Sample records for elevated triglycerides tg

  1. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPAR? signaling.

    PubMed

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPAR? target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPAR?-dependent processes also in the small intestine. PMID:23220585

  2. How Do Elevated Triglycerides and Low HDL-Cholesterol Affect Inflammation and Atherothrombosis?

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Francine K.

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFK?, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The “functionality” of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C. PMID:23881582

  3. Regulatory effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase on hepatic microsomal TG transfer protein activity and VLDL-triglyceride and apoB secretion in obese mice.

    PubMed

    López-Parra, Marta; Titos, Esther; Horrillo, Raquel; Ferré, Natàlia; González-Périz, Ana; Martínez-Clemente, Marcos; Planagumà, Anna; Masferrer, Jaime; Arroyo, Vicente; Clària, Joan

    2008-12-01

    As 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an emerging target in obesity and insulin resistance, we have investigated whether this arachidonate pathway is also implicated in the progression of obesity-related fatty liver disease. Our results show that 5-LO activity and 5-LO-derived product levels are significantly elevated in the liver of obese ob/ob mice with respect to wild-type controls. Treatment of ob/ob mice with a selective 5-LO inhibitor exerted a remarkable protection from hepatic steatosis as revealed by decreased oil red-O staining and reduced hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentrations. In addition, 5-LO inhibition in ob/ob mice downregulated genes involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake (i.e., L-FABP and FAT/CD36) and normalized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and acyl-CoA oxidase expression, whereas the expression of lipogenic genes [i.e., fatty acid synthase (FASN) and SREBP-1c] remained unaltered. Furthermore, 5-LO inhibition restored hepatic microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) activity in parallel with a stimulation of hepatic VLDL-TG and apoB secretion in ob/ob mice. Consistent with these findings, 5-LO products directly inhibited MTP activity and triggered cytosolic TG accumulation in CC-1 cells, a murine hepatocyte cell line. Taken together, these findings identify a novel steatogenic role for 5-LO in the liver through mechanisms involving the regulation of hepatic MTP activity and VLDL-TG and apoB secretion. PMID:18645210

  4. Implitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, reduces progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice fed a Western-type diet: involvement of the inhibition of postprandial triglyceride elevation.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Koji; Akihisa-Umeno, Hitomi; Nagayoshi, Akira; Takakura, Shoji; Matsuo, Masahiko; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2005-02-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the synthesis of both chylomicron in the intestine and very low-density lipoprotein in the liver. An MTP inhibitor, (2S)-2-cyclopentyl-2-[4-[(2,4-dimethyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indol-9-yl)methyl]phenyl]-N-[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl]ethanamide (implitapide), has been shown to suppress atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) mice. To elucidate the antiatherosclerotic mechanisms of implitapide in the mice, we examined the effects on plasma lipid levels, triglyceride (TG) elevation after oral fat loading, and development of atherosclerosis in apoE KO mice fed a Western-type diet. Implitapide at a dosage of approximately 3.2 mg/kg/day significantly reduced both total cholesterol and TG levels during the 8-week treatment period. In addition, implitapide significantly inhibited the increase in plasma TG levels after oral olive oil loading tests conducted after 4 weeks of treatment. After the treatment, implitapide significantly suppressed the atherosclerotic lesion area by 83% compared with a control group. These results provide direct evidence that the antiatherosclerotic effects of implitapide in apoE KO mice are associated with the inhibition of postprandial TG elevation, in addition to the reduction of both plasma total cholesterol and TG levels. PMID:15684478

  5. Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (?24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r?=?0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

  6. A case-control study of apoA5 ?1131T?C polymorphism that examines the role of triglyceride levels in diabetic nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Baum; Maggie C. Y. Ng; Wing-Yee So; Emily Poon; Ying Wang; Vincent K. L. Lam; Brian Tomlinson; Juliana C. N. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) have increased plasma fasting triglyceride (TG) levels, and most prospective studies report that elevated TG precedes DN. TG-rich lipoprotein particles might promote progression of DN. To test the hypothesis that elevated TG levels contribute to the development of DN, one may examine whether a polymorphism strongly associated with TG levels affects DN risk. The apolipoprotein

  7. Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China. PMID:23829426

  8. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. -- Highlights: ? Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ? Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ? Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ? Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  9. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. PMID:23142471

  10. Fenofibrate Effect on Triglyceride and Postprandial Response of Apolipoprotein A5 Variants: The GOLDN Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (hypertriglyceridemia), one of the characteristic features of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), have been recognized as an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Lowering TG concentration by dietary or drug intervention reduces CHD risk. Fenofibr...

  11. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using (2- sup 3 H)-glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154{plus minus}1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 {mu}Ci (2-{sup 3}H)-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion.

  12. Olanzapine-induced triglyceride and aminotransferase elevations without weight gain or hyperglycemia normalized after switching to aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Pawelczyk, Tomasz; Pawelczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jablonska, Jolanta

    2014-07-01

    Olanzapine induced a marked elevation in triglyceride and cholesterol levels and in liver transaminase enzymes after 12 weeks of treatment in a patient with schizophrenia. These changes were not seen in an earlier 10-week course of treatment with risperidone, and improved substantially 1 week after the patient stopped olanzapine and began treatment with aripiprazole. The patient did not exhibit weight gain or hyperglycemia with any of the medications. This case and a review of the literature suggest that olanzapine may have unique properties that affect hepatic enzyme pathways, independent of any effects on weight and glucose, that may lead to hyperlipidemia and transaminitis in some patients. PMID:25036587

  13. Effect of a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein particles in patients with elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar Alaupovic; Therese Heinonen; Linda Shurzinske; Donald M Black

    1997-01-01

    The effects of atorvastatin (lipitor) on cholesterol-rich and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were evaluated in this multicenter trial. Following a 6-week baseline period, 47 patients with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels were treated with atorvastatin 10 mg once daily (QD) for the initial 12 weeks (Period 1) increasing to 20 mg QD for the following 12 weeks (Period 2). At both the

  14. ELEVATED REMNANT-LIKE PARTICLE (RLP) CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS INDIABETIC MEN AND WOMENT IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are thought to be atherogenic. A new antibody-based assay allows isolation of remnant-like particles (RLP) from plasma or serum, and subsequent measurement of RLP cholesterol and triglyceride (RLPC and RLPTG). We hypothesized that diabetics (DM) would have ...

  15. Positional distribution of fatty acids in the triglycerides of bovine milk fat with elevated levels of linoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Morrison; J. C. Hawke

    1977-01-01

    A stereospecific distribution of fatty acids in bovine milk fat containing 15.5% linoleic acid has been compared with the\\u000a distribution in bovine milk fat containing a normal level (1.8%) of linoleic acid. The positional distribution was obtained\\u000a by the separate analysis of milk fat triglycerides of high, medium, and low molecular weight. The order of preference for\\u000a linoleic acid in

  16. Supplementary Figure 1 TC HDL-C N-HDL-C TG

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol; N-HDL-C, non-HDL-C; TG, triglycerides. inserm-00591959,version1-10May2011 #12 cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; N-HDL-C, non-HDL-C; TG, triglycerides. inserm-HDL-C, non-HDL-C; TG, triglycerides. inserm-00591959,version1-10May2011 #12;

  17. Triglyceride-Increasing Alleles Associated with Protection against Type-2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Chougule, Akshay; Arora, Amit; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an established risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, recent studies have hinted at the possibility that genetic risk for TG may paradoxically protect against T2D. In this study, we examined the association of genetic risk for TG with incident T2D, and the interaction of baseline TG with TG genetic risk on incident T2D in 13,247 European-Americans (EA) and 3,238 African-Americans (AA) from three prospective cohort studies. A TG genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 31 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We considered several baseline covariates, including body- mass index (BMI) and lipid traits. Among EA and AA, we find, as expected, that baseline levels of TG are strongly positively associated with incident T2D (p<2 x 10-10). However, the TG GRS is negatively associated with T2D (p=0.013), upon adjusting for only race, in the full dataset. Upon additionally adjusting for age, sex, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and TG, the TG GRS is significantly and negatively associated with T2D incidence (p=7.0 x 10-8), with similar trends among both EA and AA. No single SNP appears to be driving this association. We also find a significant statistical interaction of the TG GRS with TG (pinteraction=3.3 x 10-4), whereby the association of TG with incident T2D is strongest among those with low genetic risk for TG. Further research is needed to understand the likely pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these findings, and to clarify the causal relationship between T2D and TG. PMID:26020539

  18. Large increases in adipose triacylglycerol flux in Cushingoid CRH-Tg mice are explained by futile cycling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles; Roohk, Donald J; Fitch, Mark; Boudignon, Benjamin M; Halloran, Bernard P; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2013-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are extremely effective anti-inflammatory therapies, but their clinical use is limited due to severe side effects, including osteoporosis, muscle wasting, fat redistribution, and skin thinning. Here we use heavy water labeling and mass spectrometry to measure fluxes through metabolic pathways impacted by glucocorticoids. We combine these methods with measurements of body composition in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-transgenic (Tg)(+) mice that have chronically elevated, endogenously produced corticosterone and a phenotype that closely mimics Cushing's disease in humans. CRH-Tg(+) mice had increased adipose mass, adipose triglyceride synthesis, and greatly increased triglyceride/fatty acid cycling in subcutaneous and abdominal fat depots and increased de novo lipogenesis in the abdominal depot. In bone, CRH-Tg(+) mice had decreased bone mass, absolute collagen synthesis rates, and collagen breakdown rate. In skin, CRH-Tg(+) mice had decreased skin thickness and absolute collagen synthesis rates but no decrease in the collagen breakdown rate. In muscle, CRH-Tg(+) mice had decreased muscle mass and absolute protein synthesis but no decrease in the protein breakdown rate. We conclude that chronic exposure to endogenous glucocorticoid excess in mice is associated with ongoing decreases in bone collagen, skin collagen, and muscle protein synthesis without compensatory reduction (coupling) of breakdown rates in skin and muscle. Both of these actions contribute to reduced protein pool sizes. We also conclude that increased cycling between triglycerides and free fatty acids occurs in both abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots in CRH-Tg(+) mice. CRH-Tg mice have both increased lipolysis and increased triglyceride synthesis in adipose tissue. PMID:23211515

  19. Bile acids lower triglyceride levels via a pathway involving FXR, SHP, and SREBP-1c

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Houten, Sander M.; Wang, Li; Moschetta, Antonio; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Heyman, Richard A.; Moore, David D.; Auwerx, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and its lipogenic target genes. Through the use of mouse mutants for the short heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver X receptor (LXR) ? and ?, we demonstrate the critical dependence of the reduction of SREBP-1c expression by either natural or synthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists on both SHP and LXR? and LXR?. These results suggest that strategies aimed at increasing FXR activity and the repressive effects of SHP should be explored to correct hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:15146238

  20. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimple Aggarwal; Kristy L West; Tosca L Zern; Sudeep Shrestha; Marcela Vergara-Jimenez; Maria Luz Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi) have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG). However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce

  1. Downregulation of adipose triglyceride lipase promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by triggering the accumulation of ceramides.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Feng, Xiao-jun; Li, Zhuo-ming; Li, Min; Gao, Si; He, Yan-hong; Wang, Jiao-jiao; Zeng, Si-yu; Liu, Xue-ping; Huang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Shao-rui; Liu, Pei-qing

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme of triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis, plays an important role in TG metabolism. ATGL knockout mice suffer from TG accumulation and die from heart failure. However, the mechanisms underlying cardiac hypertrophy caused by ATGL dysfunction remain unknown. In this study, we found that ATGL expression declined in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. ATGL knockdown led to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, while ATGL overexpression prevented PE-induced hypertrophy. In addition, ATGL downregulation increased but ATGL overexpression reduced the contents of ceramide, which has been proved to be closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, the accumulation of ceramide was due to elevation of free fatty acids in ATGL-knockdown cardiomyocytes, which could be explained by the reduced activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? leading to imbalance of fatty acid uptake and oxidation. These observations suggest that downregulation of ATGL causes the decreased PPAR? activity which results in the imbalance of FA uptake and oxidation, elevating intracellular FFA contents to promote the accumulation of ceramides, and finally inducing cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of ATGL could be a strategy for ameliorating lipotoxic damage in cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25436917

  2. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine. PMID:21139060

  3. Fate of oxidized triglycerides during refining of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tommaso; Caponio, Francesco; Delcuratolo, Debora

    2003-07-30

    The evolution of oxidized triglycerides (ox-TG) during industrial refining was studied in soybean, sunflower, peanut, and corn oils. The analytical techniques used were silica gel column chromatography and high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The decrease in ox-TG during refining (42.3% on average) was accompanied by an increase in triglyceride oligopolymers (TGP). The inverse correlation between the two lipid groups suggests that the decrease in ox-TG during refining was due in part to the occurrence of polymerization reactions. An inverse correlation was also found between the percentage sum of ox-TG + TGP and percent TGP, indicating that a part of the ox-TG also underwent degradation or transformation reactions. On average, almost 58% of the ox-TG remained unchanged during refining and, of the rest, about half was involved in polymerization reactions and half in degradation or transformation reactions. PMID:14705891

  4. Fish oil — How does it reduce plasma triglycerides?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Shearer; Olga V. Savinova; William S. Harris

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are effective for reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. At the pharmaceutical dose, 3.4g\\/day, they reduce plasma TG by about 25–50% after one month of treatment, resulting primarily from the decline in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) production, and secondarily from the increase in VLDL clearance. Numerous mechanisms have been shown to contribute to

  5. [Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol is a vital causal factor and focus of research into heart diseases, however the involvement of triglycerides remains unclear. We recently reported a patient suffering from severe congestive heart failure and needing cardiac transplantation. Massive accumulation of triglycerides was noted in coronary atherosclerotic lesions as well as in the myocardium. We named this phenotype"triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". The patient was identified as homozygous for a genetic mutation in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglycerides. In this paper, we describe clinical characteristics of ATGL deficiency and discuss what we can learn from this disorder. PMID:24205734

  6. Elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Correlation with body mass index and serum triglyceride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsa Mészáros; Tamás Szombathy; Laura Raimondi; István Karádi; László Romics; Kálmán Magyar

    1999-01-01

    Previous clinical studies reported elevated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but there are not sufficient data about SSAO in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The present study was conducted to investigate serum SSAO activity in NIDDM patients compared with nondiabetic and IDDM patients. Serum SSAO activity in 61 patients with diabetes (n = 34 NIDDM and

  7. Identification of a small molecule that stabilizes lipoprotein lipase in vitro and lowers triglycerides in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mikael; Caraballo, Rémi; Ericsson, Madelene; Lookene, Aivar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Nilsson, Stefan K; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2014-07-25

    Patients at increased cardiovascular risk commonly display high levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs), elevated LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many remain at high risk even after successful statin therapy, presumably because TG levels remain high. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) maintains TG homeostasis in blood by hydrolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins. Efficient clearance of TGs is accompanied by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol and decreased levels of small dense LDL. Given the central role of LPL in lipid metabolism we sought to find small molecules that could increase LPL activity and serve as starting points for drug development efforts against cardiovascular disease. Using a small molecule screening approach we have identified small molecules that can protect LPL from inactivation by the controller protein angiopoietin-like protein 4 during incubations in vitro. One of the selected compounds, 50F10, was directly shown to preserve the active homodimer structure of LPL, as demonstrated by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. On injection to hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein A-V deficient mice the compound ameliorated the postprandial response after an olive oil gavage. This is a potential lead compound for the development of drugs that could reduce the residual risk associated with elevated plasma TGs in dyslipidemia. PMID:24984153

  8. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P?TG/HDL was shown to be significantly associated with serum Cr levels (??=?0.551; 95%CI, 0.394–0.708), and eGFR (??=??0.481; 95%CI, ?0.731–?0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.20; 95%CI, 1.11–1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P?elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  9. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P?TG/HDL was shown to be significantly associated with serum Cr levels (??=?0.551; 95%CI, 0.394-0.708), and eGFR (??=?-0.481; 95%CI, -0.731--0.230). The risk for CKD was significantly increased as TG/HDL ratio was elevated (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.20; 95%CI, 1.11-1.27). These significant associations were found among subjects with euthyroidism and hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the associations between TG/HDL and Cr or CKD status were significantly greater in hypothyroidism than those in euthyroidism (P?elevated TG/HDL ratio was associated with renal dysfunction; it exhibited a significantly stronger association with Cr and CKD in hypothyroidism than in euthyroidism. Therefore, more attention should be paid on lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  10. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  11. Adipocyte ATP-binding cassette G1 promotes triglyceride storage, fat mass growth, and human obesity.

    PubMed

    Frisdal, Eric; Le Lay, Soazig; Hooton, Henri; Poupel, Lucie; Olivier, Maryline; Alili, Rohia; Plengpanich, Wanee; Villard, Elise F; Gilibert, Sophie; Lhomme, Marie; Superville, Alexandre; Miftah-Alkhair, Lobna; Chapman, M John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Venteclef, Nicolas; Poitou, Christine; Tordjman, Joan; Lesnik, Philippe; Kontush, Anatol; Huby, Thierry; Dugail, Isabelle; Clement, Karine; Guerin, Maryse; Le Goff, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    The role of the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) transporter in human pathophysiology is still largely unknown. Indeed, beyond its role in mediating free cholesterol efflux to HDL, the ABCG1 transporter equally promotes lipid accumulation in a triglyceride (TG)-rich environment through regulation of the bioavailability of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Because both ABCG1 and LPL are expressed in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ABCG1 is implicated in adipocyte TG storage and therefore could be a major actor in adipose tissue fat accumulation. Silencing of Abcg1 expression by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes compromised LPL-dependent TG accumulation during the initial phase of differentiation. Generation of stable Abcg1 knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed that Abcg1 deficiency reduces TG storage and diminishes lipid droplet size through inhibition of Ppar? expression. Strikingly, local inhibition of adipocyte Abcg1 in adipose tissue from mice fed a high-fat diet led to a rapid decrease of adiposity and weight gain. Analysis of two frequent ABCG1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1893590 [A/C] and rs1378577 [T/G]) in morbidly obese individuals indicated that elevated ABCG1 expression in adipose tissue was associated with increased PPAR? expression and adiposity concomitant to increased fat mass and BMI (haplotype AT>GC). The critical role of ABCG1 in obesity was further confirmed in independent populations of severe obese and diabetic obese individuals. This study identifies for the first time a major role of adipocyte ABCG1 in adiposity and fat mass growth and suggests that adipose ABCG1 might represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity. PMID:25249572

  12. Fenofibrate Increases Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Production Despite Reducing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; Maas, Annemarie C. E.; van der Hoorn, José W. A.; van Erk, Marjan J.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Havekes, Louis M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M. G.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (?38%) and TG (?60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[3H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (?68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [3H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver. PMID:20501652

  13. Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Coon, Alan B; Robinson, Sandra M; Moinuddin, Asif; Shultz, Jessica M; Nakaoke, Ryota; Morley, John E

    2004-05-01

    Obesity is associated with leptin resistance as evidenced by hyperleptinemia. Resistance arises from impaired leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), defects in leptin receptor signaling, and blockades in downstream neuronal circuitries. The mediator of this resistance is unknown. Here, we show that milk, for which fats are 98% triglycerides, immediately inhibited leptin transport as assessed with in vivo, in vitro, and in situ models of the BBB. Fat-free milk and intralipid, a source of vegetable triglycerides, were without effect. Both starvation and diet-induced obesity elevated triglycerides and decreased the transport of leptin across the BBB, whereas short-term fasting decreased triglycerides and increased transport. Three of four triglycerides tested intravenously inhibited transport of leptin across the BBB, but their free fatty acid constituents were without effect. Treatment with gemfibrozil, a drug that specifically reduces triglyceride levels, reversed both hypertriglyceridemia and impaired leptin transport. We conclude that triglycerides are an important cause of leptin resistance as mediated by impaired transport across the BBB and suggest that triglyceride-mediated leptin resistance may have evolved as an anti-anorectic mechanism during starvation. Decreasing triglycerides may potentiate the anorectic effect of leptin by enhancing leptin transport across the BBB. PMID:15111494

  14. Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified. PMID:25300978

  15. Central nervous system neuropeptide Y regulates mediators of hepatic phospholipid remodeling and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride secretion via sympathetic innervation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jennifer M.; Bruinstroop, Eveline; Printz, Richard L.; Alijagic-Boers, Aldijana; Foppen, Ewout; Turney, Maxine K.; George, Leena; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) secretion from the liver contributes to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity and diabetes are characterized by increased central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptide Y (NPY); in fact, a single intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of NPY in lean fasted rats elevates hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and does so, in large part, via signaling through the CNS NPY Y1 receptor. Thus, our overarching hypothesis is that elevated CNS NPY action contributes to dyslipidemia by activating central circuits that modulate liver lipid metabolism. Methods Chow-fed Zucker fatty (ZF) rats were pair-fed by matching their caloric intake to that of lean controls and effects on body weight, plasma TG, and liver content of TG and phospholipid (PL) were compared to ad-libitum (ad-lib) fed ZF rats. Additionally, lean 4-h fasted rats with intact or disrupted hepatic sympathetic innervation were treated with icv NPY or NPY Y1 receptor agonist to identify novel hepatic mechanisms by which NPY promotes VLDL particle maturation and secretion. Results Manipulation of plasma TG levels in obese ZF rats, through pair-feeding had no effect on liver TG content; however, hepatic PL content was substantially reduced and was tightly correlated with plasma TG levels. Treatment with icv NPY or a selective NPY Y1 receptor agonist in lean fasted rats robustly activated key hepatic regulatory proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1), and lipin-1, known to be involved in remodeling liver PL into TG for VLDL maturation and secretion. Lastly, we show that the effects of CNS NPY on key liporegulatory proteins are attenuated by hepatic sympathetic denervation. Conclusions These data support a model in which CNS NPY modulates mediators of hepatic PL remodeling and VLDL maturation to stimulate VLDL-TG secretion that is dependent on the Y1 receptor and sympathetic signaling to the liver. PMID:25737956

  16. An Inhibitor of the Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Inhibits apoB Secretion from HepG2 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haris Jamil; David A. Gordon; David C. Eustice; Cindy M. Brooks; John K. Dickson; Ying Chen; Beverly Ricci; Ching-Hsuen Chu; Thomas W. Harrity; Carl P. Ciosek; Scott A. Biller; Richard E. Gregg; John R. Wetterau

    1996-01-01

    The microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein is a heterodimeric lipid transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phosphatidylcholine between membranes. Previous studies showing that the proximal cause of abetalipoproteinemia is an absence of MTP indicate that MTP function is required for the assembly of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing plasma lipoproteins, i.e., very low density lipoproteins

  17. Effects of endurance exercise training on plasma HDL cholesterol levels depend on levels of triglycerides: evidence from men of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C; Després, J P; Lamarche, B; Bergeron, J; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C

    2001-07-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations have been shown to increase with regular endurance exercise and, therefore, can contribute to a lower risk of coronary heart disease in physically active individuals compared with sedentary subjects. Although low HDL cholesterol levels are frequently observed in combination with hypertriglyceridemia, some individuals may be characterized by isolated hypoalphalipoproteinemia, ie, low HDL cholesterol levels in the absence of elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The present study compared the responses of numerous lipoprotein-lipid variables to a 20-week endurance exercise training program in men categorized on the basis of baseline TG and HDL cholesterol concentrations: (1) low TG and high HDL cholesterol (normolipidemia), (2) low TG and low HDL cholesterol (isolated low HDL cholesterol), (3) high TG and high HDL cholesterol (isolated high TGs), and (4) high TGs and low HDL cholesterol (high TG/low HDL cholesterol). A series of physical and metabolic variables was measured before and after the training program in a sample of 200 men enrolled in the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. At baseline, men with high TG/low HDL cholesterol had more visceral adipose tissue than did men with isolated low HDL cholesterol and men with normolipidemia. The 0.4% (not significant) exercise-induced increase in HDL cholesterol levels in men with isolated low HDL cholesterol suggests that they did not benefit from the "HDL-raising" effect of exercise. In contrast, men with high TG/low HDL cholesterol showed a significant increase in HDL cholesterol levels (4.9%, P<0.005). Whereas both subgroups of men with elevated TG levels showed reductions in plasma TGs ( approximately -15.0%, P<0.005), only those with high TG/low HDL cholesterol showed significantly reduced apolipoprotein B levels at the end of the study (-6.0%, P<0.005). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the exercise-induced change in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (10.6%, P<0.01) was the only significant correlate of the increase in plasma HDL cholesterol with training in men with high TG/low HDL cholesterol. Results of the present study suggest that regular endurance exercise training may be particularly helpful in men with low HDL cholesterol, elevated TGs, and abdominal obesity. PMID:11451756

  18. Thyrotropin and obesity: increased adipose triglyceride content through glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Dongqing; Gao, Ling; Li, Yujie; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyrotropin (TSH) is positively correlated with the severity of obesity. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that TSH promoted triglyceride (TG) synthesis in differentiated adipocytes in a thyroid hormone-independent manner. Mice with subclinical hypothyroidism, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a 35% increase in the total white adipose mass compared with their wild-type littermates. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, which had normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, resisted high-fat diet-induced obesity. TSH could directly induce the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 3 (GPAT3), the rate-limiting enzyme in TG synthesis, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, following either the knockdown of Tshr and PPAR? or the constitutive activation of AMPK, the changes to TSH-triggered GPAT3 activity and adipogenesis disappeared. The over-expression of PPAR? or the expression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant reversed the TSH-induced changes. Thus, TSH acted as a previously unrecognized master regulator of adipogenesis, indicating that modification of the AMPK/PPAR?/GPAT3 axis via the TSH receptor might serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:25559747

  19. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5?g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1?g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46?g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  20. A small-molecule inhibitor of enterocytic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, SLx-4090: biochemical, pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and safety profile.

    PubMed

    Kim, Enoch; Campbell, Stewart; Schueller, Olivier; Wong, Eric; Cole, Bridget; Kuo, Jay; Ellis, James; Ferkany, John; Sweetnam, Paul

    2011-06-01

    First-generation microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors were designed to inhibit hepatic MTP and provide a novel treatment of dyslipidemia. Effective at lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), these inhibitors also elevate liver enzymes and induce hepatic steatosis in animals and humans. MTP is highly expressed in the enterocytes, lining the lumen of the jejunum, and is critical in the production of chylomicrons assembled from lipid/cholesterol and their transfer into systemic circulation. 6-(4'-Trifluoromethyl-6-methoxy-biphenyl-2-ylcarboxamido)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid phenyl ester (SLx-4090) (IC(50) value ?8 nM) was designed to inhibit only MTP localized to enterocytes. In Caco-2 cells SLx-4090 inhibited apolipoprotein B (IC(50) value ?9.6 nM) but not apolipoprotein A1 secretion. Administered orally to rats SLx-4090 reduced postprandial lipids by >50% with an ED(50) value ?7 mg/kg. SLx-4090 was not detected in the systemic or portal vein serum of the animals (lower limit of quantitation ?5 ng/ml) after single or multiple oral doses in fasted rodents. When coadministered with tyloxapol, SLx-4090 did not inhibit the secretion of hepatic triglycerides (TG), consistent with the absence of systemic exposure. Chronic treatment with SLx-4090 in mice maintained on a high-fat diet decreased LDL-C and TG and resulted in weight loss without the elevation of liver enzymes or an increase in hepatic fat. The compound did not result in toxicity when administered to rats for 90 days at a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day. These data support the concept that the inhibition of enterocytic MTP could serve as a useful strategy in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:21406547

  1. Gut triglyceride production

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption. PMID:21989069

  2. Causes of the triglyceride-lowering effect of exercise training in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Tobey, T.; Reaven, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted with human subjects and laboratory animals have consistently shown a reduction in serum triglyceride (TG) in exercise-trained subjects. The obtained data have suggested that this decrease was due to a reduction in hepatic TG secretion. The present investigation, which was conducted with rats trained to attain a high level of spontaneous running activity, provides support for the earlier results. In addition, insights are obtained regarding the mechanism by which exercise lowers TG levels. Since the liver accounts for the vast majority of endogenous very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG secretion, the fall in TG secretion rate seen in exercise-trained (ET) rats must be due to a reduction in hepatic TG secretion.

  3. The synthetic rate of muscle triglyceride but not phospholipid is increased in obese rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-jun Zhang; David L. Chinkes; Zhanpin Wu; David N. Herndon; Robert R. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Fat is a major energy source for skeletal muscle, and disruption of normal trafficking of fatty acids in muscle is linked to insulin resistance. We quantified muscle triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) synthesis in lean and obese rabbits by means of l-[U-13C16]palmitate infusion. Intramyocellular palmitoyl–coenzyme A was used as the precursor for rates of TG and PL synthesis, which were

  4. Adipose Co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation. Methods Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher’s Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network. Results We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG) were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1) reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals. Conclusions This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations. PMID:23217153

  5. The Association Between Triglyceride and Leptin Levels in Obese Subjects Following a Low-Carbohydrate or Low-Fat Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Obesity has been cited as the second leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Studies have determined that at risk overweight and obese individuals have high circulating levels of leptin indicative of leptin resistance as well as elevated levels of plasma triglycerides. Postulates have been formed that link elevated levels of triglycerides with the inhibition of leptin across

  6. The genetic architecture of fasting plasma triglyceride response to fenofibrate treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic response to the triglyceride (TG)-lowering drug, fenofibrate, is shaped by interactions between genetic and environmental factors, yet knowledge regarding the genetic determinants of this response is primarily limited to single gene effects. Since very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the...

  7. Triglyceride composition of coconut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bezard; M. Bugaut; G. Clement

    1971-01-01

    Triglycerides of coconut oil were fractionated by GLC into 13 groups based on their carbon numbers of 28 to 52. These groups\\u000a represent 99.8% of the total glycerides of coconut oil. With the fatty acid composition of each group, it was possible to\\u000a calculate the composition of 79 types of triglycerides. These types are defined by the nature of their

  8. Triglyceride to HDL-C ratio and increased arterial stiffness in apparently healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiang-Hua; Zhong, Yu-Yu; Wen, Zhi-Gang; Kuang, Chao-Qun; Liao, Jie-Rong; Chen, Li-Hua; Wang, Pei-Shen; Wu, Yue-Xia; Ouyang, Chu-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: High triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol are important cardiovascular risk factors. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) has been reported to be useful in predicting cardiovascular disease. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a valid and reproducible measurement by which to assess arterial stiffness and a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. However, there is limited evidence about the relationship between them. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that TG/HDL-C is associated with baPWV in healthy individuals. Methods: Fasting lipid profiles, baPWV and clinical data were measured in 1498 apparently healthy, medication-free subjects (926 men, 572 women) who participated in a routine health screening from 2011 to 2013. Participants were stratified into quartiles of TG/HDL-C ratio. BaPWV > 1400 cm/s was defined as abnormal baPWV, Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations of TG/HDL-C quartiles and baPWV, after adjusting for the presence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Results: In both genders, we observed positive relationships between TG/HDL-C quartiles and BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, uric acid, and percentages of high baPWV. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that baPWV abnormality OR value of the highest TG/HDL-C quartiles was 1.91 (95% CI: 1.11-3.30, P < 0.05) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.02-8.30, P < 0.05) in male and female after adjusting for age, systolic BP, diastolic BP, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, LDL-C, uric acid and estimated glomerular filtration rate when compared with the lowest TG/HDL-C quartiles. Conclusion: Increased TG/HDL-C was independently associated with baPWV abnormality in apparently healthy individuals.

  9. Low triglyceride levels are associated with a better metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is well known in the literature that high triglyceride serum (TG) levels can jeopardize the metabolic control, little is known about the influence of low TG on type 1 diabetes patients (T1D). The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of TG serum levels in individuals with T1D and its relationship with metabolic control. Findings We reviewed the medical charts of 180 patients with T1D, who were classified in groups according to TG levels: 1) low (below 50 mg/dL); 2) normal (50-150 mg/dL); 3) high (above 150 mg/dL). TG were low in 21.1% (n = 38; group 1), normal in 68.6% (n = 123; group 2) and high in 10.6% (n = 19; group 3). High TG was associated with a poor metabolic control (p < 0.001). Patients with TG lower than 50 mg/dL had a lower HbA1c than those with TG between 50 and 150 mg/dL (7.41+/-1.50% vs 8.56%+/-1.94%; p = 0.002). Conclusion TG lower than 50 mg/dL was common and might be associated with a better metabolic control in patients with T1D, although it is not clear whether the former is the cause or consequence for the latter. PMID:21888624

  10. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Marina T; Danai, Laura V; Roth Flach, Rachel J; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P

    2015-06-12

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation. PMID:25922078

  11. Alleviation of seipinopathy-related ER stress by triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Salo, Veijo T; Ohsaki, Yuki; Suster, Maximiliano L; Ikonen, Elina

    2013-03-15

    Mutations affecting the N-glycosylation site in Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (BSCL)-associated gene BSCL2/seipin lead to a dominantly inherited spastic paraplegia termed seipinopathy. While the loss of function of seipin leads to severe congenital lipodystrophy, the effects of seipin N-glycosylation mutations on lipid balance in the nervous system are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of seipin N-glycosylation mutant N88S led to decreased triglyceride (TG) content in astrocytoma and motor neuron cell lines. This was corrected by supplementation with exogenous oleic acid. Upon oleic acid loading, seipin N88S protein was relocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the surface of lipid droplets and this was paralleled by alleviation of ER stress induced by the mutant protein. This effect was not limited to seipin N88S, as oleic acid loading also reduced tunicamycin-induced ER stress in motor neuron cells. Furthermore, both seipin N88S and tunicamycin-induced ER stress were decreased by inhibiting lipolysis, suggesting that lipid droplets protected neuronal cells from ER stress. In developing zebrafish larvae, seipin N88S expression led to TG imbalance and reduced spontaneous free swimming. Importantly, supplementation with exogenous oleic acid reduced ER stress in the zebrafish head and increased fish motility. We propose that the decreased TG content contributes to the pathology induced by seipin N88S, and that rescuing TG levels may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in seipinopathy. PMID:23250914

  12. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  13. The chalcone xanthohumol inhibits triglyceride and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Casaschi, Adele; Maiyoh, Geoffrey K; Rubio, Brent K; Li, Rachel W; Adeli, Khosrow; Theriault, Andre G

    2004-06-01

    The present study examined the role of xanthohumol (XN), a plant chalcone, on apolipoprotein B (apoB) and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and secretion, using HepG2 cells as the model system. The data indicated that XN decreased apoB secretion in a dose-dependent manner under both basal and lipid-rich conditions (as much as 43% at 15 micromol/L). This decrease was associated with increased cellular apoB degradation. To determine the mechanism underlying this effect, we examined triglyceride availability, a major factor in the regulation of apoB secretion. XN inhibited the synthesis of TG in the microsomal membrane and the transfer of this newly synthesized TG to the microsomal lumen (decreases of 26 and 64%, respectively, under lipid-rich conditions), indicating that TG availability is a determining factor in the regulation of apoB secretion under the experimental conditions. The inhibition of TG synthesis was caused by a reduction in diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity, which corresponded to a decrease in DGAT-1 mRNA expression, but not DGAT-2 expression. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) may also control the rate of TG transfer from the microsomal membrane to the active lumenal pool. XN decreased MTP activity in a dose-dependent manner (as much as 30%). Whether the reduction in TG accumulation in the microsomal lumen is predominantly due to DGAT and/or MTP activity remains unknown. In summary, the data suggest that xanthohumol is a potent inhibitor of apoB secretion. PMID:15173394

  14. Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Matthew

    Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Pharmacy Café/Food Court Sidewalk to Comer Children's Hospital Gift ShopStaff Elevator Accessible Entrance Medical Campus Map Garage) Elevator to Parking Garage Surgery Waiting (Level 2) ELEVATOR ELEVATOR ELEVATOR Mitchell Adult Hospital

  15. Effects of a brisk walk on lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma triglyceride concentrations in the fasted and postprandial states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. R. Gill; Sara L. Herd; Vandana Vora; Adrianne E. Hardman

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a This study aimed to determine whether changes in plasma heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity following a brisk\\u000a walk were associated with decreases in fasting and\\/or postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Two groups of pre-menopausal\\u000a women participated. In one group (fasting study group, n=10), TG concentrations and post-heparin plasma LPL activity were measured in the fasted state on two occasions: ~18 h

  16. Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-? in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Akira; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Toda, Tatsushi; Fukushima, Norihide; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Tavian, Daniela; Nagasaka, Hironori; Hui, Shu-Ping; Chiba, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshiki; Hori, Masatsugu

    2014-01-10

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, "Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5' splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules' lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients' passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG is defective, the marked up-regulation of PPAR? and related genes may lead to increased uptake of LCFAs, the substrates for TG synthesis. This potentially vicious cycle of LCFAs could explain the massive accumulation of TG and severe clinical course for this rare disease. PMID:24332944

  17. Distribution of cholesterol and triglycerides among lipoprotein fractions in fat-fed rabbits at different levels of serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Brattsand, R

    1976-01-01

    The serum lipoproteins of rabbits given semisynthetic cholesterol-free diets containing coconut oil or butter or a conventional rabbit chow supplemented with cholesterol, were studied by preparative ultracentrifugation and electrophoresis. (1) All three diets elevated the total cholesterol level but only the coconut oil diet markedly increased the triglyceride (TG) content in addition. All ultracentrifugation fractions showed elevated cholesterol/TG ratios, and this was especially evident for the cholesterol diet. In the hyperlipidemic rabbits cholesterol was therefore mainly transported in lipoproteins with a changed lipid composition. (2) The lipid levels of the "HDL" fraction were more or less unaffected by the lipid concentration in whole serum. In the total serum cholesterol ranges 150-500 (coconut oil diet) and 100-300 mg/100 ml (cholesterol diet), most cholesterol was transported as "LDL" cholesterol. This latter fraction reached maximum cholesterol concentrations of about 350 (coconut oil diet) and 400 mg/100 ml (cholesterol diet) at total cholesterol levels of approximately 600 and 1200 mg/100 ml serum, respectively. At still higher levels of total cholesterol, the whole increment was concentrated to the "VLDL" fraction. (3) With semisynthetic diets in the whole cholesterol range 250-400 mg/100 ml it was possible, with respect to cholesterol, to induce fairly similar concentrations and distributions to those seen in man, with about 60% transported as "LDL", 30% as "VLDL" and 10% as "HDL" cholesterol with the coconut oil diet and 65%, 20% and 15%, respectively, with the butter diet. Such experimental conditions seem to be suitable for testing the hypocholesterolemic action of drugs intended for human hyperlipidemia Type II. (4) Compared with earlier investigations on rabbits, the present distribution study suggests that the degree of aortic lipid infiltration in cholesterol-fed rabbits is better related to the levels of "LDL" than to "VLDL" cholesterol. PMID:1078396

  18. Managing the residual cardiovascular disease risk associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in statin-treated patients: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Z

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of death in Europe. In addition to patients with proven CVD, those with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at a particularly high-risk of CVD and associated mortality. Treatment for dyslipidaemia, a principal risk factor for CVD, remains a healthcare priority; evidence supports the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary objective of dyslipidaemia management. While statins are the treatment of choice for lowering LDL-C in the majority of patients, including those with T2D, many patients retain a high CVD risk despite achieving the recommended LDL-C targets with statins. This 'residual risk' is mainly due to elevated triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Following statin therapy optimisation additional pharmacotherapy should be considered as part of a multifaceted approach to risk reduction. Fibrates (especially fenofibrate) are the principal agents recommended for add-on therapy to treat elevated TG or low HDL-C levels. Currently, the strongest evidence of benefit is for the addition of fenofibrate to statin treatment in high-risk patients with T2D and dyslipidaemia. An alternative approach is the addition of agents to reduce LDL-C beyond the levels attainable with statin monotherapy. Here, addition of fibrates and niacin to statin therapy is discussed, and novel approaches being developed for HDL-C and TG management, including cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, Apo A-1 analogues, mipomersen, lomitapide and monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9, are reviewed. PMID:23932901

  19. Evaluation of five methods for determining low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in hemodialysis patients 1 1 Abbreviations: TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglycerides; LDL-C: LDL cholesterol; HDLC: HDL cholesterol; LDL-UC: LDL cholesterol measured by the ultracentrifugation\\/dextran sulfate-Mg 2+ precipitation assay; posPV: positive predictive value; negPV: negative predictive value; CHD: coronary heart disease; HD: hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni Bairaktari; Moses Elisaf; Christos Tzallas; Sonia Anna Karabina; Alexandros D. Tselepis; Kostas C. Siamopoulos; Orestes Tsolas

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Current recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia are largely based on the concentration of LDL-C. Most clinical laboratories estimate the concentration of LDL-C by the recommended routine method, the equation of Friedewald, in specimens from fasting subjects and with TG concentrations < 4.52 mmol\\/L. Because of the limitations of the Friedewald calculation, direct methods for an accurate quantification of

  20. Evidence for a role of tumor necrosis factor ? in disturbances of triglyceride and glucose metabolism predisposing to coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Jovinge; Anders Hamsten; Per Tornvall; Anthony Proudler; Peter Båvenholm; Carl-Göran Ericsson; Ian Godsland; Ulf de Faire; Jan Nilsson

    1998-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired fibrinolytic function frequently aggregate in patients with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Experimetnal studies suggest that the cytokine tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) produced by adipocytes plays a part in the regulation of triglyceride and glucose metabolism. The present study examined whether TNF? is

  1. The Paradox of ApoA5 Modulation of Triglycerides: Evidences from Clinical and Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Lor, Kenton; Jin, Jun; Chai, Fei; Santanam, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides (TG), although its plasma concentration is very low compared to other known apoproteins. Over the years, researchers have attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ApoA5 regulates plasma TG in vivo. Though still under debate, two theories broadly describe how ApoA5 modulates TG levels: (i) ApoA5 enhances the catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and (ii) it inhibits the rate of production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the major carrier of TGs. This review will summarize the basic and clinical studies that have attempted to describe the importance of ApoA5 in TG metabolism. Population studies conducted in various countries have demonstrated an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ApoA5 and the increased risk to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (including diabetes and obesity). ApoA5 is also highly expressed during liver regeneration and is an acute phase protein associated with HDL which was independent of its effects on TG metabolism. Conclusion Despite considerable evidences available from clinical and basic research studies, on the role of ApoA5 in TG metabolism and its indirect link to metabolic diseases, additional investigations are needed to understand the paradoxical role of this important apoprotein shown modulated by diet and from it polymorphism variants. PMID:23000317

  2. Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apoE phenotype: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dallongeville; S. Lussier-Cacan; J. Davignon

    The relationship between apoE phenotype and plasma lipid levels was analyzed in the combined data of published studies. Accordingly, 45 population samples from 17 different countries were included in the analysis. The mean plasma values of cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-CH of the apoE 2\\/2, 3\\/2, 4\\/3, 4\\/4, and 4\\/2 groups were compared with the same

  3. Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Henderson; Ronald M. Krauss; Jill A. Fattor; Nastaran Faghihnia; Mona Luke-Zeitoun; George A. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    It is known that chronic endurance training leads to improvements in the lipoprotein profile, but less is known about changes\\u000a that occur during postexercise recovery acutely. We analyzed triglyceride (TG), cholesterol classes and apolipoproteins in\\u000a samples collected before, during and after individual moderate- and hard-intensity exercise sessions in men and women that\\u000a were isoenergetic between intensities. Young healthy men (n = 9)

  4. NASH Resolution is Associated with Improvements in HDL and Triglyceride Levels But Not Improvement in LDL or Non-HDL-C Levels

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Wilson, Laura A.; Cummings, Oscar W.; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aim To determine the relationship between resolution of NASH and dyslipidemia. Methods Individuals in the Pioglitazone versus Vitamin E versus Placebo for the Treatment of Nondiabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial with paired liver biopsies and fasting lipid levels were included (N=222). In the PIVENS trial individuals were randomized to pioglitazone 30mg, vitamin E 800IU or placebo for 96 weeks. Change in lipid levels at 96 weeks was compared between those with and without NASH resolution. Results Dyslipidemia at baseline was frequent, with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (<40mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women) in 63%, hypertriglyceridemia (?150 mg/dL) in 46%, hypercholesterolemia (?200 mg/dL) in 47%, and triglycerides (TG)/HDL>5.0 in 25%. Low-density lipoprotein (LD) ? 160 mg/dL was found in 16% and elevated non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (?130 mg/dL) in 73%. HDL increased with NASH resolution but decreased in those without resolution (2.9mg/dL vs. ?2.5mg/dL, P<0.001). NASH resolution was associated with significant decreases in TG and TG/HDL ratio compared to those without resolution (TG: ?21.1 vs. ?2.3mg/dL, P=0.03 and TG/HDL: ?0.7 vs 0.1, P=0.003). Non-HDL-C, LDL and cholesterol decreased over 96 weeks in both groups but there was no significant difference between groups. Treatment group did not impact lipids. Conclusions NASH resolution is associated with improvements in TG and HDL but not in other CVD risk factors including LDL and non-HDL-C levels. Individuals with resolution of NASH may still be at increased risk of CVD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00063622 PMID:25429853

  5. Systemic Free Fatty Acid Disposal Into Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Ali, Asem H.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We measured the incorporation of systemic free fatty acids (FFA) into circulating very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TGs) under postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions in humans. Fifty-five men and 85 premenopausal women with BMI 18–24 (lean) and 27–36 kg/m2 (overweight/obese) received an intravenous bolus injection of [1,1,2,3,3-2H5]glycerol (to measure VLDL-TG kinetics) and either [1-14C]palmitate or [9,10-3H]palmitate to determine the proportion of systemic FFA that is converted to VLDL-TG. Experiments started at 0630 h after a 12-h overnight fast. In the postabsorptive protocol, participants rested and remained fasted until 1330 h. In the postprandial protocol, volunteers ingested frequent portions of a fat-free smoothie. In the walking protocol, participants walked on a treadmill for 5.5 h at ?3× resting energy expenditure. Approximately 7% of circulating FFA was converted into VLDL-TG. VLDL-TG secretion rates (SRs) were not statistically different among protocols. Visceral fat mass was the only independent predictor of VLDL-TG secretion, explaining 33–57% of the variance. The small proportion of systemic FFA that is converted to VLDL-TG can confound the expected relationship between plasma FFA concentration and VLDL-TG SRs. Regulation of VLDL-TG secretion is complex in that, despite a broad spectrum of physiological FFA concentrations, VLDL-TG SRs did not vary based on different acute substrate availability. PMID:23434937

  6. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from (14C)acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells.

  7. Excess S-adenosylmethionine reroutes phosphatidylethanolamine towards phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Uña, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Cano, Ainara; Fernández-Ares, Larraitz; Beraza, Naiara; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Martínez-Arranz, Ibon; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Buqué, Xabier; Mestre, Daniela; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Alonso, Cristina; Finnell, Richard H; Lu, Shelly C; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, José M

    2013-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) are the primary genes involved in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis and degradation, respectively. Mat1a ablation in mice induces a decrease in hepatic SAMe, activation of lipogenesis, inhibition of triglyceride (TG) release, and steatosis. Gnmt deficient mice, despite showing a large increase in hepatic SAMe, also develop steatosis. We hypothesized that as an adaptive response to hepatic SAMe accumulation, phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway is stimulated in Gnmt?/? mice. We also propose that the excess PC thus generated is catabolized leading to TG synthesis and steatosis via diglyceride (DG) generation. We observed that Gnmt?/? mice present with normal hepatic lipogenesis and increased TG release. We also observed that the flux from PE to PC is stimulated in the liver of Gnmt?/? mice and that this results in a reduction in PE content and a marked increase in DG and TG. Conversely, reduction of hepatic SAMe following the administration of a methionine deficient diet reverted the flux from PE to PC of Gnmt?/? mice to that of wild type animals and normalized DG and TG content preventing the development of steatosis. Gnmt?/? mice with an additional deletion of perilipin2, the predominant lipid droplet protein, maintain high SAMe levels, with a concurrent increased flux from PE to PC, but do not develop liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings indicate that excess SAMe reroutes PE towards PC and TG synthesis, and lipid sequestration. PMID:23505042

  8. Triglyceride-coated nanoparticles: skin toxicity and effect of UV/IR irradiation on them.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Kazemi, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    Triglyceride (TG) is an important compound on the skin, produced by sebaceous glands, and may change cytotoxicity of different nanoparticles. To date, there is no report about toxicity of nanoparticles coated with TG. On the other hand, the use of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) with nanoparticles changes nanoparticle cytotoxicity. The combination of nanoparticles with UV or IR is applicable, because it may be used for treatment or detection of local cancers, surface microbial infections and other skin diseases. In this study, different nanoparticles including titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, silver, gold, and TG-coated form of these nanoparticles, were added to suspensions of Balb/c skin cells, and then incubated for 24h at 37°C. Additionally, TG-coated nanoparticles were treated with UV and IR irradiation for 1h. Different methods were applied for evaluation of cytotoxicity, including 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell metabolic assay, ATP assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay. This research showed that TG-coated nanoparticles had less LDH release and ROS generation with higher cell viability, cell metabolic activity, and ATP level, compared with pristine nanoparticles. In contrast, the combination of UV and IR with TG-coated nanoparticles led to higher LDH release and ROS generation with less cell viability, cell metabolic activity, and ATP level, in comparison with pristine nanoparticles. Overall, pristine metal nanoparticles without irradiation had higher cytotoxicity than metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:23743185

  9. Intestinal DGAT1 deficiency reduces postprandial triglyceride and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion and delaying gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Ables, Gene P; Yang, Kryscilla Jian Zhang; Vogel, Silke; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Yu, Shuiqing; Yuen, Jason J; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K; Turnbull, Andrew V; Goldberg, Ira J; Blaner, William S; Huang, Li-Shin; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2012-11-01

    Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 catalyzes the final step of triglyceride (TG) synthesis. We show that acute administration of a DGAT1 inhibitor (DGAT1i) by oral gavage or genetic deletion of intestinal Dgat1 (intestine-Dgat1(-/-)) markedly reduced postprandial plasma TG and retinyl ester excursions by inhibiting chylomicron secretion in mice. Loss of DGAT1 activity did not affect the efficiency of retinol esterification, but it did reduce TG and retinoid accumulation in the small intestine. In contrast, inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) reduced chylomicron secretion after oral fat/retinol loads, but with accumulation of dietary TG and retinoids in the small intestine. Lack of intestinal accumulation of TG and retinoids in DGAT1i-treated or intestine-Dgat1(-/-) mice resulted, in part, from delayed gastric emptying associated with increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. However, neither bypassing the stomach through duodenal oil injection nor inhibiting the receptor for GLP-1 normalized postprandial TG or retinyl esters excursions in the absence of DGAT1 activity. In summary, intestinal DGAT1 inhibition or deficiency acutely delayed gastric emptying and inhibited chylomicron secretion; however, the latter occurred when gastric emptying was normal or when lipid was administered directly into the small intestine. Long-term hepatic retinoid metabolism was not impacted by DGAT1 inhibition. PMID:22911105

  10. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  11. Does the association of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with fasting serum insulin differ by race\\/ethnicity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyang Li; Earl S Ford; Yuan-Xiang Meng; Ali H Mokdad; Gerald M Reaven

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG\\/HDL-C) ratio has been reported to be as closely correlated with insulin resistance as is the fasting serum insulin concentration (FSI), and therefore it is seen as a clinically useful way to identify the concomitant presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, conflicting findings exist for the association of the TG\\/HDL-C ratio with

  12. Adipose triglyceride lipase is involved in the mobilization of triglyceride and retinoid stores of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Taschler, Ulrike; Schreiber, Renate; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Grabner, Gernot F; Romauch, Matthias; Wolinski, Heimo; Haemmerle, Guenter; Breinbauer, Rolf; Zechner, Rudolf; Lass, Achim; Zimmermann, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) store triglycerides (TGs) and retinyl ester (RE) in cytosolic lipid droplets. RE stores are degraded following retinoid starvation or in response to pathogenic stimuli resulting in HSC activation. At present, the major enzymes catalyzing lipid degradation in HSCs are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is involved in RE catabolism of HSCs. Additionally, we compared the effects of ATGL deficiency and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiency, a known RE hydrolase (REH), on RE stores in liver and adipose tissue. We show that ATGL degrades RE even in the presence of TGs, implicating that these substrates compete for ATGL binding. REH activity was stimulated and inhibited by comparative gene identification-58 and G0/G1 switch gene-2, respectively, the physiological regulators of ATGL activity. In cultured primary murine HSCs, pharmacological inhibition of ATGL, but not HSL, increased RE accumulation. In mice globally lacking ATGL or HSL, RE contents in white adipose tissue were decreased or increased, respectively, while plasma retinol and liver RE levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our study shows that ATGL acts as REH in HSCs promoting the degradation of RE stores in addition to its established function as TG lipase. HSL is the predominant REH in adipocytes but does not affect lipid mobilization in HSCs. PMID:25732851

  13. Insulin, glucose and triglyceride relationships in obese African subjects.

    PubMed

    Joffe, B I; Goldberg, R B; Seftel, H C; Distiller, L A

    1975-06-01

    Aspects of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were studied in 50 nondiabetic African subjects living in Johannesburg. Twenty-six of them were overweight, invariably associated with a high-carbohydrate intake. In general, the obese group demonstrated significantly raised serum insulin levels, normal glucose tolerance, normal fasting serum triglycerides, and significantly elevated serum cholesterol concentrations. However, the degree of obesity was not significantly correlated with any of these metabolic variables--notably basal or stimulated insulin levels. This suggests that the obese state, per se, was not the major cause of the hyperinsulinemia, and that other factors influenced individual insulin responses or sensitivity. Inconsistently excessive dietary carbohydrate ingestion and an unusual degree of physical activity may have been important. A striking correlation emerged between fasting serum triglycerides and insulin concentrations (both basal and stimulated); the possibility that this reflects acceleration of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by insulin is discussed. The concept of obesity invariably producing insulin resistance and progressive compensatory hyperinsulinism may not apply in all environmental conditions. PMID:1130321

  14. PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-BASED THERMOSETS. (R829576)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triglycerides with acrylate functionality were prepared from various oils and model triglycerides. The triglyceride-acrylates were homopolymerized and copolymerized with styrene. The cross-link densities of the resulting polymer networks were predicted utilizing the F...

  15. Effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma glucose, triglyceride, and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein concentrations in laying hens fed diets containing different types of fats.

    PubMed

    Pál, L; Grossmann, R; Dublecz, K; Husvéth, F; Wagner, L; Bartos, A; Kovács, G

    2002-11-01

    The influence of dietary fat supplementations differing in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), and TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations was investigated in laying hens. Birds were fed either a low-fat control diet (LF) or diets supplemented with 4% pumpkin seed oil (PO; rich in n-6 PUFA) or 4% cod liver oil (CO; rich in n-3 PUFA). After 4 wk feeding of the experimental diets, hens were implanted with wing vein catheters and injected with porcine glucagon (20 microg/kg BW) and porcine insulin (0.5 IU/kg BW), 2 to 5 h after oviposition. Plasma glucose, TG, and TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations were determined from 10 min pre-injection to 60 min post-injection. PO diet resulted in a prolonged plasma glucose response to glucagon administration and altered hypoglycemic response to insulin. However, CO diet did not influence plasma glucose response to either glucagon or insulin administration compared to LF diet. The effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma TG and TG-rich lipoproteins were similar for all diets regardless of the amount or type of fat. The results suggest that feeding dietary fats with high n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio alters the glucagon and insulin sensitivity of plasma glucose in laying hens. Fats rich in n-3 PUFA seem to have no influence on the plasma glucose response to glucagon and insulin. PMID:12455597

  16. Relationship of maternal grain intake and serum triglyceride levels with infant birth weight: Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J-Y; Choi, H I; Kim, H; Jang, W; Ha, E-H; Park, C; Chang, N

    2015-06-01

    Background/ObjectivesMaternal serum triglyceride (TG) level is known to be associated with neonatal birth weight. Although Koreans traditionally consume relatively high amounts of grain and grain products, mainly in the form of white rice, and the consumption is positively associated with serum TG levels, no study has investigated the relationship between dietary grain intake, serum TG levels and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women. This study was conducted to identify the association between infant birth weight and maternal intake of grain, as well as serum TG levels.Subjects/MethodsSubjects were 1011 pregnant women at 12-28 weeks' gestational age and their offspring. Maternal serum TG levels, dietary intake and infant birth weight were measured.ResultsSerum TG levels were positively related to neonatal birth weight both at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0015) and at late pregnancy (P<0.0001). Such an association only existed in subjects with the highest tertile of grain intake at mid-pregnancy (P=0.0055) but was observed in all tertiles at late pregnancy (1st P=0.0186, 2nd P=0.0146, 3rd P=0.0099).ConclusionsThe relationship between maternal TG levels and infant birth weight may depend on dietary grain intake and stages of pregnancy in Korean pregnant women. PMID:25514901

  17. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat\\/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Yuan Pan; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hang Dong; Chun-Jing Xiang; Wang-Fun Fong

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat\\/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induc- tion of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, respectively) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels

  18. Changes in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglyceride\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios among patients randomized to aripiprazole versus olanzapine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Newcomer; Jonathan M. Meyer; Ross A. Baker; James M. Eudicone; Andrei Pikalov; Estelle Vester-Blokland; Robert D. McQuade; David T. Crandall; William H. Carson; Ronald N. Marcus; Gilbert L'Italien

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveNon-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C) are predictors of cardiovascular risk. This post-hoc analysis assessed changes in these parameters during treatment with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine or aripiprazole using pooled data from three randomized, long-term clinical studies in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  20. Effects of acute exercise on postprandial triglyceride response after a high fat meal in overweight black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Burns, Stephen F.; White, David; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Arslanian, Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the effects of acute exercise on postprandial triglyceride (TG) metabolism following a high fat meal in overweight black vs. white adolescents. Design and Subjects Twenty-one black and 17 white adolescents (12-18 yrs, BMI >85th percentile) were evaluated twice, during control versus exercise trials, 1-4 weeks apart, in a counterbalanced randomized design. In the control trial, participants performed no exercise on day 1. In the exercise trial, participants performed a single bout of 60 min exercise (50% VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer on day 1. On day 2 of both trials, participants consumed a high-fat breakfast (70% calories from fat) and blood was sampled for TG concentration in the fasted state and for 6 hrs postprandially. Results There was a significant main effect of condition on postprandial peak TG concentration (P=0.01) and TG-area under the curve (AUC) (P=0.003), suggesting that independent of race, peak TG and TG-AUC was lower in the exercise trial vs. control trial. Including Tanner stage, gender, total fat (kg) and VAT as independent variables, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that in whites, VAT was the strongest (P<0.05) predictor of postprandial TG-AUC explaining 56% and 25% of the variances in TG-AUC in the control and exercise trials, respectively. In blacks, VAT was not associated with postprandial TG-AUC independent of trial. Conclusion A single bout of aerobic exercise preceding a high fat meal is beneficial to reduce postprandial TG concentrations in overweight white adolescents to a greater extent than black adolescents, particularly those with increased visceral adiposity. PMID:23507997

  1. Triglyceride analysis with glass capillary gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Grob; H. P. Neukom; R. Battaglia

    1980-01-01

    The analyses of triglycerides on capillary columns is reported. Applications in which this technique can be used include:\\u000a rapid identification of fats and oils, measurement of butter fat or coconut oil content in margarine or chocolate, monitoring\\u000a of processes such as fractionation, transesterification or heat treatment. Although separation of all isomers within a group\\u000a of triglycerides with identical carbon numbers

  2. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides as therapeutic targets for preventing and treating coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio M. Gotto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical trials show that elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, adjustment for covariates frequently weakens or abolishes the predictive significance of triglycerides, whereas the evidence for HDL-C is more consistently strong. Data indicate that there is a 2% to 3% decrease in coronary risk

  3. Prolonged inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by atorvastatin inhibits apo B100 and triglyceride secretion from HepG2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Funatsu; K. Suzuki; M. Goto; Y. Arai; H. Kakuta; H. Tanaka; S. Yasuda; M. Ida; S. Nishijima; K. Miyata

    2001-01-01

    Atorvastatin is a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that strongly lowers plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels in humans and animals. Since previous data indicated that atorvastatin has prolonged inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, we tested whether this longer duration of inhibitory effect on cholesterol synthesis decreased hepatic lipoprotein secretion in vitro. We used the HepG2 hepatoma cell line to: (1)

  4. Mechanism study on NS81006-mediated methanolysis of triglyceride in oil\\/water biphasic system for biodiesel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Lv; Wei Du; Guoling Zhang; Dehua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Compared to immobilized lipase, soluble lipase has the merits of lower cost and faster reaction rate, thus much attention has been paid to soluble lipase-mediated methanolysis for biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) production in recent years. Our previous study showed that soluble lipase NS81006 could effectively catalyze the methanolysis of soybean oil (triglyceride, TG) for FAME preparation in oil\\/water

  5. Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism, and plasma adiponectin levels in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Varady; D. J. Roohk; Y. C. Loe; B. K. McEvoy-Hein; M. K. Hellerstein

    2007-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) affects adipocyte function and reduces body weight. However, the effects of alternate- day fasting (ADF) on adipose biology remain unclear. This study examined the effects of ADF and modified ADF regi- mens on adipocyte size, triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and adiponectin levels in relation to changes in body weight and adipose mass. Twenty-four male C57BL\\/6J mice were ran-

  6. Novel unbiased equations to calculate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol from routine non-fasting lipids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-fasting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins cholesterol (TRL-C) contributes to cardiovascular risk, in that it includes remnant cholesterol (RC). TRL-C is computed as total C - [LDL-C?+?HDL-C]. Such calculation applies only if LDL-C is directly measured, or obtained from a non-Friedewald’s formula, a method as yet never benchmarked against independent markers of TRL burden. Methods The Discriminant Ratio (DR) methodology was used in 120 type 2 diabetic patients in order: (i) to compute TRL-C from non-fasting lipids; (ii) to establish the performance of TRL-C and TRL-C/apoA-I (vs. TG-based markers) to grade TRLs and atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD); and (iii) to relate TRL-C with non-fasting TG. Results Depending on apoB100 availability, TRL-C (mg/dL) can be derived from non-fasting lipids in two ways: (a) total cholesterol (TC) - [(0.0106 * TC - 0.0036 * TG?+?0.017 * apoB100 - 0.27) * 38.6] - HDL-C; and (b) TC - [(0.0106 * TC - 0.0036 * TG?+?0.017 * [0.65 * (TC - HDL-C)?+?6.3] - 0.27) * 38.6] - HDL-C. Discrimination between log[TG] and TRL-C was similar (DR 0.94 and 0.84, respectively), whereas that of log[TG]/HDL-C was better than TRL-C/apoA-I (DR 1.01 vs. 0.65; p 0.0482). All Pearson’s correlations between pairs reached unity, allowing formulation of two unbiased equivalence equations: (a) TRL-C?=?97.8 * log[TG] - 181.9; and (b) TRL-C/apoA-I?=?8.15 * (log[TG]/HDL-C) - 0.18. Conclusions TRL-C and log[TG] are as effective and interchangeable for assessing remnant atherogenic particles. For grading TRL-AD, it is best to use log[TG]/HDL-C, inherently superior to TRL-C/apoA-I, while measuring the same underlying variable. PMID:24612479

  7. Pleiotropic regulation of mitochondrial function by adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Dagmar; Obrowsky, Sascha; Kolb, Dagmar; Radovic, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Lipolysis is defined as the catabolism of triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Recent discoveries of essential lipolytic enzymes and characterization of numerous regulatory proteins and mechanisms have fundamentally changed our perception of lipolysis and its impact on cellular metabolism. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for TG catabolism in most cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the (patho)physiological impact due to defective lipolysis by ATGL deficiency on mitochondrial (dys)function. Depending on the type of cells and tissues investigated, absence of ATGL has pleiotropic roles in mitochondrial function. PMID:23827855

  8. Pleiotropic regulation of mitochondrial function by adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis?

    PubMed Central

    Kratky, Dagmar; Obrowsky, Sascha; Kolb, Dagmar; Radovic, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Lipolysis is defined as the catabolism of triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Recent discoveries of essential lipolytic enzymes and characterization of numerous regulatory proteins and mechanisms have fundamentally changed our perception of lipolysis and its impact on cellular metabolism. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for TG catabolism in most cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the (patho)physiological impact due to defective lipolysis by ATGL deficiency on mitochondrial (dys)function. Depending on the type of cells and tissues investigated, absence of ATGL has pleiotropic roles in mitochondrial function. PMID:23827855

  9. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk than plasma TG, 2) during a high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet than high-fat (H-FAT) diet, and 3) during feeding than fasting. Seven healthy, lactating women were studied on two isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets. On one occasion, subjects received diets containing H-FAT or H-CHO diet for 1 wk. Incorporation of 13C from infused [U-13C]glucose into FA and glycerol was measured using GC-MS and gene expression in RNA isolated from milk fat globule using microarrays. Incorporation of 13C2 into milk FA increased with increased FA chain length from C2:0 to C12:0 but progressively declined in C14:0 and C16:0 and was not detected in FA>C16. During feeding, regardless of diets, enrichment of 13C2 in milk FA and 13C3 in milk glycerol were ?3- and ?7-fold higher compared with plasma FA and glycerol, respectively. Following an overnight fast during H-CHO and H-FAT diets, 25 and 6%, respectively, of medium-chain FA (MCFA, C6–C12) in milk were derived from glucose but increased to 75 and 25% with feeding. Expression of genes involved in FA or glycerol synthesis was unchanged regardless of diet or fast/fed conditions. The human MG is capable of de novo lipogenesis of primarily MCFA and glycerol, which is influenced by the macronutrient composition of the maternal diet. PMID:24496312

  10. Thermal characterization of HCN polymers by TG–MS, TG, DTA and DSC methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José L. de la Fuente; Marta Ruiz-Bermejo; Susana Osuna-Esteban

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a thermogravimetry (TG) study of hydrogen cyanide polymers, synthesized from the reaction of equimolar aqueous solutions of sodium cyanide and ammonium chloride. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also used to evaluate the thermal behaviour of these black polymers, which play an important role in prebiotic chemistry. A coupled TG–mass spectrometer (MS) system

  11. Serum Triglyceride Levels Independently Contribute to the Estimation of Visceral Fat Amount Among Nondiabetic Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiao-Yu; Huang, Hsien-Liang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Lee, Long-Teng; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Tseng, Fen-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Determining the visceral fat amount is important in the risk stratification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related disorders. The area-based measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accurate but expensive and time-consuming method for estimating visceral fat amount. The aim of our study was to identify a practical predictive parameter for visceral obesity in clinical settings.In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 51 nondiabetic obese (body mass index [BMI] ? 27?kg/m) adults in Taiwan (21 men and 30 women, mean age 35.6?±?9.2 years, mean BMI 33.3?±?3.9?kg/m). VFA was quantified by a single-slice MRI image. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters including fasting plasma glucose, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, and lipid profiles were measured. The associations between different variables and VFA were analyzed by linear regression analysis.Increases in BMI, waist circumference, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides (TGs), and decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were correlated with larger VFA. After adjustment for age, sex, and anthropometric indices, only serum TG level remained as an independent correlate of VFA. Besides demographic and anthropometric indices, adding TG level may explain a greater variance of VFA. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, male sex, age, waist circumference, and serum TG level remained significant predictors of VFA. In a subgroup analysis among subjects with BMI ?30?kg/m, similar results were demonstrated and serum TG level remained as significant independent correlates of VFA in all of the predictive models.Among nondiabetic obese adults, serum TG level was positively associated with VFA. The combination of sex, age, anthropometric indices, and serum TG level may be used to estimate VFA in clinical settings. PMID:26061332

  12. Is apolipoprotein A-IV rate limiting in the intestinal transport and absorption of triglyceride?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Vandersall, Abbey E.; Huesman, Sarah; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Lou, Danwen; Tso, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is synthesized by the intestine and secreted when dietary fat is absorbed and transported into lymph associated with chylomicrons. We have recently demonstrated that loss of apoA-IV increases chylomicron size and delays its clearance from the blood. There is still uncertainty, however, about the precise role of apoA-IV on the transport of dietary fat from the intestine into the lymph. ApoA-IV knockout (KO) mice do not have a gross defect in dietary lipid absorption, as measured by oral fat tolerance and fecal fat measurements. Here, using the in vivo lymph fistula mouse model, we show that the cumulative secretion of triglyceride (TG) into lymph in apoA-IV KO mice is very similar to that of wild-type (WT) mice. However, the apoA-IV KO mice do have subtle changes in TG accumulation in the intestinal mucosa during a 6-h continuous, but not bolus, infusion of lipid. There are no changes in the ratio of esterified to free fatty acids in the intestinal mucosa of the apoA-IV KO, however. When we extended these findings, by giving a higher dose of lipid (6 ?mol/h) and for a longer infusion period (8 h), we found no effect of apoA-IV KO on intestinal TG absorption. This higher lipid infusion most certainly stresses the intestine, as we see a drastically lower absorption of TG (in both WT and KO mice); however, the loss of A-IV does not exacerbate this effect. This supports our hypothesis that apoA-IV is not required for TG absorption in the intestine. Our data suggest that the mechanisms by which the apoA-IV KO intestine responds to intestinal lipid may not be different from their WT counterparts. We conclude that apoA-IV is not required for normal lymphatic transport of TG. PMID:23599044

  13. Association between Myocardial Triglyceride Content and Cardiac Function in Healthy Subjects and Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Eiryu; Shimada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Sato, Shuji; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Hiki, Makoto; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Aoki, Shigeki; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic fat accumulation plays important roles in various metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies reported that myocardial triglyceride (TG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is associated with aging, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac dysfunction. However, myocardial TG content in athletes has not yet been investigated. We performed 1H-MRS and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 10 male endurance athletes and 15 healthy male controls. Serum markers and other clinical parameters including arterial stiffness were measured. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was also performed. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics including age, anthropometric parameters, blood test results, or arterial stiffness between the two groups. Peak oxygen uptakes, end–diastolic volume (EDV), end–systolic volume (ESV), left ventricular (LV) mass, peak ejection rates and peak filling rates were significantly higher in the athlete group than in the control group (all P<0.02). Myocardial TG content was significantly lower in the athlete group than in the control group (0.60±0.20 vs. 0.89±0.41%, P<0.05). Myocardial TG content was negatively correlated with EDV (r?=??0.47), ESV (r?=??0.64), LV mass (r?=??0.44), and epicardial fat volume (r?=?0.47) (all P<0.05). In conclusion, lower levels of myocardial TG content were observed in endurance athletes and were associated with morphological changes related to physiological LV alteration in athletes, suggesting that metabolic imaging for measurement of myocardial TG content by 1H-MRS may be a useful technique for noninvasively assessing the “athlete’s heart”. PMID:23613879

  14. Influences of APOA5 Variants on Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Uyghur Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Di; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene are associated with triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibriums (LDs) of the SNPs in addition to their effects on TG levels vary greatly between Caucasians and East Asians. The distributions of the SNPs/haplotypes and their associations with TG levels in Uyghur population, an admixture population of Caucasians and East Asians, have not been reported to date. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to address these. Methods Genotyping of four SNPs in APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) was performed in 1174 unrelated Uyghur subjects. SNP/haplotype and TG association analyses were conducted. Results The frequencies of the SNPs in Uyghurs were in between those in Caucasians and East Asians. The LD between rs662799 and rs2266788 in Uyghurs was stronger than that in East Asians but weaker than that in Caucasians, and the four SNPs resulted in four haplotypes (TGGT, CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT arranged in the order of rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) representing 99.2% of the population. All the four SNPs were significantly associated with TG levels. Compared with non-carriers, carriers of rs662799-C, rs3135506-C, rs2075291-T, and rs2266788-C alleles had 16.0%, 15.1%, 17.1%, and 12.4% higher TG levels, respectively. When haplotype TGGT was defined as the reference, the haplotypes CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT resulted in 16.1%, 19.0%, and 19.8% higher TG levels, respectively. The proportions of variance in TG explained by APOA5 locus were 2.5%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 1.9% for single SNP rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788, respectively, and 3.0% for the haplotypes constructed by them. Conclusions The association profiles between the SNPs and haplotypes at APOA5 locus and TG levels in this admixture population differed from those in Caucasians and East Asians. The functions of these SNPs and haplotypes need to be elucidated comprehensively. PMID:25313938

  15. Use of relationships between retention behaviors and chemical structures in subcritical fluid chromatography with CO2/modifier mixtures for the identification of triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E; Bleton, J; Tchapla, A

    2000-06-01

    Satisfactory separations of vegetable oil triglycerides (TG) differing in fatty acid composition are obtained by subcritical fluid chromatography (SubFC) with octadecyl packed columns and CO2/modifier mobile phases. However, the identification of TG can be sometimes difficult due to the small retention differences between the compounds. A method of TG identification in SubFC was achieved, which does not require calculation of retention pattern but uses the differences in retention behavior related to TG structure and to the nature of the subcritical mobile phases. These retention differences were produced by the variation of either outlet pressure or modifier percentage or of temperature. Whatever the column aging, this method allows the determination of the triglyceride total chain length and double bond number. Among numerous structures, these two criteria restrict the structural hypothesis at worst to three or four possibilities and sometimes only to one. The validity of this relative identification method was confirmed by electronic impact mass spectrometry of triglyceride fractions collected from the analysis of a peanut oil. The analysis of concentrated fractions is favored by the spontaneous elimination after the pressure regulator of carbon dioxide, the main fluid of the subcritical mobile phase. PMID:10857637

  16. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24059726

  17. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Genes Influencing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Dawn K.; Schneider, Jennifer; Hu, Shirley L.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Puppala, Sobha; Farook, Vidya S.; Arya, Rector; Lehman, Donna M.; Blangero, John; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Elevated plasma triglyceride concentration is a component of the insulin resistance syndrome and is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and coronary heart disease. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage scan to identify genetic regions that influence variation in plasma triglyceride levels in families that are enriched with individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,026 individuals distributed across 294 Mexican-American families, who were ascertained for type 2 diabetes, from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Plasma triglyceride values were transformed, and a variance-components technique was used to conduct multipoint linkage analysis. RESULTS—After adjusting for the significant effects of sex and BMI, heritability for plasma triglycerides was estimated as 46 ± 7% (P < 0.0001). Multipoint linkage analysis yielded the strongest evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides near marker D12S391 on chromosome 12p (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 2.4). Our linkage signal on chromosome 12p provides independent replication of a similar finding in another Mexican-American sample from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). Combined multipoint linkage analysis of the VAGES and SAFDS data yielded significant evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides to a genetic location between markers GATA49D12 and D12S391 on 12p (LOD = 3.8, empirical P value = 2.0 × 10?5). This region on 12p harbors the gene-encoding adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), where we previously have shown that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations in the SAFDS. In the present study, we provided suggestive evidence in favor of association for rs929434 with triglyceride concentrations in the VAGES. CONCLUSIONS—Collectively, these results provide strong evidence for a major locus on chromosome 12p that influences plasma triglyceride levels in Mexican Americans. PMID:18931038

  18. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  19. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1705 - Triglyceride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1705 Triglyceride test system. (a) Identification. A triglyceride test system is a device intended to...lipid metabolism, or various endocrine disorders. (b)...

  4. Quantitative light and electron microscopic study of cerebellar granule cells and parallel fiber varicosities in adult tottering (tg/tg), leaner (tgla/tgla) and compound heterozygous (tg/tgla) mice 

    E-print Network

    Walker, Dana B

    1998-01-01

    The murine gene, tottering (tg) encodes the []1A subunit of neuronal P/Q-Type Ca²? channels. Two spontaneously occurring mutations of the gene, tottering (tg) and leaner (tg[]), have been characterized. Mice that are homozygous (tg/tg and tg...

  5. Targeted Deletion of Hepatocyte ABCA1 Leads to Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Overproduction and Low Density Lipoprotein Hypercatabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soonkyu; Timmins, Jenelle M.; Duong, MyNgan; Degirolamo, Chiara; Rong, Shunxing; Sawyer, Janet K.; Singaraja, Roshni R.; Hayden, Michael R.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Shelness, Gregory S.; Parks, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of ABCA1 activity in Tangier disease (TD) is associated with abnormal apoB lipoprotein (Lp) metabolism in addition to the complete absence of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We used hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knock-out (HSKO) mice to test the hypothesis that hepatic ABCA1 plays dual roles in regulating Lp metabolism and nascent HDL formation. HSKO mice recapitulated the TD lipid phenotype with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, markedly decreased LDL, and near absence of HDL. Triglyceride (TG) secretion was 2-fold higher in HSKO compared with wild type mice, primarily due to secretion of larger TG-enriched VLDL secondary to reduced hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. HSKO mice also displayed delayed clearance of postprandial TG and reduced post-heparin plasma lipolytic activity. In addition, hepatic LDLr expression and plasma LDL catabolism were increased 2-fold in HSKO compared with wild type mice. Last, adenoviral repletion of hepatic ABCA1 in HSKO mice normalized plasma VLDL TG and hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, with a partial recovery of HDL cholesterol levels, providing evidence that hepatic ABCA1 is involved in the reciprocal regulation of apoB Lp production and HDL formation. These findings suggest that altered apoB Lp metabolism in TD subjects may result from hepatic VLDL TG overproduction and increased hepatic LDLr expression and highlight hepatic ABCA1 as an important regulatory factor for apoB-containing Lp metabolism. PMID:20178985

  6. Differential effects of dietary flaxseed protein and soy protein on plasma triglyceride and uric acid levels in animal models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam J Bhathena; Ali A Ali; Ali I Mohamed; Carl T Hansen; Manuel T Velasquez

    2002-01-01

    The effect of dietary soy protein and flaxseed meal on metabolic parameters was studied in two animal models, F344 rats with normal lipid levels and obese SHR\\/N-cp rats with elevated levels of cholesterol and triglyceride. The rats were fed AIN 93 diet differing only in the source of protein. The rats were fed either 20% casein, 20% soy protein or

  7. Pomegranate Juice Protects Macrophages from Triglyceride Accumulation: Inhibitory Effect on DGAT1 Activity and on Triglyceride Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Rosenblat; Michael Aviram

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: To analyze the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) and punicalagin on macrophage triglyceride metabolism. Methods: Triglyceride metabolism was analyzed in PJ- or punicalagin-treated J774A.1 macrophages or in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) harvested from C57BL\\/6 mice or from paraoxonase 2 (PON2)-deficient mice. Results: PJ (0–50 ?M) significantly and dose-dependently decreased the triglyceride content and triglyceride biosynthesis rate in J774A.1 macrophages

  8. SCD1 activity in muscle increases triglyceride PUFA content, exercise capacity, and PPAR? expression in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Michael P.; Flowers, Matthew T.; Stamatikos, Alexis D.; Ntambi, James M.; Paton, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 converts saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids. Using muscle overexpression, we sought to determine the role of SCD1 expression in glucose and lipid metabolism and its effects on exercise capacity in mice. Wild-type C57Bl/6 (WT) and SCD1 muscle transgenic (SCD1-Tg) mice were generated, and expression of the SCD1 transgene was restricted to skeletal muscle. SCD1 overexpression was associated with increased triglyceride (TG) content. The fatty acid composition of the muscle revealed a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of TG, including linoleate (18:2n6). Untrained SCD1-Tg mice also displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity (WT = 6.6 ± 3 min, Tg = 71.9 ± 9.5 min; P = 0.0009). SCD1-Tg mice had decreased fasting plasma glucose, glucose transporter (GLUT)1 mRNA, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial content, and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and Pgc-1 protein expression in skeletal muscle. In vitro studies in C2C12 myocytes revealed that linoleate (18:2n6) and not oleate (18:1n9) caused a 3-fold increase in PPAR? and a 9-fold increase in CPT-1b with a subsequent increase in fat oxidation. The present model suggests that increasing delta-9 desaturase activity of muscle increases metabolic function, exercise capacity, and lipid oxidation likely through increased PUFA content, which increases PPAR? expression and activity. However, the mechanism of action that results in increased PUFA content of SCD1-Tg mice remains to be elucidated. PMID:23918045

  9. Effect of grass or concentrate feeding systems and rate of growth on triglyceride and phospholipid and their fatty acids in the M. longissimus thoracis of lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Aurousseau; D Bauchart; E Calichon; D Micol; A Priolo

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two male Ile-de-France lambs were used in a factorial 2×2 design to analyse the effects of feeding systems (grass outdoor, G, or concentrate and hay indoor: stall, S) and of growth rate (low, L, or high, H) on total lipids, triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) contents and their fatty acid composition in the longissimus thoracis muscle (L.T.). Contents were lower

  10. F3MB(PANDER) Decreases Mice Hepatic Triglyceride and Is Associated with Decreased DGAT1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Xiaoqing; Yang, Chijiao; Wang, Xuelan; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Li, Yangbin; Xia, Haipeng; Cao, Xiaopei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER, also named as FAM3B) is secreted by pancreatic ? and ? cells. Increasing evidence suggests that it may serve a hormonal function related to glycemic and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of PANDER overexpression on hepatic and adipose triglyceride metabolism in high-fat diet-fed male C57BL/6 mice. Methods PANDER overexpression was achieved by tail-vein injection of recombinant Ad-PANDER and Ad-GFP injected mice served as a control. The TG metabolism in both groups were compared. Results Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of PANDER did not affect body weight, food consumption, or liver enzymes. The triglyceride (TG) content of both liver and adipose tissue was significantly decreased in Ad-PANDER mice (liver: 6.16±1.89 mg/g vs. control 14.95±2.27 mg/g, P<0.05; adipose: 39.31±1.99 mg/100mg vs. 47.22±2.21 mg/100mg, P<0.05). The free fatty acid (FFA) content of adipose tissue in Ad-PANDER mice was also decreased (1.38±0.18 mg/g vs. 2.77±0.31 mg/g, P<0.01). The investigation of key enzymes of triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA oxidation in liver and adipose tissue showed that p-HSL/HSL was significantly increased and that DGAT1 gene and protein expression were significantly reduced in the liver of PANDER-overexpressing mice. PKA phosphorylation was also significantly increased in the livers of Ad-PANDER mice. No differences in ATGL, CPT1, ACOX1, or DGAT2 expression were observed. Conclusion Overexpression of PANDER is associated with observable decreases in TG, increases in PKA phosphorylation, and decreased DGAT1 expression, suggesting a possible interrelationship. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be elucidated. PMID:25679806

  11. Dietary oxidized linoleic acid lowers triglycerides via APOA5/APOClll dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry; Santanam, Nalini; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2008-01-01

    Previously we have shown that intestinal cells efficiently take up oxidized fatty acids (OxFAs) and that atherosclerosis is increased when animals are fed a high cholesterol diet in the presence of oxidized linoleic acid. Interestingly, we found that in the absence of dietary cholesterol, the oxidized fatty acid fed low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor negative mice appeared to have lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels as compared to animals fed oleic acid. In the present study, we fed C57BL6 mice a normal mice diet supplemented with oleic acid or oxidized linoleic acid (at 18 mg/animal/day) for 2 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, we measured the plasma lipids and collected livers for the isolation of RNA. The results showed that while there were no significant changes in the levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), there was a significant decrease (41.14%) in the levels of plasma TG in the mice that were fed oxidized fatty acids. The decreases in plasma TG levels were accompanied by significant increases (P < 0.001) in the expressions of APOA5 and acetyl-CoA oxidase genes as well as a significant (P < 0.04) decrease in APOClll gene expression. Oxidized lipids have been suggested to be ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?). However, there were no increases in the mRNA or protein levels of PPAR? in the oxidized linoleic acid fed animals. These results suggest that oxidized fatty acids may act through an APOA5/APOClll mechanism that contributes to lowering of TG levels other than PPAR? induction. PMID:18243209

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company. PMID:25763276

  13. Lack of effects of the beta3-adrenoreceptor agonist UL-TG 307 on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Rave, K; Heise, T; Clausson, P; Hirschberger, S; Heinemann, L

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a novel beta3-adrenoreceptor agonist, UL-TG 307, on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, lipid metabolism, and body weight were investigated. Thirteen diet treated male Type 2 diabetic patients participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over trial with two 14 day administration periods with placebo and UL-TG 307 (24 mg daily). After each administration period insulin secretion was assessed by means of an OGTT and insulin sensitivity was measured by an hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp. Lipid metabolism was evaluated by measuring non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol, and triglyceride serum concentrations at the end of each administration period. Treatment with UL-TG 307 did not improve insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index (S(I)): UL-TG 307 2.5 -/+ 0.6 (mean +/- SD) vs. placebo 2.2 +/- 0.8 ml/min*m2 per microU/ml) nor increased insulin secretion (area under the serum insulin profile AUC0-240/plasma glucose AUC0-240: UL-TG 307 8.8 +/- 7.4 vs. placebo 8.3 +/- 6.4 microU/ ml/mmol/l). No differences in lipid metabolism, metabolic control, and body weight were observed. We conclude that two weeks' administration of the beta3-adrenoreceptor agonist UL-TG 307 in a daily dose of 24 mg did not lead to any significant effect in diet treated type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:10595595

  14. Multiple functions of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) was first identified as a major cellular protein capable of transferring neutral lipids between membrane vesicles. Its role as an essential chaperone for the biosynthesis of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was established after the realization that abetalipoproteinemia patients carry mutations in the MTTP gene resulting in the loss of its lipid transfer activity. Now it is known that it also plays a role in the biosynthesis of CD1, glycolipid presenting molecules, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol ester biosynthesis. In this review, we will provide a historical perspective about the identification, purification and characterization of MTP, describe methods used to measure its lipid transfer activity, and discuss tissue expression and function. Finally, we will review the role MTP plays in the assembly of apoB-lipoprotein, the regulation of cholesterol ester synthesis, biosynthesis of CD1 proteins and propagation of hepatitis C virus. We will also provide a brief overview about the clinical potentials of MTP inhibition. PMID:22353470

  15. Endothelial dysfunction in adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schrammel, Astrid; Mussbacher, Marion; Wölkart, Gerald; Stessel, Heike; Pail, Karoline; Winkler, Sarah; Schweiger, Martina; Haemmerle, Guenter; Al Zoughbi, Wael; Höfler, Gerald; Lametschwandtner, Alois; Zechner, Rudolf; Mayer, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Systemic knockout of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the pivotal enzyme of triglyceride lipolysis, results in a murine phenotype that is characterized by progredient cardiac steatosis and severe heart failure. Since cardiac and vascular dysfunction have been closely related in numerous studies we investigated endothelium-dependent and -independent vessel function of ATGL knockout mice. Aortic relaxation studies and Langendorff perfusion experiments of isolated hearts showed that ATGL knockout mice suffer from pronounced micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. Experiments with agonists directly targeting vascular smooth muscle cells revealed the functional integrity of the smooth muscle cell layer. Loss of vascular reactivity was restored ~ 50% upon treatment of ATGL knockout mice with the PPAR? agonist Wy14,643, indicating that this phenomenon is partly a consequence of impaired cardiac contractility. Biochemical analysis revealed that aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and activity were significantly reduced in ATGL deficiency. Enzyme activity was fully restored in ATGL mice treated with the PPAR? agonist. Biochemical analysis of perivascular adipose tissue demonstrated that ATGL knockout mice suffer from perivascular inflammatory oxidative stress which occurs independent of cardiac dysfunction and might contribute to vascular defects. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized link between disturbed lipid metabolism, obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24657704

  16. Age effects on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride profiles and metabolite concentrations in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In dogs, occurrence of lipid metabolism disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus has increased markedly in recent years. Hyperlipidemia has been regarded as a common characteristic for obese animals and hyperlipidemic condition may be associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid composition changes. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) profiles and metabolite concentrations in 24 dogs (young group: 0-7 years old, n?=?12, aged group: 8-13 years old, n?=?12). Results Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations were significantly lower in aged dogs than those in young dogs (mean?±?SD, 17.2?±?10.0 ?g mL-1 vs 29.3?±?12.5 ?g mL-1, respectively; P <0.05). Although there were no significant differences statistically, aged dogs showed significantly higher plasma alpha1- acid glycoprotein (alpah1-AG) levels compared to those in young dogs. Plasma cholesterol lipoprotein and TG lipoprotein were divided into four fractions by biphasic agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The levels of the third TG-lipoprotein fraction from the positive pole (TG Fraction 3) were significantly higher in aged dogs than in young dogs (mean?±?SD, 143.0?±?109.3 mg dL-1 vs 55.2?±?31.3 mg dL-1, respectively; P <0.05). On the correlation coefficient analysis by Peason’s method, moderate positive correlations were seen between the age and TG (r?=?0.446, P?=?0.029), TG Fraction 3 (r?=?0.516, P?=?0.010), malondialdehyde (r?=?0.146, P?=?0.043), alpha-1 AG (r?=?0.448, P?=?0.028) levels, respectively. Moderate negative correlations were seen the age and total cholesterol (TC) Fraction 2 (r?=?-0.446, P?=?0.029), glucose (r?=?-0.637, P?=?0.001), ADN (r?=?-0.408, P?=?0.048), respectively. Conclusions Present data suggest biochemical characteristics of lipid metabolism disorder may be affected by aging in dogs. PMID:24597741

  17. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

    1964-01-01

    Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

  18. Triglyceride composition of native and rearranged butter and coconut oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kuksis; M. J. Mccarthy; J. M. R. Beveridge

    1964-01-01

    Triglyceride gas chromatography was used for quantitative fractionation by carbon number of native and rearranged butter and\\u000a coconut oils. Significant differences in the triglyceride type distributions between the corresponding native and chemically\\u000a modified fats were found. Increased proportions of both short and long chain triglycerides occurred in the rearranged butterfat.\\u000a In reconstituted coconut oil there was a shift towards the

  19. Bioconversion of Xylan to Triglycerides by Oil-Rich Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Ray; Phelps, Patricia; Spindler, Diane

    1984-01-01

    A series of lipid-accumulating yeasts was examined for their potential to saccharify xylan and accumulate triglyceride. Of the genera tested, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Lipomyces, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Trichosporon, only Cryptococcus and Trichosporon isolates saccharified xylan. All of the strains could assimilate xylose and accumuate triglyceride under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Strains of Cryptococcus albidus were found to be especially useful for a one-step saccharification of xylan coupled to triglyceride synthesis. Cryptococcus terricolus, a strain constitutive for lipid accumulation, lacked extracellular xylanase, but did assimilate xylose and xylobiose and was able to continuously convert xylan to triglyceride if the culture medium was supplemented with xylanase. PMID:16346541

  20. Molecular characterization and association analysis of porcine adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) gene.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li He; Xiong, Yuan Zhu; Jiang, Si Wen; Chen, Jun Feng

    2011-02-01

    The adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2, also known as ATGL) is a novel triacylglycerol (TG) lipase which specifically removes the first fatty acid from the triglyceride molecule generating free fatty acid and diglyceride (DG) in mammalian cells. Here we describe the molecular characterization of the porcine ATGL gene. The full-length cDNA sequence contains a 1,461 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 486 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 53.2 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.90. The porcine ATGL protein shares high identity with other mammalian ATGL. The ATGL gene contains 9 coding exons, spans approximately 6 kb. The porcine ATGL mRNA was expressed predominantly in backfat, mildly in muscle, small intestine and heart, and almost absent in liver, spleen, lung, stomach, kidney and ovary. Statistical analysis showed the ATGL gene polymorphism (G/A(392)) was different between Chinese indigenous and introduced commercial western pig breeds, and was highly associated with almost all the fat deposition and carcass traits, including subcutaneous fat thickness, viscera adipose tissue, lean percentage, loin eye traits and even rib numbers. PMID:20480242

  1. Changes in liver uptake of a radioiodinated triglyceride analog in ethanol-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendner, S.W.; Skinner, R.S.W.; Gross, M.; Ruyan, M.; Counsell, R.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States) VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1991-03-11

    A radioiodinated triglyceride (TG) analog, ({sup 125}I)-glycerol-2-palmitoyl-1,3-di-15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoate (DPPG) has been synthesized and shown to accumulate within the liver of normal rats within 15 min of i.v. administration. With time, the radioactivity clears and more activity appears as the fatty acid metabolite than as parent compound. In this study, rats were fed a commercial liquid diet containing 36% of the calories either as ethanol (ET) or sucrose (CON). After six weeks, the ET rats had significantly higher plasma and liver TG levels than CON rats. In addition, the ET rats showed fatty infiltration of the liver by histopathologic examination. DPPG formulated in a detergent-saline vehicle was administered and different patterns of both uptake and clearance were seen in these groups of rats. The CON rats showed greater uptake and more rapid clearance of radioactivity than ET rats. A similar pattern was observed noninvasively by gamma camera scintigraphy. In addition, PAGE analysis of the plasma revealed that 90% of the radioactivity in the plasma was associated with plasma lipoproteins within 5 m. By 120 m 40% of the plasma activity in CON rats was associated with albumin, indicating hydrolysis to the free fatty acid. In the ET rats only 22% was albumin bound at this time. Thus, DPPG shows promise as an agent to diagnose changes in liver lipid metabolism in such disease states as alcoholism.

  2. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking. PMID:26068452

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cultured skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare disease, characterized by the massive accumulation of triglyceride (TG) in multiple tissues, especially skeletal muscle, heart muscle and the coronary artery. TGCV is caused by mutation of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is an essential molecule for the hydrolysis of TG. TGCV is at high risk for skeletal myopathy and heart dysfunction, and therefore premature death. Development of therapeutic methods for TGCV is highly desirable. This study aims to discover specific molecules responsible for TGCV pathogenesis. Methods To identify differentially expressed proteins in TGCV patient cells, the stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method coupled with LC-MS/MS was performed using skin fibroblast cells derived from two TGCV patients and three healthy volunteers. Altered protein expression in TGCV cells was confirmed using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis was simultaneously performed to identify changes in gene expression in TGCV cells. Results Using SILAC proteomics, 4033 proteins were quantified, 53 of which showed significantly altered expression in both TGCV patient cells. Twenty altered proteins were chosen and confirmed using SRM. SRM analysis successfully quantified 14 proteins, 13 of which showed the same trend as SILAC proteomics. The altered protein expression data set was used in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and significant networks were identified. Several of these proteins have been previously implicated in lipid metabolism, while others represent new therapeutic targets or markers for TGCV. Microarray analysis quantified 20743 transcripts, and 252 genes showed significantly altered expression in both TGCV patient cells. Ten altered genes were chosen, 9 of which were successfully confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Biological networks of altered genes were analyzed using an IPA search. Conclusions We performed the SILAC- and SRM-based identification-through-confirmation study using skin fibroblast cells derived from TGCV patients, and first identified altered proteins specific for TGCV. Microarray analysis also identified changes in gene expression. The functional networks of the altered proteins and genes are discussed. Our findings will be exploited to elucidate the pathogenesis of TGCV and discover clinically relevant molecules for TGCV in the near future. PMID:24360150

  4. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91). In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard ? coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration. PMID:25915947

  5. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the lymphatics and lymphocytes. Importantly, after administration of 2-MPA-TG, the concentrations of free MPA in the mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly enhanced (up to 28 fold) when compared to animals administered equimolar quantities of MPA, suggesting the efficient conversion of the esterified prodrug back to the pharmacologically active parent drug. The data suggest that triglyceride mimetic prodrugs have potential as a means of enhancing immunotherapy via drug targeting to lymphocytes and lymph nodes. PMID:24398334

  6. Extended Tg Gradient Profile Across a Glassy-Rubbery Polymer-Polymer Interface with an 80 K Tg Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglay, Roman; Roth, Connie

    2014-03-01

    For decades Tg in confined systems has been studied with the hopes of uncovering the length scales that impact the glass transition. However, understanding length scales of Tg gradients near a free surface have been hampered by limitations of how to treat the enhanced mobility at the free surface theoretically. Here, we use a glassy-rubbery polymer-polymer interface to establish an 80 K Tg gradient from one well-defined Tg value to another. Multilayer films of high molecular weight polystyrene (PS) and poly(n-butyl methacrylate), a weakly immiscible system with a 7 nm interfacial width, are constructed. Ultrathin (10-15 nm) pyrene-labeled layers are inserted into the multilayer structure at different positions (z) from the glassy-rubbery interface. Temperature-dependent fluorescence intensity is collected to determine the local Tg(z) at a given position z from the interface. Using a series of different samples, we are able to map the Tg(z) profile across this glassy-rubbery interface. Our work reveals an asymmetric local mobility gradient propagating hundreds of nanometers away from the interface into the glassy PS side before bulk PS Tg is recovered. These results demonstrate that cooperative segmental Tg dynamics can be coupled across long length scales spanning multiple cooperatively rearranging regions (CRRs).

  7. The hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipid mobilization and enhances the ATGL interaction with comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) and lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Camus, Gregory; Schweiger, Martina; Herker, Eva; Harris, Charles; Kondratowicz, Andrew S; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Farese, Robert V; Herath, Kithsiri; Previs, Stephen F; Roddy, Thomas P; Pinto, Shirly; Zechner, Rudolf; Ott, Melanie

    2014-12-26

    Liver steatosis is a common health problem associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and an important risk factor for the development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Steatosis is caused by triglycerides (TG) accumulating in lipid droplets (LDs), cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. The HCV nucleocapsid core localizes to the surface of LDs and induces steatosis in cultured cells and mouse livers by decreasing intracellular TG degradation (lipolysis). Here we report that core at the surface of LDs interferes with the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key lipolytic enzyme in the first step of TG breakdown. Expressing core in livers or mouse embryonic fibroblasts of ATGL(-/-) mice no longer decreases TG degradation as observed in LDs from wild-type mice, supporting the model that core reduces lipolysis by engaging ATGL. Core must localize at LDs to inhibit lipolysis, as ex vivo TG hydrolysis is impaired in purified LDs coated with core but not when free core is added to LDs. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that core does not directly interact with the ATGL complex but, unexpectedly, increased the interaction between ATGL and its activator CGI-58 as well as the recruitment of both proteins to LDs. These data link the anti-lipolytic activity of the HCV core protein with altered ATGL binding to CGI-58 and the enhanced association of both proteins with LDs. PMID:25381252

  8. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.; [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  9. A simple enzymatic quantitative analysis of triglycerides in tissues.

    PubMed

    Danno, H; Jincho, Y; Budiyanto, S; Furukawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1992-10-01

    We determined a method to measure the triglyceride levels in tissues by using a modified enzymatic kit. This enzymatic kit was originally designed to be used to measure the triglyceride levels in plasma. Our method of triglyceride level determination includes dissolving the tissue lipid extracts in an alcohol. Before using the enzymatic kit directly, the lipids were dissolved in tert-butyl alcohol, then a Triton X-100/methyl alcohol mixture was added (1/1 by volume). The presence of organic surfactants such as tert-butyl alcohol and methyl alcohol, and of a surfactant such as Triton X-100, did not interfere with the enzymatic activity. This method enabled us to determine triglyceride levels between 10 and 90 nmol, by using a spectrophotometer to measure the absorbances. PMID:1294711

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Serum lipids are associated with many serious cardiovascular diseases and obesity problems. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been reported in the pig mostly for performance traits but very few for the serum lipid traits. In contrast, remarkable numbers of QTL are mapped for serum lipids in humans and mice. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the chromosomal regions influencing the serum level of the total cholesterol (CT), triglyceride (TG), high density protein cholesterol (HDL) and low density protein cholesterol (LDL) in pigs. For this purpose, a total of 330 animals from a Duroc × Pietrain F2 resource population were phenotyped for serum lipids using ELISA and were genotyped by using 122 microsatellite markers covering all porcine autosomes for QTL study in QTL Express. Blood sampling was performed at approximately 175 days before slaughter of the pig. Results Most of the traits were correlated with each other and were influenced by average daily gain, slaughter date and age. A total of 18 QTL including three QTL with imprinting effect were identified on 11 different porcine autosomes. Most of the QTL reached to 5% chromosome-wide (CW) level significance including a QTL at 5% experiment-wide (GW) and a QTL at 1% GW level significance. Of these QTL four were identified for both the CT and LDL and two QTL were identified for both the TG and LDL. Moreover, three chromosomal regions were detected for the HDL/LDL ratio in this study. One QTL for HDL on SSC2 and two QTL for TG on SSC11 and 17 were detected with imprinting effect. The highly significant QTL (1% GW) was detected for LDL at 82 cM on SSC1, whereas significant QTL (5% GW) was identified for HDL/LDL on SSC1 at 87 cM. Chromosomal regions with pleiotropic effects were detected for correlated traits on SSC1, 7 and 12. Most of the QTL identified for serum lipid traits correspond with the previously reported QTL for similar traits in other mammals. Two novel QTL on SSC16 for HDL and HDL/LDL ratio and an imprinted QTL on SSS17 for TG were detected in the pig for the first time. Conclusion The newly identified QTL are potentially involved in lipid metabolism. The results of this work shed new light on the genetic background of serum lipid concentrations and these findings will be helpful to identify candidate genes in these QTL regions related to lipid metabolism and serum lipid concentrations in pigs. PMID:21752294

  11. Hypertriglyceridaemia and abnormalities of triglyceride catabolism persisting after pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Durrington; O. P. Twentyman; J. M. Braganza; J. P. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients referred consecutively following an attack of pancreatitis at least six weeks earlier (acute pancreatitis\\u000a in 10 patients and chronic pancreatitis in 23 patients) had an intravenous fat tolerance test to determine their capacity\\u000a to catabolise circulating triglycerides. Hypertriglyceridaemia was present in 14 patients (42%), including 5 with acute pancreatitis\\u000a and 9 with chronic pancreatitis. the highest serum triglyceride

  12. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in ?-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of ?-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol. PMID:21548801

  13. Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol\\/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Arsenault; J. S. Rana; E. S. G. Stroes; J. P. Després; P. K. Shah; J. J. P. Kastelein; N. J. Wareham; S. M. Boekholdt; K. T. Khaw

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)\\/HDL-C are still associated with an increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. BACKGROUND: Although LDL-C is considered to be the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, other

  14. Hepatic overexpression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) results in increased in vivo secretion of VLDL triglycerides and apolipoprotein B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe J. F. Tietge; Ahmed Bakillah; Cyrille Maugeais; Kazuhisa Tsukamoto; Mahmood Hussain; Daniel J. Rader

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the hepatic secretion of apolipopro- tein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. Previous studies have indicated that inhibition of MTP results in decreased apoB plasma levels and decreased hepatic triglyceride secretion. However, the metabolic effects of overexpression of MTP have not been investigated. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus expressing MTP (AdhMTP) and used it

  15. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.reniers@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil)] [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil); Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States)] [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada)] [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (<50 kV) brachytherapy system used in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Breast tissue is a heterogeneous tissue in terms of density and composition. Dosimetric calculations of seven APBI patients treated with Axxent were made using a model-based Monte Carlo platform for a number of tissue models and dose reporting methods and compared to TG-43 based plans. Methods: A model of the Axxent source, the S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (D{sub w,m}) and dose to medium (D{sub m,m}), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D{sub 90} to PTV was reduced by between ?4% and ?40%, depending on the scoring method, compared to the TG-43 result. Peak skin dose is also reduced by 10%–15% due to the absence of backscatter not accounted for in TG-43. The balloon applicator also contributed to the reduced dose. Other ROIs showed a difference depending on the method of dose reporting. Conclusions: TG-186-based calculations produce results that are different from TG-43 for the Axxent source. The differences depend strongly on the method of dose reporting. This study highlights the importance of backscatter to peak skin dose. Tissue heterogeneities, applicator, and patient geometries demonstrate the need for a more robust dose calculation method for low energy brachytherapy sources.

  16. Discovery of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors with potential for decreased active metabolite load compared to dirlotapide.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ralph P; Bartlett, Jeremy A; Bertinato, Peter; Bessire, Andrew J; Cosgrove, Judith; Foley, Patrick M; Manion, Tara B; Minich, Martha L; Ramos, Brenda; Reese, Matthew R; Schmahai, Theodore J; Swick, Andrew G; Tess, David A; Vaz, Alfin; Wolford, Angela

    2011-07-15

    Analogues related to dirlotapide (1), a gut-selective inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) were prepared with the goal of further reducing the potential for unwanted liver MTP inhibition and associated side-effects. Compounds were designed to decrease active metabolite load: reducing MTP activity of likely human metabolites and increasing metabolite clearance to reduce exposure. Introduction of 4'-alkyl and 4'-alkoxy substituents afforded compounds exhibiting improved therapeutic index in rats with respect to liver triglyceride accumulation and enzyme elevation. Likely human metabolites of select compounds were prepared and characterized for their potential to inhibit MTP in vivo. Based on preclinical efficacy and safety data and its potential for producing short-lived, weakly active metabolites, compound 13 (PF-02575799) advanced into phase 1 clinical studies. PMID:21684740

  17. Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Jagriti; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG) suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) and peroxidase (HRP) directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35°C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99) was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4°C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also. PMID:24927348

  18. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-05-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a (13)C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial (13)C-triglyceride and (13)C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma (13)C-triglyceride and (13)C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in (13)C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower (13)C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT (3)H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic (3)H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower (3)H-TRL hydrolysis and (3)H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased (3)H-TRL hydrolysis and (3)H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated (3)H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  19. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-01-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in 13C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower 13C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT 3H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic 3H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated 3H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  20. Apolipoprotein E participates in the regulation of very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion by the liver.

    PubMed

    Mensenkamp, A R; Jong, M C; van Goor, H; van Luyn, M J; Bloks, V; Havinga, R; Voshol, P J; Hofker, M H; van Dijk, K W; Havekes, L M; Kuipers, F

    1999-12-10

    ApoE-deficient mice on low fat diet show hepatic triglyceride accumulation and a reduced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride production rate. To establish the role of apoE in the regulation of hepatic VLDL production, the human APOE3 gene was introduced into apoE-deficient mice by cross-breeding with APOE3 transgenics (APOE3/apoe-/- mice) or by adenoviral transduction. APOE3 was expressed in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in brain, spleen, and lung of transgenic APOE3/apoe-/- mice similar to endogenous apoe. Plasma cholesterol levels in APOE/apoe-/- mice (3.4 +/- 0.5 mM) were reduced when compared with apoe-/- mice (12.6 +/- 1.4 mM) but still elevated when compared with wild type control values (1.9 +/- 0.1 mM). Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in apoE-deficient mice was completely reversed by introduction of the APOE3 transgene. The in vivo hepatic VLDL-triglyceride production rate was reduced to 36% of control values in apoE-deficient mice but normalized in APOE3/apoe-/- mice. Hepatic secretion of apoB was not affected in either of the strains. Secretion of (3)H-labeled triglycerides synthesized from [(3)H]glycerol by cultured hepatocytes from apoE-deficient mice was four times lower than by APOE3/apoe-/- or control hepatocytes. The average size of secreted VLDL particles produced by cultured apoE-deficient hepatocytes was significantly reduced when compared with those of APOE3/apoe-/- and wild type mice. Hepatic expression of human APOE3 cDNA via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apoE-deficient mice resulted in a reduction of plasma cholesterol depending on plasma apoE3 levels. The in vivo VLDL-triglyceride production rate in these mice was increased up to 500% compared with LacZ-injected controls and correlated with the amount of apoE3 per particle. These findings indicate a regulatory role of apoE in hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion, independent from its role in lipoprotein clearance. PMID:10585451

  1. APOA5 Gene Variation Interacts with Dietary Fat Intake to Modulate Obesity and Circulating Triglycerides in a Mediterranean Population12

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Ordovás, Jose M.; Smith, Caren E.; Baraza, Juan C.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Garaulet, Marta

    2011-01-01

    APOA5 is one of the strongest regulators of plasma TG concentrations; nevertheless, its mechanisms of action are poorly characterized. Genetic variability at the APOA5 locus has also been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, this predisposition could be attenuated in the context of a prudent diet as traditionally consumed in the Mediterranean countries. We have investigated the interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the APOA5 gene (-1131T > C) and dietary fat that may modulate TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations and anthropometric measures in overweight and obese participants. We recruited 1465 participants from a Spanish population (20–65 y old; BMI 25–40 kg/m2) attending outpatient obesity clinics. Consistent with previous reports, we found an association between the APOA5-1131T > C SNP and TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations that were higher in carriers of the minor allele than in noncarriers (P < 0.001). Moreover, we found a significant genotype-dietary fat interaction for obesity traits. Participants homozygous for the ?1131T major allele had a positive association between fat intake and obesity, whereas in those carrying the APOA5?1131C minor allele, higher fat intakes were not associated with higher BMI. Likewise, we found genotype-dietary fat interactions for TG-rich lipoproteins (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we have replicated previous gene-diet interactions between APOA5 -1131T > C SNP and fat intake for obesity traits and detected a novel interaction for TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that the minor C-allele may protect those consuming a high-fat diet from obesity and elevated concentrations of TG-rich lipoproteins. PMID:21209257

  2. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Timpson, Nicholas J.; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R. B.; Ring, Susan M.; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Al Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Soler Artigas, Maria; Ayub, Muhammad; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Phil; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Birney, Ewan; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Bounds, Rebecca; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Ciampi, Antonio; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Curtis, David; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Davey Smith, George; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian N. M.; Down, Thomas; Du, Yuanping; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Faroogi, Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Flicek, Paul; Flyod, James; Foley, A Reghan; Franklin, Christopher S; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geihs, Matthias; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Griffin, Heather; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xueqin; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Howie, Bryan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Liren; Hubbard, Tim; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David K.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jing, Tian; Joyce, Chris; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Keogh, Julia; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Irene; Lek, Monkol; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Hong; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Ryan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; Lotchkova, Valentina; MacArthur, Daniel; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; Massimo, Mangino; Mathieson, Iain; Marenne, Gaëlle; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew G.; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Mitchison, Hannah; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donnovan, Michael; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quaye, Lydia; Quail, Michael A.; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Richards, Brent; Ring, Susan; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Roberts, Nicola; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter; Schiffels, Stephen; Schmidts, Miriam; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Sharp, Sally I.; Shihab, Hasheem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Spector, Tim; St Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Stevens, Elizabeth; St Pourcian, Beate; Sun, Jianping; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ionna; Timpson, Nicholas; Tobin, Martin D.; Valdes, Ana; Van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Visscher, Peter M.; Wain, Louise V.; Walter, Klaudia; Walters, James T. R.; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Elanor; Whyte, Tamieka; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathleen A.; Wilson, Crispian; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Xu, ChangJiang; Yang, Jian; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Fend; Zhang, Pingbo; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (?1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10?8)) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (?1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10?9). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5?mmol?l?1 dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale. PMID:25225788

  3. Pharmacological characterization of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl)amino]phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), an intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Mera, Yasuko; Odani, Naoya; Kawai, Takashi; Hata, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Katsushima, Takeo; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitors of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) expressed in the liver and small intestine are potential candidates for lipid-lowering agents. However, inhibition of hepatic MTP could lead to significant safety issues such as fatty liver disease. To develop a specific inhibitor of intestinal MTP, JTT-130 [diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl)amino]phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate], was designed to be rapidly hydrolyzed in the absorption process. Here, we describe JTT-130, an intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, and evaluate its pharmacological properties. In in vitro metabolic stability tests, JTT-130 was readily hydrolyzed during incubation with liver S9 from humans, hamsters, and rats. In an in vitro triglyceride (TG) transfer assay with human intestinal MTP, JTT-130 potently inhibited TG transfer activity with an IC(50) value of 0.83 nM. When orally administered to hamsters, JTT-130 significantly suppressed an increase in chylomicron-TG after olive oil loading at 0.3 mg/kg and above but did not inhibit TG secretion from the liver at doses of up to 1000 mg/kg, indicating an inhibitory action highly specific for the small intestine. In rats orally administered [(14)C]triolein, JTT-130 potently suppressed an increase in blood (14)C radioactivity and increased (14)C radioactivity in the upper small intestine and the intestinal lumen. In hyperlipidemic hamsters fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet, repeated dosing with JTT-130 for 2 weeks reduced TG and cholesterol levels in the plasma and TG content in the liver. These results indicated that JTT-130 is a potent inhibitor specific to intestinal MTP and suggested that JTT-130 would be a useful compound for the treatment of dyslipidemia without inducing hepatotoxicity. PMID:20974698

  4. Neurobiology Impaired Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Tg2576

    E-print Network

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    Neurobiology Impaired Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in the Tg2576 APP Murine Model of Alzheimer for Neurodegenerative Disease Research;* the Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology; the Department of Medicine, Division of Sleep Medicine; and the Department of Biology,§ The University of Pennsylvania School

  5. Entm 307G: Exoskeleton.TG The Insect (Arthropod) Exoskeleton

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Entm 307G: Exoskeleton.TG The Insect (Arthropod) Exoskeleton Appropriate Grades: 2-6 Think Ahead that insects, and other arthropods, have an external support system called an exoskeleton, which provides, in addition, the exoskeleton provides waterproofing to keep insects from drying out, protection from enemies

  6. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Infirmary, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  7. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  8. Fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl5) regulates hepatic triglyceride catabolism in obese C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A; Stevens, Robert D; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; Greenberg, Andrew S; Huang, Li-Shin; Jump, Donald B

    2014-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a major public health concern in the obese and type 2 diabetic populations. The high-fat lard diet induces obesity and fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice and suppresses expression of the PPAR-target gene, FA elongase 5 (Elovl5). Elovl5 plays a key role in MUFA and PUFA synthesis. Increasing hepatic Elovl5 activity in obese mice lowered hepatic TGs and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (X-box binding protein 1 and cAMP-dependent transcription factor 6?) and increased TG catabolism and fatty acyl carnitines. Increased hepatic Elovl5 activity did not increase hepatic capacity for ?-oxidation. Elovl5 effects on hepatic TG catabolism were linked to increased protein levels of adipocyte TG lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI58). Elevated hepatic Elovl5 activity also induced the expression of some (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and fibroblast growth factor 21), but not other cytochrome P450 4A10 (CYP4A10), PPAR-target genes. FA products of Elovl5 activity increased ATGL, but not CGI58, mRNA through PPAR?-dependent mechanisms in human HepG2 cells. Treatment of mouse AML12 hepatocytes with the PPAR? agonist (GW0742) decreased (14)C-18:2,n-6 in TGs but did not affect ?-oxidation. These studies establish that Elovl5 activity regulates hepatic levels of FAs controlling PPAR? activity, ATGL expression, and TG catabolism, but not FA oxidation. PMID:24814977

  9. Acoustic detection and localization from a tethered aerostat during the NATO TG-53 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, C.; Scanlon, M.; Noble, J.

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic sensors mounted to a tethered aerostat detect and localize transient signals from mortars, artillery, C-4, propane cannon, and small arms fire. Significant enhancements to soldier lethality and survivability can be gained when using the aerostat array to detect, localize, and cue an aerial imager to a weapon's launch site, or use the aerostat's instantaneous position and orientation to calculate a vector solution to the ground coordinates of the launch site for threat neutralization. The prototype aerostat-mounted array was tested at Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) as part of the NATO TG-53 signature collection exercise. Acoustic wave form data was collected simultaneously with aerostat and ground-based sensor arrays for comparing wind noise, signal to noise related parameters, and atmospheric effects on propagation to an elevated array. A test description and summary of localization accuracy will be presented for various altitudes, ranges to target, and under differing meteorological conditions.

  10. Chain length affects pancreatic lipase activity and the extent and pH-time profile of triglyceride lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Benito-Gallo, Paloma; Franceschetto, Alessandro; Wong, Jonathan C M; Marlow, Maria; Zann, Vanessa; Scholes, Peter; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are one of the most common excipients used in oral lipid-based formulations. The chain length of the TG plays an important role in the oral bioavailability of the co-administered drug. Fatty acid (FA) chain-length specificity of porcine pancreatic lipase was studied by means of an in vitro lipolysis model under bio-relevant conditions at pH 6.80. In order to determine the total extent of lipolysis, back-titration experiments at pH 11.50 were performed. Results suggest that there is a specific chain length range (C2-C8) for which pancreatic lipase shows higher activity. This specificity could result from a combination of physicochemical properties of TGs, 2-monoglycerides (2-MGs) and FAs, namely the droplet size of the TGs, the solubility of 2-MGs within mixed micelles, and the relative stability of the FAs as leaving groups in the hydrolysis reaction. During experimentation, it was evident that an optimisation of lipolysis conditions was needed for tighter control over pH levels so as to better mimic in vivo conditions. 1M NaOH, 3.5mL/min maximum dosing rate, and 3?L/min minimum dosing rate were the optimised set of conditions that allowed better pH control, as well as the differentiation of the lipolysis of different lipid loads. PMID:25936853

  11. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in adipose triglyceride lipase as a regulator of lipid droplet localization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xitao; Langlais, Paul; Zhang, Xiaodong; Heckmann, Bradlee L; Saarinen, Alicia M; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Liu, Jun

    2014-06-15

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for triacylglycerol (TG) hydrolysis, has long been known to be a phosphoprotein. However, the potential phosphorylation events that are involved in the regulation of ATGL function remain incompletely defined. Here, using a combinatorial proteomics approach, we obtained evidence that at least eight different sites of ATGL can be phosphorylated in adipocytes. Among them, Thr³?² resides within the hydrophobic region known to mediate lipid droplet (LD) targeting. Although it had no impact on the TG hydrolase activity, substitution of phosphorylation-mimic Asp for Thr³?² eliminated LD localization and LD-degrading capacity of ATGL expressed in HeLa cells. In contrast, mutation of Thr³?² to Ala gave a protein that bound LDs and functioned the same as the wild-type protein. In nonstimulated adipocytes, the Asp mutation led to decreased LD association and basal lipolytic activity of ATGL, whereas the Ala mutation produced opposite effects. Moreover, the LD translocation of ATGL upon ?-adrenergic stimulation was also compromised by the Asp mutation. In accord with these findings, the Ala mutation promoted and the Asp mutation attenuated the capacity of ATGL to mediate lipolysis in adipocytes under both basal and stimulated conditions. Collectively, these studies identified Thr³?² as a novel phosphorylation site that may play a critical role in determining subcellular distribution as well as lipolytic action of ATGL. PMID:24801391

  12. Absence of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein in Individuals with Abetalipoproteinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Wetterau; Lawrence P. Aggerbeck; Marie-Elisabeth Bouma; Claude Eisenberg; Anne Munck; Michel Hermier; Jacques Schmitz; Gerard Gay; Daniel J. Rader; Richard E. Gregg

    1992-01-01

    Abetalipoproteinemia is a human genetic disease that is characterized by a defect in the assembly or secretion of plasma very low density lipoproteins and chylomicrons. The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which is located in the lumen of microsomes isolated from the liver and intestine, has been proposed to function in lipoprotein assembly. MTP activity and the 88-kilodalton component of

  13. Reduced expression of adipose triglyceride lipase enhances tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in human aortic endothelial cells via protein kinase C-dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Fujii, Masakazu; Maeda, Yasutaka; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2011-09-16

    We examined the effects of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on the initiation of atherosclerosis. ATGL was recently identified as a rate-limiting triglyceride (TG) lipase. Mutations in the human ATGL gene are associated with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, a rare genetic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of TG in multiple tissues. The cardiac phenotype, known as triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy, shows massive TG accumulation in both coronary atherosclerotic lesions and the myocardium. Recent reports show that myocardial triglyceride content is significantly higher in patients with prediabetes or diabetes and that ATGL expression is decreased in the obese insulin-resistant state. Therefore, we investigated the effect of decreased ATGL activity on the development of atherosclerosis using human aortic endothelial cells. We found that ATGL knockdown enhanced monocyte adhesion via increased expression of TNF?-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Next, we determined the pathways (MAPK, PKC, or NF?B) involved in ICAM-1 up-regulation induced by ATGL knockdown. Both phosphorylation of PKC and degradation of I?B? were increased in ATGL knockdown human aortic endothelial cells. In addition, intracellular diacylglycerol levels and free fatty acid uptake via CD36 were significantly increased in these cells. Inhibition of the PKC pathway using calphostin C and GF109203X suppressed TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we showed that ATGL knockdown increased monocyte adhesion to the endothelium through enhanced TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression via activation of NF?B and PKC. These results suggest that reduced ATGL expression may influence the atherogenic process in neutral lipid storage diseases and in the insulin-resistant state. PMID:21828047

  14. Iron deficiency hyperlipidemia in 18-day-old rat pups: effects of milk lipids, lipoprotein lipase, and triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sherman, A R; Guthrie, H A; Wolinsky, I; Zulak, I M

    1978-01-01

    Three levels of iron (5, 29, 307 ppm iron) were fed to rats from conception through the 18th day of lactation. Dams in the 5 ppm iron group and pups in the 5 and 29 ppm iron groups developed anemia characterized by lower hemoglobin and hematocrit values than control animals. Liver and spleen levels of iron in dams and pups in the 5 and 29 ppm iron groups were lower than in the 307 ppm iron groups. Milk iron was lower in the 5 ppm iron group than in the 29 and 307 ppm iron groups. Pups in the 5 ppm iron group had hyperlipidemia characterized by elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Milk lipids and post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase levels in pups did not differ among experimental groups. Triglyceride and CO2 production from [U-14C]glucose were significantly greater in the iron-deficient pups than in control pups. Hyperlipidemia in 18-day-old iron-deficient rat pups appears to be related to increased endogenous production of triglycerides. PMID:619036

  15. Heterozygosity for a Loss-of-Function Mutation in GALNT2 Improves Plasma Triglyceride Clearance in Man

    PubMed Central

    Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Karlsson, Helen; Lin, Ruei-Shiuan; Beres, Thomas M.; Sierts, Jeroen A.; Herman, Daniel S.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Levels, Johannes H.M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Ljunggren, Stefan; Lefeber, Dirk J.; Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A.; Fritz, Timothy A.; Tabak, Lawrence A.; Lindahl, Mats; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies have identified GALNT2 as a candidate gene in lipid metabolism, but it is not known how the encoded enzyme ppGal-NAc-T2, which contributes to the initiation of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation, mediates this effect. In two probands with elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced triglycerides, we identified a mutation in GALNT2. It is shown that carriers have improved postprandial triglyceride clearance, which is likely attributable to attenuated glycosylation of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, as observed in their plasma. This protein inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses plasma triglycerides. We show that an apoC-III-based peptide is a substrate for ppGalNAc-T2 while its glycosylation by the mutant enzyme is impaired. In addition, neuraminidase treatment of apoC-III which removes the sialic acids from its glycan chain decreases its potential to inhibit LPL. Combined, these data suggest that ppGalNAc-T2 can affect lipid metabolism through apoC-III glycosylation, thereby establishing GALNT2 as a lipid-modifying gene. PMID:22152306

  16. Heterozygosity for a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT2 improves plasma triglyceride clearance in man.

    PubMed

    Holleboom, Adriaan G; Karlsson, Helen; Lin, Ruei-Shiuan; Beres, Thomas M; Sierts, Jeroen A; Herman, Daniel S; Stroes, Erik S G; Aerts, Johannes M; Kastelein, John J P; Motazacker, Mohammad M; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Levels, Johannes H M; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E; Ljunggren, Stefan; Lefeber, Dirk J; Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A; Fritz, Timothy A; Tabak, Lawrence A; Lindahl, Mats; Hovingh, G Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2011-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified GALNT2 as a candidate gene in lipid metabolism, but it is not known how the encoded enzyme ppGalNAc-T2, which contributes to the initiation of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation, mediates this effect. In two probands with elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced triglycerides, we identified a mutation in GALNT2. It is shown that carriers have improved postprandial triglyceride clearance, which is likely attributable to attenuated glycosylation of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, as observed in their plasma. This protein inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses plasma triglycerides. We show that an apoC-III-based peptide is a substrate for ppGalNAc-T2 while its glycosylation by the mutant enzyme is impaired. In addition, neuraminidase treatment of apoC-III which removes the sialic acids from its glycan chain decreases its potential to inhibit LPL. Combined, these data suggest that ppGalNAc-T2 can affect lipid metabolism through apoC-III glycosylation, thereby establishing GALNT2 as a lipid-modifying gene. PMID:22152306

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine improves dysfunction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein on abnormalities in lipid metabolism in ethanol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Jeong; Hyun, Sun Hee; Choung, Se Young

    2005-01-01

    We report the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma oriental, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata. The rats were separated randomly into five groups; the CD group (n=10), which was fed a control diet for 10 weeks, the ED group (n=10), which was fed an isocaloric liquid diet containing ethanol for 10 weeks and given daily oral doses of TCM (0.222 g/kg/day; TCM222, 0.667 g/kg/day; TCM667, and 2.000 g/kg/day; TCM2000, n=10, respectively) over the last four weeks of the study. The ED group developed fatty livers, as determined by their lipid profiles and liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotransferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group. Also, free fatty acids (FFA) levels increased in both plasma and liver during the administration of ethanol. On the other hand, when rats were administrated with TCM, their liver/body weight, plasma TG, TC and FFA, liver TG, TC and FFA, plasma ALT and AST decreased significantly and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group. Proper function of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is essential for the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the secretion of triglycerides from the liver. mRNAs for PPARalpha and MTP were reduced in the livers of ethanol-fed rats. TCM restored the mRNA levels of PPARalpha and MTP, and prevented development of fatty livers in ethanol-fed rats. Impairment of PPARalpha and MTP function during ethanol consumption contributes to the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver, which can be overcome by TCM. PMID:16410638

  18. Construction of an amperometric TG biosensor based on AuPPy nanocomposite and poly (indole-5-carboxylic acid) modified Au electrode.

    PubMed

    Narang, Jagriti; Chauhan, Nidhi; Rani, Poonam; Pundir, C S

    2013-04-01

    A method is described for construction of an amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor based on covalent co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase onto gold polypyrrole nanocomposite decorated poly indole-5-carboxylic acid electrodeposited on the surface of a gold electrode. The enzyme electrode was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Biosensor showed optimum response within 4 s at pH 6.5 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.1 V against Ag/AgCl. There was a linear relationship between sensor response and triolein concentration in the range 50-700 mg/dl. Biosensor was employed for determination of TG in serum. Detection limit of the biosensor was 20 mg/dl. Biosensor was evaluated with 91-95 % recovery of added triolein in sera and 4.14 and 5.85 % within and between batch coefficients of variation, respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera TG values by standard method (Enzymic colorimetric) and the present method. The biosensor was unaffected by a number of serum substances at their physiological concentration. Biosensor lost 50 % of its initial activity after its 100 uses over 7 months, when stored at 4 °C. PMID:22903594

  19. Human triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impair glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in L6 skeletal muscle cells independently of non-esterified fatty acid levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Pedrini; M. Kranebitter; A. Niederwanger; S. Kaser; J. Engl; P. Debbage; L. A. Huber; J. R. Patsch

    2005-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Elevated fasting and postprandial plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs), i.e. VLDL\\/remnants and chylomicrons\\/remnants, are a characteristic feature of insulin resistance and are considered a consequence of this state. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intact TGRL particles are capable of inducing insulin resistance.Methods  We studied the effect of highly purified TGRLs on glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase activity,

  20. Evaluation of tg data of htpb-based polyurethanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. S. Vieira; A. R. Cestari; S. F. Zawadzki; S. M. Rocha

    2004-01-01

    Thermogravimetry (TG) was used to provide some new information on some polybutadiene-based polyurethanes. The results showed\\u000a two main mass decomposition stages, from 230 to 564C. The first mass loss stages were used to quantify the hard segments\\u000a of the polymers. The results correlated well with the ASTM methodology. In addition, two 23 factorial design studies were applied to evaluate the

  1. Isolation of the molecular species of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols from brown edible seaweed Sargassum horneri and their inhibitory effects on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ai-Cui; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Tao; Song, Ni; Yan, Qian; Fang, Yu-Chun; Guan, Hua-Shi; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2014-11-19

    The chemical composition of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) from brown alga Sargassum horneri and their inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation were investigated in this study. A total of 10 molecular species of MGDGs were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance, alkaline hydrolysis, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Individual molecular species of MGDGs, including (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-palmitoleoyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1), (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-linoleyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (5), (2S)-1-O-myristoyl-2-O-oleyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (7), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-palmitoleoyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (8), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-linoleyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (9), and (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (10), were then furnished using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their inhibitory effects on triglyceride (TG) accumulation and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated. Compounds 3 and 9 showed inhibitory effects on TG and FFA accumulation, with TG levels of 1.568 ± 0.2808 and 1.701 ± 0.1460 ?mol/L and FFA levels of 0.149 ± 0.0258 and 0.198 ± 0.0229 mequiv/L, respectively, which were more effective than other compounds. The primary structure-activity relationship suggested that linoleyl [18:2(?-6)] in the sn-2 position played an important role on triglyceride accumulation inhibition. PMID:25363514

  2. Elevated Mcl-1 inhibits thymocyte apoptosis and alters thymic selection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, K J; Gray, D H D; Anstee, N; Strasser, A; Cory, S

    2012-01-01

    T cells developing in the thymus undergo rigorous positive and negative selection to ensure that those exported to peripheral lymphoid organs bear T-cell receptors (TCRs) capable of reacting with foreign antigens but tolerant of self. At each checkpoint, whether a thymocyte survives or dies is determined by antiapoptotic and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. We used Mcl-1 transgenic (tg) mice to investigate the impact of elevated expression of antiapoptotic Mcl-1 on thymocyte apoptosis and selection, making a side-by-side comparison with thymocytes from BCL-2tg mice. Mcl-1 was as effective as Bcl-2 at protecting thymocytes against spontaneous cell death, diverse cytotoxic insults and TCR–CD3 stimulation-driven apoptosis. In three different TCR tg models, Mcl-1 markedly enhanced positive selection of thymocytes, as did Bcl-2. In H-Y TCR tg mice, elevated Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 were equally effective at inhibiting deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. However, in the OT-1tg model where deletion is mediated by a peripheral antigen whose expression is regulated by Aire, Mcl-1 was less effective than Bcl-2. Thus, the capacity of Mcl-1 overexpression to inhibit apoptosis triggered by TCR stimulation apparently depends on the thymocyte subset subject to deletion, presumably due to differences in the profiles of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members mediating the deletion. PMID:22743995

  3. Fat Mobilization in Adipose Tissue Is Promoted by Adipose Triglyceride Lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Zimmermann; Juliane G. Strauss; Guenter Haemmerle; Gabriele Schoiswohl; Ruth Birner-Gruenberger; Monika Riederer; Achim Lass; Georg Neuberger; Frank Eisenhaber; Albin Hermetter; Rudolf Zechner

    2004-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. Dysfunctional lipolysis affects energy homeostasis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Until now, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the only enzyme known to hydrolyze triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissue. Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial

  4. Lipase-modified pH-responsive microgel-based optical device for triglyceride sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Berg, Darren; Mugo, Samuel M; Serpe, Michael J

    2015-05-28

    Lipase-modified pH-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based microgels were synthesized. An optical device was subsequently fabricated by sandwiching the enzyme loaded responsive microgels between two thin Au layers, and their response to triolein, a model triglyceride, was investigated. The device's response depended on the triglyceride concentration, demonstrating its potential application as a triglyceride biosensor. PMID:25983030

  5. HPLC analysis of phenolic antioxidants, tocopherols and triglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Andrikopoulos; H. Brueschweiler; H. Felber; Ch. Taeschler

    1991-01-01

    Triglycerides, together with nine synthetic phenolic antioxidants most commonly used to prevent oxidation of edible oils and\\u000a fats, as well as the natural antioxidants tocopherols and?-tocopherol acetate, were separated by high performance liquid chromatography by means of a reversed phase C18-column and gradient elution with water\\/acetonitrile\\/methanol\\/isopropanol. Besides dilution of the oil with isopropanol\\/hexane,\\u000a no further example preparation was required. UV

  6. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu

    2009-01-01

    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed. PMID:19082509

  7. Triglycerides and coronary heart disease: implications of recent clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rubins, H B

    2000-10-01

    This paper reviews the clinical trial data that offer insight into the question of whether, and in what groups of people, triglycerides might be an appropriate therapeutic target for the primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Two angiographic trials (the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial and the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial) and three clinical endpoint trials (the Helsinki Heart Study, the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study, and the VA HDL Intervention Trial) are reviewed. Hypertriglyceridemia per se is probably not an appropriate therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease because it is a poor marker of atherogenic risk and because there have been no clinical trials that have directly addressed the question of whether lowering the triglyceride level reduces the number of clinical events. The studies reviewed here, however, suggest that patients with established coronary heart disease and a high triglyceride level, in association with either a low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level or perhaps other features of the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension, may benefit from fibrate therapy. For patients without established coronary heart disease, it is reasonable to consider hypertriglyceridemia as a risk marker prompting the aggressive treatment of other risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and obesity. PMID:11143764

  8. Relation of ketosis to metabolic changes induced by acute medium-chain triglyceride feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Y Y; Zee, P

    1976-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) induce ketosis in several mammalian species including man. To clarify the regulation of this metabolic alteration, we fed rats either MCT or long-chain triglyceride (corn oil) and then attempted to correlate ketosis with changes in (i) concentrations of selected metabolites in plasma and (ii) the synthetic and oxidative capacities of the liver. By 1 hour after MCT feeding, plasma levels of total ketone bodies had increased 18-fold, with a maximum value reached 1 hour later. By contrast, total plasma ketones in rats fed corn oil were increased only about 2-fold at 2 hours after feeding and did not exceed this value at later intervals. Hepatic concentrations of ketone bodies also increased after MCT or corn oil feeding. Although plasma concentrations of glucose decreased and insulin increased in rats fed MCT, they were not affected by corn oil feeding. MCT-induced ketosis was depressed by glucose administration. Neither MCT nor corn oil feeding impaired utilization of glucose by the liver. Hepatic lipogenesis was suppressed 50% and 90% by MCT and corn oil feeding, respectively. A marked increase of long-chain fatty acids in plasma was observed in rats fed corn oil but not in rats fed MCT. The pronounced increase of ketones in MCT-fed rats was closely related to an elevation of octanoate. In liver slices of MCT-fed rats, ketogenesis from octanoate was 10-fold higher than from palmitate, and octanoate was oxidized 4 times more rapidly than palmitate. The ketosis of MCT-fed rats was depressed by administration of 4-pentenoic acid, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. These results support the concept that ketosis induced by MCT stems from rapid oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. Hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and depressed lipogenesis resulting from MCT feeding appear to potentiate but not initiate ketosis. PMID:1245892

  9. Emerging low-density lipoprotein therapies: Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Anne C

    2013-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of enterocytes and hepatocytes, is necessary for the formation of chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein particles. Lomitapide is a small molecule microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor that was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to a low-fat diet and other lipid-lowering therapies for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Results from clinical trials of lomitapide have demonstrated its ability to reduce atherogenic lipoprotein concentrations in this population. Most recently, in a phase 3 clinical trial of 29 men and women with homozygous FH (mean baseline LDL-C, 336 mg/dL) who were on stable doses of concomitant lipid therapies and a low-fat diet, lomitapide was gradually titrated over 26 weeks (from 5 to 60 mg/d), followed by 52 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. LDL-C decreased from baseline by 50% at 26 weeks, and reductions were maintained through the end of the study. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most frequent side effects and the most common reason for failure to tolerate lomitapide dose escalation. Few patients had elevated aspartate or alanine aminotransferases; bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels were unaffected; and hepatic fat increased by ? 10 g/100 g. In conclusion, recent data support the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of low-dose titrated lomitapide in patients with homozygous FH; however, concerns regarding increased hepatic fat will need to be addressed in long-term safety studies. PMID:23642324

  10. A Toxoplasma Palmitoyl Acyl Transferase and the Palmitoylated Armadillo Repeat Protein TgARO Govern

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    A Toxoplasma Palmitoyl Acyl Transferase and the Palmitoylated Armadillo Repeat Protein TgARO Govern to the palmitoylated Armadillo Repeats-Only (TgARO) rhoptry protein by showing that conditional knockdown of Tg, et al. (2013) A Toxoplasma Palmitoyl Acyl Transferase and the Palmitoylated Armadillo Repeat Protein

  11. Comparison of chloroform-methanol-extracted and solvent-free triglyceride determinations in four fish species.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Pamela M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2007-09-01

    Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform-methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform-methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body fractions were measured in four fish species: northern pike Esox lucius, burbot Lota lota, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and spottail shiners Notropis hudsonius. Determinations of total body lipids were consistently greater than those of total body triglycerides when measured in the same solvent-extracted fraction, although both measures followed similar trends. In an effort to eliminate the need for extraction with organic solvents, we compared the performance of an enzyme-based triglyceride assay in both the solvent-extracted fraction and a whole-body unextracted homogenate for each fish. The chloroform-methanol-extracted triglyceride values were consistently lower than triglycerides measured in the unextracted whole-body homogenate. In addition, comparison of triglyceride measurements revealed limitations to the solvent extraction and subsequent triglyceride determinations in lean fish. Thus, in addition to being simple, rapid, and not requiring organic solvents, determination of triglycerides in an unextracted whole-fish homogenate may be a useful alternative to chloroform-methanol-based methods of lipid extraction and subsequent triglyceride measurement. PMID:18201059

  12. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide regulates glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in prediabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through the elevation of glycogen levels and reduction of inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Shui, Weizhi; Yang, Qiuxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-11

    The present study was designed to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), in prediabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. It was observed that fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in both models were reduced after a 4-week oral administration of ASP or metformin, and abnormal fasting serum insulin (FINS) concentrations were ameliorated as well. Moreover, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was decreased strikingly and body weight (BW) was reduced significantly in prediabetic mice after treatment with ASP. In addition, ASP also contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced after treatment with ASP in prediabetic mice or STZ-induced diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic glycogen (HG) and muscle glycogen (MG) concentrations were increased while insulin resistance (IR)-related inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-? in serum were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological examination indicated that the impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues or adipose tissues were effectively restored in STZ-induced diabetic mice or prediabetic mice after the ASP treatment. Taken together, these results revealed that ASP efficiently exerted hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic benefits, and its potential effect was associated with the amelioration of IR. ASP can be applied in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. PMID:25630053

  13. Dietary taurine supplementation reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol or a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Park, T; Lee, K

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and hepatic lipid levels and phospholipid profiles were evaluated in rats fed a high-cholesterol or a cholesterol-free diet. Four groups of male rats were fed one of the following diets for 5 weeks: cholesterol-free diet (CFD); high cholesterol diet (HCD); high cholesterol, high taurine diet (HCHTD); or high taurine diet (HTD). Rats fed a HCHTD had significantly lower plasma levels of total cholesterol (32% reduction), LDL-cholesterol (37% reduction) and triglyceride (43% reduction) than rats fed a HCD alone. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were also significantly reduced in rats fed a HTD compared to rats fed a CFD. Taurine supplementation to the HCD significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol (50% decrease) and triglyceride (30% decrease) levels in rats. Taurine supplementation to the CFD also significantly reduced the hepatic triglyceride concentration (43% decrease) and elevated hepatic free fatty acid levels (77% increase) compared to rats fed only a CFD. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation is both hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic in rats whose body cholesterol status is high or normal. PMID:9635047

  14. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children123

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. Objective: This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. Design: BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7–12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study—a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results: Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, ? = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, ? = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. Conclusions: These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children, specifically elevated diastolic BP and triglycerides. Identification of dietary factors influencing cardiovascular health during childhood could serve as a tool to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00726778. PMID:24717340

  15. Inactivation of ANGPTL3 reduces hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gusarova, Viktoria; Banfi, Serena; Gromada, Jesper; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2015-07-01

    Humans and mice lacking angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) have pan-hypolipidemia. ANGPTL3 inhibits two intravascular lipases, LPL and endothelial lipase, and the low plasma TG and HDL-cholesterol levels in ANGPTL3 deficiency reflect increased activity of these enzymes. The mechanism responsible for the low LDL-cholesterol levels associated with ANGPTL3 deficiency is not known. Here we used an anti-ANGPTL3 monoclonal antibody (REGN1500) to inactivate ANGPTL3 in mice with genetic deficiencies in key proteins involved in clearance of ApoB-containing lipoproteins. REGN1500 treatment consistently reduced plasma cholesterol levels in mice in which Apoe, Ldlr, Lrp1, and Sdc1 were inactivated singly or in combination, but did not alter clearance of rabbit (125)I-?VLDL or mouse (125)I-LDL. Despite a 61% reduction in VLDL-TG production, VLDL-ApoB-100 production was unchanged in REGN1500-treated animals. Hepatic TG content, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation were similar in REGN1500 and control antibody-treated animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that inactivation of ANGPTL3 does not affect the number of ApoB-containing lipoproteins secreted by the liver but alters the particles that are made such that they are cleared more rapidly from the circulation via a noncanonical pathway(s). The increased clearance of lipolytic remnants results in decreased production of LDL in ANGPTL3-deficient animals. PMID:25954050

  16. Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Tomoya; Ono, Atsushi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics focuses on assessing the safety of compounds using gene expression profiles. Gene expression signatures from large toxicogenomics databases are expected to perform better than small databases in identifying biomarkers for the prediction and evaluation of drug safety based on a compound's toxicological mechanisms in animal target organs. Over the past 10 years, the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consortium (TGP) has been developing a large-scale toxicogenomics database consisting of data from 170 compounds (mostly drugs) with the aim of improving and enhancing drug safety assessment. Most of the data generated by the project (e.g. gene expression, pathology, lot number) are freely available to the public via Open TG-GATEs (Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System). Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the database, including both gene expression data and metadata, with a description of experimental conditions and procedures used to generate the database. Open TG-GATEs is available from http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/english/index.html. PMID:25313160

  17. Parenteral use of medium-chain triglycerides: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, H; Pastores, S M; Katz, D P; Kvetan, V

    1996-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the clinical use of intravenous fat emulsions for the nutritional support of hospitalized patients has become routine. During this time long-chain triglycerides (LCT) derived from soybean and/or safflower oils were the exclusive lipid source for these emulsions, providing both a safe calorically dense alternative to dextrose and essential fatty acids needed for biologic membranes and the maintenance of immune function. During the past decade, the availability of novel experimental triglycerides for parenteral use has generated interest in the use of these substrates for nutritional and metabolic support. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), long advocated as a superior substrate for parenteral use, possess many unique physiochemical and metabolic properties that make them theoretically advantageous over their LCT counterparts. Although not yet approved in the United States, preparations containing MCT have been widely available in Europe. Intravenous MCT preparations, either as physical mixtures or structured lipids, have been used clinically in patients with immunosuppresion, critical illness, liver and pulmonary disease and in premature infants. Despite great promise, the clinical data comparing the efficacy of MCT-based lipid emulsions to their LCT counterparts has been equivocal. This may be due in part to the limited nature of the published clinical trials. Measures of efficacy for parenteral or enteral nutritional products has taken on new meaning, in light of the reported experience using immunomodulatory nutrients. Current concerns about cost of medical care and resource use warrant careful deliberation about the utility of any new and expensive therapy. Until clinical data can fulfill expectations derived from animal studies, it is difficult to advocate the general use of MCT-based lipid emulsions. Future clinical studies with MCT-based emulsions should have clear outcome objectives sufficient to prove their theorized metabolic superiority. PMID:8862527

  18. Community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol/triglyceride and dietary habits/life styles in Pu-Li, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, P; Shaw, C K; Lai, M Y

    1993-09-01

    This is a community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol (CHO)/triglyceride (TG) and dietary habits/life styles of persons living in a central Taiwan Town. Door-to-door interviews were carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade, and fasting blood for CHO and TG tests was drawn by public health nurses from Pu-Li Health Station. Univariate analysis found that significant variables correlated with CHO were age (+), locality, non-fish seafood (+) and pungent food (+). Significant variables correlated with TG were age (+), sex, locality, smoking (+), alcohol (+) and physical activity (-). Stratified by age (> or = 50 and < 50) and by sex respectively, only one significant interaction item--age x organ meat consumption--was found; those who consumed organ meat more frequently had higher TG, if they were less than 50 years of age. This was not true for those aged 50 and over. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression revealed that after controlling for all of the other covariates, significant variables correlated with CHO were age (OR = 1.92, 95% C.I. = 1.37-2.69), pungent food (OR = 1.91, 95% C.I. = 1.26-2.89); locality (OR = 0.53, 95% C.I. = 0.35-0.80 for sub urban area; and OR = 0.74, 95% C.I. = 0.50-1.08 for rural area); sea food consumption (OR = 1.50, 95% C.I. = 0.94-2.40); and smoking (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. = 0.48-0.99).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8252457

  19. TG and ORG as energy converters from low enthalpy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Arosio, S.; Parolini, P.

    1983-12-01

    Dealing with the expliotation of low enthalpy sources, different engines and systems have been studied for many years. Among them two were developed at Dipartimento di Energetica del Politecnico di MilAno with sharing of C.E.E. (European Economic Community), ENEL (National Electric Energy Board) and C.N.R. (National Research Council); one is the so called Thermogravimetric system (TG)which operates the different density of a single phase flow and a two phase flow running in two vertical columns producing a nethead used by a hydraulic turbine (Kaplan model), the other one is the O.R.C. which works with an appropriate Rankine cycle at organic fluids producing a nethead utilizes by a vapor turbine. As for these systems, two pilot plants were recently built in Italy and a large experimental stage was carried out.

  20. The orbital evolution of NEA 30825 1900 TG1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkova, E. I.

    2008-02-01

    The orbital evolution of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 30825 1990 TG1 has been studied by numerical integration of the equations of its motion over the 100 000-year time interval with allowance for perturbations from eight major planets and Pluto, and the variations in its osculating orbit over this time interval were determined. The numerical integrations were performed using two methods: the Bulirsch-Stoer method and the Everhart method. The comparative analysis of the two resulting orbital evolutions of motion is presented for the time interval examined. The evolution of the asteroid motion is qualitatively the same for both variants, but the rate of evolution of the orbital elements is different. Our research confirms the known fact that the application of different integrators to the study of the long-term evolution of the NEA orbit may lead to different evolution tracks.

  1. Nemonoxacin (TG-873870) for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chung-Chih; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Lin, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hung, Chien-Ching; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-04-01

    With a broad-spectrum of activity, fluoroquinolones have been widely and successfully used for decades for the treatment of and prophylaxis against various bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the use of fluoroquinolones has been compromised by the emergence and spreading of bacterial resistance and the potential for adverse effects. Therefore, there is an unmet need for newer compounds that have a broader spectrum of activity to overcome existing bacterial resistance as well as the potential to minimize the risk of adverse effects. Nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a newly developed quinolone, has demonstrated broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and atypical pathogens, including drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Results from Phases I and II studies of treatment of CAP are encouraging. This article reviews the updated data on nemonoxacin, including the bacterial susceptibility, the pharmacologic characteristics, and toxicities, and clinical trials using nemonoxacin for treatment of CAP. PMID:24579813

  2. Circadian clocks and feeding time regulate the oscillations and levels of hepatic triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Adamovich, Yaarit; Rousso-Noori, Liat; Zwighaft, Ziv; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Golik, Marina; Kraut-Cohen, Judith; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Circadian clocks play a major role in orchestrating daily physiology, and their disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as fatty liver and obesity. To study the role of circadian clocks in lipid homeostasis, we performed an extensive lipidomic analysis of liver tissues from wild type and clock-disrupted mice, fed either ad libitum or night fed. To our surprise, a similar fraction of lipids (~17%) oscillated in both mouse strains, most notably triglycerides, but with completely different phases. Moreover, several master lipid regulators (e.g. PPAR?) and enzymes involved in triglyceride metabolism retained their circadian expression in clock-disrupted mice. Nighttime restricted feeding shifted the phase of triglyceride accumulation and resulted in ~50% decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels in wild type mice. Our findings suggest that circadian clocks and feeding time dictate the phase and levels of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, however oscillations in triglycerides can persist in the absence of a functional clock. PMID:24506873

  3. Inhibition of apolipoprotein B and triglyceride secretion in human hepatoma cells (HepG2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Haghpassand; Don Wilder; James B. Moberlyl

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB), the major protein com- ponent of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, is assembled into a lipoprotein particle via a complex, multistep process. Recent studies indicate that triglyceride-rich lipoprotein assembly re- quires the activity of the heterodimeric protein, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). We identified a novel inhibitor of apolipoprotein B secretion using the human hepatoma cell line, HepC2. CP-10447, a

  4. Physical properties of low molecular weight triglycerides for the development of bio-diesel fuel models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Goodrum; Mark A. Eiteman

    1996-01-01

    To aid the improvement of fuel properties of oils, basic physical and combustion-related properties of low molecular weight triglycerides are described. These properties include density, viscosity, heat capacity, surface tension and vapor pressure. Fuel injection atomization factors were determined for these triglycerides. Properties of tributyrin (C4:0), tricaproin (C6:0), tricaprylin (C8:0) and tricaprin (C10:0) indicate that these triglycerides are potential components

  5. Stereospecific analysis of triglycerides of Glycine max, Glycine soya, Avena sativa and Avena sterilis strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Pan; E. G. Hammond

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the stereospecific analysis of triglycerides based on enzymatic hydrolysis on thin layer plates was applied\\u000a to a number ofGlycine max, Glycine soya, Avena sativa andAvena sterilis strains. The percentage of each fatty acid on thesn-1,sn-2- andsn-3-positions was linearly related to the total percentage of the fatty acid in the triglyceride. Large deviations from the\\u000a common triglyceride

  6. Functional deprivation promotes amyloid plaque pathogenesis in Tg2576 mouse olfactory bulb and piriform cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Mei; Xiong, Kun; Cai, Yan; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Feng, Jia-Chun; Clough, Richard W.; Patrylo, Peter R.; Struble, Robert G.; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral hypometabolism and amyloid accumulation are principal neuropathological manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Whether and how brain/neuronal activity might modulate certain pathological process of AD are interesting topics of recent clinical and basic research in the field, and may be of potential medical relevance in regard to both the disease etiology and intervention. Using the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of AD, this study characterized a promotive effect of neuronal hypoactivity associated with functional deprivation on amyloid plaque pathogenesis in the olfactory pathway. Unilateral naris-occlusion caused BACE1 elevation in neuronal terminals in the deprived relative to the non-deprived bulb and piriform cortex in young adult mice. In parallel with the overall age-related plaque development in the forebrain, locally-increased BACE1 immunoreactivity co-occurred with amyloid deposition first in the piriform cortex then within the bulb, more prominent on the deprived relative to the non-deprived side. Biochemical analyses confirmed elevated BACE1 protein levels, enzymatic activity and products in the deprived relative to non-deprived bulbs. Plaque-associated BACE1 immunoreactivity in the bulb and piriform cortex was localized preferentially to swollen/sprouting glutamatergic axonal terminals, with A? immunoreactivity occurred inside as well as around these terminals. Together, these findings suggest that functional deprivation or neuronal hypoactivity facilitates amyloid plaque formation in the forebrain in a transgenic model of AD, which operates synergistically with age effect. The data also implicate an intrinsic association of amyloid accumulation and plaque formation with progressive axonal pathology. PMID:20384814

  7. Synthesis and Mass Spectral Properties of a Triglyceride Precursor of ?-Dodecalactone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Dolendo; J. C. Means; J. Tobias; E. G. Perkins

    1969-01-01

    The triglyceride 1-(5-hydroxy)-dodec- anoyl-2,3-dihexadecanoyl glycerol was syn- thesized and shown, along with the corre- sponding 5-hydroxy-dodecanoic acid, to be one of the precursors of 8-dodecalactone. Gas-chromatographic analyses were carried out on the hydroxy-substituted triglyceride, the hydroxy-acid, the corresponding oxo- triglyceride and oxo-aeid, and the 8-do- decalactone, before and after heat treat- ment. The hydroxy-triglyceride and the hydroxy-acid hydrolyzed and lactonized

  8. Genetics and causality of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S; Davidson, Michael H; Hirsh, Benjamin J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gaudet, Daniel

    2014-12-16

    Triglycerides represent 1 component of a heterogeneous pool of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs). The reliance on triglycerides or TGRLs as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers prompted investigations into therapies that lower plasma triglycerides as a means to reduce CVD events. Genetic studies identified TGRL components and pathways involved in their synthesis and metabolism. We advocate that only a subset of genetic mechanisms regulating TGRLs contribute to the risk of CVD events. This "omic" approach recently resulted in new targets for reducing CVD events. PMID:25500239

  9. The hereditary spastic paraplegia-related enzyme DDHD2 is a principal brain triglyceride lipase

    PubMed Central

    Inloes, Jordon M.; Dix, Melissa M.; Viader, Andreu; Masuda, Kim; Takei, Thais; Wood, Malcolm R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    Complex hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetic disorder that causes lower limb spasticity and weakness and intellectual disability. Deleterious mutations in the poorly characterized serine hydrolase DDHD2 are a causative basis for recessive complex HSP. DDHD2 exhibits phospholipase activity in vitro, but its endogenous substrates and biochemical functions remain unknown. Here, we report the development of DDHD2?/? mice and a selective, in vivo-active DDHD2 inhibitor and their use in combination with mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to discover that DDHD2 regulates brain triglycerides (triacylglycerols, or TAGs). DDHD2?/? mice show age-dependent TAG elevations in the central nervous system, but not in several peripheral tissues. Large lipid droplets accumulated in DDHD2?/? brains and were localized primarily to the intracellular compartments of neurons. These metabolic changes were accompanied by impairments in motor and cognitive function. Recombinant DDHD2 displays TAG hydrolase activity, and TAGs accumulated in the brains of wild-type mice treated subchronically with a selective DDHD2 inhibitor. These findings, taken together, indicate that the central nervous system possesses a specialized pathway for metabolizing TAGs, disruption of which leads to massive lipid accumulation in neurons and complex HSP syndrome. PMID:25267624

  10. Fibrates reduce triacylglycerol content by upregulating adipose triglyceride lipase in the liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Karahashi, Minako; Hoshina, Miki; Yamazaki, Tohru; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Kudo, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) homeostasis is maintained by carefully regulated balance between its synthesis and disposal. Impairment in this balance causes steatosis. The aims of this study were i) to uncover whether fibrates control TAG concentration through the action of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and ii) to compare the potency of the effects on ATGL expression and TAG concentration among fenofibrate, bezafibrate, and clofibric acid in the liver of rats. Treatments of rats with the three fibrates induced ATGL and concomitantly decreased hepatic TAG concentration. The upregulation of ATGL was likely mediated through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Fibrates also expanded capacity of fatty acid ?-oxidation. Importantly, three fibric acids (fenofibric, bezafibric, and clofibric acids) that are active metabolites formed in the liver exhibited almost the same potency to elevate ATGL expression in vivo, despite the fact that there were considerable differences in this regard among fenofibrate, bezafibrate, and clofibric acid when compared on the basis of their dosage. These results suggest that ATGL represents a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating hepatic steatosis and that fibric acids are promising agents to ameliorate and/or protect against hepatic steatosis. PMID:24292381

  11. Simple manual procedure for determination of serum triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Mendez, J; Franklin, B; Gahagan, H

    1975-05-01

    We describe a modified method for determining serum triglycerides (triacylglycerols), which is based on the heptane extraction procedure of Gottfried and Rosenberg [Clin. Chem. 19, 1077 (1973)] with the stable saponification, oxidation, and color development reagents of Neri and Frings [Clin. Chem. 19, 1201 (1973)]. This modified method eliminates one heating step, reduces saponification time to 5 min, absorbances are read at room temperature, and the calibration curve is linear to 3.0 g/liter. A sample comparison between the proposed method and the automated Block and Jarrett [Am. J. Med. Technol. 35, 1 (1969)] procedure showed no significant difference (r equals 0.98). The coefficient of variation (47 duplicate samples) for the modified method was 6.3%. Further validation was obtained from analysis of quality-control samples; the proposed method gave equivalent values. PMID:1122623

  12. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression and ApoB secretion are inhibited by bitter melon in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Pearson, Laurel; Efird, Jimmy T; Adeli, Khosrow; Theriault, Andre G; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2005-04-01

    Momordica charantia or bitter melon is traditionally used as an antidiabetic agent in Asia, Africa, and South America. Recent studies indicate that bitter melon can also lower plasma lipids and VLDL in diabetic animal models as well as animals fed a high-fat diet, suggesting an effect on lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the lipid-lowering properties of bitter melon and regulation of apolipoprotein B (apoB). Human hepatoma cells, HepG2, treated with bitter melon juice (BMJ) for 24 h reduced apoB secretion with and without the addition of lipids (P < 0.05). However, BMJ did not increase apoB secretion in cells treated with N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal, indicating a lack of effect on the proteasomal degradation pathway. BMJ reduced the secretion of new triglycerides (P < 0.05) and decreased microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression, suggesting that lipid bioavailability and lipidation of lipoprotein assembly are likely involved in decreased apoB secretion. Interestingly, BMJ increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, P < 0.05), involved in MTP secretion. Our data suggest that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of apoB secretion and TG synthesis and secretion that may be involved in the plasma lipid- and VLDL-lowering effects observed in animal studies. PMID:15795421

  13. Application of thin-layer chromatography to the quantitative estimation of tissue triglycerides II. Influence of methyl parathion on the composition of liver triglycerides in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Sahasrabudhe; Sheila I. Read

    1965-01-01

    Methyl parathion fed at 10 ppm in a high protein low fat diet inhibited 46.9% of the total liver carboxylesterase activity.\\u000a The total fatty acid composition of liver triglycerides was not significantly altered. However, the methyl parathion-fed rats\\u000a showed a higher percentage of saturated acids in the 2-position of the glyceride molecule. Triglyceride analysis employing\\u000a the multiple TLC-GLC technique (5)

  14. TG-69: Radiographic film for megavoltage beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Sujatha; Das, Indra J.; Dempsey, James F.; Lam, Kwok L.; LoSasso, Thomas J.; Olch, Arthur J.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Reinstein, Lawrence E.; Ritt, Dan; Wilcox, Ellen E. [Radiation Therapy Department, Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, Texas 77024 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Medical Physics Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Radiation Oncology Program, Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, SUNY Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Radiological Imaging Technology, Inc., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80907 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, St. Francis Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06105 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    TG-69 is a task group report of the AAPM on the use of radiographic film for dosimetry. Radiographic films have been used for radiation dosimetry since the discovery of x-rays and have become an integral part of dose verification for both routine quality assurance and for complex treatments such as soft wedges (dynamic and virtual), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and small field dosimetry like stereotactic radiosurgery. Film is convenient to use, spatially accurate, and provides a permanent record of the integrated two dimensional dose distributions. However, there are several challenges to obtaining high quality dosimetric results with film, namely, the dependence of optical density on photon energy, field size, depth, film batch sensitivity differences, film orientation, processing conditions, and scanner performance. Prior to the clinical implementation of a film dosimetry program, the film, processor, and scanner need to be tested to characterize them with respect to these variables. Also, the physicist must understand the basic characteristics of all components of film dosimetry systems. The primary mission of this task group report is to provide guidelines for film selection, irradiation, processing, scanning, and interpretation to allow the physicist to accurately and precisely measure dose with film. Additionally, we present the basic principles and characteristics of film, processors, and scanners. Procedural recommendations are made for each of the steps required for film dosimetry and guidance is given regarding expected levels of accuracy. Finally, some clinical applications of film dosimetry are discussed.

  15. Comprehensive evolved gas analysis of amorphous precursors for S-doped titania by in situ TG–FTIR and TG\\/DTA–MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    János Madarász; Ana Br?ileanu; György Pokol

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of an amorphous precursor for S-doped titania (TiO2) nanopowders, prepared by controlled sol–gel hydrolysis–condensation of titanium(IV) tetraisopropoxide and thiourea in aqueous isopropanol, has been studied up to 800°C in flowing air by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled online with quadrupole mass spectrometer (TG\\/DTA–MS) and FTIR spectrometric gas cell (TG–FTIR) for analysis of gases and their evolution dynamics

  16. 1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS (AS OPPOSED) TO THE SIMILAR STEEL ELEVATOR IN BUFFALO NEW YORK WITH ROUND ELEVATOR BINS. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  17. Elev. Elev. 1st Floor, Building 51

    E-print Network

    Kaji, Hajime

    Elev. Elev. To the West Gate Main Gate 1st Floor, Building 51 Office of the Schools of Science, Public Relations and Admissions Sections Automatic Certificate- Issuing Machines Location and Hours year undergrad, 2nd year master's and 3rd year doctoral students Automatic Certificate-Issuing Macine

  18. Effects of triglycerides on the hydrophobic drug loading capacity of saturated phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Seok; Kim, So Hee; Lim, Soo-Jeong

    2015-04-10

    A high drug-loading capacity is a critical factor for the clinical development of liposomal formulations. The accommodation of hydrophobic drugs within the liposomal membrane is often limited in saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based liposomes owing to the rigidity of the lipid acyl chain. In the current study, we explored the possibility of improving the hydrophobic drug loading capacity of liposomes by incorporating triglyceride into liposomal membranes. Incorporation of Captex 300, a medium chain triglyceride, into liposomes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol greatly increased the fluidity and lamellarity of the resultant liposomes. Liposomal incorporation of medium or long chain, but not short chain, triglycerides greatly enhanced the concentration of loaded paclitaxel (PTX) in saturated PC-based liposomes. The enhancing effect of triglyceride saturated at a triglyceride content corresponding to the amount required to fluidize the liposome structure. In addition, the enhancing effect was not observed in unsaturated PC-based liposomes and was not associated with the solubility of PTX in each triglyceride. Triglycerides also enhanced the loading of docetaxel, another hydrophobic drug. Taken together, our results suggest that triglyceride incorporation in saturated PC-based liposomes provide an improved dosage form that enables increased hydrophobic drug loading by altering the fluidity and structure of liposomal membranes. PMID:25667981

  19. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Protein Expression Is Decreased in the Obese

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Protein Expression Is Decreased resistance. The mo- bilization of stored TAG is mediated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the recently discovered adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). The aim of the present study was to examine whether ATGL

  20. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S

    2013-11-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

  1. Extraordinary elevation of the glass transition temperature of thin polymer films grafted to silicon oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Ranjeet S.; Fryer, David S.; Pasqualini, Silvia; Montague, Martha F.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2001-12-01

    We used local thermal analysis and ellipsometry to measure the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of supported thin films of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) and hydroxy terminated polystyrene (PS-OH). The films were spuncast from solution onto silicon oxide substrates and annealed under vacuum at elevated temperatures to graft the polymer to the substrate. Grafting was verified and characterized in terms of the thickness of and the advancing contact angle of water on the residual layer after solvent extraction. For PHS, each segment of the polymer chain was capable of grafting to the substrate. The thickness of the residual layer increased with increasing annealing temperature. For this polymer the critical thickness below which the Tg of the film deviated from the bulk value was nearly 200 nm after annealing at the highest temperature (190 °C); the Tg of films 100 nm thick or less were elevated by more than 50 °C above the bulk value. For PS-OH films the polymer was only capable of grafting at one chain end, forming a brush layer at the substrate interface. The critical thicknesses for PS-OH films and the Tg elevations were substantially higher than for ungrafted PS films, but were not as large as for PHS. The film thickness dependence of Tg for PHS and PS-OH were well described as piecewise linear, consistent with a "dual-mechanism" model.

  2. Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive saturated fatty acids have been considered to be one of major contributing factors for the dysfunction of skeletal muscle cells as well as pancreatic beta cells, leading to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Results PA induced cell death in a dose dependent manner up to 1.5 mM, but AA protected substantially lipotoxicity caused by PA at even low concentration of 62 ?M, at which monounsaturated fatty acids including palmitoleic acid (POA) and oleic acid (OA) did not protect as much as AA did. Induction of cell death by PA was resulted from mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and AA effectively blocked the progression of apoptosis. Furthermore, AA rescued significantly PA-impaired glucose uptake and -signal transduction of Akt in response to insulin. Based on the observations that polyunsaturated AA generated competently cellular droplets at low concentration within the cytosol of myotubes compared with other monounsaturated fatty acids, and AA-driven lipid droplets were also enhanced in the presence of PA, we hypothesized that incorporation of harmful PA into inert triglyceride (TG) may be responsible for the protective effects of AA against PA-induced lipotoxicity. To address this assumption, C2C12 myotubes were incubated with fluorescent probed-PA analogue 4, 4-difluoro-5, 7-dimethyl-4-boro-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid (BODIPY FL C16) in the presence of AA and their subsequent lipid profiles were analyzed. The analyses of lipids on thin layer chromatograpy (TLC) showed that fluorescent PA analogue was rapidly channeled into AA-driven TG droplets. Conclusion Taken together, it is proposed that AA diverts PA into inert TG, therefore reducing the availability of harmful PA into intracellular target molecules. PMID:24521082

  3. Glass transition studies in free standing polymer films have revealed values of the transition temperature, Tg

    E-print Network

    Dutcher, John

    78 Glass transition studies in free standing polymer films have revealed values of the transition which examine the dynamics and glass transition temperature, Tg , of thin polymer films supported by sub temperature, Tg , which were substantially reduced below the bulk for suf- ficiently thin films. Measurements

  4. TgVTC2 is Involved in Polyphosphate Accumulation in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Peggy J.; Ayong, Lawrence; Tobin, Crystal M.; Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Knoll, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphosphate is found in every cell, having roles in diverse processes, including differentiation and response to stress. In this study, we characterize a Toxoplasma gondii mutant containing an insertion within the carboxy-terminal end of a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vtc2p, a component of the polyphosphate synthetic machinery. Locus TgVTC2 encodes a 140 kDa protein containing conserved SPX, VTC and transmembrane domains. TgVTC2 localizes in punctate spots within the cytoplasm that do not co-localize with known markers. The TgVTC2 mutant showed dramatically reduced polyphosphate accumulation, a defect restored by introduction of TgVTC2 to the mutant. Insertion within TgVTC2 resulted in increased transcript levels for two loci, including a putative FIKK kinase. These transcript levels were restored to wild-type levels upon complementation with the TgVTC2 locus. The TgVTC2 locus was refractory to knockout, and may be essential. Analysis of this TgVTC2 mutant will facilitate dissection of the T. gondii polyphosphate synthesis pathway. PMID:21195114

  5. Use of stable isotopically labeled tracers to measure very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Patterson; Bettina Mittendorfer; Nizar Elias; Raj Satyanarayana; Samuel Klein

    Tracer methods for VLDL-TG kinetics vary in their ability to account for the effect of tracer recycling, which can influence the calculation of VLDL-TG fractional catabolic rates (FCRs). We evaluated a novel approach, in- volving stable isotopically labeled glycerol or palmitate tracers in conjunction with compartmental modeling, for measur- ing VLDL-TG kinetics in normolipidemic human subjects. When administered as a

  6. USGS Elevation Monument

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

  7. Inhibition of JAK2 Signaling by TG101209 Enhances Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yunguang; Moretti, Luigi; Giacalone, Nicholas J; Schleicher, Stephen; Speirs, Christina K.; Carbone, David P.; Lu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Persistent STAT3 activation contributes to lung carcinogenesis. Survivin, one of STAT3-regulated genes, is antiapoptotic and confers cancer radioresistance. Methods We tested whether TG101209, a small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 (a STAT3-activating tyrosine kinase), affected survivin expression and sensitized lung cancer to radiation. We investigated whether inhibition of JAK2 signaling with TG101209 can be used to reduce survivin expression and enhance radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth delay in vivo. JAK2 downstream signaling, including PI3-K/Akt and Ras/MAPK/ERK pathways, was also explored. Results TG101209 inhibited STAT3 activation and survivin expression, and sensitized HCC2429 (DER=1.34,p=0.002) and H460 (DER=1.09,p=0.006) cells to radiation in clonogenic assays. Radiation promoted phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK in H460 cells, while their levels were unchanged in HCC2429. After treatment with TG101209, phospho-ERK protein levels were reduced in both HCC2429 and H460 cells. HCC2429 cells transfected with K-Ras-12V mutant were more resistant to radiation- and TG101209-induced apoptosis than wild-type control cells. In vivo, addition of TG101209 to radiation in lung xenografts produced a significant tumor growth delay (>10 days) compared to radiation alone and was well tolerated. Immunohistochemistry staining of tumor sections showed that TG101209 increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and vascular density, suggesting that TG101209 also has antiangiogenic effects. Conclusions TG101209 enhanced the effects of radiation in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests the potential utility of selecting lung cancer patients according to K-Ras mutation status for future clinical trials testing combination of TG101209 and radiotherapy. PMID:21325979

  8. Relationship between smoking habits and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides in a hypercholesterolemic adult cohort, in relation to gender and age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Schuitemaker; G. J. Dinant; G. A. van der Pol; J. W. J. van Wersch

    2002-01-01

    Elevated total cholesterol, the related low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides,\\u000a and smoking habits are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence\\u000a of habitual smoking on these parameters in 492 hypercholesterolemic men and women, aged between 26 and 66 years. Relative\\u000a differences between smokers and non-smokers in the mean values of total cholesterol,

  9. Adipose triglyceride lipase affects triacylglycerol metabolism at brain barriers.

    PubMed

    Etschmaier, Karoline; Becker, Tatjana; Eichmann, Thomas O; Schweinzer, Cornelia; Scholler, Monika; Tam-Amersdorfer, Carmen; Poeckl, Michael; Schuligoi, Rufina; Kober, Alexandra; Chirackal Manavalan, Anil Paul; Rechberger, Gerald N; Streith, Ingo E; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Panzenboeck, Ute

    2011-12-01

    Currently, little is known about the role of intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases in the brain. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATGL deficiency on brain lipid metabolism in vivo using an established knock-out mouse model (ATGL-ko). A moderate decrease in TAG hydrolase activity detected in ATGL-ko versus wild-type brain tissue was accompanied by a 14-fold increase in TAG levels and an altered composition of TAG-associated fatty acids in ATGL-ko brains. Oil Red O staining revealed a severe accumulation of neutral lipids associated to cerebrovascular cells and in distinct brain regions namely the ependymal cell layer and the choroid plexus along the ventricular system. In situ hybridization histochemistry identified ATGL mRNA expression in ependymal cells, the choroid plexus, pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, and the dentate gyrus. Our findings imply that ATGL is involved in brain fatty acid metabolism, particularly in regions mediating transport and exchange processes: the brain-CSF interface, the blood-CSF barrier, and the blood-brain barrier. PMID:21951135

  10. Structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Shengjian; Wong, D.M.; Chen, Sanhwan; Chan, L. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1989-11-14

    The structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene was determined from multiple cosmid clones. All the exons, exon-intron junctions, and 845 bp of the 5{prime} and 254 bp of the 3{prime} flanking DNA were sequenced. Comparison of the exon sequences to three previously published cDNA sequences revealed differences in the sequence of the codons for residue 133, 193, 202, and 234 that may represent sequence polymorphisms. By primer extension, hepatic lipase mRNA initiates at an adenine 77 bases upstream of the translation initiation site. The hepatic lipase gene spans over 60 kb containing 9 exons and 8 introns, the latter being all located within the region encoding the mature protein. The exons are all of average size (118-234 bp). Exon 1 encodes the signal peptide, exon 4, a region that binds to the lipoprotein substrate, and exon 5, an evolutionarily highly conserved region of potential catalytic function, and exons 6 and 9 encode sequences rich in basic amino acids thought to be important in anchoring the enzyme to the endothelial surface by interacting with acidic domains of the surface glycosaminoglycans. The human lipoprotein lipase gene has been recently reported to have an identical exon-intron organization containing the analogous structural domains. The observations strongly support the common evolutionary origin of these two lipolytic enzymes.

  11. Polymorphism and kinetic behavior of binary mixtures of triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Pattarino, Franco; Bettini, Ruggero; Foglio Bonda, Andrea; Della Bella, Andrea; Giovannelli, Lorella

    2014-10-01

    The work is aimed at investigating the polymorphism and the phase transition kinetics of binary lipid mixtures with potential application in controlled drug delivery. The lipid systems, constituted of glyceryl tristearate (GTS) added with different amounts (1.0-7.5% w/w) of a medium-chain liquid triglyceride (C10-C12 acyl derivative - MCT), were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, by X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. The liquid lipid, although present in small amount, modified the thermal profile and the diffraction pattern of the systems, indicating that it promoted the formation of the GTS stable polymorph, ?, during the re-solidification of the melted mixture. This promotion effect of MCT was concentration-dependent and evident for systems containing MCT>2.5%. Also the kinetics of transformation of GTS polymorphs was affected by the percentage of the liquid component. The ? ? ?-transition was a biphasic process which for GTS-MCT mixture (99:1) superimposed that of pure GTS, while followed a different trend for systems containing percentages of MCT higher than 2.5. PMID:24971693

  12. Male Gender, Increased Blood Viscosity, Body Mass Index and Triglyceride Levels Are Independently Associated with Systemic Relative Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

  13. ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    McCain, Christy M.

    ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY John-Arvid Grytnesn and Christy M. McCainw n University of Bergen and w University of California I. Introduction II. History of Elevational Studies III. Observed that are net exporters of individuals and pop- ulations that are net importers of individuals. ELEVATIONAL

  14. PURDUE EXTENSION Elevator Pitches

    E-print Network

    PURDUE EXTENSION EC-762-W Elevator Pitches: Showcasing Your Business Joan Fulton Department in developing and delivering an elevator pitch and presents specific examples for small businesses. Outcome elevator pitch. Introduction When was the last time you needed to be able to quickly and succinctly

  15. In Elevator Destination

    E-print Network

    Koopman, Philip

    Hallway Wait Board In Elevator Destination Injured Gives Up GM People Helping Systems: Workarounds Wait Board Lanterns do not activate & Doors open Lanterns activate & Doors open Board In Elevator state before failure Hallway Wait Board In Elevator Destination On Stairs MS MS2 1 Under moderate

  16. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NED is designed to provide national elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, permit edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data.

  17. A novel mutation in PNLIP causes pancreatic triglyceride lipase deficiency through protein misfolding.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Xiao, Xunjun; Haughney, Margaret; Spector, Alyssa; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Lowe, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    Congenital pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PNLIP) deficiency is a rare disorder with uncertain genetic background as most cases were described before gene sequencing was readily available. Recently, two brothers with PNLIP deficiency were found to carry a homozygous missense mutation, c.662C>T (p.T221M) in the PNLIP gene (J. Lipid Res. 2014. 55:307-312). Molecular modeling suggested the substitution would change the orientation of residues in the catalytic site and disrupt the function of p.T221M PNLIP. To test the effect of the p.T221M mutation on PNLIP function, we expressed wild-type and p.T221M PNLIP in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293A cells and dexamethasone-differentiated AR42J rat acinar cells. In both cellular models, wild-type PNLIP was secreted into the conditioned medium where it was readily detectable by protein staining, immunoblot or lipase activity assays. In contrast, mutant p.T221M was not secreted into the medium, but it was present in cell lysates where it accumulated in the insoluble fraction. Intracellular retention of mutant p.T221M resulted in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as measured by elevated XBP1 splicing and increased levels of ER chaperones. Our results demonstrate that the presence of methionine at position 221 in the PNLIP protein sequence causes misfolding and aggregation of the p.T221M mutant inside the cell. The consequent loss of enzyme secretion adequately explains the clinical phenotype of PNLIP deficiency reported for homozygous carriers of p.T221M. Furthermore, the ability of mutant p.T221M to induce ER stress suggests that this form of PNLIP deficiency might cause acinar cell damage as well. PMID:25862608

  18. Liver triglyceride accumulation after chronic ethanol administration: a possible protective role of metadoxina and ubiquinone.

    PubMed

    Marchi, S; Polloni, A; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Bonifazi, V; Tumino, E; Grassi, B; Romano, M R; De Bartolo, G; Bertelli, A

    1990-01-01

    Hepatoprotective actions of metadoxina and ubiquinone have been studied in alcoholic rats by evaluating hepatic triglyceride accumulation and serum biochemical parameters of liver function. The two drug-treated groups displayed significantly lower triglyceride concentrations as compared to the ethanol-treated group. No significant differences were found among the two drug-treated and the control groups. Electron-microscopic abnormalities were found only in ethanol-treated rats. Serum biochemical parameters of liver function did not show any significant difference among all four groups. These results suggest a possible protective role of metadoxina and ubiquinone in ethanol-induced liver triglyceride accumulation. PMID:2283204

  19. Green tea catechin leads to global improvement among Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in NSE/hAPP-C105 Tg mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hwa Ja; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Lim, Chul Ju; Hong, Jin Tae; Sheen, Yhun Yong; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2013-07-01

    Amyloid ? (??) has been reported to be responsible for the functional and structural abnormalities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the induction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not treatment of transgenic (Tg) mice with green tea catechin (GTC), a radical scavenger, improves AD phenotypes. To test this, 7-month-old Tg mice were treated with a low (1 mg) or high (10 mg) dose of GTC for 6 months. Surprisingly, GTC-treated Tg mice exhibited significant decreases in behavioral impairment, A?-42 production, APP-C99/89 expression, ?-secretase component and Wnt protein levels, ?-secretase activity and MAPK activation. In contrast, the levels of APP-C83 protein and enzyme activities (?-secretase, neprilysin and Pin1) were elevated in the GTC-treated groups. Moreover, GTC-treated groups showed lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased. These results provide the first experimental evidence that GTC improves AD phenotypes, thereby suggesting that GTC can be used in the prevention of AD or treatment of AD patients. PMID:23333093

  20. Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and indicating incorporation of railroad retaining wall as the elevator's basement wall - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Low doses of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oil dose-dependently decrease serum triglyceride concentrations in the presence of plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ras, Rouyanne T; Demonty, Isabelle; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Quadt, Johan F A; Olsson, Johan; Trautwein, Elke A

    2014-10-01

    Plant sterols (PSs) lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, whereas the n-3 (?-3) fish fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lower triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Incorporating both PSs and EPA+DHA from fish oil (FO) in a single food format was expected to beneficially affect 2 blood lipid risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response relation between low doses (<2 g/d) of EPA+DHA from FO, incorporated in a low-fat PS-enriched spread, and TG concentrations. In addition, effects on LDL-C were investigated. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. After a 4-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a control (C) spread (no PSs, no FO) or 1 of 4 intervention spreads containing a fixed amount of PSs (2.5 g/d) and varying amounts of FO (0.0, 0.9, 1.3, and 1.8 g/d of EPA+DHA) for 4 wk. Before and after the intervention, fasting blood samples were drawn for measuring serum lipids and EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes. In total, 85 hypercholesterolemic men and 247 women with a mean age of 57.9 y (range: 25-74 y) were included. Eighteen subjects dropped out during the study. At baseline, mean TG and LDL-C concentrations were 1.09 and 4.00 mmol/L, respectively. After the intervention, a significant dose-response relation for the TG-lowering effect of EPA+DHA [?ln (TG) = -0.07 mmol/L per gram of EPA+DHA; P < 0.01] was found. Compared with the C group, TG concentrations were 9.3-16.2% lower in the different FO groups (P < 0.05 for all groups). LDL-C concentrations were 11.5-14.7% lower in the different PS groups than in the C group (P < 0.01 for all groups). EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes were dose-dependently higher after FO intake than after the C spread, indicating good compliance. Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with PSs and different low doses of n-3 fatty acids from FO decreased TG concentrations in a dose-dependent manner and decreased LDL-C concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01313988. PMID:25122648

  2. Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high triglyceride level is one part of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that increase the ... Familial (inherited) disorders • Type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome • Pregnancy • Medications — Some “water” pills (thiazide diuretics) — Beta- ...

  3. Esterification kinetics of triglycerides in n-hexane catalyzed by an immobilized lipase 

    E-print Network

    Gomez Ruiz, Alejandro

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed esterification of triglycerides over immobilized lipase in n-hexane was investigated. The reaction kinetics were described in terms of a mechanism developed following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW...

  4. Antioxidant capacity and stability of liposomes containing a triglyceride derivative of lipoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-functional nutritional agent lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and then chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl d...

  5. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4?h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. PMID:22431070

  6. The impact of exams anxiety on the level of triglycerides in university female students.

    PubMed

    Maimanee, Tahia A

    2010-04-01

    Anxiety affects the level of blood fats such as the triglycerides according to several studies conducted in various conditions causing anxiety as exam for the university students. The health experts suggested that the anxiety works to stimulate the autonomic nervous system which in turn leads to the appearance of a group of physiologic symptoms. The current study showed the changes happened in the triglycerides' levels in the female university students before and after exams at the intermediate anxiety level compared to other high and low levels of anxiety. In addition, there was a difference in triglycerides' levels in female students of college of Science before and after exam. This difference did not appear in case of other colleges. The exam type had an impact as the significant difference appeared in the triglycerides' levels during the periodical tests and these differences did not appear in the final exam. PMID:20503603

  7. Catalytic hydroconversion of tricaprylin and caprylic acid as model reaction for biofuel production from triglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Boda; György Onyestyák; Hanna Solt; Ferenc Lónyi; József Valyon; Artrur Thernesz

    2010-01-01

    There is strong interest in the production of fuels from triglycerides of biological origin. In this work tricaprylin (TC) and caprylic acid (CA) were used as model compounds to study the catalytic hydroconversion process of triglycerides to acyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons. Supported metal and metal oxide catalysts, such as palladium on activated carbon (Pd\\/C), and promoted molybdena–alumina (Ni,Mo\\/?-Al2O3) were used. The

  8. Association Between Serum Triglyceride Level and Early Prognosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang-Ho Choi; Man-Seok Park; Kyung-Wook Kang; Joon-Tae Kim; Seong-Min Choi; Seung-Han Lee; Byeong-Chae Kim; Myeong-Kyu Kim; Ki-Hyun Cho

    2008-01-01

    study. Patients were divided into five groups based on serum triglyceride levels. Results: The level of triglyceride was significantly lower in patients with 4 or more improvement in NIHSS score than in patients without improvement (100.4 versus 135.0 mg\\/dl, p<0.001). In a univariate analysis, thrombolytic therapy (p<0.001), atrial fibrillation (p <0.001), lower total cholesterol (p =0.001), lower LDL cholesterol (p=0.019)

  9. Squalene synthase inhibitors suppress triglyceride biosynthesis through the farnesol pathway in rat hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironobu Hiyoshi; Mamoru Yanagimachi; Masashi Ito; Nobuyuki Yasuda; Toshimi Okada; Hironori Ikuta; Daisuke Shinmyo; Keigo Tanaka; Nobuyuki Kurusu; Ichiro Yoshida; Shinya Abe; Takao Saeki; Hiroshi Tanaka

    2003-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that squalene synthase (SQS) inhibitors reduce plasma triglyceride through an LDL receptor-independent mechanism in Watanabe herita- ble hyperlipidemic rabbits (Hiyoshi et al. 2001. Eur. J. Phar- macol. 431: 345-352). The present study deals with the mechanism of the inhibition of triglyceride biosynthesis by the SQS inhibitors ER-27856 and RPR-107393 in rat pri- mary cultured hepatocytes. Atorvastatin, an

  10. Human Pancreatic Triglyceride Lipase Expressed in Yeast Cells: Purification and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanqing Yang; Mark E. Lowe

    1998-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding human pancreatic triglyceride lipase was cloned into a yeast expression vector so that the yeast PHO1 signal peptide replaced the native signal peptide.Pichia pastoriscells were transfected with the vector, and clones expressing human pancreatic triglyceride lipase were isolated. Recombinant human pancreatic lipase was expressed in broth cultures and was purified from the medium by DEAE blue

  11. Gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides from erucic acid oils and fish oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Harlow; Carter Litchfield; Raymond Reiser

    1966-01-01

    By critically selecting optimum operating conditions, quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides has been extended\\u000a to molecules containing substantial amounts of C20, C22, and C24 fatty acids. The triglycerides of four erucic acid oils (water cress, rapessed, nasturtium, andLunaria annua) and two fully hydrogenated fish oils (menhaden and tuna) have been quantitatively analyzed by this technique. The average\\u000a fatty acid chain

  12. Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Edward Hunter

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

  13. One Dimensional Magnetized TG Gas Properties in an External Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    Zhao Liang Wang; An Min Wang

    2009-12-31

    With Girardeau's Fermi-Bose mapping, we have constructed the eigenstates of a TG gas in an external magnetic field. When the number of bosons $N$ is commensurate with the number of potential cycles $M$, the probability of this TG gas in the ground state is bigger than the TG gas raised by Girardeau in 1960. Through the comparison of properties between this TG gas and Fermi gas, we find that the following issues are always of the same: their average value of particle's coordinate and potential energy, system's total momentum, single-particle density and the pair distribution function. But the reduced single-particle matrices and their momentum distributions between them are different.

  14. High Critical Temperature above Tg May Contribute to the Stability of Biological Systems

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    -L-lysine. With heating, the first change was associated with the melting of the glassy state (Tg). The second change (Tc and Walters-Vertucci, 1995), pollen (Buit- ink et al., 1996), prokaryotes (Potts, 1994), and the so

  15. Arachidonic acid diet attenuates brain A? deposition in Tg2576 mice.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takashi; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Jung, Cha-Gyun; Kontani, Masanori; Tokuda, Hisanori; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Michikawa, Makoto

    2015-07-10

    The amyloid ?-protein (A?) is believed to play a causative role in the development of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Because the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a substrate of A?, and ?-secretase and ?-secretase complex proteins, which process APP to generate A?, are all membrane proteins, it is possible to assume that alterations in brain lipid metabolism modulate APP and/or A? metabolism. However, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in A? metabolism remains unknown. We report here that 9 months-treatment of Tg2576 mice with arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing (ARA+) diet prevented brain A? deposition in 17-month-old Tg2576 mice. APP processing to generate soluble APP?, CTF-?, and A? synthesis was attenuated in Tg2576 mice fed with the ARA+ diet. These findings suggest that ARA+ diet could prevent A? deposition through the alteration of APP processing in Tg2576 mice. PMID:25881896

  16. Clearance of triglycerides from the circulation and its relationship to serum lipoproteins: influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Tollin, C; Ericsson, M; Johnson, O; Backman, C

    1985-12-01

    In this study of a randomly selected population from 20 to 70 years of age, the clearance of triglycerides from the blood was studied after i.v. injection of an artificial triglyceride emulsion Intralipid. In women, the triglyceride clearance from the blood decreases with increasing age, but for men there was no change with age. Women had faster fractional removal rates of i.v. injected triglycerides than men in all age-groups. The triglyceride clearance showed a negative correlation to Broca index (obesity), serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, triglycerides in very low density lipoproteins, and to cholesterol in very low density lipoproteins and in low density lipoproteins, but showed a strong positive correlation to cholesterol in high density lipoproteins. PMID:4081619

  17. Retention Behavior of Triglycerides in Octadecyl Packed Subcritical Fluid Chromatography with CO(2)/Modifier Mobile Phases.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E; Tchapla, A

    1999-12-01

    A study of the retention behavior of vegetable oil triglycerides was carried out in subcritical fluid chromatography (SubFC) with CO(2)/modifier mobile phases. Analyses of 15 oils have enabled us to set up a retention diagram which includes ?30 triglycerides. This diagram establishes a relation between triglyceride series retention and their unsaturation number. Furthermore, another relationship between retention and the triglyceride carbon number was studied. The retention properties were identical with those reported in nonaqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography or in SubFC with neat CO(2): the linearity of these relationships and retention order that follows the partition number. Moreover, specific effects of modifier on these relationships or on retention variations were observed. Using octadecyl packed columns, these particular behaviors underline that the compound solubility is different between modified subcritical phases and nonaqueous liquid phases. Finally, these behaviors can be useful to increase the triglyceride separation and the previous relationships can be applied to improve the identification of unknown triglycerides. PMID:21662734

  18. FXIIIA and TGF-? over-expression produces normal musculo-skeletal phenotype in TG2-\\/- mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Tarantino; F. Oliva; G. Taurisano; A. Orlandi; V. Pietroni; E. Candi; G. Melino; N. Maffulli

    2009-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TGs) enzymes and proteins crosslinking have for long time been implicated in the formation of hard tissue\\u000a development, matrix maturation and mineralization. Among the TGs family members, in the context of connective tissue formation,\\u000a TG2 and Factor XIII are expressed in cartilage by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we analyse the morphological consequences\\u000a of TG2 deficiency, during the development of skeletal

  19. TG–FTIR analysis applied to the study of thermal behaviour of some edible mushrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T?nase; Lucia Odochian; N. Apostolescu; A. Pui

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study on the thermal behaviour of three species of edible mushrooms: Boletus edulis (foot and cap), Pleurotus ostreatus (foot and cap), Lactarius deterrimus (cap) by the TG–FTIR-coupled technique, in air, over the 30–900 °C temperature range. The analysis of the TG–DTG–DTA curves\\u000a reveals the thermal degradation mechanism to be complex and specific to every species

  20. TG-FTIR study on thermal degradation in air of some new diazoaminoderivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anca Mihaela Mocanu; Lucia Odochian; N. Apostolescu; C. Moldoveanu

    2010-01-01

    The study on the thermal behavior of some new diazoaminoderivatives was aimed to follow the structure-thermal stability-degradation\\u000a mechanism correlation by means of the TG-FTIR technique and formation enthalpies. The TG-DTG-DTA curves reveal the thermal\\u000a degradation in air (30–900 °C) to show two ranges as a function of temperature (time), where the gaseous species resulting\\u000a by degradation are eliminated: the first, an

  1. TG studies of a composite solid rocket propellant based on HTPB-binder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. F. F. Rocco; J. E. S. Lima; A. G. Frutuoso; K. Iha; M. Ionashiro; J. R. Matos; M. E. V Suárez-Iha

    2004-01-01

    Thermal decomposition kinetics of solid rocket propellants based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-HTPB binder was studied\\u000a by applying the Arrhenius and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa's methods. The thermal decomposition data of the propellant samples were analyzed\\u000a by thermogravimetric analysis (TG\\/DTG) at different heating rates in the temperature range of 300-1200 K. TG curves showed\\u000a that the thermal degradation occurred in three main stages regardless of

  2. High critical temperature above T(g) may contribute to the stability of biological systems.

    PubMed Central

    Buitink, J; van den Dries, I J; Hoekstra, F A; Alberda, M; Hemminga, M A

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the molecular mobility around T(g) in sugars, poly-L-lysine and dry desiccation-tolerant biological systems, using ST-EPR, (1)H-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy, to understand the nature and composition of biological glasses. Two distinct changes in the temperature dependence of the rotational correlation time (tau(R)) of the spin probe 3-carboxy-proxyl or the second moment (M(2)) were measured in sugars and poly-L-lysine. With heating, the first change was associated with the melting of the glassy state (T(g)). The second change (T(c)), at which tau(R) abruptly decreased over several orders of magnitude, was found to correspond with the so-called cross-over temperature, where the dynamics changed from solid-like to liquid-like. The temperature interval between T(g) and T(c) increased in the order of sucrose < trehalose < raffinose 50 degrees C, implying that the stability above T(g) improved in the same order. These differences in temperature-dependent mobilities above T(g) suggest that proteins rather than sugars play an important role in the intracellular glass formation. The exceptionally high T(c) of intracellular glasses is expected to provide excellent long-term stability to dry organisms, maintaining a slow molecular motion in the cytoplasm even at temperatures far above T(g). PMID:10920041

  3. Automatic pipe elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Haney; C. A. Willis

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means

  4. Space Elevator: Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubos Perek

    2008-01-01

    Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the “centrifugal force” but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of

  5. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    PubMed

    McCarville, Justin L; Clarke, Sandra T; Shastri, Padmaja; Liu, Yi; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Green-Johnson, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-?1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-?1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-?1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-?1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice. PMID:23874826

  6. SU-E-J-110: TG 51 Dosimetry : With Or Without Lead

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M [A Meigooni, Comprehensive cancer center of Nevada - Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-06-01

    TG-51 Dosimetry: With or Without Lead. Purpose: In this project, an analytical method has been introduced for adjustment of the TG-51 recommended KQ in order to produce accurate dosimetric data for high energy photons without the lead foil. Methods: These investigations were performed using a 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm CIVCO water tank, A12 EXRADIN Water proof Farmer Chamber, a Standard Imaging MAX 4000 electrometer, and 1 mm thick lead foil from Standard Imaging. Complete TG-51 was performed every month with and without lead. The results were analyzed and an analytical model has been developed for comparing the values of KQ. TG-51 Table I was used to obtain KQ values. Results: The dosimetric evaluations were obtained for Varian Linear accelerators Model 21ix and 21ex. These results indicates that the measured data with lead foil in place as recommended by TG-51 is in excellent agreement (within 0.1%) with the calculated data obtained by the new model, from our dosimetry data without-lead. If equation 15 of the TG-51 report is used without any adjustments, it will lead to differences of about 1.6 % (on the average) in relative data which will Resultin differences of about 0.3 % (on the average) in the KQ Values. The KQ value for 18 MV obtained consistently with the equation of TG-51 “with lead” and “without lead” were 0.971 and 0.974, respectively. The 0.3 % higher results for KQ without lead eventually will lead to 0.3% larger output. However, by considering this model the KQ value was found to be 0.971 for dosimetry without lead. Conclusion: The analytical model that was introduced in this project was able to reproduce the dosimetric data of the high energy linear accelerators to within 0.1% without the use of the lead foil.

  7. Loaded sectioned space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadov, Yu. A.; Nuralieva, A. B.

    2015-05-01

    New super strong materials discovered at the end of the 20th century have caused a surge of activity in work devoted to the space elevator (SE). A rather complete concept of the SE has been formulated. This concept, having many advantages, possesses, nevertheless, limited capabilities and insufficient reliability. In this paper we present a modified space elevator concept [1] that has higher reliability and extended capabilities. Such a construction is more complicated and its design is more expensive, so it can be realized only as a part of a large-scale space program. Inclusion of a space elevator in such a program will facilitate development of new technologies.

  8. Introduction to Grain Elevators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

  9. Comparative gene identification-58/?/? hydrolase domain 5: more than just an adipose triglyceride lipase activator?

    PubMed Central

    Zierler, Kathrin A.; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that controls intracellular triglyceride levels by its ability to activate adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Additionally, CGI-58 was described to exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase (LPAAT) activity. This review focuses on the significance of CGI-58 in energy metabolism in adipose and nonadipose tissue. Recent findings Recent studies with transgenic and CGI-58-deficient mouse strains underscored the importance of CGI-58 as a regulator of intracellular energy homeostasis by modulating ATGL-driven triglyceride hydrolysis. In accordance with this function, mice and humans that lack CGI-58 accumulate triglyceride in multiple tissues. Additionally, CGI-58-deficient mice develop an ATGL-independent severe skin barrier defect and die soon after birth. Although the premature death prevented a phenotypical characterization of adult global CGI-58 knockout mice, the characterization of mice with tissue-specific CGI-58 deficiency revealed new insights into its role in neutral lipid and energy metabolism. Concerning the ATGL-independent function of CGI-58, a recently identified LPAAT activity for CGI-58 was shown to be involved in the generation of signaling molecules regulating inflammatory processes and insulin action. Summary Although the function of CGI-58 in the catabolism of cellular triglyceride depots via ATGL is well established, further studies are required to consolidate the function of CGI-58 as LPAAT and to clarify the involvement of CGI-58 in the metabolism of skin lipids. PMID:24565921

  10. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  11. 2. VIEW OF ELEVATOR AT SECOND FLOOR BEDROOM, SHOWING ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ELEVATOR AT SECOND FLOOR BEDROOM, SHOWING ELEVATOR CAR IN THE 'STUCK' POSITION, WHERE IT REMAINED FROM 1942 UNTIL REMOVAL IN 1985, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. A Nanotube Space Elevator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-08-26

    In this video adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, find out about the discovery of a new building material, the carbon nanotube, whose physical properties could theoretically enable the creation of a 22,000-mile elevator to space.

  13. Deletion of CGI-58 or adipose triglyceride lipase differently affects macrophage function and atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Goeritzer, Madeleine; Schlager, Stefanie; Radovic, Branislav; Madreiter, Corina T.; Rainer, Silvia; Thomas, Gwynneth; Lord, Caleb C.; Sacks, Jessica; Brown, Amanda L.; Vujic, Nemanja; Obrowsky, Sascha; Sachdev, Vinay; Kolb, Dagmar; Chandak, Prakash G.; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Sattler, Wolfgang; Brown, J. Mark; Kratky, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Cellular TG stores are efficiently hydrolyzed by adipose TG lipase (ATGL). Its coactivator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) strongly increases ATGL-mediated TG catabolism in cell culture experiments. To investigate the consequences of CGI-58 deficiency in murine macrophages, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of CGI-58 in myeloid cells (macCGI-58?/? mice). CGI-58?/? macrophages accumulate intracellular TG-rich lipid droplets and have decreased phagocytic capacity, comparable to ATGL?/? macrophages. In contrast to ATGL?/? macrophages, however, CGI-58?/? macrophages have intact mitochondria and show no indications of mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that TG accumulation per se lacks a significant role in processes leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Another notable difference is the fact that CGI-58?/? macrophages adopt an M1-like phenotype in vitro. Finally, we investigated atherosclerosis susceptibility in macCGI-58/ApoE-double KO (DKO) animals. In response to high-fat/high-cholesterol diet feeding, DKO animals showed comparable plaque formation as observed in ApoE?/? mice. In agreement, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of CGI-58 in LDL receptor?/? mice did not alter atherosclerosis burden in the aortic root. These results suggest that macrophage function and atherosclerosis susceptibility differ fundamentally in these two animal models with disturbed TG catabolism, showing a more severe phenotype by ATGL deficiency. PMID:25316883

  14. Characterization of cure in model photocrosslinking acrylate systems: Relationships among tensile properties, Tg and ultraviolet dose

    SciTech Connect

    Rakas, M.A. [Loctite Corp., Rocky Hill, CT (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The extent of cure of a thermosetting polymer is governed largely by polymerization kinetics and the difference between the polymerization temperature and the material`s ultimate glass transition temperature (Tg). For prepolymers which cure when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, other factors which strongly determine the extent of cure are the UV intensity and exposure time, and the interrelationship between the optical absorbance of the photoinitiator (PI) and the rate of formation of excited state PI radicals. Beers` Law can be used to understand the relationship between the PI`s molar absorptivity, its concentration, and adhesive film thickness. Many adhesives users are more concerned with bulk properties such as tensile modulus and Tg rather than a numerical measurement of degree of cure. Therefore, this research employed model acrylate formulations and determined changes in tensile properties and Tg as a function of film thickness and UV dose. These results enabled correlation of bulk and photoinitiator properties.

  15. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is essential for hepatic secretion of apoB-100 and apoB-48 but not triglyceride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    To Yuen Hui; Lisa M. Olivier; Sohye Kang; Roger A. Davis

    Despite a complete lack of microsomal triglycer- ide transfer protein (MTP), L35 rat hepatoma cells secrete triglyceride-containing lipoproteins, albeit at a rate 25% of that of parental FAO hepatoma cells, which express high levels of MTP. The inability to express MTP was associated with a complete block in the secretion of both apolipopro- tein (apo)B-100 and apoB-48. Stable expression of

  16. Structured triglycerides containing medium-chain fatty acids and linoleic acid differently influence clearance rate in serum of triglycerides in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taiji Kishi; Octavio Carvajal; Hiroko Tomoyori; Ikuo Ikeda; Michihiro Sugano; Katsumi Imaizumi

    2002-01-01

    We examined clearance rates in serum of lymph lipids collected from rats fed a diet containing one of four types of structured triglycerides containing linoleic and medium-chain fatty acids, 1) sn-1 (3) medium-chain fatty acids-sn-2 linoleic acid (MLM), 2) interesterified MLM (iMLM), 3) sn-2 medium-chain fatty acids-sn-1 (3) linoleic acid (LML), and 4) interesterified LML (iLML). Rats with permanent cannulation

  17. Combination therapy of an intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in combination of JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, and pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, JTT-130 treatment group, pioglitazone treatment group, and combination group. The Zucker diabetic fatty rats were fed a regular powdered diet with JTT-130 and/or pioglitazone as a food admixture for 6 weeks. Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were compared mainly between JTT-130 treatment group and combination group. JTT-130 treatment showed good glycemic control, while the plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in combination group were significantly decreased as compared with those JTT-130 treatment group. The reduction in the plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in combination group was higher than that in JTT-130 treatment group, and glucose utilization was significantly elevated in adipose tissues. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, combination treatment of JTT-130 and pioglitazone showed better glycemic control and a strong hypolipidemic action with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy of MTP inhibitor and PPAR ? agonist might be more useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes accompanied with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:24772450

  18. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: an example of cocoa butter triglyceride

    E-print Network

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P.; Ley, Steven v.; Browne, Duncan L.; Lapkin, Alexei

    2015-05-26

    –172. (18) Refvik, M. D.; Larock, R. C.; Tian, Q. Ruthenium-catalyzed metathesis of vegetable oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1999, 76, 93–98. (19) Mol, J. C.; Buffon, R. Metathesis in oleochemistry. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 1998, 9, 1–11. (20) Jas, G... sources of triglycerides, following their primary use. Thus, used cooking oils have been intensively investigated as a feedstock for bio-diesel production.6 We have identified another source of waste triglycerides from food manufacturing – food ingredients...

  19. CP-346086: an MTP inhibitor that lowers plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in experimental animals and in humans.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Charles E; Wilder, Donald E; Pettini, Judith L; Savoy, Yvette E; Petras, Stephen F; Chang, George; Vincent, John; Harwood, H James

    2003-10-01

    A microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, CP-346086, was identified that inhibited both human and rodent MTP activity [concentration giving half-maximal inhibition (IC50) 2.0 nM]. In Hep-G2 cells, CP-346086 inhibited apolipoprotein B (apoB) and triglyceride secretion (IC50 2.6 nM) without affecting apoA-I secretion or lipid synthesis. When administered orally to rats or mice, CP-346086 lowered plasma triglycerides [dose giving 30% triglyceride lowering (ED30) 1.3 mg/kg] 2 h after a single dose. Coadministration with Tyloxapol demonstrated that triglyceride lowering was due to inhibition of hepatic and intestinal triglyceride secretion. A 2 week treatment with CP-346086 lowered total, VLDL, and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides dose dependently with 23%, 33%, 75%, and 62% reductions at 10 mg/kg/day. In these animals, MTP inhibition resulted in increased liver and intestinal triglycerides when CP-346086 was administered with food. When dosed away from meals, however, only hepatic triglycerides were increased. When administered as a single oral dose to healthy human volunteers, CP-346086 reduced plasma triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol dose dependently with ED50s of 10 mg and 3 mg, and maximal inhibition (100 mg) of 66% and 87% when measured 4 h after treatment. After a 2 week treatment (30 mg/day), CP-346086 reduced total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by 47%, 72%, and 75%, relative to either individual baselines or placebo, with little change in HDL cholesterol. Together, these data support further evaluation of CP-346086 in hyperlipidemia. PMID:12837854

  20. Determinants of Maternal Triglycerides in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Helen L.; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Jones, Lee; O’Rourke, Peter; Lust, Karin; Gatford, Kathryn L.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Coat, Suzette; Owens, Julie A.; Hague, William M.; McIntyre, H. David; Callaway, Leonie; Rowan, Janet

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Factors associated with increasing maternal triglyceride concentrations in late pregnancy include gestational age, obesity, preeclampsia, and altered glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of women in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) trial, maternal plasma triglycerides increased more between enrollment (30 weeks) and 36 weeks in those treated with metformin compared with insulin. The aim of this study was to explain this finding by examining factors potentially related to triglycerides in these women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Of the 733 women randomized to metformin or insulin in the MiG trial, 432 (219 metformin and 213 insulin) had fasting plasma triglycerides measured at enrollment and at 36 weeks. Factors associated with maternal triglycerides were assessed using general linear modeling. RESULTS Mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 2.43 (95% CI 2.35–2.51) mmol/L at enrollment. Triglycerides were higher at 36 weeks in women randomized to metformin (2.94 [2.80–3.08] mmol/L; +23.13% [18.72–27.53%]) than insulin (2.65 [2.54–2.77] mmol/L, P = 0.002; +14.36% [10.91–17.82%], P = 0.002). At 36 weeks, triglycerides were associated with HbA1c (P = 0.03), ethnicity (P = 0.001), and treatment allocation (P = 0.005). In insulin-treated women, 36-week triglycerides were associated with 36-week HbA1c (P = 0.02), and in metformin-treated women, they were related to ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS At 36 weeks, maternal triglycerides were related to glucose control in women treated with insulin and ethnicity in women treated with metformin. Whether there are ethnicity-related dietary changes or differences in metformin response that alter the relationship between glucose control and triglycerides requires further study. PMID:23393209

  1. ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch: · Just as you customize your resume and cover letter to individual companies, your elevator pitch can also be customized to highlight your most relevant skills and experience for a situation. · Your elevator pitch should have the ability

  2. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  3. Cholinergic dysfunction, neuronal damage and axonal loss in TgCRND8 mice.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Arianna; Luccarini, Ilaria; Scali, Carla; Prosperi, Costanza; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Pepeu, Giancarlo; Casamenti, Fiorella

    2006-08-01

    In 7-month-old TgCRND8 mice, the extracellular cortical acetylcholine levels in vivo, the number and morphology of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the ability to acquire an inhibitory avoidance response in the step-down test were studied. The TgCRND8 mouse brain is characterized by many beta-amyloid plaques, reduced neuronal and axonal staining, white matter demyelination, glia reaction and inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was significantly decreased. Basal and potassium-stimulated extracellular acetylcholine levels, investigated by microdialysis, and m2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity were reduced in the cortex of TgCRND8 mice, and scopolamine administration increased cortical extracellular acetylcholine levels in control but not in TgCRND8 mice. A cognitive impairment was demonstrated in the step-down test. These findings demonstrate that neuronal damage and cholinergic dysfunction in vivo underlie the impairment in learning and memory functions in this mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16766197

  4. Magnetic Reconnection Theory Left to right: TG Forbes, ER Priest and J Birn

    E-print Network

    ____ 18 Magnetic Reconnection Theory Left to right: TG Forbes, ER Priest and J Birn Scientific Background Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in a plasma of high magnetic Reynolds number, whereby magnetic field lines (which are normally attached firmly to the plasma as it moves) become

  5. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report

    E-print Network

    and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paperAssessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 Roehrig University of Arizona Lois Rutz Gammex/RMI Ehsan Samei Duke University Medical Center Jeffrey

  6. THE ROLE OF THE SKELETON IN EGG-SHELL FORMATION T.-G. TAYLOR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE ROLE OF THE SKELETON IN EGG-SHELL FORMATION T.-G. TAYLOR Agricultural Research Council between skeletal metabolism and egg-shell formation has been reviewed on a number of occasions in recent of female birds in relation to egg production are well understood. As the follicles in the ovary mature

  7. Thermodynamic anomaly of the sub-Tg relaxation in hyperquenched metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lina; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, Chunzhi; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we observed an unusual non-monotonic glass relaxation phenomenon, i.e., the three-step sub-Tg relaxation in hyperquenched CuZrAl glass ribbons [L. N. Hu and Y. Z. Yue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081904 (2011), 10.1063/1.3556659]. In the present work, we reveal the origin of this abnormal behavior by studying the cooling rate dependence of the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in two metallic glasses. For the Cu46Zr46Al8 glass ribbons the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern exhibits a three-step trend with the annealing temperature only when the ribbons are fabricated below a critical cooling rate. For the La55Al25Ni20 glass ribbons the activation energy for the onset of the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation also varies non-monotonically with the cooling rate of fabrication. These abnormal relaxation phenomena are explained in terms of the competition between the low and the high temperature clusters during the fragile-to-strong transition. By comparisons of chemical heterogeneity between Cu46Zr46Al8 and La55Al25Ni20, we predict that the abnormal relaxation behavior could be a general feature for the HQ metallic glasses.

  8. Hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies enhanced fear memories in TgNTRK3, a panic disorder mouse model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mónica; D'Amico, Davide; Spadoni, Ornella; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Stork, Oliver; Dierssen, Mara

    2013-09-18

    Panic attacks are a hallmark in panic disorder (PAND). During the panic attack, a strong association with the surrounding context is established suggesting that the hippocampus may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of PAND, given its role in contextual processing. We previously showed that variation in the expression of the neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) in both PAND patients and a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3) may have a role in PAND pathophysiology. Our study examines hippocampal function and activation of the brain fear network in TgNTRK3 mice. TgNTRK3 mice showed increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Moreover, TgNTRK3 mice also showed an unbalanced excitation-to-inhibition ratio in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3)-CA1 subcircuit toward hyperexcitability. The resulting hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies the enhanced fear memories, as supported by the efficacy of tiagabine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor, to rescue fear response. The fearful phenotype appears to be the result of hippocampal hyperexcitability and aberrant fear circuit activation. We conclude that NTRK3 plays a role in PAND by regulating hippocampus-dependent fear memories. PMID:24048855

  9. NATO TG53: acoustic detection of weapon firing joint field experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale N. Robertson; Tien Pham; Michael V. Scanlon; Nassy Srour; Christian G. Reiff; Leng K. Sim; Latasha Solomon; Dorothea F. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons

  10. A New Phenomenon: Sub-Tg, Solid-State, Plasticity-Induced Bonding in Polymers

    E-print Network

    Nikhil Padhye; David M. Parks; Bernhardt L. Trout; Alexander H. Slocum

    2015-06-19

    Polymer self-adhesion due to the interdiffusion of macromolecules has been an active area of research for several decades [70, 43, 62, 42, 72, 73, 41]. Here, we report a new phenomenon of sub-Tg, solid-state, plasticity-induced bonding; where amorphous polymeric films were bonded together in a period of time on the order of a second in the solid-state at ambient temperatures nearly 60 K below their glass transition temperature (Tg) by subjecting them to active plastic deformation. Despite the glassy regime, the bulk plastic deformation triggered the requisite molecular mobility of the polymer chains, causing interpenetration across the interfaces held in contact. Quantitative levels of adhesion and the morphologies of the fractured interfaces validated the sub-Tg, plasticity-induced, molecular mobilization causing bonding. No-bonding outcomes (i) during the compression of films in a near hydrostatic setting (which inhibited plastic flow) and (ii) between an 'elastic' and a 'plastic' film further established the explicit role of plastic deformation in this newly reported sub-Tg solid-state bonding .

  11. Immunomodulation targeting of both A? and tau pathological conformers ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease pathology in TgSwDI and 3xTg mouse models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and many other neurodegenerative diseases is the conformational change of a normal self-protein into toxic oligomeric species and amyloid deposits. None of these disorders have an effective therapy, but immunization approaches hold great promise. We have previously shown that active immunization with a novel peptide when polymerized into a stable oligomeric conformation, pBri, induced a humoral immune response to toxic A? species in an AD model, APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice, reducing plaque deposits. pBri is a glutaraldehyde polymerized form of the carboxyl fragment of an amyloidogenic protein, which is deposited in the brains of patients with a rare autosomal dominant disease due to a missense mutation in a stop codon, resulting in the translation of an intronic sequence, with no known sequence homology to any mammalian protein. Methods In the current study we tested whether pBri-peptide-based immunomodulation is effective at reducing both vascular amyloid deposits and tau-related pathology using TgSwDI mice with extensive congophilic angiopathy and 3xTg mice with tau pathology. Results Our results indicate that this immunomodulation approach, which produces a humoral response to proteins in a pathological conformation, is effective at reducing both A? and tau-related pathologies. Conclusions This immunomodulatory approach has the advantage of using a non-self-immunogen that is less likely to be associated with autoimmune toxicity. Furthermore we found that it is able to target all the cardinal features of AD concurrently. PMID:24330773

  12. Age-Dependent Neuroplasticity Mechanisms in Alzheimer Tg2576 Mice Following Modulation of Brain Amyloid-? Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, Anna M.; Röjdner, Jennie; Mustafiz, Tamanna; Thomé, Carina M.; Storelli, Elisa; Gonzalez, Daniel; Unger-Lithner, Christina; Greig, Nigel H.; Nordberg, Agneta; Marutle, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of modulating brain amyloid-? (A?) levels at different stages of amyloid pathology on synaptic function, inflammatory cell changes and hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. processes perturbed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Young (4- to 6-month-old) and older (15- to 18-month-old) APPSWE transgenic (Tg2576) mice were treated with the AD candidate drug (+)-phenserine for 16 consecutive days. We found significant reductions in insoluble A?1-42 levels in the cortices of both young and older transgenic mice, while significant reductions in soluble A?1-42 levels and insoluble A?1-40 levels were only found in animals aged 15–18 months. Autoradiography binding with the amyloid ligand Pittsburgh Compound B (3H-PIB) revealed a trend for reduced fibrillar A? deposition in the brains of older phenserine-treated Tg2576 mice. Phenserine treatment increased cortical synaptophysin levels in younger mice, while decreased interleukin-1? and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were detected in the cortices of older mice. The reduction in A?1-42 levels was associated with an increased number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in the hippocampi of both young and older Tg2576 mice. To determine whether the increased cell proliferation was accompanied by increased neuronal production, the endogenous early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) was examined in the dentate gyrus (DG) using immunohistochemical detection. Although no changes in the total number of DCX+-expressing neurons were detected in the DG in Tg2576 mice at either age following (+)-phenserine treatment, dendritic arborization was increased in differentiating neurons in young Tg2576 mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that reducing A?1-42 levels in Tg2576 mice at an early pathological stage affects synaptic function by modulating the maturation and plasticity of newborn neurons in the brain. In contrast, lowering A? levels in Tg2576 mice when A? plaque pathology is prominent mainly alters the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. PMID:23554921

  13. Lack of toxicity by medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in canines during a 90-day feeding study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray A. Matulka; D. V. M. Larry Thompson; George A. Burdock

    2009-01-01

    Dietary fats in food are natural energy sources to animals and are included in the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) manual as a requirement for dog food. Medium chain triglycerides are comprised of a glycerol backbone esterified to medium chain length (8–12 carbon) fatty acids (FA) and, in the context of this report, are all saturated FA. Unlike

  14. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  15. Transfer of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids as well as net deposition by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Rava; Humra Athar; Caroline Johnson; M. Mahmood Hussain

    2005-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity is classically measured using radioactive lipids. We described a simple fluorescence assay to measure its triac- ylglycerol (TAG) transfer activity. Here, we describe fluores- cence-based methods to measure the transfer of phos- pholipids (PLs) and cholesteryl esters (CEs) by MTP. Both transfer activities increased with time and MTP amounts and were inhibited to different

  16. A simple, rapid, and sensitive fluorescence assay for microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humra Athar; Jahangir Iqbal; Xian-Cheng Jiang; M. Mahmood Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is critical for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins. Its activity is classically measured by incubating purified MTP or cellular homogenates with do- nor vesicles containing radiolabeled lipids, precipitating the donor vesicles, and measuring the radioactivity transferred to acceptor vesicles. Here, we describe a simple, rapid, and sensitive fluorescence assay for MTP.

  17. Effects of amount of dietary triglycerides on postprandial serum vitamin A in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of amount of dietary triglycerides on postprandial serum vitamin A in heathly adults. P-Marguerite, 13000 Marseille, France) Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is generally claimed to be dependent, no definite evi- dence has been established for vitamin A. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate

  18. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J. (West Virgina Unov., Morgantown); Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  19. Triglycerides and atherogenic dyslipidaemia: extending treatment beyond statins in the high-risk cardiovascular patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald F Watts; Fredrik Karpe

    2011-01-01

    Although statins significantly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), residual CVD risk remains high. This may partly be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The driving force behind atherogenic dyslipidaemia is hypertriglyceridaemia, which results from hepatic oversecretion and\\/or hypocatabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and is typical of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Persistent atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients treated with a

  20. Reactivity of triglycerides and fatty acids of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichiro Warabi; Dadan Kusdiana; Shiro Saka

    2004-01-01

    A catalyst-free biodiesel production method with supercritical methanol has been developed that allows a simple process and high yield because of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of fatty acids. From these lines of evidence, we expected that similar results would be attained with the use of various alcohols by the supercritical treatment. However, it still remains unclear which

  1. Quantitative electron microscopy shows uniform incorporation of triglycerides into existing lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinglei; Fujita, Akikazu; Ohsaki, Yuki; Suzuki, Michitaka; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2009-09-01

    The lipid droplet (LD) is an organelle with a lipid ester core and a surface phospholipid monolayer. The mechanism of LD biogenesis is not well understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the LD growth process, for which we developed a new electron microscopic method that quantifies the proportion of existing and newly synthesized triglycerides in individual LDs. Our method takes advantage of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids and osmium tetroxide, which imparts LDs an electron density that reflects fatty acid composition. With this method, existing triglyceride-rich LDs in 3Y1 fibroblasts were observed to incorporate newly synthesized triglycerides at a highly uniform rate. This uniformity and its persistence even after microtubules were depolymerized suggest that triglycerides in fibroblasts are synthesized in the local vicinity of individual LDs and then incorporated. In contrast, LDs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed heterogeneity in the rate at which lipid esters were incorporated, indicating different mechanisms of LD growth in fibroblasts and adipocytes. PMID:19557427

  2. Comparative effects of some carbohydrates on serum sugars, triglycerides and digestive hydrolases

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Comparative effects of some carbohydrates on serum sugars, triglycerides and digestive hydrolases carbohydrate in the form of starch (wheat flour), purified sucrose, commercial sugar or a commercial sweetner. Introduction. The nutritional impact of the dietary carbohydrate source has been widely studied

  3. Detection of triglycerides using immobilized enzymes in food and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichur, Ashish; Lesi, Abiodun; Pedersen, Henrik

    1996-04-01

    A scheme for the determination of total triglyceride (fat) content in biomedical and food samples is being developed. The primary emphasis is to minimize the reagents used, simplify sample preparation and develop a robust system that would facilitate on-line monitoring. The new detection scheme developed thus far involves extracting triglycerides into an organic solvent (cyclohexane) and performing partial least squares (PLS) analysis on the NIR (1100 - 2500 nm) absorbance spectra of the solution. A training set using 132 spectra of known triglyceride mixtures was complied. Eight PLS calibrations were generated and were used to predict the total fat extracted from commercial samples such as mayonnaise, butter, corn oil and coconut oil. The results typically gave a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99 or better. Predictions were typically within 90% and better at higher concentrations. Experiments were also performed using an immobilized lipase reactor to hydrolyze the fat extracted into the organic solvent. Performing PLS analysis on the difference spectra of the substrate and product could enhance specificity. This is being verified experimentally. Further work with biomedical samples is to be performed. This scheme may be developed into a feasible detection method for triglycerides in the biomedical and food industries.

  4. Triglyceride Concentration and Ischemic Heart Disease An Eight-Year Follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Jeppesen; Hans Ole Hein; Poul Suadicani; Finn Gyntelberg

    2010-01-01

    Background—The role of triglycerides as a risk factor of ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains controversial. For the present study, we examined the relation between fasting triglycerides and risk of IHD in the Copenhagen Male Study. Methods and Results—Baseline measurements of fasting lipids and other IHD risk factors were obtained for 2906 white men (age range, 53 to 74 years) who

  5. Endothelial Cells Secrete Triglyceride Lipase and Phospholipase Activities in Response to Cytokines as a Result of Endothelial Lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weijun Jin; Gwo-Shing Sun; Dawn Marchadier; Edelyn Octtaviani; Jane M. Glick; Daniel J. Rader

    2010-01-01

    The endothelium interacts extensively with lipids and lipoproteins, but there are very few data regarding the ability of endothelial cells to secrete lipases. In this study, we investigated the ability of endothelial cells to secrete the triglyceride lipase and phospholipase activities characteristic of endothelial lipase (EL), a recently described member of the triglyceride lipase gene family. No lipase activities were

  6. ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)

    E-print Network

    ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE) DURING REBUILDING What are the Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFE)? Answer: This is the NEW Base Flood Elevation for rebuilding. It has the same definition of the Base Flood Elevation based on recent storm events. In other words, it is updating the Base Flood

  7. Interrelationship of plasma triglycerides and HDL size and composition in rats fed different dietary saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Lai, H C; Lasekan, J B; Lefevre, M

    1991-09-01

    We investigated the relative effects of different dietary saturated fats on the size distribution, apolipoprotein (apo) and chemical composition of HDL in fasted rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (174 +/- 2 g) were fed diets containing 0.035% cholesterol and 16% fat (wt/wt) from corn oil (CO diet) or from 2% CO plus 14% butterfat (BF diet), beef tallow (BT diet), palm oil (PO diet) or coconut oil (CN diet) for 6 wk. Apparent lipid digestibility was significantly lower with the PO and BT diets vs. the CO, BF and CN diets. Plasma total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in rats fed the PO and BT diets than in rats fed the BF and CN diets but were not different among the PO-, BT- and CO-fed groups. Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis immunoblot analysis indicated that HDL apo A-I and E resided on particles with significantly smaller modal diameters in rats fed all saturated fats compared with those fed the CO diet. Chemical analyses indicated that HDL generally contained proportionately less protein and more triglyceride, free cholesterol and apo E with saturated fat feeding than with CO diet feeding. Significantly higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels were noted with ingestion of the BT, PO or CN diet than with the CO diet. Butterfat feeding resulted in lower plasma triglycerides and HDL-esterified cholesterol than did feeding the other saturated fats. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride concentrations were inversely correlated with HDL modal diameter of apo E containing lipoproteins (P less than 0.005). These data provide further evidence of the interrelationship of triglyceride and HDL metabolism and suggest that mechanisms independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein may mediate this response in rats. PMID:1880609

  8. Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n?=?10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10?8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10?8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]?=?1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p?=?0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR?=?0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p?=?0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR?=?1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p?=?0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR?=?0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p?=?0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25226301

  9. Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogo?anu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neam?u, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Bi??, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2015-02-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1? was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )). PMID:25433580

  10. Disrupted Pancreatic Exocrine Differentiation and Malabsorption in Response to Chronic Elevated Systemic Glucocorticoid

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Karen; Flecknell, Paul A.; Burt, Alastair D.; Wright, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are antiinflammatory therapeutics that have potent effects on cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to establish whether systemic glucocorticoid exposure significantly affects pancreatic differentiation in vivo because hepatocyte-like cells have been documented to occur in the diseased rodent pancreas. Expression of hepatic markers was examined in pancreata from mice genetically modified to secrete elevated circulating endogenous glucocorticoid [Tg(Crh)]. Tg(Crh) mice with elevated glucocorticoid appeared cushingoid and by 21 weeks of age were obese, insulin-resistant, and had extensive areas of hepatic gene expression in exocrine tissue. Acinar cells from Tg(Crh) mice costained for both amylase and cyp2e1, suggesting direct acinar-hepatic transdifferentiation. Hepatic expression increased with age in the pancreas to such an extent that malabsorption and rapid weight loss occurred in a subset of aging mice; this effect was reversed by dietary porcine pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Indeed, pancreatic expression of hepatic markers was prevented by adrenalectomy, establishing a direct role for glucocorticoid. Elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoid therefore promote a transdifferentiation of adult exocrine pancreas into hepatocyte-like cells, and chronic exposure results in pancreatic malfunction. Glucocorticoids are thus capable of modulating the differentiation of terminally differentiated adult cells. PMID:20651242

  11. Allopregnanolone restores hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and neural progenitor survival in aging 3xTgAD and

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    cells and regulates cell-cycle gene and protein expression. J. Neurosci. 25, 4706­4718; Wang, J in aging 3xTgAD and nonTg mice Chanpreet Singha , Lifei Liua , Jun Ming Wangb , Ronald W. Irwinc , Jia Yaoc (AP ) increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells and reversed neurogenic and cognitive

  12. Reconsidering idiopathic CK-elevation.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Neuhuber, Werner; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the frequency of persisting, idiopathic creatine-kinase (CK)-elevation, how often the cause of idiopathic CK-elevation could be clarified, and the most frequent causes of idiopathic CK-elevation. Among 28 patients with previously idiopathic CK-elevation, CK remained elevated in 32%. The cause of idiopathic CK-elevation could be determined in 46%. Causes were mitochondriopathy (n = 5), seizure (n = 2), stroke (n = 2), myositis (n = 1), intramuscular-injection (n = 1), alcohol myopathy (n = 1), and pravastátin myopathy (n = 1). In 10 of these patients CK was normal at follow-up. CK-elevation remained idiopathic in 54%. Idiopathic CK-elevation should be comprehensively re-evaluated, even if CK is only slightly elevated or normal at follow-up. PMID:15370190

  13. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  14. Contour Lines and Elevation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen J Reynolds

    This animation features a static image of a contour surface on the left and an oblique 3-D view of the same area. Upon starting the animation, by clicking adjacent arrows, a surface of water begins to rise. By examining the views in both windows, a simulated flood shows how contour lines trace out equal elevations and how concave/convex undulations in the contour lines would be represented in 3-D. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

  15. location plan, floor plan, section, north elevation, west elevation and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, section, north elevation, west elevation and window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Administration, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  16. location map, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, door and window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Central Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  17. north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  18. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  19. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  20. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR NEAR WEST WALL OF MST STATION 111 ANTEROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  3. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  4. 2. COURTYARD ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURTYARD ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN BUILDING AND SHED ENTRANCES (NEGATIVE SIZE 4'x5') - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Hudson Place, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    SciTech Connect

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-03-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and TG–DSC study of cadmium halides adducts with caffeine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robson F. de Farias; Ademir O. da Silva; Umberto G. da Silva

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and TG–DSC study of the compounds CdX2·ncaff, for which X: Cl, Br and I; n=1 and 2 and caff: caffeine is reported. It is verified that caffeine is coordinated through more than one coordination site, despite the fact that the nitrogen of the imidazole ring is the main coordination site. The following thermal stability trend is observed:

  7. TG-FTIR study of gaseous compounds evolved at thermooxidation of oil shale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kaljuvee; J. Pelt; M. Radin

    2004-01-01

    The combined thermogravimetric (TG) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used for studying the gaseous compounds\\u000a evolved at thermooxidation of oil shale samples from different deposits (Estonia, Jordan, Israel). In addition to H2O and CO2as the major species, the formation and emission of CO, SO2, HCl and a number of organic species as methane, ethane, ethylene, methanol, formic acid, formaldehyde,

  8. Study on thermal decomposition of lithium hexafluorophosphate by TG–FT-IR coupling method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Guo Teng; Fa-Qiang Li; Pei-Hua Ma; Qi-Du Ren; Shi-You Li

    2005-01-01

    Using TG–FT-IR coupling method, direct evidences of the decomposition process of lithium hexafluorophosphate had been obtained. Studies showed that LiPF6 is stable under normal temperature when the content of water is very low. When heated, LiPF6 would react with the trace water in the air. HF and OPF3 would be released in the same time which could be detected from

  9. Characterization of the Brain ?-Amyloid Isoform Pattern at Different Ages of Tg2576 Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamanna Mustafiz; Erik Portelius; Mikael K. Gustavsson; Mikko Hölttä; Henrik Zetterberg; Kaj Blennow; Agneta Nordberg; Christina Unger Lithner

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although genetic and biochemical studies have suggested a cardinal role for ?-amyloid (A?) in Alzheimer’s disease, the underlying mechanism(s) of how A? induces neurodegeneration is still unclear. Our objective was to investigate the consequences of A?, especially on tau phosphorylation at specific epitopes important for Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: We used cortices from Tg2576 mice at 7 days to 15

  10. A TG-FTIR investigation into smoke suppression mechanism of magnesium hydroxide in asphalt combustion process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xu; Xiaoming Huang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the combined thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) technique was employed to analyze the influence of magnesium hydroxide (MH) on the volatile release in asphalt combustion process. The experimental results indicate that the combustion processes of asphalt and asphalt\\/MH composite are both multistage, and the volatiles are different in each temperature interval. After adding MH into asphalt, the

  11. Mapping genetic modulators of amyloid plaque deposition in TgCRND8 transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Sebastiani; Pascale Krzywkowski; Sherri Dudal; Mathilde Yu; Julie Paquette; Danielle Malo; Francine Gervais; Patrick Tremblay

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disorder for which various in vivo models exist. The TgCRND8 mouse, transgenic for the human amyloid precursor protein, is an aggressive early onset model of brain amyloid deposition. Preliminary studies revealed that when the transgene is expressed on an A\\/J genetic background, these mice not only survive longer but also deposit less parenchymal amyloid-b

  12. 9. Elevator no. 3, northeast side , to right; elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Elevator no. 3, northeast side , to right; elevator no. 2, east and north sides and track shed in center; Washburn Crosby Milling complex in background right; facing west - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  13. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  14. Reducing elevation roundoff errors in digital elevation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. James Nelson; Norman L. Jones

    1995-01-01

    A smoothing algorithm is presented for the removal of roundoff error, inherent in almost all digital elevation data. Elevation adjustments are kept within the tolerance of roundoff error, so that the resulting terrain model is not over smoothed. After smoothing, the digital elevation model is more suitable for use with algorithms that seek to automatically delineate stream networks and basins

  15. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. PMID:24412857

  16. Enhanced acetyl-CoA production is associated with increased triglyceride accumulation in the green alga Chlorella desiccata.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Omri; Brandis, Alexander; Rogachev, Ilana; Pick, Uri

    2015-07-01

    Triglycerides (TAGs) from microalgae can be utilized as food supplements and for biodiesel production, but little is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis. This work aimed to test the relationship between acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) levels and TAG biosynthesis in green algae under nitrogen deprivation. A novel, highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique enabled us to determine the levels of Ac-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and unacetylated (free) CoA in green microalgae. A comparative study of three algal species that differ in TAG accumulation levels shows that during N starvation, Ac-CoA levels rapidly rise, preceding TAG accumulation in all tested species. The levels of Ac-CoA in the high TAG accumulator Chlorella desiccata exceed the levels in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Similarly, malonyl-CoA and free CoA levels also increase, but to lower extents. Calculated cellular concentrations of Ac-CoA are far lower than reported K mAc-CoA values of plastidic Ac-CoA carboxylase (ptACCase) in plants. Transcript level analysis of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH), the major chloroplastic Ac-CoA producer, revealed rapid induction in parallel with Ac-CoA accumulation in C. desiccata, but not in D. tertiolecta or C. reinhardtii. It is proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG levels in green algae critically depends on their ability to divert carbon flow towards Ac-CoA. This requires elevation of the chloroplastic CoA pool level and enhancement of Ac-CoA biosynthesis. These conclusions may have important implications for future genetic manipulation to enhance TAG biosynthesis in green algae. PMID:25922486

  17. Enhanced acetyl-CoA production is associated with increased triglyceride accumulation in the green alga Chlorella desiccata

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Omri; Brandis, Alexander; Rogachev, Ilana; Pick, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Triglycerides (TAGs) from microalgae can be utilized as food supplements and for biodiesel production, but little is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis. This work aimed to test the relationship between acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) levels and TAG biosynthesis in green algae under nitrogen deprivation. A novel, highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique enabled us to determine the levels of Ac-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and unacetylated (free) CoA in green microalgae. A comparative study of three algal species that differ in TAG accumulation levels shows that during N starvation, Ac-CoA levels rapidly rise, preceding TAG accumulation in all tested species. The levels of Ac-CoA in the high TAG accumulator Chlorella desiccata exceed the levels in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Similarly, malonyl-CoA and free CoA levels also increase, but to lower extents. Calculated cellular concentrations of Ac-CoA are far lower than reported K mAc-CoA values of plastidic Ac-CoA carboxylase (ptACCase) in plants. Transcript level analysis of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH), the major chloroplastic Ac-CoA producer, revealed rapid induction in parallel with Ac-CoA accumulation in C. desiccata, but not in D. tertiolecta or C. reinhardtii. It is proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG levels in green algae critically depends on their ability to divert carbon flow towards Ac-CoA. This requires elevation of the chloroplastic CoA pool level and enhancement of Ac-CoA biosynthesis. These conclusions may have important implications for future genetic manipulation to enhance TAG biosynthesis in green algae. PMID:25922486

  18. Pyrolysis of triglyceride materials for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Maher, K D; Bressler, D C

    2007-09-01

    Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats composed predominantly of triglycerides using pyrolysis type reactions represents a promising option for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The purpose of this article was to collect and review literature on the thermo-chemical conversion of triglyceride based materials. The literature was divided and discussed as (1) direct thermal cracking and (2) combination of thermal and catalytic cracking. Typically, four main catalyst types are used including transition metal catalysts, molecular sieve type catalysts, activated alumina, and sodium carbonate. Reaction products are heavily dependant on the catalyst type and reaction conditions and can range from diesel like fractions to gasoline like fractions. Research in this area is not as advanced as bio-oil and bio-diesel research and there is opportunity for further study in the areas of reaction optimization, detailed characterization of products and properties, and scale-up. PMID:17166713

  19. Optimization of conjugated linoleic acid triglycerides via enzymatic esterification in no-solvent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dan; Sun, Xiuqin; Li, Guangyou; Liu, Fayi; Lin, Xuezheng; Shen, Jihong

    2009-09-01

    We compared four esterifiable enzymes. The lipase Novozym 435 possessed the highest activity for the conjugated linoleic acid esterification during the synthesis of triglycerides. The triglycerides were synthesized by esterification of glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a no-solvent system using lipase catalysis. We investigated the effects of temperature, enzyme concentration, water content, and time on esterification. Enzyme and water concentrations of up to 1% of the total reaction volume and a system temperature of 60°C proved optimal for esterification. Similarly, when the esterification was carried out for 24 h, the reaction ratio improved to 94.11%. The esterification rate of the rotating screen basket remained high (87.28%) when the enzyme was re-used for the 5th time. We evaluated the substrate selectivity of lipase (NOVO 435) and determined that this lipase prefers the 10,12-octadacadienoic acid to the 9,11-octadecadienoic acid.

  20. Inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein alone or with ezetimibe in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McKenney; LeAnne T Bloedon; William J Sasiela; Daniel J Rader; Frederick F Samaha

    2008-01-01

    Background Many patients with coronary heart disease do not achieve recommended LDL-cholesterol levels, due to either intolerance or inadequate response to available lipid-lowering therapy. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors might provide an alternative way to lower LDL-cholesterol levels. We tested the safety and LDL-cholesterol-lowering efficacy of an MTP inhibitor, AEGR-733 (Aegerion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Bridgewater, NJ), alone and in combination

  1. Identification of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in intestinal brush-border membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Slight; Moise Bendayan; Christiane Malo; Edgard Delvin; Marie Lambert; Emile Levy

    2004-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a heterodimeric complex consisting of a unique large 97-kDa protein and the multifunctional 58-kDa protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). It plays an essential role in the assembly of lipoproteins by shuttling lipids between phospholipid membranes. Based on cell fractionation, early studies have suggested the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as the exclusive site of MTP. Focusing on

  2. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein lipidation and control of CD1d on antigen-presenting cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie K. Dougan; Azucena Salas; Paul Rava; Amma Agyemang; Arthur Kaser; Jamin Morrison; Archana Khurana; Mitchell Kronenberg; Caroline Johnson; Mark Exley; M. Mahmood Hussain; Richard S. Blumberg

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone that loads lipids onto apolipoprotein B, also regulates CD1d presentation of glycolipid antigens in the liver and intestine. We show MTP RNA and protein in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by immunoblotting of mouse liver mononuclear cells and mouse and human B cell lines. Functional MTP,

  3. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides attenuate hepatic lipid deposition in growing rats with protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Amano, Saki; Yokoyama, Meiko; Shimamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on hepatic lipid accumulation in growing rats with protein malnutrition. Weaning rats were fed either a low-protein diet (3%, LP) or control protein diet (20%, CP), in combination with or without MCT. The four groups were as follows: CP-MCT, CP+MCT, LP-MCT, and LP+MCT. Rats in the CP-MCT, CP+MCT and LP+MCT groups were pair-fed their respective diets based on the amount of diet consumed by the LP-MCT group. Rats were fed each experimental diet for 30 d. Four weeks later, the respiratory quotient was higher in the LP-MCT group than those in the other groups during the fasting period. Hepatic triglyceride content increased in the LP groups compared with the CP groups. Hepatic triglyceride content in the LP+MCT group, however, was significantly decreased compared with that in the LP-MCT group. Levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1a mRNA and CPT2 mRNA were significantly decreased in the livers of the LP-MCT group, as compared with corresponding mRNA levels of the other groups. These results suggest that ingestion of a low-protein diet caused fatty liver in growing rats. However, when rats were fed the low-protein diet with MCT, hepatic triglyceride deposition was attenuated, and mRNA levels encoding CPT1a and CPT2 were preserved at the levels of rats fed control protein diets. PMID:21697632

  4. The G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 Is an Important Regulator of Hepatic Triglyceride Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hang; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Zhifeng; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Yang, Handong; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2) potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/Very-Low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:23951308

  5. Ester-exchange reaction between triglycerides with polyethylene glycol-modified lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayako Matsushima; Yoh Kodera; Katsunobu Takahashi; Yuji Saito; Yuji Inada

    1986-01-01

    Summary Polyethylene glycol-modified lipase efficiently catalyzed esterexchange reaction between trilaurin and triolein in the straight hydrophobic substrates. Dilauroyl-monooleoyl-glycerol and monolauroyl-dioleoyl-glycerol were formed from two triglyceride-substrates, trilaurin and triolein, in the presence of the modified lipase at 58°C. Consequently, the melting temperature of the mixture of two substrates was decreased from 33–36°C to 11–13°C. Similar ester-exchange reaction took place between fat

  6. Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lemhadri; L. Hajji; J.-B. Michel; M. Eddouks

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. fruits at a dose of (20mg\\/kg) on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). After a single oral administration, Carum carvi extract produced a significant decrease on triglycerides levels in normal rats (p<0.05). In

  7. Evidence that cholesteryl ester hydrolase and triglyceride lipase are different enzymes in rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. S. Chen; Vicki Rothman; Simeon Margolis

    1986-01-01

    Studies on intracellular cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) and triglyceride lipase (TGL) from rat adipose tissue and adrenal\\u000a cortex have suggested that a single protein is responsible for both activities. To determine whether one hepatic protein catalyzes\\u000a both reactions, we studied several properties of CEH and TGL in rat liver. During liver perfusion with heparin, perfusate\\u000a peaks of TGL and CEH

  8. Resorufin Butyrate as a Soluble and Monomeric High-Throughput Substrate for a Triglyceride Lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Lam; Martin Henault; Karine Khougaz; Louis-Jacques Fortin; Marc Ouellet; Roman Melnyk; Anthony Partridge

    2012-01-01

    Triglyceride lipases such as lipoprotein lipase, endothelial lipase, and hepatic lipase play key roles in controlling the levels of plasma lipoprotein. Accordingly, small-molecule modulation of these species could alter patient lipid profiles with corresponding health effects. Screening of these enzymes for small-molecule therapeutics has historically involved the use of lipid-based particles to mimic native substrates. However, particle-based artifacts can complicate

  9. Polymorphism and intersolubility of some palmitic, stearic and oleic triglycerides: PPP, PSP and POP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Gibon; F. Duranta; Cl. Deroanne

    1986-01-01

    The polymorphism and intersolubility of a series of palmitic, stearic and oleic triglycerides have been investigated in order\\u000a to understand the thermal properties of fractions of natural fats. Results are shown for tripalmitin (PPP), 2-stearo-dipalmitin,\\u000a (PSP) and 2-oleo-dipalmitin (POP); these molecules differ essentially in the number of carbons (P?S) and the degree of unsaturation\\u000a of chains (S?O). The different polymorphic

  10. Effect of Monensin on Serum Lipoproteins, Triglycerides, Cholesterol and Total Lipids of Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohebbi-Fani; S. Nazifi; S. S. Shekarforoush; M. Rahimi

    2006-01-01

    Serum concentrations of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL),\\u000a triglycerides, cholesterol, and total lipids of a group of monensin-treated cows (n = 7) were compared with those of a control group (n = 6) from about 10 days before calving to 45 days postpartum. Monensin was fed in the diet from about 20 days before predicted

  11. Production of biodiesel fuel from triglycerides and alcohol using immobilized lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Iso; Baoxue Chen; Masashi Eguchi; Takashi Kudo; Surekha Shrestha

    2001-01-01

    Transesterification reaction was performed using triglycerides and short-chain alcohol by immobilized lipase in non-aqueous conditions. The long-chain fatty acid ester, which is the product of this reaction, can be used as a diesel fuel that does not produce sulfur oxide and minimize the soot particulate. Immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase showed the highest activity in this reaction. Immobilization of lipase was

  12. Low-calorie triglyceride synthesis by lipase-catalyzed esterification of monoglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. McNeill; P. E. Sonnet

    1995-01-01

    Monoglycerides of erucic acid (C22:1, ?13), prepared by conventional methods, were reacted with caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8.0) by using lipases as catalysts with the intention of synthesizing a triglyceride that contains two molecules of caprylic\\u000a acid and one molecule of erucic acid (caprucin). The reaction was carried out by mixing lipase powder, a small quantity of\\u000a water, and the

  13. Nutritional properties of the triglycerides of saturated fatty acids of medium chain-length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Kaunitz; Charles A. Slanetz; Ruth Ellen Johnson; Vigen K. Babayan; George Barsky

    1958-01-01

    Summary  The influence of a purified rat diet containing 20 or 33% of the saturated medium chain-length triglycerides (MCT) with and\\u000a without linoleic acid supplements on growth, caloric requirements for weight maintenance and weight increase, fertility, lactation\\u000a performance, and serum cholesterol levels was compared with that of similar diets containing lard, coconut oil, or no fat.\\u000a \\u000a Among male rats maintained on

  14. Differential scanning calorimetric studies on structured lipids from coconut oil triglycerides containing stearic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reena Rao; Kadimi Udaya Sankar; Kari Sambaiah; B. R. Lokesh

    2001-01-01

    Triglycerides from coconut oil contain high levels of lauric acid. They were replaced by incremental amounts of stearic acid by interesterification reactions catalyzed by immobilized lipase (IM 60 from Rhizomucor miehei). The reactions were carried out in organic solvents such as hexane. Maximum incorporation of stearic acid was observed by 4 h at 37vv°C or by 2 h at 60vv°C

  15. floor Broida; Left from Elevator

    E-print Network

    Ahlers, Guenter

    New Roundabout Rm 3410 3rd floor Broida; Left from Elevator BROIDA PHYSICS Directions to Institute in Broida; Left from elevator, Rm 3410 -Kate Materials (MRL) 2048 Harold Frank Hall FEL Lab Phys. Sci. South

  16. Serum free carnitine and total triglycerid levels in children with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, F; Hizel, S; Cetinkaya, O; Sekreter, E

    2001-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia and hyperlipidemia are common public health problems in Turkey. The connection between iron and lipid metabolisms has not been clarified yet. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of iron deficiency on carnitine and lipid metabolism. Study group was consisted of 70 children (mean age 14.7 +/- 1.3 months) suffering from iron deficiency anemia and 20 healthy children (mean age 13.7 +/- 1.2 months) attended to outpatient clinics of Cumhuriyet University, Sivas were enrolled the study as the control group. Assessments of serum free carnitine concentrations, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and VLDL levels were made in both groups. The mean serum free carnitine concentration was significantly lower than the control group (18.9 +/- 0.43 nmol/ml and 45.9 +/- 1.47 nmol/ml respectively, t = 17.5 p < 0.01). Results of our study also indicated higher serum total triglyceride, total cholesterol and VLDL levels in iron deficient patients than the healthy controls. Regression analyses indicated a negative correlation between serum free carnitine and total triglyceride levels in iron deficient patients. This study confirms that iron deficiency anemia may be linked to the endogenous carnitine synthesis in pediatric age group, and thus hyperlipidemia appears to be a risk factor for premature cardiovascular diseases. PMID:11276925

  17. Cilostazol Inhibits Accumulation of Triglyceride in Aorta and Platelet Aggregation in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hideki; Uehara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Ayako; Nagano, Chifumi; Niimi, Manabu; Miyakoda, Goro; Nagano, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Cilostazol is clinically used for the treatment of ischemic symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral arterial obstruction and for the secondary prevention of brain infarction. Recently, it has been reported that cilostazol has preventive effects on atherogenesis and decreased serum triglyceride in rodent models. There are, however, few reports on the evaluation of cilostazol using atherosclerotic rabbits, which have similar lipid metabolism to humans, and are used for investigating the lipid content in aorta and platelet aggregation under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of cilostazol on the atherosclerosis and platelet aggregation in rabbits fed a normal diet or a cholesterol-containing diet supplemented with or without cilostazol. We evaluated the effects of cilostazol on the atherogenesis by measuring serum and aortic lipid content, and the lesion area after a 10-week treatment and the effect on platelet aggregation after 1- and 10-week treatment. From the lipid analyses, cilostazol significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids in serum, and moreover, the triglyceride content in the atherosclerotic aorta. Cilostazol significantly reduced the intimal atherosclerotic area. Platelet aggregation was enhanced in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Cilostazol significantly inhibited the platelet aggregation in rabbits fed both a normal diet and a high cholesterol diet. Cilostazol showed anti-atherosclerotic and anti-platelet effects in cholesterol-fed rabbits possibly due to the improvement of lipid metabolism and the attenuation of platelet activation. The results suggest that cilostazol is useful for prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic diseases with the lipid abnormalities. PMID:22761774

  18. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein lipidation and control of CD1d on antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Stephanie K; Salas, Azucena; Rava, Paul; Agyemang, Amma; Kaser, Arthur; Morrison, Jamin; Khurana, Archana; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Johnson, Caroline; Exley, Mark; Hussain, M Mahmood; Blumberg, Richard S

    2005-08-15

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone that loads lipids onto apolipoprotein B, also regulates CD1d presentation of glycolipid antigens in the liver and intestine. We show MTP RNA and protein in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by immunoblotting of mouse liver mononuclear cells and mouse and human B cell lines. Functional MTP, demonstrated by specific triglyceride transfer activity, is present in both mouse splenocytes and a CD1d-positive mouse NKT hybridoma. In a novel in vitro transfer assay, purified MTP directly transfers phospholipids, but not triglycerides, to recombinant CD1d. Chemical inhibition of MTP lipid transfer does not affect major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of ovalbumin, but considerably reduces CD1d-mediated presentation of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-galcer) and endogenous antigens in mouse splenic and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs), as well as in human APC lines and monocyte-derived DCs. Silencing MTP expression in the human monocyte line U937 affects CD1d function, as shown by diminished presentation of alpha-galcer. We propose that MTP acts upstream of the saposins and functions as an ER chaperone by loading endogenous lipids onto nascent CD1d. Furthermore, our studies suggest that a small molecule inhibitor could be used to modulate the activity of NKT cells. PMID:16087713

  19. Inhibiting proteasomal degradation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein prevents CCl4-induced steatosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, Farah N; Iqbal, Jahangir; Feuerman, Miriam H; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2007-06-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) interferes with triglyceride secretion and causes steatosis, fibrosis, and necrosis. In mice, CCl(4) decreased plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, increased cellular lipids, and reduced microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) without diminishing mRNA levels. Similarly, CCl(4) decreased apoB-lipoprotein production and MTP activity but had no effect on mRNA levels in primary enterocytes and colon carcinoma and hepatoma cells. CCl(4) did not affect MTP synthesis but induced post-translational degradation involving ubiquitinylation and proteasomes in McA-RH7777 cells. By contrast, MTP inhibitor increased cellular lipids without affecting MTP protein. MTP was covalently modified when cells were incubated with (14)CCl(4). This modification was prevented by the inhibition of P450 oxygenases, indicating that CCl(3)(.) generated by these enzymes targets MTP for degradation. To determine whether inhibition of proteolysis could prevent CCl(4) toxicity, mice were fed with CCl(4) with or without lactacystin. Lactacystin increased ubiquitinylated MTP and prevented lipid accumulation in tissues. Thus, CCl(4) induces post-translational degradation without affecting lipid transfer activity, whereas MTP antagonist inhibits lipid transfer activity without causing its destruction. These studies identify MTP as a major target of CCl(4) and its degradation as a novel mechanism involved in the onset of steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of proteolysis may prevent some forms of steatosis. PMID:17405876

  20. Glucuronic Acid Epimerase Is Associated with Plasma Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Turks

    PubMed Central

    Hodo?lugil, U?ur; Williamson, David W.; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Mahley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in atherogenic dyslipidemic Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with plasma HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (non-permuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n = 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n = 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions on chromosome 15 resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce+/–apoe–/– mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism. PMID:21488854

  1. ATGL-mediated triglyceride turnover and the regulation of mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Meex, Ruth C R; Hoy, Andrew J; Mason, Rachael M; Martin, Sheree D; McGee, Sean L; Bruce, Clinton R; Watt, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that skeletal muscle lipid droplets are an important control point for intracellular lipid homeostasis and that regulating fatty acid fluxes from lipid droplets might influence mitochondrial capacity. We used pharmacological blockers of the major triglyceride lipases, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase, to show that a large proportion of the fatty acids that are transported into myotubes are trafficked through the intramyocellular triglyceride pool. We next tested whether increasing lipolysis from intramyocellular lipid droplets could activate transcriptional responses to enhance mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidative capacity. ATGL was overexpressed by adenoviral and adenoassociated viral infection in C2C12 myotubes and the tibialis anterior muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, respectively. ATGL overexpression in C2C12 myotubes increased lipolysis, which was associated with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? activity, transcriptional upregulation of some PPAR? target genes, and enhanced mitochondrial capacity. The transcriptional responses were specific to ATGL actions and not a generalized increase in fatty acid flux in the myotubes. Marked ATGL overexpression (20-fold) induced modest molecular changes in the skeletal muscle of mice, but these effects were not sufficient to alter fatty acid oxidation. Together, these data demonstrate the importance of lipid droplets for myocellular fatty acid trafficking and the capacity to modulate mitochondrial capacity by enhancing lipid droplet lipolysis in vitro; however, this adaptive program is of minor importance when superimposing the normal metabolic stresses encountered in free-moving animals. PMID:25852007

  2. ELMOD2 is anchored to lipid droplets by palmitoylation and regulates adipocyte triglyceride lipase recruitment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Michitaka; Murakami, Tatsuro; Cheng, Jinglei; Kano, Hiroyuki; Fukata, Masaki; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2015-06-15

    Adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the major enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of triglycerides. The Arf1-coat protein complex I (COPI) machinery is known to be engaged in the recruitment of ATGL to lipid droplets (LDs), but the regulatory mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study, we found that ELMOD2, a putative noncanonical Arf-GTPase activating protein (GAP) localizing in LDs, plays an important role in controlling ATGL transport to LDs. We showed that knockdown of ELMOD2 by RNA interference induced an increase in the amount of ATGL existing in LDs and decreased the total cellular triglycerides. These effects of ELMOD2 knockdown were canceled by transfection of small interfering RNA-resistant cDNA of wild-type ELMOD2 but not by that of mutated ELMOD2 lacking the Arf-GAP activity. ELMOD2 was distributed in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria as well as in LDs, but palmitoylation was required only for distribution to LDs. An ELMOD2 mutant deficient in palmitoylation failed to reconstitute the ATGL transport after the ELMOD2 knockdown, indicating that distribution in LDs is indispensable to the functionality of ELMOD2. These results indicate that ELMOD2 regulates ATGL transport and cellular lipid metabolism by modulating the Arf1-COPI activity in LDs. PMID:25904333

  3. Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain)] [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain)] [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about ?3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than ?1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet ?3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were ?7% for {sup 60}Co, ?0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and ?2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like {sup 169}Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at least a 0.1 cm bolus is advised for {sup 60}Co to avoid underdosing superficial target layers. For {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb, no bolus is needed. For those cases where no bolus is needed, its use might be detrimental as the lack of radiation scatter may be beneficial to the patient, although the 2% tolerance for dose calculation accuracy recommended in the AAPM TG-56 report is not fulfilled.

  4. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels; Kristiansen, Uffe; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    2014-01-16

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model Tg2576 overexpresses an AD associated mutant variant of human APP and accumulates amyloid beta (A?) in an age-dependent manner. Using the selective cholinergic immunotoxin mu p75-saporin (SAP), we induced a partial basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with A? overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory. Conversely, there was no deterioration of cognitive functioning in sham lesioned Tg2576 mice or wild type littermates (wt) receiving the immunotoxin. At 10 months of age, release of acetylcholine (ACh) was addressed by microdialysis in conscious mice. Scopolamine-induced increases in hippocampal ACh efflux was significantly reduced in SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice compared to sham lesioned Tg2576 mice. Intriguingly, there was no significant difference in ACh efflux between wt treatment groups. Following SAP treatment, choline acetyltransferase activity was reduced in the hippocampus and frontal cortex and the reduction was comparable between groups. Our results suggest that partial BFCD acts collectively with increased levels of A? to induce cognitive decline and to compromise cholinergic release. Tg2576 mice with BFCD may constitute a new and suitable AD mouse model to study the interrelations between cholinergic deficits and amsyloid deposition. PMID:24231553

  5. Mechanism of action of hypoglycemic effects of an intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shohei; Katsumi, Sohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Diminished insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and failure of pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin are known major determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus. JTT-130, an intestine-specific microsomal transfer protein inhibitor, has been shown to suppress high fat-induced obesity and ameliorate impaired glucose tolerance while enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. We investigated the effects of JTT-130 on glucose metabolism and elucidated the mechanism of action, direct effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a high fat diet-induced obesity rat model. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet were treated with a single administration of JTT-130. Glucose tolerance, hyperglycemic clamp and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic testing were performed to assess effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, respectively. Plasma GLP-1 and tissue triglyceride content were also determined under the same conditions. A single administration of JTT-130 suppressed plasma glucose elevations after oral glucose loading and increased the disposition index while elevating GLP-1. JTT-130 also enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperglycemic clamp tests, whereas increased insulin sensitivity was observed in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests. Single-dose administration of JTT-130 decreased lipid content in the liver and skeletal muscle. JTT-130 demonstrated acute and direct hypoglycemic effects by enhancing insulin secretion and/or insulin sensitivity. PMID:25704025

  6. Elevational Gradients in Species Richness

    E-print Network

    McCain, Christy M.

    Elevational Gradients in Species Richness Christy M McCain, University of Colorado, Boulder and fauna respond to these changes and how elevational species richness patterns have been stud- ied to uncover drivers of biodiversity. There are four main trends in elevational species richness: decreasing

  7. Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Phil

    Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Lessons Learned April 2011 #12 ...............................................................................................................................15 Additional information about Elevate America is available at: http://microsoft.com/elevateamerica #12;2 Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Preface On February 22, 2009

  8. The NIAC Space Elevator Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley Carl Edwards

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) has been supporting a space elevator development program to investigate the initial design, deployment and operations scenario. The work has produced a plan for the construction and operation of a small (20 ton capacity) space elevator within the next couple decades. The elevator cable is composed of a carbon nanotube composite extending 100,000

  9. Impaired behavior of female tg-ArcSwe APP mice in the IntelliCage: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Codita, Alina; Gumucio, Astrid; Lannfelt, Lars; Gellerfors, Pär; Winblad, Bengt; Mohammed, Abdul H; Nilsson, Lars N G

    2010-12-20

    Transgenic animals expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) are used as models for Alzheimer disease (AD). Ideally, behavioral tests improve the predictive validity of studies on animals by mirroring the functional impact of AD-like neuropathology. Learning and memory studies in APP transgenic models have been difficult to replicate. Standardization of procedures, automatization or improved protocol design can improve reproducibility. Here the IntelliCage, an automated system, was used for behavioral testing of APP female transgenic mice with both the Arctic and Swedish mutations, the tg-ArcSwe model. Protocols covering exploration, operant learning, place learning and extinction of place preference as well as passive avoidance tests were used for longitudinal characterization of behavior. Differences in exploratory activity were significant at four months of age, when plaque-free tg-ArcSwe mice visited less frequently the IntelliCage corners and initially performed fewer visits with licks compared to non-tg animals, inside the new environment. Fourteen months old tg-ArcSwe mice required a longer time to re-habituate to the IntelliCages than non-tg mice. At both ages tg-ArcSwe mice perseverated in place preference extinction test. Fourteen months old tg-ArcSwe mice were impaired in hippocampus-dependent spatial passive avoidance learning. This deficit was found to inversely correlate to calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. Reduced water intake and body weight were observed in 4 months old tg-ArcSwe animals. The body weight difference increased with age. Thus behavioral and metabolic changes in the tg-ArcSwe APP model were detected using the IntelliCage, a system which provides the opportunity for standardized automated longitudinal behavioral phenotyping. PMID:20615433

  10. Automatic pipe elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  11. Supplementary Figure S1. IHC of TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons and in muscles. a-g, Representative IHC images of live day 1 TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons Alexa-488-

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Supplementary Figure S1. IHC of TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons and in muscles. a-g, Representative IHC images of live day 1 TG worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons Alexa-488- conjugated 1D4 mAb was injected into pseudocoelom of a worm head (a-d) or middle body section (e-g) together with Triton X-100

  12. Effects of isotretinoin on the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and on the lipid profile in patients with acne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Ângelo De Marchi; Raul C. Maranhão; Laura Inês V. Brandizzi; Dorotéia R. S. Souza

    2006-01-01

    Isotretinoin treatment alters the plasma lipid levels but the mechanisms and the effects on the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins remain unclear. We investigated the effect of isotretinoin on the plasma kinetics of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and the lipid profile. Ten patients with acne were treated with 0.8 mg\\/kg of isotretinoin over 4 weeks for

  13. CP346086: an MTP inhibitor that lowers plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in experimental animals and in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Chandler; Donald E. Wilder; Judith L. Pettini; Yvette E. Savoy; Stephen F. Petras; George Chang; John Vincent; H. James

    2003-01-01

    A microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, CP-346086, was identified that inhibited both hu- man and rodent MTP activity (concentration giving half-max- imal inhibition (IC 50 ) 2.0 nM). In Hep-G2 cells, CP-346086 inhibited apolipoprotein B (apoB) and triglyceride secretion (IC 50 2.6 nM) without affecting apoA-I secretion or lipid syn- thesis. When administered orally to rats or mice, CP-346086

  14. Plasma apolipoprotein changes in the triglyceride- rich lipoprotein fraction of human subjects fed a fat-rich meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cob; Judith R. McNamara; Susan D. Ghn; Jose M. Ordo; Ernst J. Schaefer

    Twenty two subjects (9 males, 13 females) were fed a fat-rich meal (1 g of fafig MY weight)- Triglyceride-rich I+- proteins (TRL) were isolated by ultracentrifugation (d < 1.006 g\\/ml) from blood drawn 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hr after the meal. while plasma a&-I and apoB concentrations decreased. TRL triglyceride, TRL total protein, and TRL apoB concentrations all

  15. Carica papaya latex lipase: sn -3 stereoselectivity or short-chain selectivity? Model chiral triglycerides are removing the ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Villeneuve; M. Pina; D. Montet; J. Graille

    1995-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are usually located at positionsn-3 in natural triglycerides, particulary in dairy fats. As a result, it is extremely difficult to differentiate betweensn-3 stereospecificity and short-chain typoselectivity in many lipases and acyltransferases that perform in this way. This ambiguity\\u000a can be removed through successive use of a chiral triglyceride with a short fatty acid in positionsn-1 and of

  16. Effects of dietary triglyceride on the properties and lipid composition of plasma lipoproteins: Acute experiments in rats fed safflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dewey Dunn; Henry G. Wilcox; Murray Heimberg

    1975-01-01

    Male rats were administered 1.5 ml safflower oil by gastric intubation 0, 4, and 8 hr after a 16 hr fast. Plasma, liver, and\\u000a adipose tissue were collected 16 hr after the last fatty meal. Rats fasted for 16 hr served as controls. Following fat feeding,\\u000a the fatty acid composition of the very low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and hepatic triglyceride

  17. Calibration of the Gamma Knife Perfexion using TG-21 and the solid water Leksell dosimetry phantom

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Daniel; Yount, Caroline; Koch, Nicholas; Ashenafi, Michael; Peng, Jean; Vanek, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To calibrate a Gamma Knife (GK) Perfexion using TG-21 with updated chamber-dependent values for modern microionization chambers in the new solid water Leksell dosimetry phantom. This work illustrates a calibration method using commercially available equipment, instruments, and an established dosimetry protocol that may be adopted at any GK center, thus reducing the interinstitutional variation in GK calibration. The calibration was verified by three third-party dosimetry checks. In addition, measurements of the relative output factors are presented and compared to available data and the new manufacturer-provided relative output factors yet to be released. Methods: An absolute dose calibration based on the TG-21 formalism, utilizing recently reported phantom material and chamber-dependent factors, was performed using a microionization chamber in a spherical solid water phantom. The result was compared to other calibration protocols based on TG-51. Independent verification of the machine output was conducted through M.D. Anderson Dosimetry Services (MDADS), using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in an anthropomorphic head phantom; the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), using TLDs in the standard Elekta ABS plastic calibration phantom (gray phantom), included with the GK; and through a collaborative international calibration survey by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) using alanine dosimeters, also in the gray phantom. The alanine dosimeters were read by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Finally, Gafchromic EBT film was used to measure relative output factors and these factors were compared to values reported in the literature as well as new values announced for release by Elekta. The films were exposed in the solid water phantom using an included film insert accessory. Results: Compared to the TG-21 protocol in the solid water phantom, the modified and unmodified TG-51 calibrations resulted in dose rates which were 1.8% and 1.3% lower, respectively. Ratios of the doses measured by third parties to the dose reported showed excellent agreement. MDADS returned ratios of 1.00 and 0.98 for the two TLDs irradiated. The RPC returned a mean ratio of 0.98 of the dose reported and the UPMC alanine study returned a mean ratio of 1.008. Relative output factors were found to be 0.817{+-}0.009 and 0.897{+-}0.008 for the 4 and 8 mm collimators, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with revised Monte Carlo-derived relative output factors Elekta is expected to recommend with the next version of the GK treatment planning software (GAMMAPLAN version 10). Conclusions: The TG-21 dosimetry protocol, performed in a solid water phantom in conjunction with modern dosimeters and phantom material and chamber-dependent factors, can yield an accurate dose measurement in the unique GK treatment geometry. The technique described here can be easily adopted by institutions worldwide since all equipment and instruments used are commercially available, thus reducing the existing interinstitutional variation in GK calibration techniques. Relative output factor measurements made in this same solid water phantom were used to verify the relative output factors provided by Elekta and agreed excellently with output factors expected to be released in conjunction with GAMMAPLAN version 10.

  18. Experimental and Monte Carlo determination of the TG-43 dosimetric parameters for the model 9011 THINSeed brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. M.; Davis, S. D.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for a new, smaller diameter {sup 125}I brachytherapy source (THINSeed, model 9011) were determined using LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100) microcubes and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Two polymethyl methacrylate phantoms were machined to hold TLD-100 microcubes at specific locations for the experimental determination of the radial dose function, dose-rate constant, and anisotropy functions of the new source. The TG-43 parameters were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. For comparison, the model 6711 source was also investigated. Results: Experimental results for both models 9011 and 6711 sources showed good agreement with Monte Carlo values, as well as with previously published values. Conclusions: The TG-43 parameters for the new source model are similar to those of model 6711; however, they represent two separate sources and TG-43 parameters used in treatment planning must be source specific.

  19. Ren Hagman @Renaggie 26 apr 2011 #StuDoc open! Voormalige bieb #CiTG is nu

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    René Hagman @Renaggie 26 apr 2011 #StuDoc open! Voormalige bieb #CiTG is nu studiedocumentatiecentrum: meer studieplekken & een collectie voor dagelijks gebruik http://studoc.tudelft.nl Jan-Willem van

  20. Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunqi; Taves, Matthew D.; Soma, Kiran K.; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in testosterone (T) and 17?-oestradiol (E2) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in beta amyloid (A?) and tau pathologic lesions. While recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, virtually none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in T and E2 concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) ? and ? expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain T levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (ir) cell number in either the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal T levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau may up regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E2 levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-ir cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Further, E2 levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E2. Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions. PMID:22889357

  1. Increased Hippocampal Excitability in the 3xTgAD Mouse Model for Alzheimer's Disease In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Katherine E.; Fox, Sarah; Gigg, John

    2014-01-01

    Mouse Alzheimer's disease (AD) models develop age- and region-specific pathology throughout the hippocampal formation. One recently established pathological correlate is an increase in hippocampal excitability in vivo. Hippocampal pathology also produces episodic memory decline in human AD and we have shown a similar episodic deficit in 3xTg AD model mice aged 3–6 months. Here, we tested whether hippocampal synaptic dysfunction accompanies this cognitive deficit by probing dorsal CA1 and DG synaptic responses in anaesthetized, 4–6 month-old 3xTgAD mice. As our previous reports highlighted a decline in episodic performance in aged control mice, we included aged cohorts for comparison. CA1 and DG responses to low-frequency perforant path stimulation were comparable between 3xTgAD and controls at both age ranges. As expected, DG recordings in controls showed paired-pulse depression; however, paired-pulse facilitation was observed in DG and CA1 of young and old 3xTgAD mice. During stimulus trains both short-latency (presumably monosynaptic: ‘direct’) and long-latency (presumably polysynaptic: ‘re-entrant’) responses were observed. Facilitation of direct responses was modest in 3xTgAD animals. However, re-entrant responses in DG and CA1 of young 3xTgAD mice developed earlier in the stimulus train and with larger amplitude when compared to controls. Old mice showed less DG paired-pulse depression and no evidence for re-entrance. In summary, DG and CA1 responses to low-frequency stimulation in all groups were comparable, suggesting no loss of synaptic connectivity in 3xTgAD mice. However, higher-frequency activation revealed complex change in synaptic excitability in DG and CA1 of 3xTgAD mice. In particular, short-term plasticity in DG and CA1 was facilitated in 3xTgAD mice, most evidently in younger animals. In addition, re-entrance was facilitated in young 3xTgAD mice. Overall, these data suggest that the episodic-like memory deficit in 3xTgAD mice could be due to the development of an abnormal hyper-excitable state in the hippocampal formation. PMID:24621690

  2. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  3. Study on the thermal degradation of high performance fibers by TG\\/FTIR and Py-GC\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Ming Cai; Wei Dong Yu

    2011-01-01

    The thermal degradation behaviors of Kevlar 49, Kevlar 129 (Poly(p-phenylene terephthamide), Nomex (polyisophthaloyl metaphenylene diamine), and PBO(poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole)) fibers were measured by TG\\/FTIR and Py-GC\\/MS. The characteristic temperatures of the fibers in\\u000a air were obtained by TG. It indicated that the initial degradation temperature of the PBO is the highest. The initial degradation\\u000a temperature of Nomex fiber is the lowest,

  4. Effects of environmental enrichment on exploration, anxiety, and memory in female TgCRND8 Alzheimer mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Görtz; Lars Lewejohann; Manuel Tomm; Oliver Ambrée; Kathy Keyvani; Werner Paulus; Norbert Sachser

    2008-01-01

    After we could recently demonstrate a beneficial effect of environmental enrichment on AD-like brain pathology in female TgCRND8 mice [Ambrée O, Leimer U, Herring A, Görtz N, Sachser N, Heneka MT, et al. Reduction of amyloid angiopathy and Abeta plaque burden after enriched housing in TgCRND8 mice: involvement of multiple pathways. Am J Pathol 2006;169:544–52] the present study focuses on

  5. PET recycled and processed from flakes with different amount of water uptake: characterization by DSC, TG, and FTIR-ATR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adhemar Ruvolo-Filho; Priscila S. Curti

    2008-01-01

    Recycled PET from bottles was processed from flakes, which containing different amounts of water uptake. After this process,\\u000a they are subjected to characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier-transform\\u000a infrared spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance accessory (FTIR-ATR). From the DSC and TG results it can be postulate\\u000a an increase in the proportion of short-molecular-weight distribution in

  6. TG-DSC method applied to drying characteristics and heat requirement of cotton stalk during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Xifeng

    2012-12-01

    Drying characteristics of cotton stalk were investigated at four temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120 °C) using a simultaneous thermal analyzer (TG-DSC). Heat requirements of cotton stalk during drying were calculated ranging from 189 to 406 kJ/kg. Consequently, Midilli-Kucuk model showed the best fit to experimental drying data. The values of effective diffusivity ranged from 4.38 × 10-9 to 8.15 × 10-9 m2/s, and the activation energy was calculated to be 11.6 kJ/mol.

  7. Instability of the insertional mutation in Cftr TgH(neoim)Hgu cystic fibrosis mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikoletta Charizopoulou; Silke Jansen; Martina Dorsch; Frauke Stanke; Julia R Dorin; Hans-Jürgen Hedrich; Burkhard Tümmler

    2004-01-01

    Background  A major boost to the cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting\\u000a in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains\\u000a facilitated the search for modifier genes. From the originalCftr\\u000a \\u000a TgH(neoim)Hgu\\u000a CF mouse model we have generated using strict brother × sister

  8. NATO TG-53: acoustic detection of weapon firing joint field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Dale N.; Pham, Tien; Scanlon, Michael V.; Srour, Nassy; Reiff, Christian G.; Sim, Leng K.; Solomon, Latasha; Thompson, Dorothea F.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons such as sniper, mortar, artillery and C4 explosives and (ii) to share signatures among NATO partners from a variety of acoustic sensing platforms on the ground and in the air distributed over a wide area.

  9. Methacrylate-Based Polymer Films Exhibit Different Tg-Confinement Effects at High and Low Molecular Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tian; Torkelson, John

    2014-03-01

    The effects of confinement on the properties of polymer films are important in applications related to photoresists. To optimize resolution, methacrylate-based polymers in photoresists are often low molecular weight (MW). Here, we have used ellipsometry and fluorescence to determine how the glass transition temperature, Tg, is affected by confinement in silica-supported films of low and high MW poly(1-ethylcyclopentyl methacrylate) (PECPMA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). With decreasing nanoscale thickness, Tg is nearly invariant at high PECPMA MW but decreases dramatically at low MW, with Tg- Tg(bulk) = -15 K in a 17-nm-thick film. Fluorescence studies of a single 20-nm-thick dye-labeled layer in multilayer PECPMA films reveal a much greater perturbation to Tg in the free-surface layer for low MW polymer. The effect of MW in PMMA films is even more striking; Tg increases with decreasing thickness for high MW but decreases for low MW. The strong influence of MW on the confinement effect in PECPMA and PMMA is in strong contrast to the previously reported invariance of the effect with MW in supported polystyrene films, reconfirmed in our study.

  10. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5?±?96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  11. Higher Insulin, Triglycerides, and Blood Pressure With Greater Trunk Fat in Tanner 1 Chinese

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Heshka, Stanley; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the body fat distribution pattern in prepubertal Chinese children and to investigate the relationship between central fat distribution and specific biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Research Methods and Procedures The study was conducted in an urban Mainland Chinese (Jinan, Shandong) sample of children using a cross-sectional design. Pubertal status was determined by Tanner criteria. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, DXA measures of total body fat and trunk fat; fasting serum measures of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression models were developed with the biomarkers of cardiovascular risk factor as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for significant covariates, including sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, total body fat, trunk fat, and interactions. Results A total of 247 healthy prepubertal subjects were studied. After co-varying for age, weight, height, and extremity fat (the sum of arm fat and leg fat), girls had greater trunk fat than boys (p < 0.0001, R2 for model = 0.95). Insulin and triglyceride were positively related to central fat measured by DXA-trunk fat (p < 0.05) but not related to the waist circumference. In the blood pressure model, waist circumference was a significant predictor of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, while DXA-trunk fat was associated with diastolic blood pressure only. Significant interactions between sex and trunk fat, and sex and total fat, were found in relation to diastolic blood pressure. Discussion In prepubertal Chinese children, greater trunk fat was significantly associated with higher insulin and triglyceride in boys and girls and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in boys only. PMID:17426336

  12. Polyamine Triglycerides: Synthesis and Study of Their Potential in Lubrication, Neutralization, and Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Murray, Rex E

    2015-07-22

    Renewable resources have evoked a new awakening in both scientific and industrial circles in the past decade. Vegetable oil is one category of renewables that is amenable as a source of new industrial products. Because the source feedstock, seeds, are environmentally friendly, the derivatized products from these at the end of their lifetime could also be benign when designed appropriately. Bioethanol and biodiesel are examples of biobased industrial products currently in the market place and have become resources for uplifting the rural economy. Biolubricants also are playing a more prominent role because they have become closely competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. These products are renewable because the crops from which the feedstuff for the biofuels and biolubricants are produced are grown annually in contrast to nonrenewable mineral sources. Added to their renewability is the inherent biodegradability of their end-use products after their useful lifetime. In a recent study of the lubricity characteristics of peracylated polyhydroxy milkweed oil, the derivatives were found to exhibit good oxidative stability as well as excellent antiwear properties. To further explore an expansion in the properties of such materials in lubrication and other applications, in this study the polyhydroxy (OH) moieties of derivatized milkweed triglycerides were replaced with -NHR groupings in the oil. In this process novel polyketo triglyceride intermediates leading to polyamine derivatives of the vegetable oil have been synthesized. The polyamine triglyceride markedly improved the stability of the parent oil to oxidative stress. It has also attenuated the extreme viscosity of the starting polyhydroxy oil to a more useful product that could be amenable for use as a lubricating agent, for example, hydraulic fluid. Both the polyketone and polyimine intermediates of the polyamine have chelating properties. The intermediates and the polyamine were characterized spectroscopically, tribologically, and rheologically for their intrinsic properties. PMID:26154265

  13. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Mayrsohn, Brian; O’Keeffe, Majella; Kissileff, Harry R.; Choudhury, Arindam Roy; Laferrère, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Background Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Methods Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a pre-load containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Results Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT pre-load (Study 2) was (mean ± SEM) 532 ± 389 kcal vs. 804 ± 486 kcal after LCT (P < 0.05). MCT consumption resulted in a lower rise in triglycerides (P = 0.014) and glucose (P = 0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (P = 0.017) and leptin (P = 0.036) compared to LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (GLP-1, PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. Conclusions MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY, and insulin. PMID:25074387

  14. ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations of the initial pyrolysis mechanism of unsaturated triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Kefeng; Zhang, Jilong

    2014-03-01

    To understand the impact of C?=?C double bonds in acyl chains of unsaturated triglycerides on the reaction mechanism and product composition in their initial pyrolysis process, ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using a molecular model, trilinolenin, at temperatures of 2000, 2250, and 2500 K. Analyses indicated that the observed pyrolysis mechanisms of unsaturated triglyceride are nearly identical to the saturated triglyceride, and the pyrolysis products also include alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, aromatics, oxygenated species, CO?, and H?. The formation of intermediates and products is a sequential process. Three C--O bonds in trilinolenin molecule are usually successive dissociated first, leading to the formation of unsaturated C?H?· radical and straight-chain C??H??O?· (RCOO·) radicals. Following that, the deoxygenated alkenyl chain is produced through decarboxylation of RCOO?·?radicals with consequent release of CO?. The resulting hydrocarbon radicals undergo a variety of disproportionation, isomerization, and hydrogen-transfer reactions, yielding straight and branched-chain hydrocarbons. It was found that the scission of C--O bond and decarboxylation should preferentially occur before the cleavage of the C--C bond ? to the C?=?C bond in the initial decomposition process of unsaturated trilinolenin. In addition, the formation of cyclic hydrocarbons could proceed through intramolecular cyclization mechanisms, including non-radical electrocyclic, biradical cyclization and cyclization of alkenyl radical, which are inconsistent with previously proposed bimolecular Diels-Alder addition mechanisms. More rapid pyrolysis of trilinolenin would occur at higher temperatures without significantly affecting the apparent reaction mechanisms of trilinolenin pyrolysis in the considered temperature range. Aromatic ring structures are observed to be stable after formation and do not decay within the 500 ps simulation period. PMID:24567153

  15. Cardiac Metabolism and Mechanics are Altered by Genetic Loss of Lipoprotein Triglyceride Lipolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Lim Noh; Haruyo Yamashita; Ira J. Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    Introduction  Most circulating fatty acids are contained in lipoprotein triglycerides. For the heart to acquire these lipids, they must\\u000a be broken down into free fatty acids via the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Although it has long been known that hearts\\u000a primarily use esterified fatty acids as fuel, different sources of fatty acids were thought to be interchangeable.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  By creating

  16. Prevention of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis during pregnancy with medium-chain triglyceride nutritional support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Mizushima; Koji Ochi; Naoki Matsumura; Mitsuko Ichimura; Tadaaki Ishibashi; Keiich Tsuboi; Hideo Harada

    1998-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a A combination of diet therapy, nutritional support with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and well-planned preterm Cesarean\\u000a delivery on demand is an effective measure to prevent gestational hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and leads to successful childbirth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Prevention and therapy of gestational hyperlipidemic pancreatitis are important, although difficult, because the condition\\u000a carries a high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We describe a

  17. Co-firing of coal and manure biomass: a TG-MS approach.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Sánchez, M E; Gómez, X

    2011-09-01

    Manure is a rich organic waste which, apart from its traditional use as a fertilizer, could be used as a bioenergy feedstock. In this sense, its utilization as a sole fuel or its co-combustion together with coal would be a choice for the management of this sort of biowaste. However, little is known about the behavior of this biowaste when submitted to high-temperature energy-conversion processes. Thus, the separate combustion of swine manure and coal and their co-combustion (10% dried weight of manure) were studied by simultaneous TG/MS dynamic runs. TG-MS analysis was successfully used as an easy rapid tool to assess the combustion of manure, alone or together with coal. Furthermore, non-isothermal kinetic analysis showed that the Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to the combustion of the blend (125.8-138.9 kJ/mol) was only slightly higher than that of manure (106.4-114.4 kJ/mol) or coal (107.0-119.6 kJ/mol). PMID:21737261

  18. Positron emission tomography imaging of fibrillar parenchymal and vascular amyloid-? in TgCRND8 mice.

    PubMed

    McLean, Daniel; Cooke, Michael J; Albay, Ricardo; Glabe, Charles; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-04-17

    Few quantitative diagnostic and monitoring, tools are available to clinicians treating patients with Alzheimer's disease. Further, many of the promising quantitative imaging tools under development lack clear specificity toward different types of Amyloid-? (A?) pathology such as vascular or oligomeric species. Antibodies offer an opportunity to image specific types of A? pathology because of their excellent specificity. In this study, we developed a method to translate a panel of anti-A? antibodies, which show excellent histological performance, into live animal imaging contrast agents. In the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, we tested two antibodies, M64 and M116, that target parenchyma aggregated A? plaques and one antibody, M31, that targets vascular A?. All three antibodies were administered intravenously after labeling with both poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance circulation and (64)Cu to allow detection via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We were clearly able to differentiate TgCRND8 mice from wild type controls by PET imaging using either M116, the anti-A? antibody targeting parenchymal A? or M31, the antivascular A? antibody. To confirm the validity of the noninvasive imaging of specific A? pathology, brains were examined after imaging and showed clear evidence of binding to A? plaques. PMID:23509918

  19. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Fibrillar Parenchymal and Vascular Amyloid-? in TgCRND8 Mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Few quantitative diagnostic and monitoring, tools are available to clinicians treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, many of the promising quantitative imaging tools under development lack clear specificity toward different types of Amyloid-? (A?) pathology such as vascular or oligomeric species. Antibodies offer an opportunity to image specific types of A? pathology because of their excellent specificity. In this study, we developed a method to translate a panel of anti-A? antibodies, which show excellent histological performance, into live animal imaging contrast agents. In the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, we tested two antibodies, M64 and M116, that target parenchyma aggregated A? plaques and one antibody, M31, that targets vascular A?. All three antibodies were administered intravenously after labeling with both poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance circulation and 64Cu to allow detection via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We were clearly able to differentiate TgCRND8 mice from wild type controls by PET imaging using either M116, the anti-A? antibody targeting parenchymal A? or M31, the antivascular A? antibody. To confirm the validity of the noninvasive imaging of specific A? pathology, brains were examined after imaging and showed clear evidence of binding to A? plaques. PMID:23509918

  20. Optimal elevation of ?-cell 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is a compensatory mechanism that prevents high-fat diet-induced ?-cell failure.

    PubMed

    Turban, Sophie; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ramage, Lynne; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Dunbar, Donald R; Mullins, John J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Morton, Nicholas M

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes ultimately results from pancreatic ?-cell failure. Abnormally elevated intracellular regeneration of glucocorticoids by the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) in fat or liver may underlie pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Elevated 11?-HSD1 is also found in pancreatic islets of obese/diabetic rodents and is hypothesized to suppress insulin secretion and promote diabetes. To define the direct impact of elevated pancreatic ?-cell 11?-HSD1 on insulin secretion, we generated ?-cell-specific, 11?-HSD1-overexpressing (MIP-HSD1) mice on a strain background prone to ?-cell failure. Unexpectedly, MIP-HSD1(tg/+) mice exhibited a reversal of high fat-induced ?-cell failure through augmentation of the number and intrinsic function of small islets in association with induction of heat shock, protein kinase A, and extracellular signal-related kinase and p21 signaling pathways. 11?-HSD1(-/-) mice showed mild ?-cell impairment that was offset by improved glucose tolerance. The benefit of higher ?-cell 11?-HSD1 exhibited a threshold because homozygous MIP-HSD1(tg/tg) mice and diabetic Lep(db/db) mice with markedly elevated ?-cell 11?-HSD1 levels had impaired basal ?-cell function. Optimal elevation of ?-cell 11?-HSD1 represents a novel biological mechanism supporting compensatory insulin hypersecretion rather than exacerbating metabolic disease. These findings have immediate significance for current therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes. PMID:22315313

  1. Fingerprinting digital elevation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Hongmei; Wu, Min

    2006-02-01

    Digital elevation maps (DEMs) provide a digital representation of 3-D terrain information. In civilian applications, high-precision DEMs carry a high commercial value owing to the large amount of effort in acquiring them; and in military applications, DEMs are often used to represent critical geospatial information in sensitive operations. These call for new technologies to prevent unauthorized distribution and to trace traitors in the event of information leak related to DEMs. In this paper, we propose a new digital fingerprinting technique to protect DEM data from illegal re-distribution. The proposed method enables reliable detection of fingerprints from both 3-D DEM data set and its 2-D rendering, whichever format that is available to a detector. Our method starts with extracting from a DEM a set of critical contours either corresponding to important topographic features of the terrain or having application-dependent importance. Fingerprints are then embedded into these critical contours by employing parametric curve modeling and spread spectrum embedding. Finally, a fingerprinted DEM is constructed to incorporate the marked 2-D contours. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against a number of challenging attacks applied to either DEMs or their contour representations.

  2. Sodium/myo-Inositol Transporters: Substrate Transport Requirements and Regional Brain Expression in the TgCRND8 Mouse Model of Amyloid Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Fenili, Daniela; Weng, Ying-Qi; Aubert, Isabelle; Nitz, Mark; McLaurin, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Inositol stereoisomers, myo- and scyllo-inositol, are known to enter the brain and are significantly elevated following oral administration. Elevations in brain inositol levels occur across a concentration gradient as a result of active transport from the periphery. There are two sodium/myo-inositol transporters (SMIT1, SMIT2) that may be responsible for regulating brain inositol levels. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like amyloid pathology on transporter expression, to compare regional expression and to analyze substrate requirements of the inositol transporters. QPCR was used to examine expression of the two transporters in the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of TgCRND8 mice, a mouse model of amyloid pathology, in comparison to non-transgenic littermates. In addition, we examined the structural features of inositol required for active transport, utilizing a cell-based competitive uptake assay. Disease pathology did not alter transporter expression in the cortex or hippocampus (p>0.005), with only minimal effects of aging observed in the cerebellum (SMIT1: F2,26?=?12.62; p?=?0.0002; SMIT2: F2,26?=?8.71; p?=?0.0015). Overall, brain SMIT1 levels were higher than SMIT2, however, regional differences were observed. For SMIT1, at 4 and 6 months cerebellar SMIT1 levels were significantly higher than cortical and hippocampal levels (p<0.05). For SMIT2, at all three ages both cortical and cerebellar SMIT2 levels were significantly higher than hippocampal levels (p<0.05) and at 4 and 6 months of age, cerebellar SMIT2 levels were also significantly higher than cortical levels (p<0.05). Inositol transporter levels are stably expressed as a function of age, and expression is unaltered with disease pathology in the TgCRND8 mouse. Given the fact that scyllo-inositol is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of AD, the stable expression of inositol transporters regardless of disease pathology is an important finding. PMID:21887366

  3. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (c.309T>G) in the MDM2 gene and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    ENOKIDA, YASUAKI; SHIMIZU, KIMIHIRO; KAKEGAWA, SEIICHI; ATSUMI, JUN; TAKASE, YOSHIAKI; MIYAMAE, YOHEI; NAGASHIMA, TOSHITERU; OHTAKI, YOICHI; KAIRA, KYOICHI; SUNAGA, NORIAKI; YANAGITANI, NORIKO; YOSHINO, REIKO; TSUNEKAWA, KATSUHIKO; IGAI, HITOSHI; KAMIYOSHIHARA, MITSUHIRO; USUI, KENGO; LEZHAVA, ALEXANDER; TOMIZAWA, YOSHIO; ISHIKAWA, TOSHIHISA; MURAKAMI, MASAMI; HAYASHIZAKI, YOSHIHIDE; TAKEYOSHI, IZUMI

    2014-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is a negative regulator of p53. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2279744: c.309T>G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene has been shown to result in higher levels of MDM2 RNA and protein. Regarding the contribution of c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene to the lung cancer risk, previous studies are conflicting. In order to evaluate the association between c.309T>G and the lung cancer risk, a case-control study was performed. The MDM2 genotypes were determined in 762 lung cancer patients and in 700 cancer-free control subjects using the Smart Amplification Process. Statistical adjustment was performed for gender, age and pack-years of smoking. The distributions of c.309T>G (T/T, T/G, G/G) were 20.1, 49.7, 30.2% in the case group and 21.7, 47.9, 30.4% in the healthy-control group. There were no overall associations between the MDM2 genotypes and the risk of lung cancer [T/G genotype: Adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88–1.93; and G/G genotype: AOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.78–1.80]. The subgroup analysis of gender, histology, smoking status and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status also indicated that there was no association with lung cancer. Additionally, the genotypes did not have an effect on the age at the time of diagnosis of lung cancer (P=0.25). In conclusion, the G allele frequency in the lung cancer cases was 0.551, which was similar to other studies. The results of the present study suggest that the c.309T>G is not significantly associated with lung cancer. PMID:25054017

  4. A single mutation in the gatekeeper residue in TgMAPKL-1 restores the inhibitory effect of a bumped kinase inhibitor on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen for Toxoplasmosis. Bumped kinase inhibitor 1NM-PP1 inhibits the growth of T. gondii by targeting TgCDPK1. However, we recently reported that resistance to 1NM-PP1 can be acquired via a mutation in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase like 1 (TgMAPKL-1). Further characterization of how this TgMAPKL-1 mutation restores the inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 would shed further light on the function of TgMAPKL-1 in the parasite life cycle. Therefore, we made parasite clones with TgMAPKL-1 mutated at the gatekeeper residue Ser 191, which is critical for 1NM-PP1 susceptibility. Host cell lysis of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A was completely inhibited at 250?nM 1NM-PP1, whereas that of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y was not. By comparing 1NM-PP1-sensitive (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A) and -resistant (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y) clones, we observed that inhibition of TgMAPKL-1 blocked cell cycle progression after DNA duplication. Morphological analysis revealed that TgMAPKL-1 inhibition caused enlarged parasite cells with many daughter cell scaffolds and imcomplete cytokinesis. We conclude that the mutation in TgMAPKL-1 restored the cell cycle-arresting effect of 1NM-PP1 on T. gondii endodyogeny. Given that endodyogeny is the primary mechanism of cell division for both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of this parasite, TgMAPKL-1 may be a promising target for drug development. Exploration of the signals that regulate TgMAPKL-1 will provide further insights into the unique mode of T. gondii cell division. PMID:25941623

  5. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of ?-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6?Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  6. Toll-like Receptor Agonists Promote Prolonged Triglyceride Storage in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-ling; Morales-Rosado, Joel; Ray, Jessica; Myers, Timothy G.; Kho, Terry; Lu, Mingfang; Munford, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages in infected tissues may sense microbial molecules that significantly alter their metabolism. In a seeming paradox, these critical host defense cells often respond by increasing glucose catabolism while simultaneously storing fatty acids (FA) as triglycerides (TAG) in lipid droplets. We used a load-chase strategy to study the mechanisms that promote long term retention of TAG in murine and human macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR)1/2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists all induced the cells to retain TAG for ?3 days. Prolonged TAG retention was accompanied by the following: (a) enhanced FA uptake and FA incorporation into TAG, with long lasting increases in acyl-CoA synthetase long 1 (ACSL1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), and (b) decreases in lipolysis and FA ?-oxidation that paralleled a prolonged drop in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). TLR agonist-induced TAG storage is a multifaceted process that persists long after most early pro-inflammatory responses have subsided and may contribute to the formation of “lipid-laden” macrophages in infected tissues. PMID:24337578

  7. Pro- and Antioxidative Effect of ?-Tocopherol on Edible Oils, Triglycerides and Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Cwiel?g-Piasecka, Irmina; Jezierski, Adam

    2013-06-01

    Using advanced electron paramagnetic resonance techniques (EPR), oxidation of crude vegetable oils and their components (fatty acids and triglycerides) by radicals generated from hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The correlation rotational times were determined allowing us to characterize radicals formed during edible oils oxidation. Additionally (1)H- and (14)N-hyperfine coupling constants differentiate the fatty acids dependently on their unsaturation. The acids with a higher number of unsaturated bonds exhibit higher AN values of PBN/·lipid adduct. The waste oil with high free fatty acids content underwent the oxidation reaction more efficiently, however due to saturation and the high content of the fatty acids the carbon-centered radicals formed (upon hydrogen peroxide radicals) and their PBN (N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone) adducts were less stable. The antioxidant effect was dependent on the amount of ?-tocopherol added. In small amounts of up to 0.35 mg/1 g of fatty acid or triglyceride, it inhibited the creation of PBN/·lipid adducts while with higher amounts it intensified adduct formation. The ?-tocopherol (AT) addition influence was also studied as spin scavenging dependence and indicated that any addition of the antioxidant in the investigated samples led to free radical scavenging and the effect increased with the increase in AT content. PMID:23710072

  8. Different exercise protocols improve metabolic syndrome markers, tissue triglycerides content and antioxidant status in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in the prevalence of obesity entails great expenditure for governments. Physical exercise is a powerful tool in the combat against obesity and obesity-associated diseases. This study sought to determine the effect of three different exercise protocols on metabolic syndrome and lipid peroxidation markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in adult Wistar rats (120 days old). Methods Animals were randomly divided into four groups: the control (C) group was kept sedentary throughout the study; the aerobic group (A) swam1 h per day, 5 days per week, at 80% lactate threshold intensity; the strength group (S) performed strength training with four series of 10 jumps, 5 days per week; and the Concurrent group (AS) was trained using the aerobic protocol three days per week and the strength protocol two days per week. Results Groups A and S exhibited a reduction in body weight compared to group C. All exercised animals showed a reduction in triglyceride concentrations in fatty tissues and the liver. Exercised animals also exhibited a reduction in lipid peroxidation markers (TBARS) and an increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity. Animals in group A had increased levels of liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Conclusions We concluded that all physical activity protocols improved the antioxidant systems of the animals and decreased the storage of triglycerides in the investigated tissues. PMID:22182600

  9. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia: Linkage of Glucose, Glycogen, Lactic Acid, Triglyceride, and Uric Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Sakine; Weinstein, David A.; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I.; Gedik, Reyhan; Schaefer, Ernst J.

    2013-01-01

    Case Summary A female presented in infancy with hypotonia, undetectable serum glucose, lactic acidosis, and triglycerides > 5,000 mg/dl. The diagnosis of type 1A glycogen storage disease (GSD) was made by liver biopsy that showed increased glycogen and absent glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity. She was treated with dextrose feeding, which was replaced by frequent cornstarch feeding, with improvement of her metabolic parameters. At age 18 years she had marked hypertriglyceridemia (3,860 mg/dl) and eruptive xanthomas, and was treated with fenofibrate, atorvastatin, and fish oil. At age 29 years she was noted to have multiple liver adenomas, severe anemia, and hyperuricemia. Aggressive cornstarch therapy was commenced with a goal of maintaining her blood glucose levels > 75 mg/dl and lactate levels < 2 mmol/L. After 15 months on this regimen, her lipids levels (measured in mg/dl) off all medications were: total cholesterol 222, triglycerides 179, high density lipoprotein cholesterol 32, and calculated low density lipoprotein cholesterol 154. Her weight was stable with a body mass index of 24.8 kg/m2. Her liver adenomas had decreased in size, and her anemia and hyperuricemia had improved. She was homozygous for the R83C missense mutation in G6PC. Our data indicate that optimized metabolic control to maintain blood glucose levels > 75 mg/dl is critical in the management of this disease. PMID:23312056

  10. A comparison of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Z M; Zhang, S Y; Wang, X R; Yang, N F; Zhu, Y; Wilmore, D

    1993-01-01

    Available lipid emulsions made from soybean or safflower oil are classified as long-chain triglycerides (LCT). In contrast, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsions have different physical properties and are metabolized by other biochemical pathways. To compare the differences between these two fat emulsions, the authors studied 12 surgical patients and 6 volunteers. These subjects were randomly assigned to receive parenteral nutrition with MCT or LCT emulsion. Measurement of arterial and venous concentration differences across the forearm demonstrated that muscle utilization was significantly improved with MCT administration. There was also a trend toward improved nitrogen balance in the MCT group, and less weight loss in the postoperative period also was observed in this group. During the fat clearance test, the serum ketone concentrations were significantly higher in the MCT than the LCT group. The improvement in nitrogen retention may be associated with increasing ketone and insulin levels. Fat emulsions containing 50% MCT are safe for use in parenteral nutrition and may provide an alternate fuel that improves protein metabolism. PMID:8439215

  11. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 has High Triglyceride Lipase Activity in the Absence of Colipase

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E.; Sevilla, Wednesday A.; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother’s milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:23770034

  12. Identification of diverse lipid droplet targeting motifs in the PNPLA family of triglyceride lipases.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Sricharan; Goldberg, Elysa B; Dou, Eda; Brown, William J

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Patatin-like Phospholipase Domain containing Protein A (PNPLA) family play key roles in triglyceride hydrolysis, energy metabolism, and lipid droplet (LD) homoeostasis. Here we report the identification of two distinct LD targeting motifs (LTM) for PNPLA family members. Transient transfection of truncated versions of human adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2), PNPLA3/adiponutrin, or PNPLA5 (GS2-like) fused to GFP revealed that the C-terminal third of these proteins contains sequences that are sufficient for targeting to LDs. Furthermore, fusing the C-termini of PNPLA3 or PNPLA5 confers LD localization to PNPLA4, which is otherwise cytoplasmic. Analyses of additional mutants in ATGL, PNPLA5, and Brummer Lipase, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian ATGL, identified two different types of LTMs. The first type, in PNPLA5 and Brummer lipase, is a set of loosely conserved basic residues, while the second type, in ATGL, is contained within a stretch of hydrophobic residues. These results show that even closely related members of the PNPLA family employ different molecular motifs to associate with LDs. PMID:23741432

  13. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families.

    PubMed

    Rees, Matthew G; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R; Davis, Mindy I; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S; Hegele, Robert A; Gloyn, Anna L

    2014-10-15

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  14. Heterozygous Deficiency of Endoglin Decreases Insulin and Hepatic Triglyceride Levels during High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Beiroa, Daniel; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Langa, Carmen; Bernabeu, Carmelo; López, Miguel; López-Novoa, José M.; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Endoglin is a transmembrane auxiliary receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) that is predominantly expressed on proliferating endothelial cells. It plays a wide range of physiological roles but its importance on energy balance or insulin sensitivity has been unexplored. Endoglin deficient mice die during midgestation due to cardiovascular defects. Here we report for first time that heterozygous endoglin deficiency in mice decreases high fat diet-induced hepatic triglyceride content and insulin levels. Importantly, these effects are independent of changes in body weight or adiposity. At molecular level, we failed to detect relevant changes in the insulin signalling pathway at basal levels in liver, muscle or adipose tissues that could explain the insulin-dependent effect. However, we found decreased triglyceride content in the liver of endoglin heterozygous mice fed a high fat diet in comparison to their wild type littermates. Overall, our findings indicate that endoglin is a potentially important physiological mediator of insulin levels and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:23336009

  15. Inheritance of rare functional GCKR variants and their contribution to triglyceride levels in families

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Matthew G.; Raimondo, Anne; Wang, Jian; Ban, Matthew R.; Davis, Mindy I.; Barrett, Amy; Ranft, Jessica; Jagdhuhn, David; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone; Simeonov, Anton; Collins, Francis S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Significant resources have been invested in sequencing studies to investigate the role of rare variants in complex disease etiology. However, the diagnostic interpretation of individual rare variants remains a major challenge, and may require accurate variant functional classification and the collection of large numbers of variant carriers. Utilizing sequence data from 458 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 333 controls with normal plasma triglyceride levels, we investigated these issues using GCKR, encoding glucokinase regulatory protein. Eighteen rare non-synonymous GCKR variants identified in these 791 individuals were comprehensively characterized by a range of biochemical and cell biological assays, including a novel high-throughput-screening-based approach capable of measuring all variant proteins simultaneously. Functionally deleterious variants were collectively associated with hypertriglyceridemia, but a range of in silico prediction algorithms showed little consistency between algorithms and poor agreement with functional data. We extended our study by obtaining sequence data on family members; however, functional variants did not co-segregate with triglyceride levels. Therefore, despite evidence for their collective functional and clinical relevance, our results emphasize the low predictive value of rare GCKR variants in individuals and the complex heritability of lipid traits. PMID:24879641

  16. Porcine pancreatic lipase related protein 2 has high triglyceride lipase activity in the absence of colipase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for the activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated PLRP2 activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother's milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:23770034

  17. Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) Monitoring of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Using Sensitive (Second-Generation) Immunometric Assays Can Be Disrupted by False-Negative and False-Positive Serum Thyroglobulin Autoantibody Misclassifications

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Ivana; Fatemi, Shireen; LoPresti, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reliable thyroglobulin (Tg) autoantibody (TgAb) detection before Tg testing for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is critical when TgAb status (positive/negative) is used to authenticate sensitive second-generation immunometric assay (2GIMA) measurements as free from TgAb interference and when reflexing “TgAb-positive” sera to TgAb-resistant, but less sensitive, Tg methodologies (radioimmunoassay [RIA] or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS]). Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how different Kronus (K) vs Roche (R) TgAb method cutoffs for “positivity” influence false-negative vs false-positive serum TgAb misclassifications that may reduce the clinical utility of reflex Tg testing. Methods: Serum Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS measurements for 52 TgAb-positive and 37 TgAb-negative patients with persistent/recurrent DTC were compared. A total of 1426 DTC sera with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L had false-negative and false-positive TgAb frequencies determined using low Tg2GIMA/TgRIA ratios (<75%) to indicate TgAb interference. Results: TgAb-negative patients with disease displayed Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS serum discordances (% coefficient of variation = 24 ± 20%, range, 0%–100%). Of the TgAb-positive patients with disease, 98% had undetectable/lower Tg2GIMA vs either TgRIA or TgLC-MS/MS (P < .01), whereas 8 of 52 (15%) had undetectable Tg2GIMA + TgLC-MS/MS associated with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis reported more sensitivity for TgAb method K vs R (81.9% vs 69.1%, P < .001), but receiver operating characteristic curve cutoffs (>0.6 kIU/L [K] vs >40 kIU/L [R]) had unacceptably high false-negative frequencies (22%–32%), whereas false positives approximated 12%. Functional sensitivity cutoffs minimized false negatives (13.5% [K] vs 21.3% [R], P < .01) and severe interferences (Tg2GIMA, <0.10 ?g/L) (0.7% [K] vs 2.4% [R], P < .05) but false positives approximated 23%. Conclusions: Reliable detection of interfering TgAbs is method and cutoff dependent. No cutoff eliminated both false-negative and false-positive TgAb misclassifications. Functional sensitivity cutoffs were optimal for minimizing false negatives but have inherent imprecision (20% coefficient of variation) that, exacerbated by TgAb biologic variability during DTC monitoring, could cause TgAb status to fluctuate for patients with low TgAb concentrations, prompting unnecessary Tg method changes and disrupting Tg monitoring. Laboratories using reflexing should limit Tg method changes by considering a patient's Tg + TgAb testing history in addition to current TgAb status before Tg method selection. PMID:25226290

  18. Solar elevation angle probability distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Larson; C. R. Acquista

    1980-01-01

    The probability distribution of solar elevation angles is determined, and the importance of this distribution on concentrator design is discussed. It is concluded that the time probability function for the solar elevation angle is important when considering alternative low-concentration systems for year-round or seasonal applications.

  19. RADARSAT elevation antenna pattern determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Lukowski; R. K. Hawkins; C. Cloutier; J. Wolfe; L. D. Teany; S. K. Srivastava; B. Banik; R. Jha; M. Adamovic

    1997-01-01

    The operations plan for RADARSAT is based on implicit calibration of the imagery products from this sensor system. The determination of the antenna gain patterns in elevation for RADARSAT is a critical step in the radiometric calibration of this imagery. The shapes of the antenna patterns in elevation were derived from imagery collected over the South American rain forests of

  20. Science on a space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Laubscher; A. M. Jorgensen

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by

  1. The Space Elevator Feasibility Condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Shelef

    Abstract This paper ties together parameters pertaining to tetherspecific strength and to power system mass density to arrive at an inequality that determines whether a Space Elevator system is viable. The principle for the feasibility condition (FC) is that a Space Elevator must be able to lift its own weight fast enough – fast enough to grow by bootstrapping, fast

  2. TG-43 U1 based dosimetric characterization of model 67-6520 Cs-137 brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Meigooni, Ali S.; Wright, Clarissa; Koona, Rafiq A.; Awan, Shahid B.; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030 and Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0084 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0084 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Avenida Tres Cruces, 2, E-46014 Valencia (Spain); Department of Oncology, Physics Section, ''La Fe'' University Hospital, Avenida Campanar 21, E-46009 Valencia (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy treatment has been a cornerstone for management of various cancer sites, particularly for the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In low dose rate brachytherapy treatments, {sup 137}Cs sources have been used for several decades. A new {sup 137}Cs source design has been introduced (model 67-6520, source B3-561) by Isotope Products Laboratories (IPL) for clinical application. The goal of the present work is to implement the TG-43 U1 protocol in the characterization of the aforementioned {sup 137}Cs source. Methods: The dosimetric characteristics of the IPL {sup 137}Cs source are measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Solid Water phantom material and calculated using Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT4 code in Solid Water and liquid water. The dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two-dimensional anisotropy function of this source model were obtained following the TG-43 U1 recommendations. In addition, the primary and scatter dose separation (PSS) formalism that could be used in convolution/superposition methods to calculate dose distributions around brachytherapy sources in heterogeneous media was studied. Results: The measured and calculated dose rate constants of the IPL {sup 137}Cs source in Solid Water were found to be 0.930({+-}7.3%) and 0.928({+-}2.6%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}, respectively. The agreement between these two methods was within our experimental uncertainties. The Monte Carlo calculated value in liquid water of the dose rate constant was {Lambda}=0.948({+-}2.6%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Similarly, the agreement between measured and calculated radial dose functions and the anisotropy functions was found to be within {+-}5%. In addition, the tabulated data that are required to characterize the source using the PSS formalism were derived. Conclusions: In this article the complete dosimetry of the newly designed {sup 137}Cs IPL source following the AAPM TG-43 U1 dosimetric protocol and the PSS formalism is provided.

  3. Bicyclol, a synthetic dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative, decreases hepatic lipids but increases serum triglyceride level in normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Dong, Hang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhao, Xin-Ye; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Wang, Hui; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2007-12-01

    Bicyclol is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China. In this study, the effects of bicyclol (100 or 300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in both normal and experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemic mice. Hypercholesterolaemia was induced by either oral administration of cholesterol/bile salt or feeding a diet containing lard/cholesterol. Daily administration of bicyclol for 7 days dose-dependently increased the serum triglyceride level (29-80%) but slightly decreased the hepatic total cholesterol level (12-17%) in normal mice. Co-administration of bicyclol with cholesterol/bile salt decreased the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (7-15% and 25-31%, respectively), when compared with the drug-untreated and cholesterol/bile salt-treated group. Bicyclol treatment for 7 days decreased hepatic triglyceride (5-76%) and total cholesterol (5-48%) levels in mice fed with high-fat/cholesterol diet. In contrast, bicyclol treatment increased the serum triglyceride level (18-77%) in mice treated with cholesterol/bile salt or fed with high-fat/cholesterol diet. Bicyclol treatment also caused an increase in hepatic index of normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice (3-32%). The results indicate that bicyclol treatment can invariably decrease hepatic lipid levels and increase serum triglyceride levels in normal and hypercholesterolaemic mice. PMID:18053327

  4. Double-link elevators ETAD

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhanov, M.N.; Lemberanskii, F.D.

    1983-07-01

    Double link elevators ETAD-50 and ETAD-80 having an automatic gripping device have been developed by AzINMash for clutching and clamping tubing strings and drill pipes and for holding in suspension a column of pipes during hoisting operations for major oil well repairs. The elevator ETAD consists of chasis, detachable grip, stops, a closing device, and two safety locks. Its advantages include: use of a single elevator, reduction of weight, convenience of handling of pipe, less movement of maintainence personnel, and longer service life. The technical parameters of ETAD are compared to EKhL, EZN, and EB type elevators and it is shown that ETAD increases labor productivity over the bulky EB type elevator.

  5. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  6. Hydroxylamine-doping effect on the Tg of 160 K for water confined in silica-gel nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagoe, A.; Oguni, M.

    2013-11-01

    The glass transition behavior of hydroxylamine (HA) aqueous solutions in bulk and confined in silica-gel nanopores with average width of 1.1 nm was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry measurements and adiabatic calorimetry. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the confined solution with high HA mole-fraction (xHA) was essentially the same as the value of the bulk. This suggests that the nano-size confinement affects the Tg of HA aqueous solution little. Meanwhile, the bulk solution with xHA < 0.3 revealed partial crystallization on cooling and, on the other hand, the confined solution with the same xHA did not crystallize. The Tg of the xHA = 0.076 confined solution was 174 K which is higher than the value of 160 K for pure water confined in the same silica-gel pores. This demonstrates that HA doping leads to no abrupt Tg-decrease, unlike doping of all the other second components reported so far, suggesting that HA is set neatly in a hydrogen-bond network formed by water molecules. We discuss the xHA dependence of Tg for the HA aqueous solutions from a viewpoint related to peculiar phase-behavior of pure water. Considering that the xHA = 0.076 aqueous solution revealed no anomaly compared with pure water, it was recognized as corresponding to the high-temperature phase of pure water.

  7. Confinement in thin polymer films near Tg leads to factors of 10 to 1000 reductions in dye translational diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkelson, John; Deng, Hui; Mundra, Manish

    2012-02-01

    A breakthrough time/fluorescence resonance energy transfer method is used to measure out-of-plane translational diffusion coefficients of small-molecule dyes in thin polymer films near the glass transition temperature, Tg. The bulk translational diffusion coefficient is a strong function of dye size, increasing by a factor of 100 in polystyrene when dye molecular volume decreases by 25%. Reduction in PS film thickness below 500 nm leads to a factor of 1000 decrease in Disperse Red 1 diffusion coefficient while reduction below 140 nm leads to slightly more than a factor of 10 decrease in decacyclene diffusion coefficient. At a thickness less than 100 nm, the diffusions coefficients for the two dyes are identical with error. Similar effects have been observed in poly(methyl methacrylate) and polysulfone films at Tg + 3 K. These effects are not directly correlated with the Tg-confinement effect in these polymers as the length scales for confinement effects are much smaller in the case of Tg and in some of the polymers both diffusivity and Tg decrease with confinement.

  8. Effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature (T(g)') during lyophilization of ganciclovir salt forms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokesh; Baheti, Ankit; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-02-01

    This manuscript deals with the effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature for lyophilization of ganciclovir salts. Salt forms of ganciclovir, namely, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts, were prepared by an in situ technique and analyzed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) for the determination of the critical process parameter for lyophilization. Nonionized ganciclovir and its salt forms showed a glass transition (T(g)') in the reversing MDSC signal, confirming their amorphous nature. T(g)' of the nonionized ganciclovir and ganciclovir sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts followed the order: sodium salt (-34.94°C) > nonionized ganciclovir (-40.15°C) > potassium salt (-46.23°C) > rubidium salt (-49.95°C) > cesium salt (-53.62°C). The analysis of the freezable water content for ganciclovir and its salts showed the trend: pure water > nonionized ganciclovir > potassium salt ? sodium salt > rubidium salt > cesium salt. This showed that a majority of water in the salts is present as an unfrozen fraction, thus leading to a lowering of T(g)' because of the plasticizing effect of unfrozen water. Density functional theory (DFT) further suggested a positive contribution of the strength of intra- and intermolecular force of interactions to the T(g)' value, with a higher intramolecular and intermolecular force of interaction leading to a higher T(g)'. PMID:21133416

  9. Technical note: Monte Carlo derivation of TG-43 dosimetric parameters for radiation therapy resources and 3M Cs-137 sources

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Cases, R.; Agramunt, S. [Physics Section, Radiation Oncology Department, 'La Fe' University Hospital, Avda Campanar 21, E46009 Valencia (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Dr. Moliner 50, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); ITIC, Avd. Alfonso Puchades 8, E03500 Benidorm (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In clinical brachytherapy dosimetry, a detailed dose rate distribution of the radioactive source in water is needed in order to plan for quality treatment. Two Cs-137 sources are considered in this study; the Radiation Therapy Resources 67-800 source (Radiation Therapy Resources Inc., Valencia, CA) and the 3M model 6500/6D6C source. A complete dosimetric dataset for both sources has been obtained by means of the Monte Carlo GEANT4 code. Dose rate distributions are presented in two different ways; following the TG43 formalism and in a 2D rectangular dose rate table. This 2D dose rate table is helpful for the TPS quality control and is fully consistent with the TG43 dose calculation formalism. In this work, several improvements to the previously published data for these sources have been included: the source asymmetries were taken explicitly into account in the MC calculations, TG43 data were derived directly from MC calculations, the data radial range was increased, the angular grid in the anisotropy function was increased, and TG43 data is now consistent with the along and away dose rate table as recommended by the TG43 update.

  10. Technical note: Monte Carlo derivation of TG-43 dosimetric parameters for radiation therapy resources and 3M Cs-137 sources.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calatayud, J; Granero, D; Ballester, F; Casal, E; Cases, R; Agramunt, S

    2005-08-01

    In clinical brachytherapy dosimetry, a detailed dose rate distribution of the radioactive source in water is needed in order to plan for quality treatment. Two Cs-137 sources are considered in this study; the Radiation Therapy Resources 67-800 source (Radiation Therapy Resources Inc., Valencia, CA) and the 3M model 6500/6D6C source. A complete dosimetric dataset for both sources has been obtained by means of the Monte Carlo GEANT4 code. Dose rate distributions are presented in two different ways; following the TG43 formalism and in a 2D rectangular dose rate table. This 2D dose rate table is helpful for the TPS quality control and is fully consistent with the TG43 dose calculation formalism. In this work, several improvements to the previously published data for these sources have been included: the source asymmetries were taken explicitly into account in the MC calculations, TG43 data were derived directly from MC calculations, the data radial range was increased, the angular grid in the anisotropy function was increased, and TG43 data is now consistent with the along and away dose rate table as recommended by the TG43 update. PMID:16193775

  11. The Toxoplasma nuclear factor TgAP2XI-4 controls bradyzoite gene expression and cyst formation

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert; Gissot, Mathieu; Croken, Matthew M.; Huot, Ludovic; Hot, David; Kim, Kami; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii undergoes many phenotypic changes during its life cycle. The recent identification of AP2 transcription factors in T. gondii has provided a platform for studying the mechanisms controlling gene expression. In the present study, we report that a recombinant protein encompassing the TgAP2XI-4 AP2 domain was able to specifically bind to a DNA motif using gel retardation assays. TgAP2XI-4 protein is localised in the parasite nucleus throughout the tachyzoite life-cycle in vitro, with peak expression occurring after cytokinesis. We found that the TgAP2XI-4 transcript level was higher in bradyzoite cysts isolated from brains of chronically infected mice than in the rapidly replicating tachyzoites. A knock-out of the TgAP2XI-4 gene in both T. gondii virulent type I and avirulent type II strains reveals its role in modulating expression and promoter activity of genes involved in stage conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites to the dormant cyst forming bradyzoites. Furthermore, mice infected with the type II KO mutants show a drastically reduced brain cyst burden. Thus, our results validate TgAP2XI-4 as a novel nuclear factor that regulates bradyzoite gene expression during parasite differentiation and cyst formation. PMID:23240624

  12. TG-MS analysis for thermal decomposition of cellulose under different atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dekui; Ye, Jiangming; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Huiyan

    2013-10-15

    Cellulose degradation under inert (He) and oxidative atmospheres (7% O2, 20% O2 and 60% O2) was investigated through thermogravimetric (TG) equipped with mass spectroscopy (MS) system. Two mass loss stages were observed for cellulose degraded under oxidative atmosphere, where the first mass loss stage is close to that under inert atmosphere, and the second one designated to char oxidation was enhanced by the increased oxygen concentration. The evolution of prominent volatiles including furfural, acetone, 2/5-hydromethyl furfural, formaldehyde, CO and CO2 was examined considering the influence of oxygen concentration. The plateau for mass loss and evolution of some volatiles leads to the difficulty to determine the division-point for the two stages. However, the fitting parameter (Dev%) around 5% confirms the applicability of the proposed two-stage kinetic model accounting for partial pressure of oxygen. PMID:23987376

  13. TG-FTIR-MS (Evolved Gas Analysis) of bidi tobacco powder during combustion and pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M

    2012-01-15

    Bidi smoke, a complex mixture of toxic and carcinogens chemicals causes a large and growing number of premature deaths in South Asian countries especially in India and Bangladesh. The evolved products during the thermal degradation of bidi tobacco powder (BTP) have been measured by using TG-FTIR-MS technique. The results revealed that the main gases and volatile products released during the combustion and pyrolysis of BTP are CO, CO(2), NH(3), HCN, NO, isoprene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, etc. Still others such as nicotine, phenol, polyaromatic hydrocarbon and some tobacco specific nitrosamines are contained in submicron sized solid particles that are suspended in Bidi smoke. The intensity or the quantity of evolved products is higher during the combustion than pyrolysis of BTP. The evolved chemical data suggest that Bidi smoke is responsible for cancer of the throat, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, lungs, esophagus, stomach, and liver. PMID:22119196

  14. Capillary GC of triglycerides in fats and oils using a high temperature phenylmethylsilicone stationary phase. Part II. The analysis of chocolate fats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Geeraerta; P. Sandrab

    1987-01-01

    The analyses of the fats and oils used in the chocolate industry are reported. Triglyceride mixtures are directly injected\\u000a on an FSOT column coated with a phenylmethylsilicone gum stationary phase. On phenylmethylsilicone phase, besides a carbon\\u000a number separation, the triglycerides are separated according to the different combinations of saturated and unsaturated fatty\\u000a acids in the triglycerides. Cocoa butters of different

  15. Long-Chain versus Medium and Long-Chain Triglyceride-based Fat Emulsion in Parenteral Nutrition of Severe Head Trauma Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Calon; T. Pottecher; A. Frey; J. Ravanello; J. C. Otteni; A. C. Bach

    1990-01-01

    Summary In order to assess the metabolic value of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in severely stressed intensive care unit patients, two fat emulsions containing either long-chain triglycerides (LCT), or a mixture of 50% MCT and 50% LCT were compared in 24 head trauma patients over a 10 day period. Variations of serum triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol and phospholipid concentrations remained

  16. The Polyphenol Oleuropein Aglycone Protects TgCRND8 Mice against Aß Plaque Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Cristina; Rigacci, Stefania; Ambrosini, Stefano; Ed Dami, Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Traini, Chiara; Failli, Paola; Berti, Andrea; Casamenti, Fiorella; Stefani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein), aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet), the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and “fluffy”; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:23951225

  17. The polyphenol oleuropein aglycone protects TgCRND8 mice against Aß plaque pathology.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Cristina; Rigacci, Stefania; Ambrosini, Stefano; Ed Dami, Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Traini, Chiara; Failli, Paola; Berti, Andrea; Casamenti, Fiorella; Stefani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein), aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet), the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and "fluffy"; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:23951225

  18. Determination of the triglyceride composition of avocado oil by high-performance liquid chromatography using a light-scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Hierro, M T; Tomás, M C; Fernández-Martín, F; Santa-María, G

    1992-08-28

    The triglyceride composition of avocado oil was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a light-scattering detector. Two avocado varieties, Fuerte and Hass, were analysed, and the qualitative composition of each was found to be similar, though quantitative differences were detected. The triglyceride composition was predicted using a system of equations based on the relationship between log k' and the molecular variables equivalent carbon number, chain length and number of double bonds for each of the fatty acids in the glycerides. A total of 24 molecular species of triglycerides were identified. The chromatographic system used successfully separated the critical pairs OOO-LOS, PaPaO-LnPP and PaOO-LOP (O = olein; L = linolein; S = stearin; Pa = palmitolein; Ln = linolenin; P = palmitin). Detector response was found to have a linear relationship with the amount of sample injected over the injection range 10-70 micrograms. PMID:1400860

  19. Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-02-22

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

  20. Mannan-Abeta28 conjugate prevents Abeta-plaque deposition, but increases microhemorrhages in the brains of vaccinated Tg2576 (APPsw) mice

    PubMed Central

    Petrushina, Irina; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Mamikonyan, Grigor; Movsesyan, Nina; Ajdari, Rodmehr; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Karapetyan, Adrine; Lees, Andrew; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Cribbs, David H

    2008-01-01

    Background New pre-clinical trials in AD mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse responses that occurred during the clinical trials with AN-1792 vaccine formulation. Recently, we have pursued an alternative immunization strategy that replaces QS21 the Th1 type adjuvant used in the AN-1792 clinical trial with a molecular adjuvant, mannan that can promote a Th2-polarized immune response through interactions with mannose-binding and CD35/CD21 receptors of the innate immune system. Previously we established that immunization of wild-type mice with mannan-A?28 conjugate promoted Th2-mediated humoral and cellular immune responses. In the current study, we tested the efficacy of this vaccine configuration in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice (Tg2576). Methods Mannan was purified, activated and chemically conjugated to A?28 peptide. Humoral immune responses induced by the immunization of mice with mannan-A?28 conjugate were analyzed using a standard ELISA. A?42 and A?40 amyloid burden, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), astrocytosis, and microgliosis in the brain of immunized and control mice were detected using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cored plaques and cerebral vascular microhemorrhages in the brains of vaccinated mice were detected by standard histochemistry. Results Immunizations with low doses of mannan-A?28 induced potent and long-lasting anti-A? humoral responses in Tg2576 mice. Even 11 months after the last injection, the immunized mice were still producing low levels of anti-A? antibodies, predominantly of the IgG1 isotype, indicative of a Th2 immune response. Vaccination with mannan-A?28 prevented A? plaque deposition, but unexpectedly increased the level of microhemorrhages in the brains of aged immunized mice compared to two groups of control animals of the same age either injected with molecular adjuvant fused with an irrelevant antigen, BSA (mannan-BSA) or non-immunized mice. Of note, mice immunized with mannan-A?28 showed a trend toward elevated levels of CAA in the neocortex and in the leptomeninges compared to that in mice of both control groups. Conclusion Mannan conjugated to A?28 provided sufficient adjuvant activity to induce potent anti-A? antibodies in APP transgenic mice, which have been shown to be hyporesponsive to immunization with A? self-antigen. However, in old Tg2576 mice there were increased levels of cerebral microhemorrhages in mannan-A?28 immunized mice. This effect was likely unrelated to the anti-mannan antibodies induced by the immunoconjugate, because control mice immunized with mannan-BSA also induced antibodies specific to mannan, but did not have increased levels of cerebral microhemorrhages compared with non-immunized mice. Whether these anti-mannan antibodies increased the permeability of the blood brain barrier thus allowing elevated levels of anti-A? antibodies entry into cerebral perivascular or brain parenchymal spaces and contributed to the increased incidence of microhemorrhages remains to be investigated in the future studies. PMID:18823564

  1. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  3. Elevated Glyoxal Concentrations over the Eastern Equatorial Pacific: A Direct Biogenic Source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Lerot, C.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric glyoxal (CHOCHO) was observed over the eastern equatorial Pacific by satellite and ship measurements. We investigated the source contributions through inverse modeling using GOME-2 observations (2007-2012) and the GEOS-Chem model. The observed high glyoxal to HCHO column ratio over the region indicates the potential presence of a direct source of glyoxal rather than secondary production. A bimodal seasonal cycle of glyoxal concentrations was found, providing further evidence for a biogenic origin of glyoxal emission. The estimate of the primary glyoxal emission over the eastern equatorial Pacific is 20-40Tg/yr, which is comparable to the previous estimate of the global continential glyoxal emission.

  4. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism by hypolipidemic sulfur-substituted fatty acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Skorve, J; Asiedu, D; Rustan, A C; Drevon, C A; al-Shurbaji, A; Berge, R K

    1990-09-01

    The mechanisms behind the hypotriglyceridemic effect of 1,10-bis(carboxymethylthio)decane (3-thiadicarboxylic acid) and tetradecylthioacetic acid and the development of fatty liver caused by 3-tetradecylthiopropionic acid (Aarsland et al. 1989. J. Lipid Res. 30: 1711-1718.) were studied in the rat. Repeated administration of S-substituted non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analogues to normolipidemic rats resulted in a time-dependent decrease in plasma triglycerides, phospholipids, and free fatty acids. This was accompanied by an acute reduction in the liver content of triglycerides and an increase in the hepatic concentration of phospholipids. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation was stimulated, whereas lipogenesis was inhibited. The activity of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase decreased while the activity of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase increased. These results suggest that the observed triglyceride-lowering effect was due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation accompanied by a reduction in the availability of the substrate i.e., free fatty acid, along with an enzymatic inhibition (phosphatidate phosphohydrolase). Administration of 3-tetradecylthiopropionic acid led to a drastic increase in the hepatic triglyceride content. Levels of plasma triglyceride phospholipid and free fatty acid also increased. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity was stimulated whereas CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase was inhibited. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation was decreased. These data indicate that the development of fatty liver as an effect of 3-tetradecylpropionic acid is probably due to accelerated triglyceride biosynthesis, which is mediated by an increase in the availability of fatty acid along with stimulation of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. The results of the present study speak strongly in favor of the hypothesis that phosphatidate phosphohydrolase is a major rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. Furthermore, they point out that the biosynthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids might be coordinately regulated. Such regulation is possibly mediated via phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. Whether the increase in hepatic phospholipids via increased CDP-pathway accounts for an increase of lipid components for proliferation of peroxisomes (3-thiadicarboxylic acid and tetradecylacetic acid) should be considered. PMID:2174075

  5. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sagar; Grizzell, J. Alex; Holmes, Rosalee; Zeitlin, Ross; Solomon, Rosalynn; Sutton, Thomas L.; Rohani, Adeeb; Charry, Laura C.; Iarkov, Alexandre; Mori, Takashi; Echeverria Moran, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-? (A?) plaque pathology in transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease's development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant A? plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment to Tg6799 mice, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced A? levels/plaques and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, this treatment paradigm dramatically improved working memory as compared to control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed. PMID:25100990

  6. Development of a transgenic mouse model for carcinogenesis bioassays: evaluation of chemically induced skin tumors in Tg.AC mice.

    PubMed

    Spalding, J W; French, J E; Tice, R R; Furedi-Machacek, M; Haseman, J K; Tennant, R W

    1999-06-01

    Transgenic rodent models have emerged as potentially useful tools in the assessment of drug and chemical safety. The transgenic Tg.AC mouse carries an inducible v-Ha-ras oncogene that imparts the characteristic of genetically initiated skin to these animals. The induction of epidermal papillomas in the area of topically applied chemical agents, for duration of not more than 26 weeks, acts as a reporter phenotype that defines the activity of the test article. We describe here the activity of six chemicals that have been previously characterized for activity in the standard 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Homozygous female Tg.AC mice were treated with benzene (BZ), benzethonium chloride (BZTC), o-benzyl-p-chlorophenol (BCP), 2-chloroethanol (2-CE), lauric acid diethanolamine (LADA) and triethanolamine (TEA). BZ and LADA induced skin papillomas in a dose-dependent manner, while BCP induced papillomas only at the highest dose. BZTC, 2-CE, and TEA exhibited no activity. The correspondence of chemical activity in Tg.AC mice with that in the 2-year bioassay was high. A comparison of responsiveness to BZ and LADA was made between hemizygous and homozygous female Tg.AC mice. Both genotypes appear to be equally sensitive to maximum doses of active compounds. The results reported here indicate that the Tg.AC transgenic mouse model can discriminate between carcinogens and noncarcinogens and that both mutagenic and nonmutagenic chemicals can be detected. These studies provide support for the adjunctive use of the Tg.AC transgenic mouse skin tumor model in drug and chemical safety assessment and for the prediction of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals. PMID:10416269

  7. Triglyceride High-Density Lipoprotein Ratios Predict Glycemia-Lowering in Response to Insulin Sensitizing Drugs in Type 2 Diabetes: A Post Hoc Analysis of the BARI 2D

    PubMed Central

    Zonszein, Joel; Lombardero, Manuel; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Palumbo, Pasquale; Foucher, Suzy; Groenewoud, Yolanda; Cushing, Gary; Wajchenberg, Bernardo; Genuth, Saul; BARI 2D Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Glycemic management is central in prevention of small vessel and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. With the plethora of newer medications and recommendations for a patient centered approach, more information is necessary to match the proper drug to each patient. We showed that BARI 2D, a five-year trial designed to compare two different glycemic treatment strategies, was suitable for assessing different responses according to different phenotypic characteristics. Treatment with insulin sensitizing medications such as thiazolidinediones and metformin was more effective in improving glycemic control, particularly in the more insulin resistant patient, when compared to the insulin provision strategy using insulin and or sulfonylureas. Triglyceride and high density lipoprotein ratio (TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio) was found to be a readily available and practical biomarker that helps to identify the insulin resistant patient. These results support the concept that not all medications for glycemic control work the same in all patients. Thus, tailored therapy can be done using phenotypic characteristics rather than a “one-size-fits-all approach.”

  8. Aerosolized bexarotene inhibits lung tumorigenesis without increasing plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Zhang, Jingjie; Liu, Pengyuan; Chen, Ruth; Chen, Da-ren; Lubet, Ronald; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2011-02-01

    Prior studies have shown the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist bexarotene has preventive efficacy in rodent models of mammary and lung tumorigenesis albeit causing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. We reasoned that bexarotene delivered by inhalation may provide sufficient dose directly to the respiratory tract to achieve efficacy while avoiding these side effects. In this study, the chemopreventive activity of aerosolized bexarotene was investigated in the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced mouse lung tumor model as assessed by tumor multiplicity and tumor load. Aerosolized bexarotene significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor load by 43% and 74%, respectively. Our data showed that bexarotene can both inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in vivo. Our data also show that aerosolized bexarotene did not increase plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level compared with diet group. These results indicate that aerosolization may be a safe and effective route of administering bexarotene for chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:21163938

  9. DIVISION 14 -CONVEYING SYSTEMS 14200 ELEVATORS

    E-print Network

    ELEVATORS 1. As a minimum, comply with applicable requirements of the "Safety Code for Elevators, and Escalators", ANSI A17.1, hereinafter referred to as the "Code". 2. All elevators shall meet the requirements. The manufacturer/installer of the elevator shall have been in business fabricating elevator equipment for a minimum

  10. Muscle-associated Triglyceride Measured by Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Smith, Steven R.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Kelley, David E.; Ravussin, Eric; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Muscle triglyceride can be assessed in vivo using computed tomography (CT) and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), two techniques that are based on entirely different biophysical principles. Little is known, however, about the cross-correlation between these techniques and their test—retest reliability. Research Methods and Procedures We compared mean muscle attenuation (MA) in soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles measured by CT with intra- and extramyocellular lipids (IMCL and EMCL, respectively) measured by MRS in 51 volunteers (26 to 72 years of age, BMI = 25.5 to 39.3 kg/m2). MA of midthighs was also measured in a subset (n = 19). Test—retest measurements were performed by CT (n = 6) and MRS (n = 10) in separate sets of volunteers. Results MA of soleus was significantly associated with IMCL (r = ?0.64) and EMCL, which by multiple regression analysis was explained mostly by IMCL (p < 0.001) rather than EMCL (? = ?0.010, p = 0.94). Muscle triglyceride was lower in TA than in soleus, and MA of TA was significantly correlated with EMCL (r = ?0.40) but not IMCL (r = ?0.16). By CT, MA of midthighs was correlated with MA in soleus (r = 0.40, p = 0.07) and whole calf (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). Finally, both MA and IMCL were highly reliable in soleus (coefficient of variation = <2% and 6.7%, respectively) and less reliable in TA (4% and 10%, respectively). Discussion These results support the use of both CT and MRS as reliable methods for assessing skeletal muscle lipid. PMID:16493125

  11. Analysis of the structure of nanocomposites of triglyceride platelets and DNA.

    PubMed

    Schmiele, Martin; Knittel, Charlotte; Unruh, Tobias; Busch, Sebastian; Morhenn, Humphrey; Boesecke, Peter; Funari, Sérgio S; Schweins, Ralf; Lindner, Peter; Westermann, Martin; Steiniger, Frank

    2015-07-21

    DNA-complexes with platelet-like, cationically modified lipid nanoparticles (cLNPs) are studied with regard to the formation of nanocomposite structures with a sandwich-like arrangement of the DNA and platelets. For this purpose suspensions of platelet-like triglyceride nanocrystals, stabilized by a mixture of two nonionic (lecithin plus polysorbate 80 or poloxamer 188) and one cationic stabilizer dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DODAB), are used. The structure of the platelets in the native suspensions and their DNA-complexes, ranging from the sub-nano to the micron scale, is investigated with small- and wide-angle scattering (SAXS, SANS, WAXS), calorimetry, photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and computer simulations. The appearance of strong, lamellarly ordered peaks in the SAXS patterns of the DNA-complexes suggests a stacked arrangement of the nanocrystals, with the DNA being partially condensed between the platelets. This finding is supported with computer simulated small-angle scattering patterns of nanocrystal stacks, which can reproduce the measured small-angle scattering patterns on an absolute scale. The influence of the choice of the nonionic stabilizers and the amount of the cationic stabilizer DODAB on the structure of the native suspensions and the inner structure of their DNA-complexes is studied, too. Using high amounts of DODAB, lecithins with saturated acyl chains and polysorbate 80 instead of poloxamer 188 produces thinner nanocrystals, and thus decreases their repeat distances in the nanocomposites. Such nanocomposites could be of interest as DNA carriers, where the triglyceride platelets protect the sandwiched DNA from degradation. PMID:26095113

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  13. ConcepTest: Elevated Terraces

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A series of elevated terraces (former wave-cut platforms) along an active plate boundary coast is evidence for ______________. a. Sea level rise b. Uplift of continental crust c. Subsidence (sinking) of crust

  14. Studies on the mode of uptake of blood triglycerides by the mammary gland of the lactating goat. The uptake and incorporation into milk fat and mammary lymph of labelled glycerol, fatty acids and triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    West, C. E.; Bickerstaffe, R.; Annison, E. F.; Linzell, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    1. The mode of uptake of the precursors of milk fat by the mammary gland of the lactating goat has been examined by infusing radioactive fatty acids, glucerol or doubly labelled triglycerides into the mammary artery or jugular vein of animals surgically prepared to permit samples of arterial and venous blood to be withdrawn without disturbance to the animal. 2. Acetate was taken up by the mammary gland and incorporated into milk fat. The decrease in the specific radioactivity of blood acetate across the gland was evidence of acetate production, but there was no significant release of labelled lipid from the mammary gland. 3. When labelled long-chain fatty acids or glycerol were infused into the lactating goat, there was extensive transfer of radioactivity into milk in spite of the absence of net uptake of substrate by the mammary gland. The decrease in the specific radioactivity of each substrate across the mammary gland, however, showed that both fatty acids and glycerol were simultaneously taken up and released by mammary tissue. 4. The infusion of chylomicra and triglyceride emulsions labelled with 3H and 14C revealed that both glycerol and fatty acids were released during triglyceride uptake by mammary tissue. Changes in the 3H/14C ratio during the transfer of triglyceride from blood into milk showed that at least 80% of the triglyceride was hydrolysed during uptake, but the potential re-utilization of both products of hydrolysis for triglyceride synthesis in mammary tissue implied that only a minimum value could be obtained from the change in the ratio. 5. The time-course of the transfer of 3H and 14C into milk and lymph were closely similar after the infusion of [2-3H]glycerol tri[1-14C]oleate or of a mixture of [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]oleate. 6. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that plasma triglycerides are extensively or completely hydrolysed during mammary uptake. PMID:4672665

  15. Elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle promote visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuichi; Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal in body. Impairment in skeletal muscle glucose handling capacity leads to the state of insulin resistance. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) cytokine has now emerged as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function. However, the role of TWEAK in skeletal muscle metabolic function remains less understood. Here, we demonstrate that with progressive age, skeletal muscle-specific TWEAK-transgenic (TWEAK-Tg) mice gain increased body weight (?16%) and fat mass (?64%) and show glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. TWEAK-Tg mice also exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy in the epididymal fat. Oxygen uptake, voluntary physical activity, and exercise capacity were significantly reduced in TWEAK-Tg mice compared with controls. Overexpression of TWEAK inhibited (?31%) 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced (?31%) the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) without affecting the Akt pathway. TWEAK also inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (?32%) and repressed the levels of GLUT4 (?50%) in cultured myotubes from C57BL6 mice. TWEAK represses the levels of Krüppel-like factor 15; myocyte enhancer factor 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, which are required for the activation of the GLUT4 locus. Collectively our study demonstrates that elevated levels of TWEAK in skeletal muscle cause metabolic abnormalities. Inhibition of TWEAK could be a potential approach to prevent weight gain and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25466899

  16. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1210] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

  17. 75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1104] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

  18. 77 FR 66737 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...Base Flood Elevation Changes +6-22 Unincorporated...Base Flood Elevation Changes +10-14...Base Flood Elevation Changes +8-12 Unincorporated...Unincorporated Areas of upstream of the Great Pee Williamsburg County....

  19. Long-term clinical results of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor use in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Raper, Anna; Kolansky, Daniel M; Sachais, Bruce S; Meagher, Emma A; Baer, Amanda L; Cuchel, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and a complicated cardiovascular history, treated for 5 years with a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor in addition to her other lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:25670368

  20. Blocking microsomal triglyceride transfer protein interferes with apoB secretion without causing retention or stress in the ER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Liao; To Y. Hui; Stephen G. Young; Roger A. Davis

    2003-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is an intraluminal protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is essential for the assembly of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. In this study, we examine how the livers of mice respond to two distinct methods of blocking MTP function: Cre -mediated disruption of the gene for MTP and chemical inhibition of MTP activity. Blocking MTP

  1. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors: discovery and synthesis of alkyl phosphonates as potent MTP inhibitors and cholesterol lowering agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R Magnin; Scott A Biller; John Wetterau; Jeffrey A Robl; John K Dickson; Prakash Taunk; Thomas W Harrity; R. Michael Lawrence; C.-Q Sun; Tammy Wang; Janette Logan; Olga Fryszman; Fergal Connolly; Kern Jolibois; Lori Kunselman

    2003-01-01

    A series of newly synthesized phosphonate esters were evaluated for their effects on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity (MTP). The most potent compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit lipoprotein secretion in HepG2 cells and to affect VLDL secretion in rats. These inhibitors were also found to lower serum cholesterol levels in a hamster model upon oral dosing.

  2. A randomised controlled trial of high versus low long chain triglyceride whole protein feed in active Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Leiper; J Woolner; M M C Mullan; T Parker; M van der Vliet; S Fear; J M Rhodes; J O Hunter

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDPolymeric feeds have shown variable efficacy in active Crohn's disease (CD) with remission rates from 36% to 82%. Meta-analyses of elemental, peptide, and whole protein feeds have shown a strong negative correlation between remission rate in CD and the long chain triglyceride (LCT) content of the feed. We performed a randomised controlled double blind trial in patients with active CD

  3. Developmental, hormonal, and nutritional regulation of expression of porcine adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (pATGL) gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a newly identified lipase. We report for the first time the porcine ATGL sequence and characterize ATGL gene and protein expression in vitro and in vivo. Adult pig tissue expresses ATGL at high levels in the white adipose and muscle tissue relative to other te...

  4. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...

  5. Jejunal wall triglyceride concentration of morbidly obese persons is lower in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Soriguer, F.; García-Serrano, S.; Garrido-Sánchez, L.; Gutierrez-Repiso, C.; Rojo-Martínez, G.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; García-Arnés, J.; Gallego-Perales, J. L.; Delgado, V.; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of intestinal lipoproteins may contribute to the dyslipidemia found in diabetes. We studied the influence of diabetes on the fasting jejunal lipid content and its association with plasma lipids and the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of these lipoproteins. The study was undertaken in 27 morbidly obese persons, 12 of whom had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The morbidly obese persons with diabetes had higher levels of chylomicron (CM) triglycerides (P < 0.001) and apolipoprotein (apo)B48 (P = 0.012). The jejunum samples obtained from the subjects with diabetes had a lower jejunal triglyceride content (P = 0.012) and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA expression (P = 0.043). However, the apoA-IV mRNA expression was significantly greater (P = 0.036). The jejunal triglyceride content correlated negatively with apoA-IV mRNA expression (r = ?0.587, P = 0.027). The variables that explained the jejunal triglyceride content in a multiple linear regression model were the insulin resistance state and the apoA-IV mRNA expression. Our results show that the morbidly obese subjects with diabetes had lower jejunal lipid content and that this correlated negatively with apoA-IV mRNA expression. These findings show that the jejunum appears to play an active role in lipid homeostasis in the fasting state. PMID:20855567

  6. Simultaneous determination of glycerol, and mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Plank; Eberhard Lorbeer

    1995-01-01

    A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides in vegetable oil methyl esters has been developed. Quantitative information about this group of organic contaminants is very important for the quality of these oleochemical products when used as automotive diesel fuel substitutes.Trimethylsilylation of glycerol, mono- and diglycerides, followed by GC using a 10-m capillary column

  7. Etiology of Fatty Liver in Dairy Cattle: Effects of Nutritional and Hormonal Status on Hepatic Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Bremmer; S. L. Trower; S. J. Bertics; S. A. Besong; U. Bernabucci; R. R. Grummer

    2000-01-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of nutritional and hormonal status on micro- somal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity and mass. In experiment 1, 18 nonlactating Holstein cows, 75 d before expected calving date, in their second gesta- tion or greater were monitored from d 75 to 55 prepar- tum. Cows were fed a control diet from d

  8. HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) PROTEINS INDUCE LIPOGENESIS AND DEFECTIVE TRIGLYCERIDE SECRETION IN TRANSGENIC MICE EXPRESSING THE HCV FULL-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) PROTEINS INDUCE LIPOGENESIS AND DEFECTIVE TRIGLYCERIDE SECRETION Reference Center for Viral Hepatitis B, C and Delta, Department of Virology, Hôpital Henri Mondor hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with altered lipid metabolism and hepatocellular steatosis

  9. Triglyceride Blisters in Lipid Bilayers: Implications for Lipid Droplet Biogenesis and the Mobile Lipid Signal in Cancer Cell Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himanshu Khandelia; Lars Duelund; Kirsi I. Pakkanen; John H. Ipsen; Darren R. Flower

    2010-01-01

    Triglycerides have a limited solubility, around 3%, in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. Using millisecond-scale course grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the model lipid bilayer can accommodate a higher concentration of triolein (TO) than earlier anticipated, by sequestering triolein molecules to the bilayer center in the form of a disordered, isotropic, mobile neutral lipid aggregate, at least 17 nm in

  10. Relation of Swelling and Tg Depression to the Apparent Free Volume of a Particle-Filled Epoxy-based Adhesive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chiang, M. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hygrothermal aging on a particle-filled, epoxy-based adhesive was studied using a gravimetric sorption technique. This study has explored moisture sorption characteristics as well as the associated behaviors of swelling and the depression of the glass transition temperature (Tg). We observed that the diffusion of water in this adhesive has a non-Fickian behavior, and the depression of Tg proceeds to a definite value that is independent of the final equilibrium water content of the system. Our observations suggest that water diffuses into the polymer in a dualsorption mode, in which water resides in two populations. In one population, water is considered to occupy apparent free volume of the adhesive, and the second population water infiltrates polymer structure and forms hydrogenbonded clusters. Our results show that hygrothermal aging temperature and swelling do not alter the apparent free volume of this adhesive. We conclude that the constant value of Tg depression at saturation implies that only water in the apparent free volume is responsible for the Tg depression, whereas the swelling proceeds through the formation of hydrogen bonds in the adhesive.

  11. Impact of Age on the Cerebrovascular Proteomes of Wild-Type and Tg-SwDI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Searcy, James L.; Le Bihan, Thierry; Salvadores, Natalia; McCulloch, James; Horsburgh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of cerebral vessels is compromised during ageing. Abnormal amyloid (A?) deposition in the vasculature can accelerate age-related pathologies. The cerebrovascular response associated with ageing and microvascular A? deposition was defined using quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis. Over 650 proteins were quantified in vessel-enriched fractions from the brains of 3 and 9 month-old wild-type (WT) and Tg-SwDI mice. Sixty-five proteins were significantly increased in older WT animals and included several basement membrane proteins (nidogen-1, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, laminin subunit gamma-1 precursor and collagen alpha-2(IV) chain preproprotein). Twenty-four proteins were increased and twenty-one decreased in older Tg-SwDI mice. Of these, increases in Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and high temperature requirement serine protease-1 (HTRA1) and decreases in spliceosome and RNA-binding proteins were the most prominent. Only six shared proteins were altered in both 9-month old WT and Tg-SwDI animals. The age-related proteomic response in the cerebrovasculature was distinctly different in the presence of microvascular A? deposition. Proteins found differentially expressed within the WT and Tg-SwDI animals give greater insight to the mechanisms behind age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction and pathologies and may provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24587158

  12. The effects of the meat binding agent, Activa[TM] TG-RM, on fresh beef at the retail level 

    E-print Network

    Kolle, Dusty Shane

    2001-01-01

    . The Infraspinatus was cut open and the heavy connective tissue removed. A 0.5% dry-sprinkle application of Activa[]TG-RM/sodium caseinate mixture was applied. Steaks from both the ribeye and the top blade were assigned randomly to: 1) in-home sensory evaluation; 2...

  13. Impact of age on the cerebrovascular proteomes of wild-type and Tg-SwDI mice.

    PubMed

    Searcy, James L; Le Bihan, Thierry; Salvadores, Natalia; McCulloch, James; Horsburgh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of cerebral vessels is compromised during ageing. Abnormal amyloid (A?) deposition in the vasculature can accelerate age-related pathologies. The cerebrovascular response associated with ageing and microvascular A? deposition was defined using quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis. Over 650 proteins were quantified in vessel-enriched fractions from the brains of 3 and 9 month-old wild-type (WT) and Tg-SwDI mice. Sixty-five proteins were significantly increased in older WT animals and included several basement membrane proteins (nidogen-1, basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein, laminin subunit gamma-1 precursor and collagen alpha-2(IV) chain preproprotein). Twenty-four proteins were increased and twenty-one decreased in older Tg-SwDI mice. Of these, increases in Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and high temperature requirement serine protease-1 (HTRA1) and decreases in spliceosome and RNA-binding proteins were the most prominent. Only six shared proteins were altered in both 9-month old WT and Tg-SwDI animals. The age-related proteomic response in the cerebrovasculature was distinctly different in the presence of microvascular A? deposition. Proteins found differentially expressed within the WT and Tg-SwDI animals give greater insight to the mechanisms behind age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction and pathologies and may provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24587158

  14. Monte Carlo and experimental derivation of TG43 dosimetric parameters for CSM-type Cs-137 sources

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Granero, D.; Casal, E.; Ballester, F.; Puchades, V. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Burjassot (Spain); Grupo IMO-SFA, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, complete dosimetric datasets for the CSM2 and CSM3 Cs-137 sources were obtained using the Monte Carlo GEANT4 code. The application of this calculation method was experimentally validated with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Functions and parameters following the TG43 formalism are presented: the dose rate constant, the radial dose functional, and the anisotropy function. In addition, to aid the quality control process on treatment planning systems, a two-dimensional (2D) rectangular dose rate table (the traditional along-away table), coherent with the TG43 dose calculation formalism, is given. The data given in this study complement existing information for both sources on the following aspects: (i) the source asymmetries were considered explicitly in the Monte Carlo calculations, (ii) TG43 data were derived directly from Monte Carlo calculations, (iii) the radial range of the different tables was increased as well as the angular resolution in the anisotropy function, including angles close to the longitudinal source axis. The CSM2 source TG-43 data of Liu et al. [Med. Phys. 31, 477-483 (2004)] are not consistent with the Williamson 2D along-away data [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 15, 227-237 (1988)] at distances closer than approximately 2 cm from the source. The data presented here for this source are consistent with this 2D along-away table, and are suitable for use in clinical practice.

  15. Monte Carlo and experimental derivation of TG43 dosimetric parameters for CSM-type Cs-137 sources.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calatayud, J; Granero, D; Casal, E; Ballester, F; Puchades, V

    2005-01-01

    In this study, complete dosimetric datasets for the CSM2 and CSM3 Cs-137 sources were obtained using the Monte Carlo GEANT4 code. The application of this calculation method was experimentally validated with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Functions and parameters following the TG43 formalism are presented: the dose rate constant, the radial dose functional, and the anisotropy function. In addition, to aid the quality control process on treatment planning systems, a two-dimensional (2D) rectangular dose rate table (the traditional along-away table), coherent with the TG43 dose calculation formalism, is given. The data given in this study complement existing information for both sources on the following aspects: (i) the source asymmetries were considered explicitly in the Monte Carlo calculations, (ii) TG43 data were derived directly from Monte Carlo calculations, (iii) the radial range of the different tables was increased as well as the angular resolution in the anisotropy function, including angles close to the longitudinal source axis. The CSM2 source TG-43 data of Liu et al. [Med. Phys. 31, 477-483 (2004)] are not consistent with the Williamson 2D along-away data [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 15, 227-237 (1988)] at distances closer than approximately 2 cm from the source. The data presented here for this source are consistent with this 2D along-away table, and are suitable for use in clinical practice. PMID:15719951

  16. Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei Xin; Li, Chun Lei; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Franz E.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF) in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles. PMID:24783213

  17. Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity and very low density lipoprotein secretion: a model of viral-related steatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GABRIEL PERLEMUTER; ABDELMAJID SABILE; PHILIPPE LETTERON; GIOVANNA VONA; YVES CHRETIEN; KAZUHIKO KOIKE; DOMINIQUE PESSAYRE; JOHN CHAPMAN; GIOVANNA BARBA; CHRISTIAN BRECHOT

    2002-01-01

    Liver steatosis, which involves accumula- tion of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets, is characteristic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. By use of an in vivo transgenic murine model, we demonstrate that hepatic overexpression of HCV core protein interferes with the hepatic assembly and secretion of triglyceride- rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Core expres- sion led to reduction in microsomal triglyceride

  18. A high-fat diet and the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) polymorphism of fatty acid–binding protein 2 reduce plasma triglyceride–rich lipoproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the fatty acid binding pr...

  19. Structural relaxation of vitreous albite near Tg and implications for transport properties of the supercooled liquid at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, S. J.; Lesher, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate the glass transition temperature, Tg, for vitreous/amorphous albite between 0 and 7.7 GPa by tracking the progress of densification following high-temperature annealing experiments with run durations equal to 5? (when ?=100 s). Tg decreases by 54 K/GPa up to 2.6 GPa, and thereafter shows a weak negative pressure dependence. This behavior mimics the negative pressure dependence of viscosity of albite liquid shown by [1]; however, we do not find a change in the sign of ?Tg/?P at least up to 7.7 GPa as reported in some isothermal ??/?P, and ?DO/?P data sets. Our high field (21.8 T) 27Al MAS NMR measurements of recovered glasses rapidly quenched from super-Tg conditions possess trace amounts of high coordinated Al at 2.6 GPa and only ?17% by 5.5 GPa. This suggests that the decrease in Tg (and viscosity at low temperature) results dominantly from topological rearrangement of the supercooled melt structure and not changes to Al or Si coordination number and connectivity of the network. In fact, at Tg from 0 to 8 GPa, the XNBO, or network connectivity, is unchanged [2] and at 7.7 GPa, we find the proportion of high coordinated Al is still ?35%. Convergence in the timescales of relaxation at Tg(P) and the onset of Na mobility to 6 GPa documented by high-pressure electrical conductivity measurements [3] implies that the fragility of albite melt increases with pressure up to ?4-5 GPa, without changing the effective polymerization of the melt. In contrast, fragility appears to decrease with pressure in partially depolymerized silicate melts. Such differences in fragility can be used for extrapolation of activation energy based models for viscous flow to high pressure. [1] Kushiro, 1978, EPSL, 41; Brearley et al., 1986, GCA, 50; Brearley and Montana, 1989, GCA, 53; Poe et al., 1997, Science, 276; Suzuki et al., 2002, Phys. Chem. Miner., 29; Funakoshi et al., 2002, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 14; Behrens and Schulze, 2003, Am. Min., 88. [2] Lee et al. 2004, GCA, 68; [3] Bagdassarov et al., 2004, Phys. Chem. Glasses, 45.

  20. Ospemifene and 4-Hydroxyospemifene Effectively Prevent and Treat Breast Cancer in the MTag.Tg Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Burich, Rebekah A.; McCall, Jamie L.; Mehta, Neelima R.; Greenberg, Brittany E.; Bell, Katie E.; Griffey, Stephen M.; DeGregorio, Michael W.; Wurz, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Ospemifene, a new drug indicated for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy, has completed Phase III clinical trials. A condition affecting millions of women worldwide, vulvovaginal atrophy has long been treated with estrogen therapy. Estrogen treatment carries with it risks of thromboembolism, endometrial proliferative effects, and breast cancer promotion. In this study, we test the effects of three dosing levels of ospemifene in both the prevention and treatment of breast cancer in the MTag.Tg mouse model. Methods The polyomavirus middle-T transgenic mouse model (MTag.Tg), which produces synchronized, multifocal mammary tumors in the immunologically intact C57BL/6 background, was used to examine the impact of ospemifene treatment. First, a cell line derived from an MTag.Tg mouse tumor (Mtag 34) was treated in vitro with ospemifene and its major metabolite, 4-OH ospemifene. MTag.Tg mice were treated daily by gavage with three different doses of ospemifene (5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) before or after the development of mammary tumors. Survival and tumor development results were used to determine the effect of ospemifene treatment on mammary tumors in both the preventive and treatment settings. Results Tumors and the MTag 34 cell line were positive for estrogen receptor expression. The MTag 34 line was not stimulated by ospemifene or its major, active metabolite 4-OH ospemifene in vitro. Ospemifene increased survival time and exerted an antitumor effect on the development and growth of estrogen receptor positive mammary tumors in the MTag.Tg mouse model at the 50 mg/kg dose. Levels of ospemifene and 4-OH ospemifene in both the tumors and plasma of mice confirmed dosing. Ospemifene did not exert an estrogenic effect in the breast tissue at doses equivalent to human dosing. Conclusions Ospemifene prevents and treats estrogen receptor positive MTag.Tg mammary tumors in this immune intact mouse model in a dose-dependent fashion. Ospemifene drug levels in the plasma of treated mice were comparable to those found in humans. Combined with our previous data, ospemifene does not appear to pose a breast cancer risk in animals, and slows cancer development and progression in the MTag.Tg model. PMID:21926925

  1. Elevation Zones Digital elevation data (meters above mean sea level) were

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Elevation Zones Africa Digital elevation data (meters above mean sea level) were obtained as a 1 kilometer resolution elevation\\bathymetry raster product from ISciences, L.L.C. Elevation zones were created by aggregating ranges of land elevation values into 12 thematic elevation classes. The 2004 ISciences data were

  2. Elevator Safety Though elevators are one of the safest forms of transportation, following simple

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Elevator Safety Though elevators are one of the safest forms of transportation, following simple elevators, but also what to do if the elevator becomes stalled. Please reference the guidelines below for more information on both situations. Elevator Safety Tips When waiting for elevators: Know your

  3. Study of glass transition temperature (Tg) of novel stress-sensitive composites using molecular dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, B.; Liu, Y.; Zou, J.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Dai, L. L.

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the glass transition temperature (Tg) of novel stress-sensitive composites capable of detecting a damage precursor using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The molecular structures of a cross-linked epoxy network (which consist of epoxy resin, hardener and stress-sensitive material) have been simulated and experimentally validated. The chemical constituents of the molecular structures are di-glycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF: epoxy resin), di-ethylene tri-amine (DETA: hardener) and tris-(cinnamoyloxymethyl)-ethane (TCE: stress-sensitive material). The cross-linking degree is varied by manipulating the number of covalent bonds through tuning a cutoff distance between activated DGEBF and DETA during the non-equilibrium MD simulation. A relationship between the cross-linking degree and Tgs has been studied numerically. In order to validate a proposed MD simulation framework, MD-predicted Tgs of materials used in this study have been compared to the experimental results obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two molecular models have been constructed for comparative study: (i) neat epoxy (epoxy resin with hardener) and (ii) smart polymer (neat epoxy with stress-sensitive material). The predicted Tgs show close agreement with the DSC results.

  4. A Molecular Design to Enhance Toughness of High Tg Glassy Polyesters and Polyestercarbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangyang; Yee, Albert

    2000-03-01

    Three series of polyesters/polyestercarbonates have been synthesized. Two are based on 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethyl-1, 1'-spirobi-indane (SBI) and 4,4'-(3,3,5 trimethylcyclohexylidene)diphenol (Tmc).Both monomers are rigid and bulky, resulting in high T_gs. The other is based on the relatively flexible 4,4'-cyclohexylidene diphenol (BPAZ).Cyclohexylene rings (C-rings) are inserted into the backbones. DMA, positronium annihilation, thermal expansion and tensile tests indicate that chair-boat-chair (C-B-C) conformational transitions of C-rings can couple with their neighbors and enhance local segmental motion, resulting in ductile polymers. The C-B-C motion couples strongly with its neighbors in Tmc_xC, BPAZ_xC and the randomcopolymer of BPA, SBI and cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid (SCBC), where x is the number of monomers in a block. This coupling is especially evident in the BPAZ_xC series of polymers. These results demonstrate that it is possible to design high temperature tough polymers by using a building block approach, viz., high Tg units and mobility enhancing units. This work is funded by AFOSR Grant NO. F49620-98-1-0158.

  5. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (P<0.05 after 3 months of treatment; P<0.001 after 6 months), microvascular deposition of ?-amyloid (P<0.001 after 3 months of treatment; P<0.05 after 6 months), vascular inflammation (P<0.05 in the dentate gyrus and P<0.001 in the dorsal subiculum after 6 months of treatment), blood-brain barrier leakage (P<0.05 after 3 and 6 months of treatment), and pericyte loss (P<0.05 in the dentate gyrus and P<0.01 in the dorsal subiculum after 6 months of treatment) in these mice. In addition, hypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies. PMID:25941345

  6. Unattended acoustic sensor simulation of TG25 trials using CHORALE workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozard, Patrick; Le Goff, Alain; Naz, Pierre; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean; Dupuy, Yann

    2004-08-01

    The simulation workshop CHORALE of the French DGA is used by government services and industrial companies for weapon system validation and qualification trials in the infrared domain, and detection of moving vehicles in the acoustic domain. Recently, acoustic simulation tests were performed on the 3D geometrical database of the DGA/DCE/ETBS proving ground. Results have been compared to the acoustic measurements of the NATO-TG25 trials. This article describes the trials, the modeling of the 3D geometrical database and the comparison between acoustic simulation results and measurements. The 3D scene is described by a set of polygons. Each polygon is characterized by its acoustic resistivity or its complex impedance. Sound sources are associated with moving vehicles and are characterized by their spectra and directivities. A microphone sensor is defined by its position, its frequency band and its directivity. For each trial, atmospheric profiles (air temperature, pressure and humidity according to altitude), trajectories and sound spectrum of moving objects were measured. These data were used to prepare the scenario for the acoustic simulation.

  7. TG/DSC-FTIR and Py-GC investigation on pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Jiang, Bo; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng; Li, Aimin

    2015-09-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were evaluated using TG/DSC-FTIR and fixed-bed reactor with GC. TGA experiments indicated that the pyrolysis of PS proceeded in three phases, and the thermographs shifted to higher temperatures with increasing heating rate. Chars FTIR showed that the absorption of O-H, C-H, CO and C-C decreased with pyrolysis temperatures increasing. Gases FTIR correspondingly showed that H2O, CO, and CH4 generated at higher temperatures. For the fixed-bed reactor tests, H2 and CO were relatively higher in the pyrolysis gases, and CH4 was negligible at 436K. The kinetic triplets of PS pyrolysis were estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and integral master-plots method. The results suggested that the most potential kinetic models for the first and second phase were the order reaction model, while the random nucleation and nuclei growth model for the third phase. PMID:26004556

  8. Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Yaniv S.; Gefel, Dov; Turkot, Svetlana; Aharoni, Dorit; Fytlovich, Shlomo; Troen, Aron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG). Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n = 17), hypothyroidism (n = 14), or control (n = 31), provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60?ng/mL) were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P < 0.05). Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65 ± 30??g/d) than in controls (115 ± 60??g/d) (P < 0.05) with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73 ± 38??g/d). Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings. PMID:25610705

  9. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Plasma triglyceride and beta-hydroxybutyric acid levels in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at emergence from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Whittier, J M; Mason, R T

    1996-02-15

    Measurement of plasma levels of triglycerides and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in females and males of the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) suggest that the former may provide a useful physiological marker of condition. Levels of triglycerides at emergence from hibernation during a month of natural aphagia were significantly greater in females than in males and she-males, a subset of the male population that mimics females. Higher levels of triglycerides in the females may be attributed to their greater body mass per unit length, which was correlated with the level of triglycerides. Plasma triglyceride levels declined in females within one month of emergence, at the onset of feeding, and were unrelated to mating. PMID:8608816

  11. Complex formation between tissue transglutaminase II (tTG) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2): Proposed mechanism for modulation of endothelial cell response to VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Dardik, Rima [Institute of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621 (Israel); Inbal, Aida [Institute of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621 (Israel)]. E-mail: aidainbal@hotmail.com

    2006-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that thrombin-activated FXIII (FXIIIA-subunit), a plasma transglutaminase, activates VEGFR-2 by crosslinking it with the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin on the surface of endothelial cells (EC), thereby stimulating angiogenesis. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), which is functionally and structurally related to FXIIIA, is expressed by numerous cell types, among them EC. However, its role in EC function has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we investigated the potential involvement of tTG in angiogenesis. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent staining experiments, we observed that tTG forms a complex with VEGFR-2 on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm of EC. Stimulation of EC with VEGF resulted in translocation of the tTG-VEGFR-2 complex from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In VEGF-treated cells, tTG-VEGFR-2 interaction resulted in incorporation of VEGFR-2 into high molecular weight crosslinked complex (es), as revealed by an antibody against {gamma}-glutamyl-{epsilon}-lysine isopeptide bond. tTG -VEGFR-2 association was inhibited by a specific VEGFR-2 protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PTKI ), as well as by cystamine, inhibitor of the transglutaminase activity of tTG, but not by bacitracin which inhibits the protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity of tTG. Furthermore, cystamine completely abolished the VEGF-induced nuclear translocation of the tTG-VEGFR-2 complex. Blockade of the crosslinking activity of tTG by cystamine enhanced VEGF-induced migration of EC in Boyden chamber by 31% (P < 0.02), and prolonged VEGF-induced signaling response, as demonstrated by sustained activation of the MAP kinase ERK. Taken together, our findings suggest that endothelial cell tTG might be involved in modulation of the cellular response to VEGF by forming an intracellular complex with VEGFR-2, and mediating its translocation into the nucleus upon VEGF stimulation.

  12. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-10-26

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

  13. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

  14. The Elevator Pitch Audrey Iffert-Saleem

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    The Elevator Pitch Audrey Iffert-Saleem Executive Director, Entrepreneurship & Innovation? #12;what is an elevator pitch? #12;how long is an elevator pitch? #12;what are the elements of an elevator pitch? #12;the hook #12;the problem #12;the solution #12;the impact #12;the competition #12;the

  15. Exponential Tethers for Accelerated Space Elevator Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blaise Gassendy

    An exponential space elevator is a space elevator with a tether cross-section that varies exponentially with altitude. With such an elevator it is possible to reel in tether material at one end of the elevator while reeling out at the other end, without changing the overall taper prole. I show how to use this property to build up or clone

  16. SU-E-T-159: Evaluation of a Patient Specific QA Tool Based On TG119

    SciTech Connect

    Ashmeg, S; Zhang, Y; O'Daniel, J; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a 3D patient specific QA tool by analysis of the results produced from associated software in homogenous phantom and heterogonous patient CT. Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans of five test suites introduced by TG119 were created in ECLIPSE on a solid water phantom. The ten plans -of increasing complexity- were delivered to Delta4 to give a 3D measurement. The Delta4's “Anatomy” software uses the measured dose to back-calculate the energy fluence of the delivered beams, which is used for dose calculation in a patient CT using a pencilbeam algorithm. The effect of the modulated beams' complexity on the accuracy of the “Anatomy” calculation was evaluated. Both measured and Anatomy doses were compared to ECLIPSE calculation using 3% - 3mm gamma criteria.We also tested the effect of heterogeneity by analyzing the results of “Anatomy” calculation on a Brain VMAT and a 3D conformal lung cases. Results: In homogenous phantom, the gamma passing rates were found to be as low as 74.75% for a complex plan with high modulation. The mean passing rates were 91.47% ± 6.35% for “Anatomy” calculation and 99.46% ± 0.62% for Delta4 measurements.As for the heterogeneous cases, the rates were 96.54%±3.67% and 83.87%±9.42% for Brain VMAT and 3D lung respectively. This increased error in the lung case could be due to the use of the pencil beam algorithm as opposed to the AAA used by ECLIPSE.Also, gamma analysis showed high discrepancy along the beam edge in the “Anatomy” calculated results. This suggests a poor beam modeling in the penumbra region. Conclusion: The results show various sources of errors in “Anatomy” calculations. These include beam modeling in the penumbra region, complexity of a modulated beam (shown in homogenous phantom and brain cases) and dose calculation algorithms (3D conformal lung case)

  17. Seed oil triglyceride profiling of thirty-two hybrid grape varieties.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Fabiola; Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Traldi, Pietro; De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Giust, Mirella; Flamini, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Triglyceride profile of seed oil samples from 32 hybrid grape varieties not studied before was investigated. A new method for the analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) has been developed based on the direct infusion in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and employing tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (85:10:5 v|v|v) as solvent; the formation of [M?+?Na](+) ions in high yield has been observed. TAGs were identified by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization and time-of-flight profile of samples was determined. Six were the principal TAGs identified in seed oil: trilinolein (LLL) was the most abundant (43%), followed by dilinoleoyl-oleoylglycerol (LOL, 23%), and dilinoleoyl-palmitoylglycerol (LPL, 15%). Compounds present in lower concentration were LSL and LOO (11%), LOP (6%), and LSP (2%). Compared with seed oils produced from V. Vinifera grapes, some significant differences in the relative abundances of TAGs were found, in particular hybrid grape seed oils showed higher LOL and lower LPL content, respectively. Among the samples studied, a particularly high content of LLL (rich in unsaturated fatty acids) was found in seed oils from two red varieties. PMID:22972779

  18. Measurement of precursor enrichment for calculating intramuscular triglyceride fractional synthetic rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Wang, Lijian; Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Wu, Zhanpin; Tan, Alai; Herndon, David N.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the validity of the enrichments of plasma free palmitate and intramuscular (IM) fatty acid metabolites as precursors for calculating the IM triglyceride fractional synthetic rate. We infused U-13C16-palmitate in anesthetized rabbits for 3 h and sampled adductor muscle of legs using both freeze-cut and cut-freeze approaches. We found that IM free palmitate enrichment (0.70 ± 0.07%) was lower (P < 0.0001) than IM palmitoyl-CoA enrichment (2.13 ± 0.17%) in samples taken by the freeze-cut approach. The latter was close (P = 0.33) to IM palmitoyl-carnitine enrichment (2.42 ± 0.16%). The same results were obtained from the muscle samples taken by the cut-freeze approach, except the enrichment of palmitoyl-CoA (2.21 ± 0.08%) was lower (P = 0.02) than that of palmitoyl-carnitine (2.77 ± 0.17%). Plasma free palmitate enrichment was ?2-fold that of IM palmitoyl-CoA enrichment and palmitoyl-carnitine enrichment (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that plasma free palmitate overestimated IM precursor enrichment owing to in vivo IM lipid breakdown, whereas IM free palmitate enrichment underestimated the precursor enrichment because of lipid breakdown during muscle sampling and processing. IM palmitoyl-carnitine enrichment was an acceptable surrogate of the precursor enrichment because it was less affected by in vitro lipid breakdown after sampling. PMID:21934122

  19. Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on expansion and rheological properties of extruded corn starch.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Mario; Emin, M Azad; Hochstein, Bernhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Schuchmann, Heike Petra

    2013-04-01

    Enhancement of product properties of extruded starch based products can be achieved by incorporating health promoting oil into the matrix. In order to achieve a preferably high expansion with a homogeneous pore structure, the expansion mechanisms have to be understood. In our study, we applied a customized twin-screw extruder set up to feed medium-chain triglycerides after complete gelatinization of corn starch, minimizing its effect on the starch gelatinization. Despite the fact, that the addition of up to 3.5% oil showed no influence on the extrusion parameters, we observed a three-fold increase in sectional expansion. Longitudinal expansion was less affected by the oil content. Rheological properties of the gelatinized starch were measured using an inline slit die rheometer. In addition to shear viscosity, we presented a method to determine the Bagley pressure, which reflects the elongational properties of a fluid. We were able to observe an increase in the Bagley pressure from about 25 bar up to 35-37 bar due to the addition of oil. PMID:23499088

  20. Lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manfredi

    2010-02-01

    New lipid-lowering agents include microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors, which may have a role in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Clinical applications of MTP inhibitors have been focused primarily on high-dose monotherapy to produce substantial reductions in LDL-cholesterol levels (particularly for patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia). However, this strategy has been associated with a high rate and severity of gastrointestinal and hepatic adverse events that has prohibited the use of these agents. Data suggest the LDL-cholesterol-lowering efficacy of low-dose lomitapide (AEGR-733, formerly BMS-201038), under development by Aegerion Pharmaceuticals Inc, in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, both as a single agent and in combination with commonly prescribed lipid-lowering therapies. MTP inhibition with lomitapide may offer a treatment option for patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy or who experience insufficient LDL-cholesterol reduction with available therapies. However, the safety concerns for MTP inhibitors for the treatment of hyperlipidemia must be fully addressed, and the assessment of the risk-to-benefit ratio for MTP inhibitors in patients at different levels of cardiovascular-disease risk is required before clinical use of this class of drugs may be recommended. PMID:20127562

  1. Identification of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in intestinal brush-border membrane.

    PubMed

    Slight, Isabelle; Bendayan, Moise; Malo, Christiane; Delvin, Edgard; Lambert, Marie; Levy, Emile

    2004-10-15

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a heterodimeric complex consisting of a unique large 97-kDa protein and the multifunctional 58-kDa protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). It plays an essential role in the assembly of lipoproteins by shuttling lipids between phospholipid membranes. Based on cell fractionation, early studies have suggested the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as the exclusive site of MTP. Focusing on the plasma membrane in this study, our attempts with immunoelectron microscopy and specific antibodies surprisingly revealed that labeling was not exclusively confined to the microsomes of rat absorptive cells. Immunogold labeling was also detected over the microvillus membrane of enterocytes. Western blot analysis and biochemical activity measurement confirmed MTP protein expression in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from the intestinal epithelial cells of various species. Furthermore, MTP was coexpressed in microvilli membrane with PDI that is crucial to maintain the structure and activity of the MTP complex. The treatment of Caco-2 cells with nocodazole and colchicine blocked the appearance of MTP in the apical membrane. Similarly, the addition of BMS-197636, a known inhibitor of MTP transfer activity, suppressed the latter. In conclusion, the present studies suggest that MTP is present in the brush-border membrane of the enterocyte. Understanding the possible physiological role of MTP in this location may reveal additional functions. PMID:15383310

  2. Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lemhadri, A; Hajji, L; Michel, J-B; Eddouks, M

    2006-07-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. fruits at a dose of (20mg/kg) on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). After a single oral administration, Carum carvi extract produced a significant decrease on triglycerides levels in normal rats (p<0.05). In STZ diabetic rats, cholesterol levels were decreased significantly 6h after Carum carvi treatment (p<0.05). On the other hand, repeated oral administration of Carum carvi extract exhibited a significant hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic activities in both normal (p<0.01 and <0.001 respectively) and STZ diabetic rats (p<0.001) 15 days after Carum carvi treatment. We conclude that the aqueous extract of Carum carvi (20mg/kg) exhibits a potent lipid lowering activity in both normal and severe hyperglycemic rats after repeated oral administration of Carum carvi aqueous extract. PMID:16567073

  3. Simultaneous determination of mono-, di-, and triglycerides in multiphase systems by online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jakob J; Baum, Soeren; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Eckstein, Marrit; Thum, Oliver; Liese, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    Glycerides are of significant value for industry as ingredients with different purposes in food or cosmetics. The analysis of glycerides is mainly performed by gas chromatography (GC) or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), which demonstrate limitations in dealing with multiphase systems. In this article, an in situ differentiation between mono-, di-, and triglycerides in multiphase systems by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is demonstrated. The enzymatic esterification of glycerol with lauric acid was analyzed as a model system. The reaction was carried out in a bubble column reactor containing four phases (two liquid phases of glycerol and lauric acid, air as gaseous phase, and a heterogeneous catalyst as solid phase). As a feasibility study, a chemometric model was generated for the pure components only. The quantities of lauric acid and the three products (mono-, di-, and trilaurin) were simultaneously determined over the course of the reaction with acceptable errors (1.8-12.5%) with regard to the calibration effort. This technology has the potential to give accurate results, particularly in unstable emulsion systems containing fats, oils, or emulsifiers, which are currently afflicted by analytical errors caused by the challenge of accurate sampling. PMID:22047101

  4. Early structural and metabolic cardiac remodelling in response to inducible adipose triglyceride lipase ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kienesberger, Petra C.; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Nagendran, Jeevan; Young, Martin E.; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.; Hackl, Hubert; Khadour, Rammy; Heydari, Emma; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kershaw, Erin E.; Dyck, Jason R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims While chronic alterations in cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism and accumulation are associated with cardiomyopathy, it is unclear whether TAG catabolizing enzymes such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) play a role in acquired cardiomyopathies. Importantly, germline deletion of ATGL leads to marked cardiac steatosis and heart failure in part through reducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activity and subsequent fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, whether ATGL deficiency specifically in adult cardiomyocytes contributes to impaired PPAR? activity, cardiac function, and metabolism is not known. Methods and results To study the effects of acquired cardiac ATGL deficiency on cardiac PPAR? activity, function, and metabolism, we generated adult mice with tamoxifen-inducible cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL deficiency (icAtglKO). Within 4–6 weeks following ATGL ablation, icAtglKO mice had markedly increased myocardial TAG accumulation, fibrotic remodelling, and pathological hypertrophy. Echocardiographic analysis of hearts in vivo revealed that contractile function was moderately reduced in icAtglKO mice. Analysis of energy metabolism in ex vivo perfused working hearts showed diminished FAO rates which was not paralleled by markedly impaired PPAR? target gene expression. Conclusions This study shows that acquired cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL deficiency in adult mice is sufficient to promote fibrotic and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and impair myocardial FAO in the absence of markedly reduced PPAR? signalling. PMID:23708736

  5. Increased expression of enzymes of triglyceride synthesis is essential for the development of hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingling; Iakova, Polina; Breaux, Meghan; Sullivan, Emily; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Chen, Dahu; Jiang, Yanjun; Medrano, Estela M.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Molecular mechanisms underpinning nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are not well understood. The earliest step of NAFLD is hepatic steatosis, which is one of the main characteristics of aging liver. Here we present a molecular scenario of age-related liver steatosis. We show that C/EBP?-S193D knock-in mice have age-associated epigenetic changes and develop hepatic steatosis at 2 months of age. The underlying mechanism of the hepatic steatosis in old wild-type (WT) mice and in young S193D mice includes increased amounts of tripartite p300-C/EBP?/? complexes that activate promoters of five genes that drive triglyceride synthesis. Knock-down of p300 in old WT mice inhibits hepatic steatosis. Indeed, transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative p300 have fewer C/EBP?/?-p300 complexes and do not develop age-dependent hepatic steatosis. Notably, p300-C/EBP?/? pathway is activated in livers of patients with NAFLD. Thus, our results show that p300 and C/EBP proteins are essential participants in hepatic steatosis. PMID:23499441

  6. An NMR study of diffusion in surfactant-free emulsions and molten triglyceride mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, Duncan A.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements have become extensively used analytical techniques, with applications in many fields. In this thesis these measurements have been employed to elucidate a mechanism of emulsion stabilization and to examine mobility of a mixture of substances at the molecular level. Emulsions (liquid-in-liquid mixtures) have widespread applications (pharmaceutical, food science, petrochemical, agrochemical), therefore it is important to understand what governs emulsion stability. It has been previously demonstrated that a degassing process stabilizes oil-in-water emulsions, however the mechanism behind this is debated. In this thesis the Cotts 13-interval NMR sequence was used to examine the effects of degassing, establishing which of two suggested mechanisms is responsible for producing stable emulsions. Triglyceride mixtures are commonly separated before characterisation, however, NMR measurements of diffusion in molten trilaurin-trimyristin mixes have been made. This sheds light on the behaviour of these mixtures and assisted in developing new methods for their characterisation. These applications illustrate the versatility of NMR diffusion measurements.

  7. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Ppar?, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis. PMID:25879679

  8. Proline oxidase–adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Aquilano, K; Baldelli, S; Cannata, S M; Bernardini, S; Rotilio, G; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing lipolytic enzyme adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) has a key role in adipose tissue function, and alterations in its activity have been implicated in many age-related metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue reduced blood vessel density is related to hypoxia state, cell death and inflammation. Here we demonstrate that adipocytes of poorly vascularized enlarged visceral adipose tissue (i.e. adipose tissue of old mice) suffer from limited nutrient delivery. In particular, nutrient starvation elicits increased activity of mitochondrial proline oxidase/dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH) that is causal in triggering a ROS-dependent induction of ATGL. We demonstrate that ATGL promotes the expression of genes related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?), thus setting a metabolic switch towards fat utilization that supplies energy to starved adipocytes and prevents cell death, as well as adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders. PMID:24096872

  9. Isolation and biological activity of triglycerides of the fermented mushroom of Coprinus Comatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many physiological functions of Coprinus comatus have been reported, there has been no report on the antinociceptive activity of Coprinus comatus. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to demonstrate the production, isolation, and biological properties of triglycerides (TFC) of the fermented mushroom of Coprinus comatus. Methods The effects of TFC on cytokines levels, total antioxidant activity, antinociceptive effects in vivo, LD50 and tactile hyperalgesia were analyzed respectively. Results TFC treatment decreased the levels of cytokines and total antioxidant status (TAOS) and inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice. In addition, TFC reduced CFA-induced tactile hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and the LD50 of TFC was determined to be 400?mg/kg. However, TFC did not significantly inhibit the reaction time to thermal stimuli in the hot-plate test. Conclusions TFC showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, peripheral antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic activity in various models of inflammatory pain. The data suggest that TFC may be a viable treatment option for inflammatory pain. PMID:22531110

  10. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Richa; Voight, Benjamin F; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Burtt, Noël P; de Bakker, Paul I W; Chen, Hong; Roix, Jeffrey J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Daly, Mark J; Hughes, Thomas E; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David; Almgren, Peter; Florez, Jose C; Meyer, Joanne; Ardlie, Kristin; Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Isomaa, Bo; Lettre, Guillaume; Lindblad, Ulf; Lyon, Helen N; Melander, Olle; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nilsson, Peter; Orho-Melander, Marju; Råstam, Lennart; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Guiducci, Candace; Berglund, Anna; Carlson, Joyce; Gianniny, Lauren; Hackett, Rachel; Hall, Liselotte; Holmkvist, Johan; Laurila, Esa; Sjögren, Marketa; Sterner, Maria; Surti, Aarti; Svensson, Margareta; Svensson, Malin; Tewhey, Ryan; Blumenstiel, Brendan; Parkin, Melissa; Defelice, Matthew; Barry, Rachel; Brodeur, Wendy; Camarata, Jody; Chia, Nancy; Fava, Mary; Gibbons, John; Handsaker, Bob; Healy, Claire; Nguyen, Kieu; Gates, Casey; Sougnez, Carrie; Gage, Diane; Nizzari, Marcia; Gabriel, Stacey B; Chirn, Gung-Wei; Ma, Qicheng; Parikh, Hemang; Richardson, Delwood; Ricke, Darrell; Purcell, Shaun

    2007-06-01

    New strategies for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) require improved insight into disease etiology. We analyzed 386,731 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1464 patients with T2D and 1467 matched controls, each characterized for measures of glucose metabolism, lipids, obesity, and blood pressure. With collaborators (FUSION and WTCCC/UKT2D), we identified and confirmed three loci associated with T2D-in a noncoding region near CDKN2A and CDKN2B, in an intron of IGF2BP2, and an intron of CDKAL1-and replicated associations near HHEX and in SLC30A8 found by a recent whole-genome association study. We identified and confirmed association of a SNP in an intron of glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) with serum triglycerides. The discovery of associated variants in unsuspected genes and outside coding regions illustrates the ability of genome-wide association studies to provide potentially important clues to the pathogenesis of common diseases. PMID:17463246

  11. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC. PMID:25725185

  12. Defense of a space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laubscher

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the

  13. Analysis of a Space Elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Langston

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the engineering principles that govern the design of a Space Elevator. The presentation includes extensive mathematical analysis of several basic approaches, reviews historical approaches and looks at some novel implementations. The technical challenges that must be overcome and the potential application of new technology to meet these challenges are discussed. While the paper focuses on the engineering

  14. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laubscher

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing

  15. Special Issue: High Elevation Forests

    E-print Network

    University Lori Torikai, Division of Water Resources, State of Colorado Tom Troxel, Director, Colorado TimberSpecial Issue: High Elevation Forests 2008 The Health of Colorado's Forests Report #12;David A. Leatherman, Forest Entomologist, Colorado State Forest Service (retired), is the primary author of the 2008

  16. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  17. Electrochemistry for biofuel generation: transformation of fatty acids and triglycerides to diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures and olefins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Tatiane R; Harnisch, Falk; Nilges, Peter; Schröder, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    Electroorganic synthesis can be exploited for the production of biofuels from fatty acids and triglycerides. With Coulomb efficiencies (CE) of up to 50?%, the electrochemical decarboxylation of fatty acids in methanolic and ethanolic solutions leads to the formation of diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures. Triglycerides can be directly converted in aqueous solutions by using sonoelectrochemistry, with olefins as the main products (with a CE of more than 20?%). The latter reaction, however, is terminated at around 50?% substrate conversion by the produced side-product glycerol. An energy analysis shows that the electrochemical olefin synthesis can be an energetically competitive, sustainable, and--in comparison with established processes--economically feasible alternative for the exploitation of fats and oils for biofuel production. PMID:25648972

  18. Photocarcinogenesis and Susceptibility to UV Radiation in the v-Ha-ras Transgenic Tg.AC Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol S. Trempus; Joel F. Mahler; Honnavara N. Ananthaswamy; Susan M. Loughlin; John E. French; Raymond W. Tennant

    1998-01-01

    The v-Ha-ras transgenic Tg.AC mouse line has proven to be a useful model for the study of chemical carcinogenic potential. We undertook experiments designed to study the effect of the physical carcinogen, UV radiation, on tumorigenesis in this mouse strain. Following a total of three exposures on alternating days to a radiation source covering a cumulative UVR exposure range of

  19. Frequency of the ATM IVS10-6T?G variant in Australian multiple-case breast cancer families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey J Lindeman; Melody Hiew; Jane E Visvader; Jennifer Leary; Michael Field; Clara L Gaff; RJ McKinlay Gardner; Kevin Trainor; Glenice Cheetham; Graeme Suthers; Judy Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Background  Germline mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for only a proportion of hereditary breast cancer, suggesting that additional genes contribute to hereditary breast\\u000a cancer. Recently a heterozygous variant in the ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, IVS10-6T?G, was reported by an Australian multiple-case breast cancer family cohort study (the Kathleen Cuningham\\u000a Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer) to

  20. Seismic array monitoring of mortar fire during the November 2005 ARL-NATO TG53 field experiment at YPG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Anderson; David J. Fisk; John E. Fiori; Stephan N. Decato; Douglas A. Punt; N. Lamie

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) participated in a joint ARL-NATO TG-53 field experiment and data collection at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, in early November 2005. Seismic and acoustic signatures from both muzzle blasts and impacts of small arms fire and artillery were recorded using seven seismic arrays and three acoustic arrays. Arrays composed