no difference in dose-dependent inhibition of GCK activity or F1P-mediated regulation. However, the response to physiologically relevant F6P levels was significantly attenuated with P446L-GKRP (n = 18; P ? 0.03). Experiments using equimolar concentrations of both regulatory proteins confirmed these findings (n = 9; P < 0.001). In conclusion, P446L-GKRP has reduced regulation by physiological concentrations of F6P, resulting indirectly in increased GCK activity. Altered GCK regulation in liver is predicted to enhance glycolytic flux, promoting hepatic glucose metabolism and elevating concentrations of malonyl-CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis, providing a mutational mechanism for the reported association of this variant with raised triglycerides and lower glucose levels. PMID:19643913

Beer, Nicola L.; Tribble, Nicholas D.; McCulloch, Laura J.; Roos, Charlotta; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gloyn, Anna L.

2009-01-01

318

A Sequence Variation (I148M) in PNPLA3 Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Disrupts Triglyceride Hydrolysis*  

PubMed Central

Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with deposition of triglycerides in tissues other than adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that a missense mutation (I148M) in PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 protein) is associated with increased hepatic triglyceride content in humans. Here we examined the effect of the I148M substitution on the enzymatic activity and cellular location of PNPLA3. Structural modeling predicted that the substitution of methionine for isoleucine at residue 148 would restrict access of substrate to the catalytic serine at residue 47. In vitro assays using recombinant PNPLA3 partially purified from Sf9 cells confirmed that the wild type enzyme hydrolyzes emulsified triglyceride and that the I148M substitution abolishes this activity. Expression of PNPLA3-I148M, but not wild type PNPLA3, in cultured hepatocytes or in the livers of mice increased cellular triglyceride content. Cell fractionation studies revealed that ?90% of wild type PNPLA3 partitioned between membranes and lipid droplets; substitution of isoleucine for methionine at position 148 did not alter the subcellular distribution of the protein. These data are consistent with PNPLA3-I148M promoting triglyceride accumulation by limiting triglyceride hydrolysis. PMID:20034933

He, Shaoqing; McPhaul, Christopher; Li, John Zhong; Garuti, Rita; Kinch, Lisa; Grishin, Nick V.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.

2010-01-01

319

Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about ?3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than ?1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet ?3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were ?7% for {sup 60}Co, ?0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and ?2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like {sup 169}Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at least a 0.1 cm bolus is advised for {sup 60}Co to avoid underdosing superficial target layers. For {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb, no bolus is needed. For those cases where no bolus is needed, its use might be detrimental as the lack of radiation scatter may be beneficial to the patient, although the 2% tolerance for dose calculation accuracy recommended in the AAPM TG-56 report is not fulfilled.

Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain)] [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain)] [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

2014-02-15

320

Effects of atorvastatin on fasting plasma and marginated apolipoproteins B48 and B100 in large, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in familial combined hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Large triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) circulate in the blood, but they may also be present in a marginated pool, probably attached to the endothelium. It is unknown whether statins can influence this marginated pool in vivo in humans. Intravenous fat tests were performed in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) subjects before and after atorvastatin treatment and in controls to investigate whether acute increases in apoB in TRL fractions would occur, potentially reflecting the release of this TRL from a marginated pool. After a 12-h fast, a bolus injection of 10% Intralipid was given to 12 FCHL patients before and after 16-wk treatment with atorvastatin. Twelve carefully matched controls were included. For 60 min postinjection, apoB48, apoB100, and lipids were measured in TRLs. Fasting apoB100 in all TRL fractions were 2- to 3-fold higher in untreated FCHL compared with controls. ApoB48 concentrations in chylomicron fractions increased significantly within 10 min in FCHL before and after treatment, but not in controls. ApoB100 increased significantly in the chylomicron fractions in untreated FCHL and in controls, but not in FCHL after treatment. In very low density lipoprotein 1, apoB100 increased only in untreated FCHL. In very low density lipoprotein 2, apoB100 did not change in any group. These data show that increasing the number of circulating TRLs by chylomicron-like particles, results in increased plasma apoB-TRLs, probably by acute release from a marginated pool. This is a physiological process occurring in FCHL and in healthy normolipidemic subjects, but it is more pronounced in the former. Decreased marginated TRL particles in FCHL is a novel antiatherogenic property of atorvastatin. PMID:15472200

Verseyden, C; Meijssen, S; Cabezas, M Castro

2004-10-01

321

Entorhinal cortical defects in Tg2576 mice are present as early as 2-4 months of age.  

PubMed

The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the first brain areas to display neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease. A mouse model which simulates amyloid-? (A?) neuropathology, the Tg2576 mouse, was used to address these early changes. Here, we show EC abnormalities occur in 2- to 4-month-old Tg2576 mice, an age before A? deposition and where previous studies suggest that there are few behavioral impairments. First we show, using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, that soluble human A?40 and A?42 are detectable in the EC of 2-month-old Tg2576 mice before A? deposition. We then demonstrate that 2- to 4-month-old Tg2576 mice are impaired at object placement, an EC-dependent cognitive task. Next, we show that defects in neuronal nuclear antigen expression and myelin uptake occur in the superficial layers of the EC in 2- to 4-month-old Tg2576 mice. In slices from Tg2576 mice that contained the EC, there were repetitive field potentials evoked by a single stimulus to the underlying white matter, and a greater response to reduced extracellular magnesium ([Mg(2+)]o), suggesting increased excitability. However, deep layer neurons in Tg2576 mice had longer latencies to antidromic activation than wild type mice. The results show changes in the EC at early ages and suggest that altered excitability occurs before extensive plaque pathology. PMID:25109765

Duffy, Aine M; Morales-Corraliza, Jose; Bermudez-Hernandez, Keria M; Schaner, Michael J; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Mathews, Paul M; Scharfman, Helen E

2015-01-01

322

Digital Elevation Models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

U.S. Geological Survey

1993-01-01

323

ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations of the initial pyrolysis mechanism of unsaturated triglyceride.  

PubMed

To understand the impact of C?=?C double bonds in acyl chains of unsaturated triglycerides on the reaction mechanism and product composition in their initial pyrolysis process, ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using a molecular model, trilinolenin, at temperatures of 2000, 2250, and 2500 K. Analyses indicated that the observed pyrolysis mechanisms of unsaturated triglyceride are nearly identical to the saturated triglyceride, and the pyrolysis products also include alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, aromatics, oxygenated species, CO?, and H?. The formation of intermediates and products is a sequential process. Three C--O bonds in trilinolenin molecule are usually successive dissociated first, leading to the formation of unsaturated C?H?· radical and straight-chain C??H??O?· (RCOO·) radicals. Following that, the deoxygenated alkenyl chain is produced through decarboxylation of RCOO?·?radicals with consequent release of CO?. The resulting hydrocarbon radicals undergo a variety of disproportionation, isomerization, and hydrogen-transfer reactions, yielding straight and branched-chain hydrocarbons. It was found that the scission of C--O bond and decarboxylation should preferentially occur before the cleavage of the C--C bond ? to the C?=?C bond in the initial decomposition process of unsaturated trilinolenin. In addition, the formation of cyclic hydrocarbons could proceed through intramolecular cyclization mechanisms, including non-radical electrocyclic, biradical cyclization and cyclization of alkenyl radical, which are inconsistent with previously proposed bimolecular Diels-Alder addition mechanisms. More rapid pyrolysis of trilinolenin would occur at higher temperatures without significantly affecting the apparent reaction mechanisms of trilinolenin pyrolysis in the considered temperature range. Aromatic ring structures are observed to be stable after formation and do not decay within the 500 ps simulation period. PMID:24567153

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Kefeng; Zhang, Jilong

2014-03-01

324

Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

Jordan, E. H.

1984-01-01

325

Supplementary Figure S1. IHC of TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons and in muscles. a-g, Representative IHC images of live day 1 TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons Alexa-488-  

E-print Network

Supplementary Figure S1. IHC of TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons and in muscles. a-g, Representative IHC images of live day 1 TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons Alexa-488- conjugated 1D4 mAb was injected into pseudocoelom of a worm head (a-d) or middle body section (e-g) together with Triton X-100

Palczewski, Krzysztof

326

Calibration of the Gamma Knife Perfexion using TG-21 and the solid water Leksell dosimetry phantom  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To calibrate a Gamma Knife (GK) Perfexion using TG-21 with updated chamber-dependent values for modern microionization chambers in the new solid water Leksell dosimetry phantom. This work illustrates a calibration method using commercially available equipment, instruments, and an established dosimetry protocol that may be adopted at any GK center, thus reducing the interinstitutional variation in GK calibration. The calibration was verified by three third-party dosimetry checks. In addition, measurements of the relative output factors are presented and compared to available data and the new manufacturer-provided relative output factors yet to be released. Methods: An absolute dose calibration based on the TG-21 formalism, utilizing recently reported phantom material and chamber-dependent factors, was performed using a microionization chamber in a spherical solid water phantom. The result was compared to other calibration protocols based on TG-51. Independent verification of the machine output was conducted through M.D. Anderson Dosimetry Services (MDADS), using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in an anthropomorphic head phantom; the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), using TLDs in the standard Elekta ABS plastic calibration phantom (gray phantom), included with the GK; and through a collaborative international calibration survey by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) using alanine dosimeters, also in the gray phantom. The alanine dosimeters were read by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Finally, Gafchromic EBT film was used to measure relative output factors and these factors were compared to values reported in the literature as well as new values announced for release by Elekta. The films were exposed in the solid water phantom using an included film insert accessory. Results: Compared to the TG-21 protocol in the solid water phantom, the modified and unmodified TG-51 calibrations resulted in dose rates which were 1.8% and 1.3% lower, respectively. Ratios of the doses measured by third parties to the dose reported showed excellent agreement. MDADS returned ratios of 1.00 and 0.98 for the two TLDs irradiated. The RPC returned a mean ratio of 0.98 of the dose reported and the UPMC alanine study returned a mean ratio of 1.008. Relative output factors were found to be 0.817{+-}0.009 and 0.897{+-}0.008 for the 4 and 8 mm collimators, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with revised Monte Carlo-derived relative output factors Elekta is expected to recommend with the next version of the GK treatment planning software (GAMMAPLAN version 10). Conclusions: The TG-21 dosimetry protocol, performed in a solid water phantom in conjunction with modern dosimeters and phantom material and chamber-dependent factors, can yield an accurate dose measurement in the unique GK treatment geometry. The technique described here can be easily adopted by institutions worldwide since all equipment and instruments used are commercially available, thus reducing the existing interinstitutional variation in GK calibration techniques. Relative output factor measurements made in this same solid water phantom were used to verify the relative output factors provided by Elekta and agreed excellently with output factors expected to be released in conjunction with GAMMAPLAN version 10.

McDonald, Daniel; Yount, Caroline; Koch, Nicholas; Ashenafi, Michael; Peng, Jean; Vanek, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

2011-03-15

327

Elevation leads to altruistic behavior.  

PubMed

Feelings of elevation, elicited by witnessing another person perform a good deed, have been hypothesized to motivate a desire to help others. However, despite growing interest in the determinants of prosocial behavior, there is only limited evidence that elevation leads to increases in altruistic behavior. In two experiments, we tested the relationship between elevation and helping behavior. Prior to measuring helping behavior, we measured elevation among participants in an elevation-inducing condition and control conditions in order to determine whether witnessing altruistic behavior elicited elevation. In Experiment 1, participants experiencing elevation were more likely to volunteer for a subsequent unpaid study than were participants in a neutral state. In Experiment 2, participants experiencing elevation spent approximately twice as long helping the experimenter with a tedious task as participants experiencing mirth or a neutral emotional state. Further, feelings of elevation, but not feelings of amusement or happiness, predicted the amount of helping. Together, these results provide evidence that witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicits elevation, a discrete emotion that, in turn, leads to tangible increases in altruism. PMID:20424062

Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M T

2010-03-01

328

Increased Hippocampal Excitability in the 3xTgAD Mouse Model for Alzheimer's Disease In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Mouse Alzheimer's disease (AD) models develop age- and region-specific pathology throughout the hippocampal formation. One recently established pathological correlate is an increase in hippocampal excitability in vivo. Hippocampal pathology also produces episodic memory decline in human AD and we have shown a similar episodic deficit in 3xTg AD model mice aged 3–6 months. Here, we tested whether hippocampal synaptic dysfunction accompanies this cognitive deficit by probing dorsal CA1 and DG synaptic responses in anaesthetized, 4–6 month-old 3xTgAD mice. As our previous reports highlighted a decline in episodic performance in aged control mice, we included aged cohorts for comparison. CA1 and DG responses to low-frequency perforant path stimulation were comparable between 3xTgAD and controls at both age ranges. As expected, DG recordings in controls showed paired-pulse depression; however, paired-pulse facilitation was observed in DG and CA1 of young and old 3xTgAD mice. During stimulus trains both short-latency (presumably monosynaptic: ‘direct’) and long-latency (presumably polysynaptic: ‘re-entrant’) responses were observed. Facilitation of direct responses was modest in 3xTgAD animals. However, re-entrant responses in DG and CA1 of young 3xTgAD mice developed earlier in the stimulus train and with larger amplitude when compared to controls. Old mice showed less DG paired-pulse depression and no evidence for re-entrance. In summary, DG and CA1 responses to low-frequency stimulation in all groups were comparable, suggesting no loss of synaptic connectivity in 3xTgAD mice. However, higher-frequency activation revealed complex change in synaptic excitability in DG and CA1 of 3xTgAD mice. In particular, short-term plasticity in DG and CA1 was facilitated in 3xTgAD mice, most evidently in younger animals. In addition, re-entrance was facilitated in young 3xTgAD mice. Overall, these data suggest that the episodic-like memory deficit in 3xTgAD mice could be due to the development of an abnormal hyper-excitable state in the hippocampal formation. PMID:24621690

Davis, Katherine E.; Fox, Sarah; Gigg, John

2014-01-01

329

A Hardware Implementation of a Coherent SOQPSK-TG Demodulator for FEC Applications  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.2 Loop Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.3 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.4 Phase Ambiguity Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7 Hardware.... There are multiple versions of SOQPSK, which differ by their respective fre- quency pulses. In this work, we focus on the version recently adopted in aeronau- 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8?0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Normalized Time (t/T) Amplitude fTG(t), frequency pulse q...

Rea Zanabria, Gino

2011-03-31

330

Very mild disease phenotype of congenic Cftr TgH(neoim)Hgu cystic fibrosis mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A major boost to cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting\\u000a in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains\\u000a facilitated the search for modifier genes. From the original Cftr\\u000a \\u000a TgH(neoim)Hgu\\u000a mouse model with a divergent genetic background (129\\/Sv, C57BL\\/6, HsdOla:MF1) two

Balázs Tóth; Martina Wilke; Frauke Stanke; Martina Dorsch; Silke Jansen; Dirk Wedekind; Nikoletta Charizopoulou; Alice Bot; Marion Burmester; Sabine Leonhard-Marek; Hugo R de Jonge; Hans-Jürgen Hedrich; Gerhard Breves; Burkhard Tümmler

2008-01-01

331

Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of ?-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6?Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

2014-01-01

332

The neural signature of satiation is associated with ghrelin response and triglyceride metabolism.  

PubMed

Eating behavior is guided by a complex interaction between signals conveying information about energy stores, food availability, and palatability. How peripheral signals regulate brain circuits that guide feeding during sensation and consumption of a palatable food is poorly understood. We used fMRI to measure brain response to a palatable food (milkshake) when n=32 participants were fasted and fed with either a fixed-portion or ad libitum meal. We found that larger post-prandial reductions in ghrelin and increases in triglycerides were associated with greater attenuation of response to the milkshake in brain regions regulating reward and feeding including the midbrain, amygdala, pallidum, hippocampus, insula and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Satiation-induced brain responses to milkshake were not related to acute changes in circulating insulin, glucose, or free fatty acids. The impact of a meal on the response to milkshake in the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex differed depending upon whether meal termination was fixed or volitional, irrespective of the amount of food consumed. We conclude that satiation-induced changes in brain response to a palatable food are strongly and specifically associated with changes in circulating ghrelin and triglycerides and by volitional meal termination. PMID:24732416

Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Wray, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

2014-09-01

333

Toll-like receptor agonists promote prolonged triglyceride storage in macrophages.  

PubMed

Macrophages in infected tissues may sense microbial molecules that significantly alter their metabolism. In a seeming paradox, these critical host defense cells often respond by increasing glucose catabolism while simultaneously storing fatty acids (FA) as triglycerides (TAG) in lipid droplets. We used a load-chase strategy to study the mechanisms that promote long term retention of TAG in murine and human macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR)1/2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists all induced the cells to retain TAG for ?3 days. Prolonged TAG retention was accompanied by the following: (a) enhanced FA uptake and FA incorporation into TAG, with long lasting increases in acyl-CoA synthetase long 1 (ACSL1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), and (b) decreases in lipolysis and FA ?-oxidation that paralleled a prolonged drop in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). TLR agonist-induced TAG storage is a multifaceted process that persists long after most early pro-inflammatory responses have subsided and may contribute to the formation of "lipid-laden" macrophages in infected tissues. PMID:24337578

Huang, Ying-ling; Morales-Rosado, Joel; Ray, Jessica; Myers, Timothy G; Kho, Terry; Lu, Mingfang; Munford, Robert S

2014-01-31

334

Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.  

PubMed

Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C?C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

2011-05-11

335

Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 has High Triglyceride Lipase Activity in the Absence of Colipase  

PubMed Central

Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother’s milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:23770034

Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E.; Sevilla, Wednesday A.; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E.

2013-01-01

336

Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families  

PubMed Central

Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

2014-01-01

337

Human lactation: maternal transfer of dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes  

SciTech Connect

A stable isotope tracer method was utilized to measure quantitatively the secretion of diet-derived fatty acids (FA) into human milk. A mixture of (/sup 2/H6)tripalmitin, (/sup 2/H18)-triolein, and (/sup 2/H12)trilinolein was administered to three healthy, lactating women 22 to 30 years of age. Milk and blood samples were collected sequentially for 72 hr. The FA composition and concentration of total plasma, lipoprotein, and milk triglycerides were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and the isotopic enrichment was determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). There were no statistically significant differences in mammary secretion of the individual fats, either by a single individual or between subjects. The mean secretion of fat by one breast was 5.11 +/- 1.26% of the dose (CV = 25%). There was a significant 6.0-hr delay between peak occurrence of the tracer in plasma and its occurrence in milk. The lipids are transported to the mammary gland primarily by the chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein triglycerides.

Hachey, D.L.; Thomas, M.R.; Emken, E.A.; Garza, C.; Brown-Booth, L.; Adlof, R.O.; Klein, P.D.

1987-10-01

338

Porcine pancreatic lipase related protein 2 has high triglyceride lipase activity in the absence of colipase.  

PubMed

Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for the activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated PLRP2 activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother's milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:23770034

Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

2013-09-01

339

Quantification of the triglyceride fatty acid composition with 3.0?T MRI.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to validate a sequential method for quantifying the triglyceride fatty acid composition with 3.0?T MRI. The image acquisition was performed with a 3D spoiled gradient multiple echo sequence. A specific phase correction algorithm was implemented to correct the native phase images for wrap, zero- and first-order phase and rebuild the real part images. Then, using a model of a fat (1)H MR spectrum integrating nine components, the number of double bonds (ndb) and the number of methylene-interrupted double bonds (nmidb) were derived. The chain length (CL) was obtained from these parameters using heuristic approximation. Validations were performed on different vegetable oils whose theoretical fatty acid composition was used as reference and in five human subjects. In vivo measurements were made in the liver and in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. Linear regressions showed strong correlations between ndb and nmidb quantified with MRI and the theoretical values calculated using oil composition. Mean ndb/nmidb/CL were 1.80?±?0.25/0.51?±?0.21/17.43?±?0.07, 2.72?±?0.31/0.94?±?0.16/17.47?±?0.08 and 2.53?±?0.21/0.84?±?0.14/17.43?±?0.07 in the liver, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues respectively. The results suggest that the triglyceride fatty acid composition can be assessed in human fatty liver and adipose tissues with a clinically relevant MRI method at 3.0?T. PMID:25125224

Leporq, Benjamin; Lambert, Simon A; Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valerie; Van Beers, Bernard E

2014-10-01

340

Toll-like Receptor Agonists Promote Prolonged Triglyceride Storage in Macrophages*  

PubMed Central

Macrophages in infected tissues may sense microbial molecules that significantly alter their metabolism. In a seeming paradox, these critical host defense cells often respond by increasing glucose catabolism while simultaneously storing fatty acids (FA) as triglycerides (TAG) in lipid droplets. We used a load-chase strategy to study the mechanisms that promote long term retention of TAG in murine and human macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR)1/2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists all induced the cells to retain TAG for ?3 days. Prolonged TAG retention was accompanied by the following: (a) enhanced FA uptake and FA incorporation into TAG, with long lasting increases in acyl-CoA synthetase long 1 (ACSL1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), and (b) decreases in lipolysis and FA ?-oxidation that paralleled a prolonged drop in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). TLR agonist-induced TAG storage is a multifaceted process that persists long after most early pro-inflammatory responses have subsided and may contribute to the formation of “lipid-laden” macrophages in infected tissues. PMID:24337578

Huang, Ying-ling; Morales-Rosado, Joel; Ray, Jessica; Myers, Timothy G.; Kho, Terry; Lu, Mingfang; Munford, Robert S.

2014-01-01

341

Multi-modal contributions to detoxification of acute pharmacotoxicity by a triglyceride micro-emulsion.  

PubMed

Triglyceride micro-emulsions such as Intralipid® have been used to reverse cardiac toxicity induced by a number of drugs but reservations about their broad-spectrum applicability remain because of the poorly understood mechanism of action. Herein we report an integrated mechanism of reversal of bupivacaine toxicity that includes both transient drug scavenging and a cardiotonic effect that couple to accelerate movement of the toxin away from sites of toxicity. We thus propose a multi-modal therapeutic paradigm for colloidal bio-detoxification whereby a micro-emulsion both improves cardiac output and rapidly ferries the drug away from organs subject to toxicity. In vivo and in silico models of toxicity were combined to test the contribution of individual mechanisms and reveal the multi-modal role played by the cardiotonic and scavenging actions of the triglyceride suspension. These results suggest a method to predict which drug toxicities are most amenable to treatment and inform the design of next-generation therapeutics for drug overdose. PMID:25483426

Fettiplace, Michael R; Lis, Kinga; Ripper, Richard; Kowal, Katarzyna; Pichurko, Adrian; Vitello, Dominic; Rubinstein, Israel; Schwartz, David; Akpa, Belinda S; Weinberg, Guy

2015-01-28

342

Low-density lipoprotein-apheresis in two patients with extremely elevated lipoprotein (a) levels.  

PubMed

Two male caucasian patients (36 and 42 years old) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and extremely elevated lipoprotein Lp(a) concentrations, resistant to diet and lipid-lowering drugs, were treated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis for 55 months (liposorber system, Kaneka, Japan) and 15 months (immunoadsorption system, special Lp(a) columns, Lipopak, Pocard, Russia). Lp(a) dropped on average by 50%, total cholesterol by 27%, LDL-cholesterol by 42%, triglycerides by 43%, and the fibrinogen concentration by 16%. PMID:8844436

Bambauer, R; Schiel, R; Klinkmann, J; Latza, R

1996-01-01

343

Elevation of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol by rowachol, a proprietary mixture of six pure monoterpenes.  

PubMed

Rowachol, a proprietary choleretic containing 6 pure monoterpenes markedly elevates serum HDL cholesterol (SHDL-C) concentrations in man. The concentration of SHDL-C showed a progressive increase in 16 patients treated with 6-9 capsules of Rowachol daily for periods of 2-28 weeks. There was no accompanying significant change in the concentrations of serum total cholesterol or triglyceride. In view of the significant inverse relationship between SHDL-C concentration and the risk of developing ischaemic heart disease, it is suggested that Rowachol and possibly other terpenes merit further investigation as possible therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of atheroma. PMID:7387775

Bell, G D; Bradshaw, J P; Burgess, A; Ellis, W; Hatton, J; Middleton, A; Middleton, B; Orchard, T; White, D A

1980-05-01

344

Identification of TgCBAP, a Novel Cytoskeletal Protein that Localizes to Three Distinct Subcompartments of the Toxoplasma gondii Pellicle  

PubMed Central

The cytoskeletons of Toxoplasma gondii and related apicomplexan parasites are highly polarized, with apical and basal regions comprised of distinct protein complexes. Components of these complexes are known to play important roles in parasite shape, cell division, and host cell invasion. During an effort to discover the biologically relevant target of a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion (Conoidin A), we discovered a novel cytoskeletal protein that we named TgCBAP (Conserved Basal Apical Peripheral protein). Orthologs of TgCBAP are only found in the genomes of other apicomplexans; they contain no identifiable domains or motifs and their function(s) is unknown. As a first step toward elucidating the function of this highly conserved family of proteins, we disrupted the TgCBAP gene by double homologous recombination. Parasites lacking TgCBAP are as sensitive to the effects of Conoidin A as wild-type parasites, demonstrating that TgCBAP is not the biologically relevant target of Conoidin A. However, ?TgCBAP parasites are significantly shorter than wild-type parasites and have a growth defect in culture. Furthermore, TgCBAP has an unusual subcellular localization, forming small rings at the apical and basal ends of the parasite and localizing to punctate, ring-like structures around the parasite periphery. These data identify a new marker of the apical and basal subcompartments of T. gondii, reveal a potentially novel compartment along the parasite periphery, and identify TgCBAP as a determinant of parasite size that is required for a maximally efficient lytic cycle. PMID:24887026

Tilley, Lucas D.; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ward, Gary E.

2014-01-01

345

control group. In HDL2, a low CE level and a high amount of UC, TG and PL were  

E-print Network

serum TG (1.21 ± 0.73 g/I) and VLDL (0.76 ± 0.61 g/I) than H1H1 or HlH2 subjects (0.93 ± 0.47 and 0%) and VLDL-TG (28%) more than subjects with H1H1 or HlH2genotypes (4% and 9%). In Pvu II genotypes

Boyer, Edmond

346

A Universal Criterion for Plastic Yielding of Metallic Glasses with a (T\\/Tg)2\\/3 Temperature Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature (TR) elastic constants and compressive yield strengths of ˜30 metallic glasses reveal an average shear limit gammaC=0.0267±0.0020, where tauY=gammaCG is the maximum resolved shear stress at yielding, and G the shear modulus. The gammaC values for individual glasses are correlated with t=TR\\/Tg, and gammaC for a single glass follows the same correlation (vs t=T\\/Tg). A cooperative shear model,

W. L. Johnson; K. Samwer

2005-01-01

347

Liquid-Liquid Transition at Tg and Stable-Glass Phase Nucleation Rate Maximum at the Kauzmann Temperature TK  

E-print Network

An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Dp accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm*Dp at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at temperatures smaller than Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atoms, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates.

Robert Felix Tournier

2014-04-25

348

Hemoglobin of the bloody clam Tegillarca granosa (Tg-HbI) is involved in the immune response against bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Hemoglobins (Hb) are the major protein components of erythrocytes circulating in the red blood, but can serve additional functions besides the transport of oxygen. Here, the cDNA of the bloody clam (Tegillarca granosa) Hb dimer (designated Tg-HbI) was cloned and was found to be 748 bp in length, consisting of an open reading frame of 441 bp encoding a polypeptide of 147 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Tg-HbI shared 81.6% similarity with HbI from two species of the genus Scapharca and 46-51% similarity with the Hb proteins from other mollusks. The 3D structure of bloody clam Tg-HbI was predicted by the SWISS-MODEL Protein Modelling Server and compared with that of Scapharca kagoshimensis. The mRNA transcript of Tg-HbI was detected in all of the clam cells/tissues examined, including haemocytes, the adductor muscle, foot, hepatopancreas, gill and mantle. The mRNA expression of Tg-HbI was significantly up-regulated after Vibrio parahaemolyticus, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan challenge, indicating that Tg-HbI was involved in the immune defence responses against bacterial infection and exposure to bacterial pathogenic factors. As the first functional research on the Hb protein in bloody clam, our findings provide new insight into the innate immune defence mechanisms of T. granosa and other mollusks. PMID:21782953

Bao, Yongbo; Wang, Qing; Lin, Zhihua

2011-10-01

349

Niemann-Pick disease type C2 protein induces triglyceride accumulation in silkworm and mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

Silkworm haemolymph induced both the cessation of growth and an increase in triglyceride (triacylglycerol) storage in BmN4 cells. We purified the growth inhibitory factor from the silkworm haemolymph and identified this protein as the Bombyx mori PP (promoting protein), an orthologue of NPC2 (Niemann-Pick disease type C2) protein. Recombinant silkworm NPC2 inhibited cellular proliferation and increased triglyceride accumulation in BmN4 cells. Injection of either the recombinant protein or antiserum of NPC2 into living silkworms increased or decreased respectively triglyceride levels in the fat body. A mutation that depletes the cholesterol-binding capacity did not abolish the activity of NPC2. We further revealed that NPC2 induced the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and that an AMPK inhibitor suppressed NPC2-dependent triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that NPC2 induces triglyceride accumulation via the activation of AMPK independently of its cholesterol-binding capacity in the silkworm. PMID:24438076

Adachi, Tatsuo; Ishii, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Yohei; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2014-04-01

350

Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

Jordan, E. H.

1985-01-01

351

Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Fibrillar Parenchymal and Vascular Amyloid-? in TgCRND8 Mice  

PubMed Central

Few quantitative diagnostic and monitoring, tools are available to clinicians treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, many of the promising quantitative imaging tools under development lack clear specificity toward different types of Amyloid-? (A?) pathology such as vascular or oligomeric species. Antibodies offer an opportunity to image specific types of A? pathology because of their excellent specificity. In this study, we developed a method to translate a panel of anti-A? antibodies, which show excellent histological performance, into live animal imaging contrast agents. In the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, we tested two antibodies, M64 and M116, that target parenchyma aggregated A? plaques and one antibody, M31, that targets vascular A?. All three antibodies were administered intravenously after labeling with both poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance circulation and 64Cu to allow detection via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We were clearly able to differentiate TgCRND8 mice from wild type controls by PET imaging using either M116, the anti-A? antibody targeting parenchymal A? or M31, the antivascular A? antibody. To confirm the validity of the noninvasive imaging of specific A? pathology, brains were examined after imaging and showed clear evidence of binding to A? plaques. PMID:23509918

2013-01-01

352

High T(g) bio-based aliphatic polyesters from bicyclic D-mannitol.  

PubMed

The carbohydrate-based diol 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol (Manx) has been used to obtain aliphatic polyesters. Manx is a symmetric bicyclic compound consisting of two fused 1,3-dioxane rings and bearing two primary hydroxyl groups. In terms of stiffness, it is comparable to the widely known isosorbide, but it affords the additional advantages of being much more reactive in polycondensation and capable of producing stereoregular polymers with fairly high molecular weights. A fully bio-based homopolyester (PManxS) has been synthesized by polycondensation in the melt from dimethyl succinate and Manx. The high thermal stability of PManxS, its relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg = 68 °C) and elastic modulus, and its enhanced sensitivity to the action of lipases point to PManxS as a polyester of exceptional interest for those applications where biodegradability and molecular stiffness are priority requirements. In addition, random copolyesters (PBxManxyS) covering a broad range of compositions have been obtained using mixtures of Manx and 1,4-butanediol in the reaction with dimethyl succinate. All PBxManxyS were semicrystalline and displayed Tg values from -29 to +51 °C steadily increasing with the content in Manx units. The stress-strain behavior of these copolyesters largely depended on their content in Manx and they were enzymatically degraded faster than PBS. PMID:23363397

Lavilla, Cristina; Alla, Abdelilah; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián

2013-03-11

353

Performance evaluation of soft copy display systems according to AAPM TG18 protocol.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the display performance of the liquid crystal display monitors according to the American association of physicists in medicine task group 18 (AAPM TG18) protocol at prior and after new calibration. We measured minimum and maximum luminance, luminance ratio, luminance and contrast response, luminance angular and spatial dependency, resolution, veiling glare and chromaticity quantitatively for 33 medical displays. Display noise was evaluated only visually. The mean maximum luminance and luminance ratio were 386 and 273 cd m(-2), respectively. The mean deviation of measured luminance and contrast response from expected response associated with the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) were 9.76 and 2.35 % at prior calibration and 1.23 and 0.26 % after recalibration, respectively. In luminance uniformity test the mean maximum luminance deviation was 16 %. Luminance method was used in the spatial resolution test and the mean percent luminance difference was 12 % at the center. The mean glare ratio was 1 154. The average color uniformity parameter across the display area of each display device was 0.0093. Majority of the test results were in good agreement with the criteria recommended by AAPM TG18 report. Considerable improvement was observed in display luminance and contrast response with respect to expected response of DICOM GSDF after new calibration for some displays. PMID:23729181

Olgar, T; Kamberli, E

2013-06-01

354

CENTER: EAST ELEVATION OF BESSEMER BUILDING; LEFT: CHARGING HOUSE, ELEVATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CENTER: EAST ELEVATION OF BESSEMER BUILDING; LEFT: CHARGING HOUSE, ELEVATED FROM HOT METAL BRIDGE, LOOKING SW. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

355

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

356

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

357

Postprandial Peaking and Plateauing of Triglycerides and VLDL in Patients with Underlying Cardiovascular Diseases Despite Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Dyslipidemia is associated with cardiovascular morbidities and mortality. Currently, fasting lipid profile determination is used to monitor treatment response. Recently, postprandial lipemia is of increasing interest because of its atherogenic and thrombogenic potential and also was found to be more predictive for cardiovascular diseases. Objectives To demonstrate postprandial lipemia among patients with cardiovascular diseases despite low fat diet, normal fasting lipid profile and even statin regimen. Patients and Methods Patients aged 40-80 years old with cardiovascular diseases (i.e. coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease) more than 6 months, on statin treatment for more than 6 months and normal fasting lipid profile (according to NCEP ATP III guidelines) were included. Study exclusion criteria were pregnancy, acute cardiovascular events < 6 months, hepatic or renal failure. Finally, twelve patients were included. Results The triglyceride level showed a significant rise from fasting to 2 hours after breakfast with a mean difference of 23.86 mg/dL (P =0.012). The level peaked at 4 hours after breakfast with a mean difference (MD) of 72.02 mg/dL (P =0.002). Subsequent triglyceride levels plateaued and were significantly higher than the baseline (P <0.05) until the 12th hour of observation. VLDL levels showed a similar pattern. Levels increased significantly from fasting to 2h after breakfast (mean difference: 4.49 mg/dL, P = 0.007), then plateaued and further increased 4 hours after breakfast (MD: 14.01 mg/dL, P = 0.002). VLDL levels were significantly higher than fasting (P < 0.05) and did not return to baseline until the 12th hour of observation. In contrast, the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and LDL decreased postprandially. Conclusions Triglyceride and VLDL peaking and plateauing were observed in patients with cardiovascular diseases despite low fat diet, normal fasting lipid profile and statin regimen. These findings may raise more attentions in monitoring and management of dyslipidemia in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. PMID:23843828

Samson, Clarissa E.; Galia, Ana Lyza B.; Llave, Khristine Ivy C.; Zacarias, Manuel B.; Mercado-Asis, Leilani B.

2012-01-01

358

Composition of wax esters, triglycerides and diacyl glyceryl ethers in the jaw and blubber fats of the Amazon River dolphin ( Inia geoffrensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower jaw fat of the Amazon River dolphinInia geoffrensis contains 52.8% wax ester, 44.7% triglyceride and 2.5% diacyl glyceryl ether, while its dorsal blubber fat is >98% triglyceride.\\u000a Examination of the intact lipids, the derived fatty acids and the derived fatty alcohols by gas chromatography reveals that\\u000a the blubber triglycerides show characteristics of freshwater fish fats, but the jaw

R. G. Ackman; C. A. Eaton; Carter Litchfield

1971-01-01

359

Impact of FDG PET on Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Who Present with Elevated Thyroglobulin and Negative 131I Scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

FDG PET is increasingly performed in patients with differenti- ated thyroid cancer who present with elevated human thyro- globulin (hTG) levels and negative 131I scan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of FDG PET on treatment in these patients. Methods: A total of 118 FDG PET studies were per- formed on 64 patients, and follow-up data

Beate Schluter; Karl H. Bohuslavizki; Wolfgang Beyer; Mykaylo Plotkin; Ralph Buchert; Malte Clausen

360

Positron emission tomography with F-18-deoxyglucose in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, elevated thyroglobulin levels, and negative iodine scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, elevated serum levels of thyroglobulin (hTg) may occur in spite of otherwise\\u000a negative diagnostic procedures and in particular in spite of a negative iodine-131 scan. Positron emission tomography with\\u000a F-18-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a potentially useful method for the detection of metastatic lesions or the recurrence of thyroid\\u000a cancer. We aimed to investigate whether

G. Altenvoerde; H. Lerch; T. Kuwert; P. Matheja; M. Schäfers; O. Schober

1998-01-01

361

Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase  

SciTech Connect

Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

2005-02-22

362

Analysis of motor function in 6-month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice.  

PubMed

The 3xTg-AD mouse has high validity as a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it develops both amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Human patients with AD typically develop motor deficits, which worsen as the disease progresses, but 3xTg-AD mice have been reported to show enhanced motor abilities. We investigated the motor behaviour phenotype of male and female 3xTg-AD and B6129SF2 wildtype mice on a battery of motor behaviours at 6 months of age. Compared to wildtype mice, the 3xTg-AD mice had enhanced motor performance on the Rotarod, but worse performance on the grid suspension task. In gait analysis 3xTg-AD mice had a longer stride length and made more foot slips on the balance beam than wildtype mice. There was no overall difference in voluntary wheel-running activity between genotypes, but there was a disruption in circadian activity rhythm in 3xTg-AD mice. In some motor tasks, such as the Rotarod and balance beam, females appeared to perform better than males, but this sex differences was accounted for by differences in body weight. Our results indicate that while the 3xTg-AD mice show enhanced performance on the Rotarod, they have poorer performance on other motor behaviour tasks, indicating that their motor behaviour phenotype is more complex than previously reported. The presence of the P301L transgene may explain the enhancement of Rotarod performance but the poorer performance on other motor behaviour tasks may be due to other transgenes. PMID:25486177

Stover, Kurt R; Campbell, Mackenzie A; Van Winssen, Christine M; Brown, Richard E

2015-03-15

363

Evaluation of Dichloroacetic Acid for Carcinogenicity in Genetically Modified Tg.AC Hemizygous and p53 Haploinsufficient Mice  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable interest in the use of genetically modified mice for detecting potential environmental carcinogens. For this reason, the National Toxicology Program has been evaluating Tg.AC hemizygous and p53 haploinsufficient mice as models to detect potential carcinogens. It was reasoned that these mouse models might also prove more effective than standard rodent models in evaluating the numerous disinfection byproducts that are found in low concentrations in drinking water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is one of the most frequently found disinfection byproducts and DCA has been consistently shown to cause hepatocellular tumors in rats and mice in standard rodent studies. Tg.AC hemizygous and p53 haploinsufficient mice were exposed in the drinking water to DCA for up to 41 weeks. In a second study Tg.AC mice were subjected to dermal DCA exposure for up to 39 weeks. Increased incidences and severity of cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes were seen in the p53 mice, but there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity at exposures of up to 2000 mg/l in the drinking water. Increased incidences and severity of cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes were seen in the drinking water study with Tg.AC mice and a modest non-dose-related increase in pulmonary adenomas was observed in males exposed to 1000 mg/l in the drinking water. Dermal exposure up to 500 mg/kg for 39 weeks resulted in increased dermal papillomas at the site of application in Tg.AC mice. No significant increase in papillomas under the same study conditions was seen in the 26-week study. For DCA under these study conditions, the p53 and Tg.AC mice appear less sensitive to hepatocarcinogenesis than standard rodent models. These results suggest caution for the use of Tg.AC and p53 mice to screen unknown chemicals in drinking water for potential carcinogenicity. PMID:18974089

Kissling, Grace E.; Malarkey, David E.; Vallant, Molly K.; Johnson, Jerry D.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Herbert, Ronald A.; Boorman, Gary A.

2009-01-01

364

Effects of a functional oil rich in medium chain triglycerides and phytosterols on plasma lipid profiles and body composition in hypercholesterolemic, overweight men.  

E-print Network

??Localised accumulation of body fat significantly influences the development of obesity related co-morbidities and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have been suggested… (more)

Roynette, Catherine E.

2005-01-01

365

Comprehensive Experiment—Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications. PMID:25521692

Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

2015-01-01

366

Evaluation of inhibitory effect of phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava on triglyceride accumulation in adipocyte.  

PubMed

In the present study, a methanolic extract of Ecklonia cava and its solvent-partitioned fractions were evaluated for their antiadipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. One of them, the n-BuOH fraction, effectively reduced lipid accumulation and glucose consumption. In addition, the presence of the n-BuOH fraction in adipocytes suppressed the regulations of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR? and SREBP1c, and adipogenic specific genes, FABP4, FABP1, FAS, LPL, HSL, and ACS1. Further purification of n-BuOH fractions led to the isolation of six phlorotannins (1-6). The six phlorotannins effectively suppressed triglyceride accumulation. Comparative analysis showed that lipid accumulation in adipocytes was dramatically attenuated in the presence of eckstolonol (4). PMID:23957842

Kim, Haejin; Kong, Chang-Suk; Lee, Jung Im; Kim, Hojun; Baek, Seungoh; Seo, Youngwan

2013-09-11

367

Kinetic analysis of free-radical reactions in the low-temperature autoxidation of triglycerides  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the low-temperature autoxidation of triglycerides has been investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After initial radical production, four reaction stages are found in the overall autoxidation of unsaturated lipids: (1) formation of peroxyl radicals by addition of molecular oxygen to the initial carbon radicals, (2) consumption of oxygen in the autoxidation cycle, (3) decay of the lipid peroxyl radical into allylic and pentadienyl radicals, and (4) recombination of the carbon-centered radicals. Peroxyl radical decay in saturated lipids follows second-order kinetics with an apparent activation energy of ca. 50 kJ/mol. The authors find that, for polyunsaturated lipids, even at quite low temperatures (120 K), the autoxidation process occurs readily and must be considered in the storage of biological samples.

Zhu, Jingmin; Sevilla, M.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (USA))

1990-02-22

368

Space Station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

1989-01-01

369

Central and Peripheral Administration of Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Amyloid Precursor Protein Improves Learning and Memory and Reduces Neuroinflammatory Cytokines in Tg2576 (APPswe) Mice  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. The World Health Organization estimates that there are currently 18 million people worldwide living with AD and that number is expected to double by early 2025. Currently, there are no therapies to stop or reverse the symptoms of AD. We have developed an antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1) against the amyloid betaprotein precursor (A?PP) that can decrease A?PP expression and amyloid beta protein (A?) production. This antisense rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier, reverses learning and memory impairments, reduces oxidative stress and restores brain-to-blood efflux of A? in SAMP8 mice. In the current study, we examined the effects of this A?PP antisense in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. The Tg2576 overproduces human A?, develops age-related learning and memory deficits, and exhibits oxidative damage in the brain. First, we administered the A?PP antisense centrally into the lateral ventricle 3 times at 2 week intervals. Seventy-two hours after the third injection, we tested learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance. In the second study, we injected the mice with A?PP antisense 3 times at two week intervals via the tail vein. Seventy-two hours later, we tested learning and memory T-maze foot shock avoidance, novel object recognition and elevated plus maze. At the end of behavioral testing, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue was collected for evaluation of A?PP, A?, and expression of cytokines and chemokines. A?PP antisense administered centrally improved acquisition and retention of T-maze foot shock avoidance. A?PP antisense administered via tail vein improved learning and memory in both T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object-place recognition. In the elevated plus maze the mice which received OL-1 A?PP antisense spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entries into the open arms indicating reduced disinhibitation. Biochemical analyses reveal significant reduction of A?PP signal and a reduction of measures of neuroinflammation. The current findings support the therapeutic potential of OL-1 A?PP antisense. PMID:24577464

Farr, Susan A.; Erickson, Michelle A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Banks, William A.; Morley, John E.

2014-01-01

370

Pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce serum triglycerides and the expression of lipogenic genes.  

PubMed

Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce hypertriglyceridemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect lipid metabolism are largely unknown. The present study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on triglyceridemia, insulin sensitivity and on mRNA expression of various lipogenic genes. Three-week-old male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a biotin-control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7mg of free biotin/kg diet, respectively) over a period of eight weeks. Serum triglyceride concentrations, insulin and glucose tolerance and mRNA abundance of various lipogenic genes were investigated. The biotin-supplemented group showed 35% less serum triglycerides than control mice. In the liver, we found a significant (P<0.05) reduction of mRNA levels of SREBP1-c, glucose transporter-2, phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression increased. No changes in glucokinase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, FoxO1 or PPAR-gamma expression were observed. In adipose tissue, we found a decreased expression of SREBP1c, glucose-6-phosphate deshydrogenase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, phosphofructokinase-1 and PPAR-gamma, but no changes in FoxO1 expression. Moreover, the group fed a biotin-supplemented diet showed a significant decrease in adipose tissue weight. No differences in insulin sensitivity or serum insulin concentrations were observed between groups. Our results indicate that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease serum tryglyceride concentrations and lipogenic gene expression in liver and adipose tissues. PMID:20655901

Larrieta, Elena; Velasco, Fidel; Vital, Paz; López-Aceves, Teresita; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, María Luisa; Rojas, Alberto; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

2010-10-10

371

Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the support. The support is not stable under the reaction conditions, and alternatives should be explored to develop a heterogeneous base catalyst for the production of FAME.

Britton, Stephanie Lynne

372

Determination of Free Fatty Acids and Triglycerides by Gas Chromatography Using Selective Esterification Reactions  

SciTech Connect

A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.

Kail, Brian W.; Link, Dirk D.; Morreale, Bryan D

2012-11-01

373

Elevated circulation levels of an antiangiogenic SERPIN in patients with diabetic microvascular complications impair wound healing through suppression of Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Wound healing, angiogenesis, and hair follicle maintenance are often impaired in the skin of diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis has not been well understood. Here, we report that circulation levels of kallistatin, a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (SERPIN) superfamily with antiangiogenic activities, were elevated in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic vascular complications. To test the hypothesis that elevated kallistatin levels could contribute to a wound-healing deficiency via the inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, we generated kallistatin-transgenic (KS-TG) mice. KS-TG mice had reduced cutaneous hair-follicle density, microvascular density, and panniculus adiposus layer thickness, as well as altered skin microvascular hemodynamics and delayed cutaneous wound healing. Using Wnt reporter mice, our results showed that Wnt/?-catenin signaling is suppressed in the dermal endothelium and hair follicles in KS-TG mice. Lithium, a known activator of ?-catenin via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3?, reversed the inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by kallistatin and rescued the wound-healing deficiency in KS-TG mice. These observations suggest that elevated circulating antiangiogenic serpins in diabetic patients may contribute to impaired wound healing through inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, at a level downstream of Wnt receptors, may ameliorate the wound-healing deficiency in diabetic patients. PMID:24463424

McBride, Jeffrey D; Jenkins, Alicia J; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Bin; Lee, Kyungwon; Berry, William L; Janknecht, Ralf; Griffin, Courtney T; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J; Tomasek, James J; Ma, Jian-xing

2014-06-01

374

Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) Monitoring of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Using Sensitive (Second-Generation) Immunometric Assays Can Be Disrupted by False-Negative and False-Positive Serum Thyroglobulin Autoantibody Misclassifications  

PubMed Central

Context: Reliable thyroglobulin (Tg) autoantibody (TgAb) detection before Tg testing for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is critical when TgAb status (positive/negative) is used to authenticate sensitive second-generation immunometric assay (2GIMA) measurements as free from TgAb interference and when reflexing “TgAb-positive” sera to TgAb-resistant, but less sensitive, Tg methodologies (radioimmunoassay [RIA] or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS]). Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how different Kronus (K) vs Roche (R) TgAb method cutoffs for “positivity” influence false-negative vs false-positive serum TgAb misclassifications that may reduce the clinical utility of reflex Tg testing. Methods: Serum Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS measurements for 52 TgAb-positive and 37 TgAb-negative patients with persistent/recurrent DTC were compared. A total of 1426 DTC sera with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L had false-negative and false-positive TgAb frequencies determined using low Tg2GIMA/TgRIA ratios (<75%) to indicate TgAb interference. Results: TgAb-negative patients with disease displayed Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS serum discordances (% coefficient of variation = 24 ± 20%, range, 0%–100%). Of the TgAb-positive patients with disease, 98% had undetectable/lower Tg2GIMA vs either TgRIA or TgLC-MS/MS (P < .01), whereas 8 of 52 (15%) had undetectable Tg2GIMA + TgLC-MS/MS associated with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis reported more sensitivity for TgAb method K vs R (81.9% vs 69.1%, P < .001), but receiver operating characteristic curve cutoffs (>0.6 kIU/L [K] vs >40 kIU/L [R]) had unacceptably high false-negative frequencies (22%–32%), whereas false positives approximated 12%. Functional sensitivity cutoffs minimized false negatives (13.5% [K] vs 21.3% [R], P < .01) and severe interferences (Tg2GIMA, <0.10 ?g/L) (0.7% [K] vs 2.4% [R], P < .05) but false positives approximated 23%. Conclusions: Reliable detection of interfering TgAbs is method and cutoff dependent. No cutoff eliminated both false-negative and false-positive TgAb misclassifications. Functional sensitivity cutoffs were optimal for minimizing false negatives but have inherent imprecision (20% coefficient of variation) that, exacerbated by TgAb biologic variability during DTC monitoring, could cause TgAb status to fluctuate for patients with low TgAb concentrations, prompting unnecessary Tg method changes and disrupting Tg monitoring. Laboratories using reflexing should limit Tg method changes by considering a patient's Tg + TgAb testing history in addition to current TgAb status before Tg method selection. PMID:25226290

Petrovic, Ivana; Fatemi, Shireen; LoPresti, Jonathan

2014-01-01

375

Investigation of thermal decomposition of ascorbic acid by TG-FTIR and thermal kinetics analysis.  

PubMed

The thermal behavior of dry solid ascorbic acid in nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 25-800°C was investigated by TG-FTIR. During the thermal decomposition process, five evolved gaseous species, including H2O, CO2, CO, CH4 and HCOOH, were identified and monitored, in which HCOOH was detected for the first time. The results indicated that ascorbic acid began to decompose at 191°C. Its decomposition process consisted of three stages, and dehydration and decarboxylation to form furfural were the possible principal mechanism. The kinetic analysis for the first decomposition stage was also carried out by the isoconversional method and the master plots method. The results indicated that this process can be described by the model of 1st order reaction. PMID:23411004

Jingyan, Shi; Yuwen, Liu; Zhiyong, Wang; Cunxin, Wang

2013-04-15

376

Cholesterol, oxysterol, triglyceride, and coenzyme Q homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the hypothesis that elevated 27-hydroxycholesterol is a pathogenic factor.  

PubMed

High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M; Björkhem, Ingemar

2014-01-01

377

Cholesterol, Oxysterol, Triglyceride, and Coenzyme Q Homeostasis in ALS. Evidence against the Hypothesis That Elevated 27-Hydroxycholesterol Is a Pathogenic Factor  

PubMed Central

High plasma levels of cholesterol have been suggested to be neuroprotective for the degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to be associated with increased survival time. The gene encoding cholesterol 27-hydroxylase, CYP27A1, was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS. A product of this enzyme is 27-hydroxycholesterol. We investigated plasma samples from 52 ALS patients and 40 control subjects (spouses) regarding cholesterol homeostasis, lipid profiles, and coenzyme Q. Eleven of the patients carried mutations in C9orf72 and seven in SOD1. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in controls. It was not possible to link the reduced levels to any specific mutation, and there was no significant correlation between 27-hydroxycholesterol and survival. With normalization for diet using the spouses, a correlation was found between survival and total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coenzyme Q. We conclude that cholesterol, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and lipid profiles in plasma are of limited prognostic value in individual ALS patients. PMID:25415378

Wuolikainen, Anna; Acimovic, Jure; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Parini, Paolo; Andersen, Peter M.; Björkhem, Ingemar

2014-01-01

378

Characterization of hippocampal Cajal-Retzius cells during development in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (Tg2576)  

PubMed Central

Cajal-Retzius cells are reelin-secreting neurons in the marginal zone of the neocortex and hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate Cajal-Retzius cells in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Results revealed that the number of Cajal-Retzius cells markedly reduced with age in both wild type and in mice over-expressing the Swedish double mutant form of amyloid precursor protein 695 (transgenic (Tg) 2576 mice). Numerous reelin-positive neurons were positive for activated caspase 3 in Tg2576 mice, suggesting that Cajal-Retzius neuronal loss occurred via apoptosis in this Alzheimer's disease model. Compared with wild type, the number of Cajal-Retzius cells was significantly lower in Tg2576 mice. Western blot analysis confirmed that reelin levels were markedly lower in Tg2576 mice than in wild-type mice. The decline in Cajal-Retzius cells in Tg2576 mice was found to occur concomitantly with the onset of Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology and related behavioral deficits. Overall, these data indicated that Cajal-Retzius cell loss occurred with the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25206826

Yu, Dongming; Fan, Wenjuan; Wu, Ping; Deng, Jiexin; Liu, Jing; Niu, Yanli; Li, Mingshan; Deng, Jinbo

2014-01-01

379

Suppression of the Tg-Confinement Effect in Thin Polymer Films by the Presence of an Anti-Plasticizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of film thickness on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of poly(vinyl acetate) supported on silica was studied via ellipsometry for films that were in the bone-dry state and also with several weight percent water sorbed into the film. The presence of water resulted in a decrease of the Tg of bulk poly(vinyl acetate) films but an increase in the density of the films. This combination of effects indicates that water acts as an anti-plasticizer in poly(vinyl acetate). We demonstrate that the bone-dry poly(vinyl acetate) films exhibit a significant reduction in Tg with decreasing film thickness below about 50 nm. In contrast, the poly(vinyl acetate films) containing several weight percent water exhibited no reduction in Tg relative to bulk Tg with decreasing film thickness down to a thickness of about 10 nm. These results are in accord with recent theoretical analysis (Riggelman et al., PRL 97, 045502 (2006)) indicating that the presence of anti-plasticizers leads to a suppression of confinement effects on the behavior of polymer films and indicate that caution should be employed when studying confinement effects in polymer systems that may sorb significant levels of water from the atmosphere.

Kim, Soyoung; Mundra, Manish; Roth, Connie; Torkelson, John

2008-03-01

380

Quality assurance for image-guided radiation therapy utilizing CT-based technologies: A report of the AAPM TG-179  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Commercial CT-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems allow widespread management of geometric variations in patient setup and internal organ motion. This document provides consensus recommendations for quality assurance protocols that ensure patient safety and patient treatment fidelity for such systems. Methods: The AAPM TG-179 reviews clinical implementation and quality assurance aspects for commercially available CT-based IGRT, each with their unique capabilities and underlying physics. The systems described are kilovolt and megavolt cone-beam CT, fan-beam MVCT, and CT-on-rails. A summary of the literature describing current clinical usage is also provided. Results: This report proposes a generic quality assurance program for CT-based IGRT systems in an effort to provide a vendor-independent program for clinical users. Published data from long-term, repeated quality control tests form the basis of the proposed test frequencies and tolerances.Conclusion: A program for quality control of CT-based image-guidance systems has been produced, with focus on geometry, image quality, image dose, system operation, and safety. Agreement and clarification with respect to reports from the AAPM TG-101, TG-104, TG-142, and TG-148 has been addressed.

Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Langen, Katja M.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Miften, Moyed; Moseley, Douglas J.; Pouliot, Jean; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Yoo, Sua [Task Group 179, Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida 32806 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero St., Suite H 1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2012-04-15

381

Physical exercise improves synaptic dysfunction and recovers the loss of survival factors in 3xTg-AD mouse brain.  

PubMed

Physical exercise has become a potentially beneficial therapy for reducing neurodegeneration symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that cognitive deterioration, anxiety and the startle response observed in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were ameliorated after 6 months of free access to a running wheel. Also, alterations in synaptic response to paired-pulse stimulation were improved. The present study further investigated some molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of 6 months of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice. Changes in binding parameters of [(3)H]-flunitrazepam to GABAA receptor and of [(3)H]-MK-801 to NMDA receptor in cerebral cortex of 3xTgAD mice were restored by voluntary exercise. In addition, reduced expression levels of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit were reestablished. The synaptic proteins synaptophysin and PSD-95 and the neuroprotective proteins GDNF and SIRT1 were downregulated in 3xTgAD mice and were recovered by exercise treatment. Overall, in this paper we highlight the fact that different interrelated mechanisms are involved in the beneficial effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity alterations in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. PMID:24486380

Revilla, Susana; Suñol, Cristina; García-Mesa, Yoelvis; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Sanfeliu, Coral; Cristòfol, Rosa

2014-06-01

382

The polyphenol oleuropein aglycone protects TgCRND8 mice against Aß plaque pathology.  

PubMed

The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein), aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet), the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and "fluffy"; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:23951225

Grossi, Cristina; Rigacci, Stefania; Ambrosini, Stefano; Ed Dami, Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Traini, Chiara; Failli, Paola; Berti, Andrea; Casamenti, Fiorella; Stefani, Massimo

2013-01-01

383

The RenTg Mice: A Powerful Tool to Study Renin-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that activation of the renin-angiotensin system may lead to hypertension, a major risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The existing hypertension-induced CDK mouse models are quite fast and consequently away from the human pathology. Thus, there is an urgent need for a mouse model that can be used to delineate the pathogenic process leading to progressive renal disease. The objective of this study was dual: to investigate whether mice overexpressing renin could mimic the kinetics and the physiopathological characteristics of hypertension-induced renal disease and to identify cellular and/or molecular events characterizing the different steps of the progression of CKD. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a novel transgenic strain, the RenTg mice harboring a genetically clamped renin transgene. At 3 months, heterozygous mice are hypertensive and slightly albuminuric. The expression of adhesion markers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 are increased in the renal vasculature indicating initiation of endothelial dysfunction. At 5 months, perivascular and periglomerular infiltrations of macrophages are observed. These early renal vascular events are followed at 8 months by leukocyte invasion, decreased expression of nephrin, increased expression of KIM-1, a typical protein of tubular cell stress, and of several pro-fibrotic agents of the TGF? family. At 12 months, mice display characteristic structural alterations of hypertensive renal disease such as glomerular ischemia, glomerulo- and nephroangio-sclerosis, mesangial expansion and tubular dilation. Conclusions/Significance The RenTg strain develops CKD progressively. In this model, endothelial dysfunction is an early event preceding the structural and fibrotic alterations which ultimately lead to the development of CKD. This model can provide new insights into the mechanisms of chronic renal failure and help to identify new targets for arresting and/or reversing the development of the disease. PMID:23300650

Huby, Anne-Cecile; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Alfieri, Carlo; Abed, Ahmed; Toubas, Julie; Rastaldi, Maria-Pia; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Chadjichristos, Christos E.

2012-01-01

384

1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

385

Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

2007-11-16

386

Elevation Derivatives for National Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

U.S. Geological Survey

2005-01-01

387

Kinetics of thermolysis of lanthanum nitrate with hexamethylenetetramine: Crystal structure, TG-DSC, impact and friction sensitivity studies, Part-96  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of high energetic materials includes process ability and the ability to attain insensitive munitions (IM). This paper investigates the preparation of lanthanum metal nitrate complex of hexamethylenetetramine in water at room temperature. This complex of molecular formulae [La (NO3)2(H2O)6] (2HMTA) (NO3-) (H2O) was characterized by X-ray crystallography. Thermal decomposition was investigated using TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay measurements. Kinetic analysis of isothermal TG data has been investigated using model fitting methods as well as model free isoconversional methods. The sensitivity measurements towards mechanical destructive stimuli such as impact and friction were carried out and the complex was found to be insensitive. In order to identify the end product of thermolysis, X-ray diffraction patterns of end product was carried out which proves the formation of La2O3.

Nibha; Baranwal, B. P.; Singh, Gurdip; Singh, C. P.; Daniliuc, Constantin G.; Soni, P. K.; Nath, Yogeshwar

2014-11-01

388

HPLC Method for Plasma Vitamin K1: Effect of Plasma Triglyceride and Acute-Phase Response on Circulating Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The plasma concentration of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is the most reliable index for assessing vitamin K status. Our aim was to analytically validate an HPLC method for quantifying phylloquinone in plasma and to examine the effect of plasma triglyceride concen- tration on the phylloquinone reference interval. We also examined the effect of acute-phase response on phyllo- quinone concentration in

Mohammed K. Azharuddin; J. O'Reilly; Andrew Gray; Dinesh Talwar

2007-01-01

389

Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...

390

Changes in Plasma Free Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Dairy Cattle After Dosing with Coffee or Caffeine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hours after 50 to 100 g of coffee were given intraruminally as a drench or through an established fistula, there was a marked increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids 1 in 14 of 18 cows and an increase in plasma triglycerides in all six cows on which this component was mea- sured two hours post-treatment. Also, when

George E. Hawkins; Wayne E. Davis

1970-01-01

391

Study of saturated triglycerides in oil based on the c.w. transverse CO 2 laser excited photothermal deflection signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photothermal beam deflection spectrometer comprising a novel sample cell, CO 2 laser (pump source) and a diode laser (probe beam) in a transverse (crossed) configuration was constructed and used to study triglycerides in diet oil. Prospects of this method for trace detection are evaluated and compared to the results expected from the collinear geometry with focused pump and probe beams.

Bicanic, Dane; Franko, Mladen; Jalink, Henk; Duki?, Rasto; Bozóki, Zoltán; Linssen, Jozef

1995-02-01

392

Long-term clinical results of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor use in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and a complicated cardiovascular history, treated for 5 years with a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor in addition to her other lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:25670368

Raper, Anna; Kolansky, Daniel M; Sachais, Bruce S; Meagher, Emma A; Baer, Amanda L; Cuchel, Marina

2015-01-01

393

Attractancy to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), saw-toothed grain beetle, of extracts of carobs, some triglycerides, and related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory method has been devised for testing the attractancy of vapors to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Of four solvent extracts prepared from pods of the carob tree [Ceratonia siliqua (L.)], all attractedO. surinamensis, but the least polar extract was the most active. Subdivision of extracts yielded a series of fractions, the most attractive of which contained a mixture of triglycerides

M. J. O'Donnell; J. Chambers; S. M. McFarland

1983-01-01

394

Fiber Intakes and Anthropometric Measures are Predictors of Circulating Hormone, Triglyceride, and Cholesterol Concentrations in the Women's Health Trial1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unhealthy eating patterns and obesity among women in the U.S. are indicated by changes in biomarkers, such as insulin, lipoproteins, and estradiol, that are risk factors for breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This article models the inter- relations among diet, serum insulin, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations, plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol, and net triglyceride concentrations,

Alok Bhargava

395

Effect of phosphatidylcholine molecular species on the uptake of HDL triglycerides and cholesteryl esters by the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has previously been shown that the hydrolysis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) phospholipids by hepatic lipase promotes the hepatic uptake of triglyceride and cholesteryl ester from HDL. Since the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids pro- motes HDL cholesteryl ester uptake, then it is possible that the hepatic metabolism of HDL could be altered by changing the molecular species composition of

Hiroko Kadowaki; George M. Patton; Sander J. Robins

396

Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

1995-01-01

397

The nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) regulates serum triglyceride levels under conditions of metabolic stress.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) (NR1I3) regulates hepatic genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification as well as genes involved in energy homeostasis. We provide data that extend the role of CAR to regulation of serum triglyceride levels under conditions of metabolic/nutritional stress. The typically high serum triglyceride levels of ob/ob mice were completely normalized when crossed onto a Car(-/-) (mice deficient for the Car gene) genetic background. Moreover, increases in serum triglycerides observed after a high-fat diet (HFD) regime were not observed in Car(-/-) animals. Conversely, pharmacological induction of CAR activity using the selective mouse CAR agonist TCPOBOP during HFD feeding resulted in a CAR-dependent increase in serum triglyceride levels. A major regulator of hepatic fatty oxidation is the nuclear receptor PPARalpha (NR1C1). The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) target genes was inversely related to the activity of CAR. Consistent with these observations, Car(-/-) animals exhibited increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Treatment of mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) significantly decreased expression of PPARalpha mRNA as well as Cyp4a14, CPT1alpha, and cytosolic Acyl-CoA thioesterase (CTE) in the liver. These data have implications in disease therapy such as for diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PMID:18941143

Maglich, Jodi M; Lobe, David C; Moore, John T

2009-03-01

398

Plasma glucose G, and stored glycogen: GL (liver), GM (muscle), Plasma FFA F, and stored triglycerides (adipose, liver) -T;  

E-print Network

Components Plasma glucose ­G, and stored glycogen: GL (liver), GM (muscle), Plasma FFA ­ F, and stored triglycerides (adipose, liver) - T; Byproducts of G- utilization (lactate, glycerols, pyruvate) (liver) (muscle) (adipose) UB H UM ; VM - muscle utilization UB - brain utilization Production

Gurarie, David

399

Multiscale characterization of the organization of triglycerides and phospholipids in emmental cheese: from the microscopic to the molecular level.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and properties of lipids, both triglycerides and phospholipids, play a major role in the functional and nutritional properties of food products. In this study, the suprastructure of fat, solid fat content, and crystallographic properties of triglycerides were investigated in hard-type cheeses from the microscopic scale to the molecular level using the combination of relevant techniques. Two industrial cheeses with different oiling off properties were compared with experimental cheeses manufactured in the laboratory. Microstructural analysis performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that milk processing led to the disruption of fat globules with the formation of nonglobular fat. For a similar fatty acid composition, oiling off was mainly related to the fat in dry matter content and to the suprastructure of fat in cheese. An exogenous fluorescent phospholipid permitted the localization of milk phospholipids in the cheese matrix, which mainly remain around fat inclusions after disruption of the milk fat globule membrane, and to show heterogeneities. We also showed using differential scanning calorimetry that the suprastructure of fat did not affect the solid fat content in cheese at 4 degrees C: 71.6 +/- 4.9%. The organization of triglyceride molecules in fat crystals, elucidated at a molecular level using X-ray diffraction, corresponded to the coexistence of 2 lamellar structures (2L 40.5 angstroms and 3L 54.6 angstroms) with four polymorphic forms: alpha, two beta' and beta. A schematic representation of the multiscale organization of triglycerides and phospholipids in cheese is proposed. PMID:18338865

Lopez, Christelle; Briard-Bion, Valerie; Beaucher, Eric; Ollivon, Michel

2008-04-01

400

HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) PROTEINS INDUCE LIPOGENESIS AND DEFECTIVE TRIGLYCERIDE SECRETION IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING THE HCV FULL-  

E-print Network

1 HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) PROTEINS INDUCE LIPOGENESIS AND DEFECTIVE TRIGLYCERIDE SECRETION Reference Center for Viral Hepatitis B, C and Delta, Department of Virology, Hôpital Henri Mondor hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with altered lipid metabolism and hepatocellular steatosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de