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[Triglyceride (TG) and remnant lipoproteins].  


Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by approximately 30%, and the remaining 70% should be the second front of CVD risk reduction. Such residual risks include high triglyceride (TG) concentrations and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) in terms of dyslipidemia. TG-rich lipoproteins are heterogenous and composed of a variety of subfractions, all of which are not necessarily relevant to atherosclerosis and CVD risk. However, remnant lipoproteins, TG-rich lipoproteins, are atherogenic and related to CVD risk. Two different methods (RLP-C and RemL-C) have been developed to measure cholesterol levels of remnant lipoproteins. Although there is a difference in affinity to intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) between the two methods, they may be better qualified as biomarkers of CVD risk than TG itself. TG measurements play a certain role in the evaluation of CVD risk, but the remnant lipoprotein cholesterol measurement can provide better screening for patients at high CVD risk than TG and may be a useful examination in both quantity and quality. PMID:22686044

Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kisugi, Reiko; Koike, Masaru; Kurosawa, Hideo



Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPAR? signaling  

PubMed Central

Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [3H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [3H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPAR? target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPAR?-dependent processes also in the small intestine.

Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G.; Patankar, Jay V.; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E.; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G.; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar



Severely elevated serum triglycerides in a case of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with the 317 cysteine to serine mutation in the LDL receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of a 43-year-old Japanese man with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) with severely elevated serum triglycerides (TG). He drank large quantities of alcohol but had no endocrinological disorder or diabetes mellitus. He had a recurrent, acute pancreatitis. His fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C levels and an apolipoprotein E genotype of E3\\/E3 suggested a diagnosis

Junji Kobayashi; Hiroshi Mabuchi



An elevation of triglycerides reflecting decreased triglyceride clearance may not be pathogenic -- relevance to high-carbohydrate diets.  


The fact that carbohydrate-rich diets often increase plasma triglycerides has led some to question the wisdom of such diets. This increase is primarily attributable to a decrease in the efficiency of triglyceride clearance -- whereas the elevation of triglycerides observed in insulin-resistant subjects stems mainly from increased hepatic production of VLDL particles. There is growing reason to suspect that the increased coronary risk associated with elevated triglycerides in Western epidemiology reflects the fact that high triglycerides are a marker for insulin resistance syndrome, rather than any inherent pathogenic role of triglycerides per se. Thus, endothelial dysfunction is seen only in those hypertriglyceridemic subjects who are insulin resistant, and is absent in patients whose markedly elevated triglycerides reflect genetically defective lipoprotein lipase activity. Triglyceride levels are relatively high in certain Third World societies which are virtually immune to coronary disease so long as they persist in their traditional very-low-fat diets; in Ornish's celebrated study, a moderate rise in triglycerides coincided with a marked reduction in coronary events. Although the particle size of both LDL and HDL tends to decrease when triglyceride levels are high, it is questionable whether this effect has a major pathogenic impact. The one clear drawback of high-carbohydrate diets is a decrease in HDL particle number, resulting from decreased hepatic production of apoA-I; this effect is seen whether or not triglycerides increase. The very favorable effects of very-low-fat, whole food, quasi-vegan diets on LDL cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and body weight appear to more than compensate for this decrease in HDL; it is notable that HDL levels tend to be quite low in Third World cultures at minimal risk for coronary disease. On the other hand, this decrease in HDL may be of more significance in the context of omnivore diets only moderately low in fat, as suggested by the fact that diets higher in unsaturated fats emerge as more protective in Western prospective epidemiology. The tendency of high-carbohydrate diets to boost triglycerides can be minimized by exercise training, supplemental fish oil, an emphasis on fiber-rich, low-glycemic-index whole foods, and the "spontaneous" weight loss often seen with ad libitum consumption of such diets -- measures which are highly recommendable whether or not triglycerides are a concern. PMID:15504577

McCarty, Mark F



Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China.



Application of a HRGC Method on Capillary Column Rtx® 65TG for Triglyceride Analysis to Monitor Butter Purity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a new analytical method is proposed for the detection of extraneous fats fraudulently added to butter. The determination is carried out by gas chromatographic analysis of butter triglycerides on a capillary column having 65% phenylmethylsilicone as stationary phase. Over the past 25 years, various methods for the evaluation of butter purity have been proposed. The detection of

Daniele Naviglio; Carlo Raia



Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.  


Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

Mattes, Richard D



Impaired brachial artery endothelial function is not predicted by elevated triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to determine if patients with modest hyperlipidemia, and no other risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), have impaired endothelium-dependent (ED) vasoactivity.BACKGROUNDHypercholesterolemia impairs ED vasodilation, but the impact of elevated triglycerides on endothelial function is not as well established.METHODSHigh-resolution ultrasound was used to determine flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (BA) after a

Greg B. Schnell; Annette Robertson; Deborah Houston; Linda Malley; Todd J. Anderson



Acute high-intensity endurance exercise is more effective than moderate-intensity exercise for attenuation of postprandial triglyceride elevation.  


Acute exercise has been shown to attenuate postprandial plasma triglyceride elevation (PPTG). However, the direct contribution of exercise intensity is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on PPTG and postprandial fat oxidation. One of three experimental treatments was performed in healthy young men (n = 6): nonexercise control (CON), moderate-intensity exercise (MIE; 50% Vo2peak for 60 min), or isoenergetic high-intensity exercise (HIE; alternating 2 min at 25% and 2 min at 90% Vo2peak). The morning after the exercise, a standardized meal was provided (16 kcal/kg BM, 1.02 g fat/kg, 1.36 g CHO/kg, 0.31 g PRO/kg), and measurements of plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and ?-hydroxybutyrate were made in the fasted condition and hourly for 6 h postprandial. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation in the fasted condition and 2, 4, and 6 h postprandial. Compared with CON, both MIE and HIE significantly attenuated PPTG [incremental AUC; 75.2 (15.5%), P = 0.033, and 54.9 (13.5%), P = 0.001], with HIE also significantly lower than MIE (P = 0.03). Postprandial fat oxidation was significantly higher in MIE [83.3 (10.6%) of total energy expenditure] and HIE [89.1 (9.8) %total] compared with CON [69.0 (16.1) %total, P = 0.039, and P = 0.018, respectively], with HIE significantly greater than MIE (P = 0.012). We conclude that, despite similar energy expenditure, HIE was more effective than MIE for lowering PPTG and increasing postprandial fat oxidation. PMID:23372145

Trombold, Justin R; Christmas, Kevin M; Machin, Daniel R; Kim, Il-Young; Coyle, Edward F




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases...


Enlarged Waist Combined With Elevated Triglycerides Is a Strong Predictor of Accelerated Atherogenesis and Related Cardiovascular Mortality in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Upward trends of obesity urge more effective identification of those at cardiovascular risk. A simple dichotomous indicator, enlarged waist (88 cm) combined with elevated triglycerides (1.45 mmol\\/L) (EWET), was shown to offer advantages in identifying individuals with atherogenic \\

László B. Tankó; Yu Z. Bagger; Gerong Qin; Peter Alexandersen; Philip J. Larsen; Claus Christiansen



Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Promoter Region1131T\\/C Polymorphism Is Associated with Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Elevated Triglyceride Levels: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The association between polymorphism -1131T\\/C in the promoter region of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and ischemic stroke and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels remains controversial. To better clarify the association between APOA5-1131T\\/C and risk of ischemic stroke and plasma TG levels, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the allele and genotype of APOA5-1131T\\/C polymorphism in ischemic stroke cases and controls. Methods:

Yan Pi; Lili Zhang; Qingwu Yang; Binghu Li; Lu Guo; Chuanqin Fang; Changyue Gao; Jingzhou Wang; Jing Xiang; Jingcheng Li



Feeding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(omega)nitroarginine elevates serum very low density lipoprotein and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in rats.  


This study was conducted to study the influence of dietary L-N(omega)nitroarginine (L-NNA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on serum lipids and lipoproteins and on the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in rats. Feeding rats a diet containing 0.2 g/kg L-NNA for 5 weeks elevated serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid and reduced serum nitrate (an oxidation product of NO). The elevation in serum triglyceride was mainly due to the elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. Contents of cholesterol and phospholipid in the VLDL fraction also were elevated by L-NNA. L-NNA treatment caused significantly higher activity of hepatic microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride synthesis) and lower activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation). Activities of hepatic enzymes responsible for fatty acid synthesis such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and fatty acid synthase were unaffected by L-NNA. The activity of hepatic microsomal phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was reduced significantly by L-NNA. Our results suggest that lower NO production caused the elevations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis by higher esterification of fatty acid and lower fatty acid oxidation, leading to an enrichment of VLDL triglyceride. PMID:15539300

Goto, T; Ohnomi, S; Khedara, A; Kato, N; Ogawa, H; Yanagita, T



Triglyceride characteristics of cocoa butter from cacao fruit matured in a microclimate of elevated temperature 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the melting characteristic of cocoa butter is relatively constant. However, softer than normal butter is sometimes\\u000a encountered. In Brazil the occurrence of soft butter has been correlated with mean daily temperature during the cropping season.\\u000a The temperature effect was, therefore, studied more fully by positioning heat lamps near fruit of cacao to create a microclimate\\u000a of elevated temperature during

D. W. Lehrian; P. G. Keeney; D. R. Butler



A genetic variant c.553G > T in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease and altered triglyceride levels in a Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevation in plasma triglycerides (TG) has been widely accepted as a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk predictor. Recently, a new apolipoprotein playing an important role in TG metabolism named apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) was discovered, which is encoded by the APOA5 gene. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOA5 associated with increased TG concentrations have been identified. We here report that

Yibo Tang; Ping Sun; Dongping Guo; Albert Ferro; Yong Ji; Qi Chen; Leming Fan



Triglyceride level  


The triglyceride level is a laboratory test to measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are a type of ... more calories than your body needs, your triglyceride level may be high. See also: High blood cholesterol ...


Caspase-1 deficiency in mice reduces intestinal triglyceride absorption and hepatic triglyceride secretion.  


Caspase-1 is known to activate the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Additionally, it can cleave other substrates, including proteins involved in metabolism. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency in mice strongly reduces high-fat diet-induced weight gain, at least partly caused by an increased energy production. Increased feces secretion by caspase-1-deficient mice suggests that lipid malabsorption possibly further reduces adipose tissue mass. In this study we investigated whether caspase-1 plays a role in triglyceride-(TG)-rich lipoprotein metabolism using caspase-1-deficient and wild-type mice. Caspase-1 deficiency reduced the postprandial TG response to an oral lipid load, whereas TG-derived fatty acid (FA) uptake by peripheral tissues was not affected, demonstrated by unaltered kinetics of [(3)H]TG-labeled very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-like emulsion particles. An oral gavage of [(3)H]TG-containing olive oil revealed that caspase-1 deficiency reduced TG absorption and subsequent uptake of TG-derived FA in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Similarly, despite an elevated hepatic TG content, caspase-1 deficiency reduced hepatic VLDL-TG production. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that caspase-1 deficiency did not affect FA oxidation or FA uptake but rather reduced intracellular FA transport, thereby limiting lipid availability for the assembly and secretion of TG-rich lipoproteins. The current study reveals a novel function for caspase-1, or caspase-1-cleaved substrates, in controlling intestinal TG absorption and hepatic TG secretion. PMID:23160218

van Diepen, Janna A; Stienstra, Rinke; Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Salvatori, Daniela; Hooiveld, Guido J; Kersten, Sander; Tack, Cees J; Netea, Mihai G; Smit, Johannes W A; Joosten, Leo A B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N



Hepatic ABCA1 and VLDL triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma TG concentrations and a near absence of HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which facilitates the efflux of cellular phospholipid and free cholesterol to assemble with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), forming nascent HDL particles. In this review, we summarize studies focused on the regulation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG production, with particular attention on recent evidence connecting hepatic ABCA1 expression to VLDL, LDL, and HDL metabolism. Silencing ABCA1 in McArdle rat hepatoma cells results in diminished assembly of large (>10nm) nascent HDL particles, diminished PI3 kinase activation, and increased secretion of large, TG-enriched VLDL1 particles. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout (HSKO) mice have a similar plasma lipid phenotype as Tangier disease subjects, with a twofold elevation of plasma VLDL TG, 50% lower LDL, and 80% reduction in HDL concentrations. This lipid phenotype arises from increased hepatic secretion of VLDL1 particles, increased hepatic uptake of plasma LDL by the LDL receptor, elimination of nascent HDL particle assembly by the liver, and hypercatabolism of apoA-I by the kidney. These studies highlight a novel role for hepatic ABCA1 in the metabolism of all three major classes of plasma lipoproteins and provide a metabolic link between elevated TG and reduced HDL levels that are a common feature of Tangier disease, MS, and T2D.

Liu, Mingxia; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S.



Triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Results from the Québec cardiovascular study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of reduced plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations as risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) was examined in a sample of 2177 men from the Québec City suburbs. The sample included 202 men with known IHD. The relationship between HDL-C and TG levels, although significant (r = ?0.49, P 2.3

Benoît Lamarche; Jean-Pierre Després; Sital Moorjani; Bernard Cantin; Gilles R. Dagenais; Paul-J. Lupien



Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2?/? mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2 - Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

Snaith, Michael; Lindmark, Helena; Lundberg, Johanna; Ostlund-Lindqvist, Ann-Margret; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats



Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States))



Triglyceride kinetics, tissue lipoprotein lipase, and liver lipogenesis in septic rats  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studied by examining liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant iv infusion of (2-3H)glycerol-labeled VLDL. Clearance of VLDL-TG was also evaluated by measuring activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in heart, soleus muscle, and adipose tissue from fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E. coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10(7) live E. coli colonies per 100 g body wt. Twenty-four hours after E. coli injection, serum TG, free fatty acids (FFA), and cholesterol of fasted E. coli-treated rats were elevated by 170, 76, and 16%, respectively. The elevation of serum TG may be attributed to the 67% decrease in clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E. coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The suppressed activities of LPL in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart were consistent with reduced clearance of TG. Secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in livers of fasted E. coli-treated rats, which was accompanied by a twofold increase in the composition of liver TG. Rates of in vivo TG synthesis in livers of the fasted E. coli-treated rats were twofold higher than in those of fasted control rats. Decreased rate of TG appearance along with the increase in liver synthesis of TG contributed to the elevation of liver lipids in the fasted E. coli-treated rats.

Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (USA))



Triglycerides Test  


... Necessity of Fasting Before Cholesterol and Other Lipid Tests (2013), Unhealthy Lipid Levels in Young Adults (2010) Elsewhere On The Web American Heart Association: Triglycerides American Heart Association: What ...


Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides  

PubMed Central

Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration is reemerging as an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. More complete understanding of the genes and variants that modulate plasma TG should enable development of markers for risk prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies and might help specify new directions for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified both known and novel loci associated with plasma TG concentration. However, genetic variation at these loci explains only ?10% of overall TG variation within the population. As the GWAS approach may be reaching its limit for discovering genetic determinants of TG, alternative genetic strategies, such as rare variant sequencing studies and evaluation of animal models, may provide complementary information to flesh out knowledge of clinically and biologically important pathways in TG metabolism. Herein, we review genes recently implicated in TG metabolism and describe how some of these genes likely modulate plasma TG concentration. We also discuss lessons regarding plasma TG metabolism learned from various genomic and genetic experimental approaches. Treatment of patients with moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia with existing therapies is often challenging; thus, gene products and pathways found in recent genetic research studies provide hope for development of more effective clinical strategies.

Johansen, Christopher T.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A.



Constant infusion rates of lipid emulsions to stabilize plasma triglyceride concentrations: Medium-chain triglyceride\\/long-chain triglyceride emulsions (MCT\\/LCT) versus LCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As medium-chain triglyceride emulsions (MCT) are more rapidly hydrolyzed than long-chain triglyceride emulsions (LCT), MCT\\/LCT\\u000a tends to be infused faster than LCT. The purpose of the present study was to determine the most appropriate infusion rate\\u000a for MCT\\/LCT to stabilize plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG), being equivalent to the optimal infusion rate of the\\u000a emulsion. A TG clamp was set

Keiji Iriyama; Chikao Miki; Takahito Inoue; Nobuaki Kawarabayashi; Hisashi Urata; Chika Shigemori



Acute hypoxia induces hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing plasma triglyceride clearance in mice  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep and is associated with elevated triglycerides (TG). We previously demonstrated that mice exposed to chronic IH develop elevated TG. We now hypothesize that a single exposure to acute hypoxia also increases TG due to the stimulation of free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization from white adipose tissue (WAT), resulting in increased hepatic TG synthesis and secretion. Male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to FiO2 = 0.21, 0.17, 0.14, 0.10, or 0.07 for 6 h followed by assessment of plasma and liver TG, glucose, FFA, ketones, glycerol, and catecholamines. Hypoxia dose-dependently increased plasma TG, with levels peaking at FiO2 = 0.07. Hepatic TG levels also increased with hypoxia, peaking at FiO2 = 0.10. Plasma catecholamines also increased inversely with FiO2. Plasma ketones, glycerol, and FFA levels were more variable, with different degrees of hypoxia inducing WAT lipolysis and ketosis. FiO2 = 0.10 exposure stimulated WAT lipolysis but decreased the rate of hepatic TG secretion. This degree of hypoxia rapidly and reversibly delayed TG clearance while decreasing [3H]triolein-labeled Intralipid uptake in brown adipose tissue and WAT. Hypoxia decreased adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in brown adipose tissue and WAT. In addition, hypoxia decreased the transcription of LPL, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, and fatty acid transporter CD36. We conclude that acute hypoxia increases plasma TG due to decreased tissue uptake, not increased hepatic TG secretion.

Shin, Mi-Kyung; Yao, Qiaoling; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Poole, James; Drager, Luciano F.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.



Triglyceride specificity of Candida cylindracea lipase: Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on resistance of triglyceride to lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuna oil was hydrolyzed withCandida cylindracea lipase. After 70% hydrolysis of the oil, the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in the glyceride mixture [a mixture of TG\\u000a (triglyceride), DG (diglyceride) and MG (monoglyceride)] was twice that of the original oil. DHA-rich TG and DG were observed,\\u000a but DHA-rich MG was absent.C. cylin-dracea lipase seemed to have a “triglyceride specificity,” and it

Yukihisa Tanaka; Tadashi Funada; Jiro Hirano; Ron Hashizume



The post-exercise recovery of triglycerides in rat tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Triglycerides (TG) recovery after exhaustive muscular exertion was investigated in tissues of fed rats and rats fasted for 24 h before exercise. In both groups the exercise caused reduction of TG level in the fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) muscle, in heart muscle, and in plasma and accumulation of TG in liver.In the fed group the level of TG in FOG muscle, in

Jan Górski; Tatiana Kiryluk



Inhibition of Intestinal Bile Acid Transporter Slc10a2 Improves Triglyceride Metabolism and Normalizes Elevated Plasma Glucose Levels in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2) and ob\\/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma

Thomas Lundåsen; Eva-Marie Andersson; Michael Snaith; Helena Lindmark; Johanna Lundberg; Ann-Margret Östlund-Lindqvist; Bo Angelin; Mats Rudling



Modulation of plasma TG lipolysis by Angiopoietin-like proteins and GPIHBP1.  


There is evidence that elevated plasma triglycerides (TG) serve as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Plasma TG levels are determined by the balance between the rate of production of chylomicrons and VLDL in intestine and liver, respectively, and their rate of clearance in peripheral tissues. Lipolytic processing of TG-rich lipoproteins is mediated by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is tethered to the capillary endothelium via heparin sulphate proteoglycans. In recent years the Angiopoietin-like proteins ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 have emerged as novel modulators of LPL activity. Studies in transgenic animals supported by in vitro experiments have demonstrated that ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 impair plasma TG clearance by inhibiting LPL activity. In humans, genetic variation within the ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 genes contributes to variation in plasma TG and HDL levels, thereby validating the importance of ANGPTLs in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Combined with the discovery of GPIHBP1 as a likely LPL anchor, these findings have led to a readjustment of the mechanism of LPL function. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role and regulation of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and GPIHBP1, and places the newly acquired knowledge in the context of the established function and mechanism of LPL-mediated lipolysis. PMID:20056168

Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Kersten, Sander



A genome scan for serum triglyceride in obese nuclear families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are increased in extremely obese individuals, indicating abnormalities in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. We carried out a genome scan for serum TG in 320 nuclear families segregating ex- treme obesity and normal weight. Three hundred eighty-two Marshfield microsatellite markers (Screening Set 11) were genotyped. Quantitative linkage analyses were performed us- ing family regression and variance

Wei-Dong Li; Chuanhui Dong; Ding Li; Cathleen Garrigan; R. Arlen Price



Overactive endocannabinoid signaling impairs apolipoprotein E-mediated clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

The endocannabinoid (EC) system regulates food intake and energy metabolism. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonists show promise in the treatment of obesity and its metabolic consequences. Although the reduction in adiposity resulting from therapy with CB1 antagonists may not account fully for the concomitant improvements in dyslipidemia, direct effects of overactive EC signaling on plasma lipoprotein metabolism have not been documented. The present study used a chemical approach to evaluate the direct effects of increased EC signaling in mice by inducing acute elevations of endogenously produced cannabinoids through pharmacological inhibition of their enzymatic hydrolysis by isopropyl dodecylfluorophosphonate (IDFP). Acute IDFP treatment increased plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) (2.0- to 3.1-fold) and cholesterol (1.3- to 1.4-fold) in conjunction with an accumulation in plasma of apolipoprotein (apo)E-depleted TG-rich lipoproteins. These changes did not occur in either CB1-null or apoE-null mice, were prevented by pretreatment with CB1 antagonists, and were not associated with reduced hepatic apoE gene expression. Although IDFP treatment increased hepatic mRNA levels of lipogenic genes (Srebp1 and Fas), there was no effect on TG secretion into plasma. Instead, IDFP treatment impaired clearance of an intravenously administered TG emulsion, despite increased postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. Therefore, overactive EC signaling elicits an increase in plasma triglyceride levels associated with reduced plasma TG clearance and an accumulation in plasma of apoE-depleted TG-rich lipoproteins. These findings suggest a role of CB1 activation in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia and underscore the potential efficacy of CB1 antagonists in treating metabolic disease.

Ruby, Maxwell A.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Hudak, Carolyn S. S.; Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Casida, John E.; Krauss, Ronald M.



LDL and HDL enriched in triglyceride promote abnormal cholesterol transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertriglyceridemia induces multiple changes in lipoprotein composition. Here we investigate how one of these modifications, triglyceride (TG) enrichment, affects HDL and LDL function when this alteration occurs under conditions in which more polar components can naturally re-equilibrate. TG-enriched lipoproteins were produced by co-incubating VLDL, LDL, and HDL with cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein. The resulting 2.5-fold increase in TG\\/CE ratio

Josephine W. Skeggs; Richard E. Morton


Intensive insulin therapy reduces small dense low-density lipoprotein particles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to triglyceride-rich lipoprotein subspecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains unclear whether insulin improves dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles are recognized as a powerful risk factor for coronary heart disease and are often elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of intensive insulin therapy on sd-LDL particles and triglyceride (TG)–rich lipoprotein subspecies. Intensive insulin therapy (insulin

Toshiyuki Hayashi; Tsutomu Hirano; Takeshi Yamamoto; Yasuki Ito; Mitsuru Adachi



Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))



Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters for the treatment of very high triglycerides.  


Triglyceride (TG) levels can increase for numerous reasons, including a sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy diet, especially one rich in refined carbohydrates, and comorbidities. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the normal TG level is < 150 mg/dL. Patients with very high TG (VHTG) levels (> or = 500 mg/dL) should be promptly managed and treated to reach lipid treatment goals, as determined by the NCEP. Lowering TG levels is the primary management goal in these patients, while lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are secondary goals. Therapeutic lifestyle changes are often recommended initially for patients with elevated TGs; however, concomitant drug therapy is often required. Data show that intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can significantly decrease serum TGs, along with plasma concentrations of certain lipoproteins. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are available by prescription or as dietary supplements. Clinical trials in adult patients with VHTGs show that four 1 g capsules of prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which contain 465 mg of EPA and 375 mg of DHA per capsule, can effectively decrease TG levels by up to 45%, and is generally well tolerated. PMID:19641280

Sadovsky, Richard; Kris-Etherton, Penny



Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks  

SciTech Connect

A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had {beta}-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same {beta}-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using {sup 14}C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter.

Park, J.R.



Atypical Antipsychotic Medications Increase Postprandial Triglyceride and Glucose Levels in Male Rats: Relationship with Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Activity  

PubMed Central

Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, 6 mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, 3 mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40 d. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, ‘deaturation index’) were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects.

McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W.



Dietary cholesterol stimulates hepatic biosynthesis of triglyceride and reduces oxidation of fatty acids in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in the intact rat and in the isolated, perfused rat liver to investigate the possibility that the increase in the concentration of hepatic triglyceride and in- crease in the secretion of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) resulting from addition of cholesterol to the diet are due to stimulation of synthesis of triglyceride, reduced fatty acid

Thomas V. Fungwe; Lauren M. Cagen; George A. Cook; Henry G. Wilcox; Murray Heimberg


Elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Correlation with body mass index and serum triglyceride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous clinical studies reported elevated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but there are not sufficient data about SSAO in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The present study was conducted to investigate serum SSAO activity in NIDDM patients compared with nondiabetic and IDDM patients. Serum SSAO activity in 61 patients with diabetes (n = 34 NIDDM and

Zsuzsa Mészáros; Tamás Szombathy; Laura Raimondi; István Karádi; László Romics; Kálmán Magyar



CD36 deficiency in mice impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient ( cd36 ? \\/ ? ) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36 ? \\/ ? mice. cd36 ? \\/ ? mice showed no differences in hepatic VLDL-TG production or

Jeltje R. Goudriaan; Marion A. M. den Boer; Patrick C. N. Rensen; Maria Febbraio; Folkert Kuipers; Johannes A. Romijn; Louis M. Havekes; Peter J. Voshol



Long-term fructose feeding changes the expression of leptin receptors and autophagy genes in the adipose tissue and liver of male rats: a possible link to elevated triglycerides.  


Long-term fructose consumption has been shown to evoke leptin resistance, to elevate triglyceride levels and to induce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Autophagy has been suggested to function in processes such as lipid storage in adipose tissue and inflammation in liver. Autophagy and the leptin system have also been suggested to regulate each other. This study aimed to identify the changes caused by fetal undernourishment and postnatal fructose diet in the gene expression of leptin, its receptors (LEPR-a, LEPR-b, LEPR-c, LEPR-e and LEPR-f) and autophagy genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of adult male rats in order to clarify the mechanism behind the metabolic alterations. The data clearly revealed that the long-term postnatal fructose diet decreased leptin levels (p < 0.001), LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.011) and LEPR-f (p = 0.005), as well as SOCS3 (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.006), ATG7 (p < 0.001), MAP1LC3? (p < 0.001) and LAMP2 (p = 0.004) mRNA expression in WAT. Furthermore, LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.001) and LEPR-f (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.010), ATG7 (p = 0.024), MAP1LC3? (p = 0.003) and LAMP2 (p < 0.001) mRNA expression in the liver was increased in fructose-fed rats. In addition, the LEPR expression in liver and MAP1LC3? expression in WAT together explained 55.7 % of the variation in the plasma triglyceride levels of the rats (R adj. (2)  = 0.557, p < 0.001). These results, together with increased p62 levels in WAT (p < 0.001), could indicate decreased adipose tissue lipid storing capacity as well as alterations in liver metabolism which may represent a plausible mechanism through which fructose consumption could disturb lipid metabolism and result in elevated triglyceride levels. PMID:24085619

Aijälä, Meiju; Malo, Elina; Ukkola, Olavi; Bloigu, Risto; Lehenkari, Petri; Autio-Harmainen, Helena; Santaniemi, Merja; Kesäniemi, Y Antero



Response of serum triglycerides of endogenous origin to the administration of triglyceride-rich lipid particles.  


Studies were performed in rats to quantitate the changes in the concentration of serum triglycerides (TGs) of endogenous and exogenous origin after the acute intravenous injection of TG-rich emulsion particles. Emulsions were prepared to approximate chylomicrons and to contain a TG with a single fatty acid that could be traced during its clearance from the serum. After injection of emulsions, there was a rapid increase of not only the emulsion TG but TGs that contained a variety of other fatty acids of endogenous origin. Endogenous TGs were cleared from the serum at a slower rate than the emulsion TG and accounted for the major increase in serum TGs, especially during the latter phase of the clearance period. The increase in endogenous TGs was completely abolished by hepatectomy, which had no effect on the clearance of the emulsion TG. Results thus show that TGs of hepatic origin accumulate in the serum in response to the introduction of new TG-rich lipoproteins. Feeding rats a specific TG produced a similar result, with a pronounced rise in endogenous TGs that, like the changes after emulsion administration, was particularly evident once the TG that was fed was largely cleared from the serum. These findings are consistent with a process in which the preferential clearance of chylomicron TGs interrupts the clearance of very low density lipoprotein TGs that are produced by the liver. Consequently, the composition of serum TGs that accumulate after a meal may not reflect the composition of the meal itself. PMID:2610255

Robins, S J; Fasulo, J M; Robins, V F; Patton, G M



Cholesteryl ester analogs inhibit cholesteryl ester but not triglyceride transfer catalyzed by the plasma cholesteryl ester-triglyceride transfer protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipid transfer protein complex (LTC), purified from human plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography, catalyzed the interlipoprotein\\u000a transfer of cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG). The CE transfer activity of LTC was governed by the strucutre\\u000a of the CE. Incubation of LTC with long chain CE both activated and stabilized LTC. Short chain CE also enhanced the CE and\\u000a TG transfer

Steven J. Busch; Judith A. K. Harmony



HPLC of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride separation was investigated on a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column using two\\u000a different solvent systems. Complete separation of model compounds differing by two methylene groups was achieved. Partial\\u000a or complete separation was also observed in critical pairs; for example, the different types of triglycerides consisting of\\u000a palmitic and oleic acids. This observation was confirmed on natural

B. Herslöf; O. Podlaha; B. Töregård



Dialkylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk lecithin for emulsification of various triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesized saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were investigated to explore their influence on particle sizes in emulsions when dispersing various triglycerides (TG). One of four different kinds of synthesized saturated PC (DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC) or three different kinds of EYL (purified EYL (PEL) and hydrogenated purified EYL with two different iodine values (IV), R-20 and

Tomoko Nii; Fumiyoshi Ishii



Glucose Intolerance and the Amount of Visceral Adipose Tissue Contribute to an Increase in Circulating Triglyceride Concentrations in Caucasian Obese Females  

PubMed Central

Context Lipotoxicity is a risk factor for developing obesity-related metabolic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease and stroke. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the development of lipotoxicity itself remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance aggravates lipotoxicity by evaluating the association between triglyceride (TG) concentrations and glucose tolerance status in a cross-sectional study on obese Caucasian women at risk for DM2. Methods 913 obese females unknown to have diabetes were recruited (mean age: 41.2±SD 12.3; median BMI: 36.2, IQR 32.9–40.2). Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes were quantified with computed tomography. Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were determined in fasting state and following a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Results Based on fasting and 2 h post-load glucose levels, 27% of the women had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 8% had newly diagnosed DM2. Fasting TG concentrations were similar between the IGT- and DM2-groups, and increased as compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Even when adjusting for age, hip circumference and VAT, fasting TG concentrations remained elevated as compared to NGT. Mixed modelling analysis of post-load responses showed that TG concentrations declined more slowly in the DM2-group as compared to IGT and NGT. However, when adjusting for VAT the difference in decline between the glucose tolerance groups disappeared. Conclusions Glucose intolerance associates with elevated fasting TG concentrations in obese Caucasian women. We propose that glucose intolerance and increased VAT reduce lipid disposal mechanisms and may accelerate lipotoxicity.

Verrijken, An; Deschepper, Ellen; Mertens, Ilse; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Gaal, Luc F.; Ouwens, D. Margriet; Ruige, Johannes B.



Normal ranges of non-fasting triglycerides in healthy Dutch males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increased triglycerides (TG) are associated with atherosclerosis. We determined free-living non-fasting TG concentrations in healthy Dutch subjects. Methods: Capillary TG (TGc) was self-measured by 109 males and 104 females during 3 days, on six fixed time-points each day; fasting, before and 3 h after lunch, before and 3 h after dinner and at bedtime. Daylong TGc-profiles were calculated as

Jeroen P. H. van Wijk; Arno J. H. H. M. van Oostrom; Manuel Castro Cabezas



Effect of apolipoprotein AV on plasma triglyceride, lipoprotein size, and composition in genetically engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress the hu- man apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5) yet lack an endog- enous mouse apoa5 gene (APOA5 Tg mice) were generated. Subsequently, the effect of human apoA-V expression on plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration and lipoprotein and apolipoprotein distribution was determined and com- pared with that in mice deficient in apoA-V (apoa52\\/2 mice). NMR analysis of plasma

Lisa Nelbach; Xiao Shu; Robert J. Konrad; Robert O. Ryan; Trudy M. Forte




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The measurement of triglyceride (TG)-rich particles after an oral fat challenge has been used to provide a measure of risk for coronary artery disease independent of the fasting plasma triglyceride concentration. The analytical "gold standard" for measuring TG-rich lipoproteins uses density gradient...


Alcoholic hypertriglyceridemia with decreased activity of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase.  


A 35-year-old male with alcoholic hypertriglyceridemia due to decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activities is reported. The patient had been drinking about 180 ml of whiskey (equivalent to 80 g of 100% ethanol) every day for the last 17 years, and the highest levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol were 5,120 mg/dl and 506 mg/dl, respectively. Serum TG level returned to normal levels after complete alcohol abstinence. Further intake of ethanol resulted in an increase in serum TG to 326 mg/dl with a concomitant decrease in the serum levels of LPL and HTGL activities. PMID:8241594

Hiasa, Y; Nakanishi, K; Tada, K; Mizukami, Y; Akamatsu, K; Ohta, Y



Atypical antipsychotic medications increase postprandial triglyceride and glucose levels in male rats: relationship with stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity.  


Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects. PMID:21474290

McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W



Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance.  


Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to be present in humans. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport lipids in the bloodstream, where the fatty acid moieties are liberated by the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant particles are cleared by the liver. Elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and prolonged circulation of cholesterol-rich remnants, especially in diabetic dyslipidemia, are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the precise biological role of BAT for TRL clearance remains unclear. Here we show that increased BAT activity induced by short-term cold exposure controls TRL metabolism in mice. Cold exposure drastically accelerated plasma clearance of triglycerides as a result of increased uptake into BAT, a process crucially dependent on local LPL activity and transmembrane receptor CD36. In pathophysiological settings, cold exposure corrected hyperlipidemia and improved deleterious effects of insulin resistance. In conclusion, BAT activity controls vascular lipoprotein homeostasis by inducing a metabolic program that boosts TRL turnover and channels lipids into BAT. Activation of BAT might be a therapeutic approach to reduce elevated triglyceride concentrations and combat obesity in humans. PMID:21258337

Bartelt, Alexander; Bruns, Oliver T; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinz; Ittrich, Harald; Peldschus, Kersten; Kaul, Michael G; Tromsdorf, Ulrich I; Weller, Horst; Waurisch, Christian; Eychmüller, Alexander; Gordts, Philip L S M; Rinninger, Franz; Bruegelmann, Karoline; Freund, Barbara; Nielsen, Peter; Merkel, Martin; Heeren, Joerg



Accumulation of apoE-enriched triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with coronary artery disease.  


Triglycerides (TGs) are vehicled by multiple particles with different abilities to promote atherosclerosis. Among plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), subspecies may or may not contain apolipoprotein E (apoE) molecules: in this study, we evaluated the relative contribution of apoE-rich and apoE-poor TRLs to coronary atherosclerosis. We selected a group of males with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) without any of the classical nonlipid risk factors and/or high plasma lipid levels and evaluated the plasma concentration of TRL subspecies in comparison with healthy controls. Patients with CAD and controls had total cholesterol and TG levels within the normal range (despite slightly, even if significantly, higher TG levels in patients with CAD) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels near optimal values. Nevertheless, patients with CAD had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smaller low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, and a reduced HDL2b subfraction than controls. In addition, we observed higher concentrations of total TRL in patients with CAD together with a selective increase in apoE-rich particles. All these data were confirmed after correction for TG levels. We also investigated which parameters were associated with the spread of coronary atherosclerosis. Subjects with a single-vessel disease had selectively lower levels of apoE-rich fractions than patients with a multivessel disease. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis. Patients with a premature CAD free of nonlipid conventional risk factors, despite not having elevated lipid levels, show several lipoprotein abnormalities. Besides known atherogenic alterations, the accumulation of apoE-rich TRL subfractions may represent an additive factor that can potentially promote and initiate the atherosclerotic process. PMID:16631444

Barbagallo, Carlo M; Rizzo, Manfredi; Noto, Davide; Frasheri, Arian; Pernice, Vincenzo; Rubino, Antonio; Pieri, Daniele; Pinto, Vito; Cefalù, Angelo B; Giordano, Carla; Notarbartolo, Alberto; Averna, Maurizio R



Usefulness of the High Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio to Identify Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Preclinical Signs of Organ Damage in Outpatient Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the high triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG-to-HDL-C) ratio is associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors and preclinical signs of organ damage in an outpatient population of white children and adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study population included 884 subjects (aged 6–16 years), of whom 206 (23%) were normal weight, 135 (15%) were overweight, and 543 (61%) were obese. Biochemical variables were analyzed in the whole sample, whereas homocysteine and left ventricular (LV) geometry and function were evaluated in 536 and 258 children, respectively. RESULTS The percentage of pubertal children (P < 0.001), as well as measurements of BMI, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, white blood cell count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001, for all), creatinine (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.02), increased from the lowest to the highest tertile of the TG-to-HDL-C ratio. Age, sex, homocysteine, and glomerular filtration rate did not change. Moreover, interventricular septum thickness, relative wall thickness, and LV mass index (P = 0.01 to P < 0.0001) increased across tertiles of the TG-to-HDL-C ratio. Children with a TG-to-HDL-C ratio ?2.0 showed a two- to threefold higher risk of elevated ALT levels and concentric LV hypertrophy than those with a TG-to-HDL-C ratio <2.0, independent of confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS The high TG-to-HDL-C ratio is associated with several CMR factors and preclinical signs of liver and cardiac abnormalities in the outpatient, white pediatric population. Thus, a TG-to-HDL-C ratio ?2.0 may be useful in clinical practice to detect children with a worsened CMR profile who need monitoring to prevent cardiovascular disease in adulthood.

Di Bonito, Procolo; Moio, Nicola; Scilla, Carolina; Cavuto, Luigi; Sibilio, Gerolamo; Sanguigno, Eduardo; Forziato, Claudia; Saitta, Francesco; Iardino, Maria Rosaria; Di Carluccio, Carla; Capaldo, Brunella



The atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio [log(TG)/HDL-C] is associated with residual vascular risk, beta-cell function loss and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes females  

PubMed Central

Background Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD), defined as low HDL-C plus elevated triglycerides (TG), comorbid to T2DM, increases cardiometabolic risk for CAD even when LDL-C is at target. In T2DM males, AD was shown to correlate with ?-cell function loss, yet it is not established whether this applies across gender. Aim To establish the prevalence and severity of AD in T2DM females, and to determine how it relates to cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis, micro- and macrovascular complications, and 10-year absolute CV risk (UKPDS Risk Engine). Methods 340 T2DM females were ranked according to quintiles (Q) of the continuous variable log(TG)/HDL-C, with AD prevalence defined as HDL-C <50 mg.dL-1 plus TG ?150 mg.dL-1, and ?-cell function assessed with HOMA. Results AD prevalence was 35%; mean HDL-C and TG were 52 (15) and 160 (105) mg.dL-1. AD was significantly related to central fat, metabolic syndrome, sedentarity and skeletal sarcopenia, as well as to hsCRP, fibrinogen, uric acid, cystatin-C, Big ET-1, and 10-year UKPDS CV risk. AD correlated stepwise with lower ?-cell function and hyperbolic product, and with accelerated loss of residual insulin secretion, higher HbA1c and prevalent microangiopathy. Conclusions log(TG)/HDL-C is a simple means to grade AD and residual macrovascular risk in T2DM females. This ratio associates with major non-LDL cardiometabolic variables and ranks predicted CAD risk. In addition, log(TG)/HDL-C identifies worsening glucose homeostasis, poorer glycemic control, and prevalent microangiopathy.



Effects of Glucagon and Insulin on Plasma Glucose, Triglyceride, and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Concentrations in Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Different Types of Fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dietary fat supplementa- tions differing in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), and TG-rich lipo- protein concentrations was investigated in laying hens. Birds were fed either a low-fat control diet (LF) or diets supplemented with 4% pumpkin seed oil (PO; rich

L. Pal; R. Grossmann; K. Dublecz; F. Husveth; L. Wagner; G. Kovacs


Genome-Wide Analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor Binding Regions in Adipocytes Reveal Gene Network Involved in Triglyceride Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids play important roles in the regulation of distinct aspects of adipocyte biology. Excess glucocorticoids in adipocytes are associated with metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To understand the mechanisms underlying the glucocorticoid action in adipocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to isolate genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding regions (GBRs) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, gene expression analyses were used to identify genes that were regulated by glucocorticoids. Overall, 274 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain or locate nearby GBR. We found that many GBRs were located in or nearby genes involved in triglyceride (TG) synthesis (Scd-1, 2, 3, GPAT3, GPAT4, Agpat2, Lpin1), lipolysis (Lipe, Mgll), lipid transport (Cd36, Lrp-1, Vldlr, Slc27a2) and storage (S3-12). Gene expression analysis showed that except for Scd-3, the other 13 genes were induced in mouse inguinal fat upon 4-day glucocorticoid treatment. Reporter gene assays showed that except Agpat2, the other 12 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain at least one GBR that can mediate hormone response. In agreement with the fact that glucocorticoids activated genes in both TG biosynthetic and lipolytic pathways, we confirmed that 4-day glucocorticoid treatment increased TG synthesis and lipolysis concomitantly in inguinal fat. Notably, we found that 9 of these 12 genes were induced in transgenic mice that have constant elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels. These results suggested that a similar mechanism was used to regulate TG homeostasis during chronic glucocorticoid treatment. In summary, our studies have identified molecular components in a glucocorticoid-controlled gene network involved in the regulation of TG homeostasis in adipocytes. Understanding the regulation of this gene network should provide important insight for future therapeutic developments for metabolic diseases.

Yu, Chi-Yi; Mayba, Oleg; Lee, Joyce V.; Tran, Joanna; Harris, Charlie; Speed, Terence P.; Wang, Jen-Chywan



Fish oil - how does it reduce plasma triglycerides?  

PubMed Central

Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are effective for reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. At the pharmaceutical dose, 3.4 g/day, they reduce plasma TG by about 25-50% after one month of treatment, resulting primarily from the decline in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) production, and secondarily from the increase in VLDL clearance. Numerous mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the TG overproduction, but a key component is an increase in the availability of FAs in the liver. The liver derives FAs from three sources: diet (delivered via chylomicron remnants), de novo lipogenesis, and circulating non-esterified FAs (NEFAs). Of these, NEFAs contribute the largest fraction to VLDL-TG production in both normotriglyceridemic subjects and hypertriglyceridemic, insulin resistant patients. Thus reducing NEFA delivery to the liver would be a likely locus of action for fish oils (FO). The key regulator of plasma NEFA is intracellular adipocyte lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which increases as insulin sensitivity worsens. FO counteracts intracellular lipolysis in adipocytes by suppressing adipose tissue inflammation. In addition, FO increases extracellular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) in adipose, heart and skeletal muscle and enhances hepatic and skeletal muscle ?-oxidation which contributes to reduced FA delivery to the liver. FO could activate transcription factors which control metabolic pathways in a tissue specific manner regulating nutrient traffic and reducing plasma TG.

Shearer, Gregory C.; Savinova, Olga V.; Harris, William S.



Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5?g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1?g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46?g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming



Gut triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption.

Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood



Transcriptional regulation of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by hepatocyte nuclear factor-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the assembly of triglyceride (TG)-rich apolipopro- tein B-containing liver (e.g., VLDL) and intestinal (e.g., chy- lomicron) lipoproteins. The human MTP gene promoter is reported here to associate in vivo with endogenous hepato- cyte nuclear factor-4 ? (HNF-4 ? ) and to be transactivated or transsuppressed by overexpressed or by dominant negative HNF-4 ? ,

Vered Sheena; Rachel Hertz; Janna Nousbeck; Ina Berman; Judith Magenheim; Jacob Bar-Tana



Liraglutide suppresses postprandial triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 elevations after a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.  


AIMS: Postprandial triglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effects of steady-state liraglutide 1.8?mg versus placebo on postprandial plasma lipid concentrations after 3?weeks of treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In a cross-over trial, patients with T2DM (n?=?20, 18-75?years, BMI 18.5-40?kg/m(2) ) were randomized to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (weekly dose escalation from 0.6 to 1.8?mg) and placebo. After each 3-week period, a standardized fat-rich meal was provided, and the effects of liraglutide on triglyceride (primary endpoint AUC0-8h ), apolipoprotein B48, non-esterified fatty acids, glycaemic responses and gastric emptying were assessed. ID: NCT00993304. Funding: Novo Nordisk A/S. RESULTS: After 3?weeks, mean postprandial triglyceride (AUC0-8h liraglutide/placebo treatment-ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.62-0.83], p?=?0.0004) and apolipoprotein B48 (AUC0-8h ratio 0.65 [0.58-0.73], p?triglyceride and apolipoprotein B48 after a fat-rich meal, independently of gastric emptying. Results indicate liraglutide's potential to reduce CVD risk via improvement of postprandial lipaemia. PMID:23683069

Hermansen, K; Baekdal, T A; Düring, M; Pietraszek, A; Mortensen, L S; Jørgensen, H; Flint, A



Reduction of plasma triglycerides in apolipoprotein C-II transgenic mice overexpressing lipoprotein lipase in muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

LPL and its specific physiological activator, apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), regulate the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TGs) from circulating TG-rich lipoproteins. Previously, we developed a skeletal muscle-specific LPL transgenic mouse that had lower plasma TG levels. ApoC-II transgenic mice develop hypertriglyceridemia attributed to delayed clearance. To investigate whether overexpression of LPL could correct this apoC-II-induced hypertriglyceride- mia, mice with overexpression of human

Leslie K. Pulawa; Dalan R. Jensen; Alison Coates; Robert H. Eckel



Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from (14C)acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed

Sheila M. Judge; Robert T. Chatterton



The synthetic rate of muscle triglyceride but not phospholipid is increased in obese rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat is a major energy source for skeletal muscle, and disruption of normal trafficking of fatty acids in muscle is linked to insulin resistance. We quantified muscle triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) synthesis in lean and obese rabbits by means of l-[U-13C16]palmitate infusion. Intramyocellular palmitoyl–coenzyme A was used as the precursor for rates of TG and PL synthesis, which were

Xiao-jun Zhang; David L. Chinkes; Zhanpin Wu; David N. Herndon; Robert R. Wolfe



Triglyceride enrichment of HDL does not alter HDL-selective cholesteryl ester clearance in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride (TG) enrichment of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which occurs in hypertriglyceridemic states, significantly enhances the rate at which HDL apolipo- protein (apo)A-I is cleared from the circulation of healthy humans. In the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit, a species naturally deficient in hepatic lipase (HL), TG enrichment of HDL requires prior lipolytic modification to enhance apoA-I clearance. However, the

Shirya Rashid; Kristine D. Uffelman; P. Hugh; R. Barrett; Paolo Vicini; Khosrow Adeli; Gary F. Lewis


[Triglycerides, fatty acids and cortisol in simple obesity in children].  


In 50 children with obesitas simplex, 6-14 years of age, the triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and cortisol (F) levels in venous blood serum were estimated. In agreement with the development stages, studied patients were divided into the group of younger children in prematurity stage and the group of older children approaching the maturity. Obtained mean values of TG, FFA and F concentrations were analysed in the particular groups of obese children and compared with the healthy children of the same age. Mean concentrations of TG, FFA and cortisol in obese children were within the normal values and statistically did not differ from those of control healthy children. Also there was no difference in parameters studied if compared the younger and older groups of obese children. There was no interrelationship between the high birth weight and the degree of overweight as well as between the duration of obesity and the blood serum TG levels. In the course of obesitas simplex in children no detectable disturbances in the levels of TG, FFA and cortisol were found. It may depends on the more efficient adaptational mechanism connected with metabolism which are acting in the course of overfeed in the period of growth and development. PMID:535585

Krzanowska-Dyras, M; Ja?kiewicz, J


Adipose Co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes  

PubMed Central

Background High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation. Methods Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher’s Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network. Results We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG) were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1) reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals. Conclusions This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations.



Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman (USA))



The genetic architecture of fasting plasma triglyceride response to fenofibrate treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Metabolic response to the triglyceride (TG)-lowering drug, fenofibrate, is shaped by interactions between genetic and environmental factors, yet knowledge regarding the genetic determinants of this response is primarily limited to single gene effects. Since very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the...


Low triglyceride levels are associated with a better metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Although it is well known in the literature that high triglyceride serum (TG) levels can jeopardize the metabolic control, little is known about the influence of low TG on type 1 diabetes patients (T1D). The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of TG serum levels in individuals with T1D and its relationship with metabolic control. Findings We reviewed the medical charts of 180 patients with T1D, who were classified in groups according to TG levels: 1) low (below 50 mg/dL); 2) normal (50-150 mg/dL); 3) high (above 150 mg/dL). TG were low in 21.1% (n = 38; group 1), normal in 68.6% (n = 123; group 2) and high in 10.6% (n = 19; group 3). High TG was associated with a poor metabolic control (p < 0.001). Patients with TG lower than 50 mg/dL had a lower HbA1c than those with TG between 50 and 150 mg/dL (7.41+/-1.50% vs 8.56%+/-1.94%; p = 0.002). Conclusion TG lower than 50 mg/dL was common and might be associated with a better metabolic control in patients with T1D, although it is not clear whether the former is the cause or consequence for the latter.



Dialkylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk lecithin for emulsification of various triglycerides.  


Synthesized saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were investigated to explore their influence on particle sizes in emulsions when dispersing various triglycerides (TG). One of four different kinds of synthesized saturated PC (DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC) or three different kinds of EYL (purified EYL (PEL) and hydrogenated purified EYL with two different iodine values (IV), R-20 and R-5), 2.5% (w/w) glycerol solution and one of four kinds of TG (tricaprylin, tricaprin, trilaurin and trimyristin) were sonicated five times for 1 min with intervals of 0.5 min. When using four kinds of synthesized saturated PCs as emulsifiers, the carbon numbers of each PC had a strong correlation with the mean diameters of the emulsion when analyzed with each of the four kinds of TG used in the study (regression function ranged from 0.811 to 0.915). The carbon numbers of the TG had less correlation with the mean diameters than the PC in simple regression analysis (regression function ranged from 0.236 to 0.875). Multiple regression analysis using the carbon numbers both of the PC and TG as independent variables was remarkably significant in the regression function (2.0 x 10(-14)) and all regression coefficients (2.7 x 10(-13), 5.8 x 10(-7) and 1.9 x 10(-9) for PC, TG and intercept, respectively). Among the regression coefficients, the contribution of the carbon number of the PC was the most significant. These results indicated that a multiple regression function should be useful to estimate the mean diameters of emulsion droplets in any combinations of PC and TG used in this study. In the experiments using three kinds of EYL, the mean diameters also tended to increase according to the order of PEL, R-20 and R-5, which corresponds to the order of degrees of saturation (IV = 75, 20 and 2, respectively). The experimental values for EYL were compared with the estimated values calculated by the multiple regression function derived from synthesized PC data using the arithmetic carbon number, based on the components of each EYL. The estimated mean diameters were at comparable levels to the corresponding experimental mean diameters in the most saturated hydrogenated lecithin (R-5), while those were larger than the experimental mean diameters in two less saturated kinds of lecithin (R-20 and purified EYL). These findings gave useful information on the mean diameters of emulsion droplets when designing an emulsion formulation using a particular combination of a phospholipid and triglyceride. PMID:15748826

Nii, Tomoko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi



Downregulation of adipose triglyceride lipase in the heart aggravates diabetic cardiomyopathy in db/db mice.  


Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was recently identified as a rate-limiting triglyceride (TG) lipase and its activity is stimulated by comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58). Mutations in the ATGL or CGI-58 genes are associated with neutral lipid storage diseases characterized by the accumulation of TG in multiple tissues. The cardiac phenotype, known as triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy, is characterized by TG accumulation in coronary atherosclerotic lesions and in the myocardium. Recent reports showed that myocardial TG accumulation is significantly higher in patients with diabetes and is associated with impaired left ventricular diastolic function. Therefore, we investigated the roles of ATGL and CGI-58 in the development of myocardial steatosis in the diabetic state. Histological examination with oil red O staining showed marked lipid deposition in the hearts of diabetic fatty db/db mice. Cardiac triglyceride and diglyceride contents were greater in db/db mice than in db/+ control mice. Next, we determined the expression of genes and proteins that affect lipid metabolism, and found that ATGL and CGI-58 expression levels were decreased in the hearts of db/db mice. We also found increased expression of genes regulating triglyceride synthesis (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, monoacylglycerol acyltransferases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferases) in db/db mice. Regarding key modulators of apoptosis, PKC activity, and oxidative stress, we found that Bcl-2 levels were lower and that phosphorylated PKC and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels were higher in db/db hearts. These results suggest that reduced ATGL and CGI-58 expression and increased TG synthesis may exacerbate myocardial steatosis and oxidative stress, thereby promoting cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice. PMID:23886955

Inoue, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Maeda, Yasutaka; Hirata, Eiichi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi



Effects of lovastatin therapy on very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia: evidence for reduced assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.  


We have previously reported decreased production rates of the major apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in patients with combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) during treatment with lovastatin. In the present study, we determined the effects of lovastatin therapy on VLDL triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Plasma VLDL turnover was determined in six CHL patients, before and during lovastatin therapy. 3H-triglyceride-glycerol-specific activity data derived from injection of 3H-glycerol were analyzed by compartmental modeling. The effects of lovastatin on VLDL TG metabolism were compared with those previously determined on VLDL apoB metabolism in these subjects. Lovastatin therapy was associated with decreased concentrations of VLDL TG in five of six patients and decreased VLDL apoB concentrations in all six. VLDL TG production rates (PR) decreased in five patients, with the mean for the group decreasing from 14.1 +/- 7.1 to 10.3 +/- 4.0 mg/kg/h (P less than .05). VLDL apoB PR also decreased in five patients, with the mean decreasing from 21.8 +/- 20.3 to 12.2 +/- 9.0 mg/kg/d (P = .11). Changes in VLDL TG concentrations during lovastatin treatment were correlated with changes in VLDL apoB concentrations (r = .74, P = .09) and in VLDL TG PR (r = .91, P = .01). Changes in VLDL TG PR were also related to changes in VLDL apoB PR (r = .62, P = NS). There were no consistent changes in the fractional catabolic rates of either VLDL TG or VLDL apoB during lovastatin therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1588827

Arad, Y; Ramakrishnan, R; Ginsberg, H N



Alleviation of seipinopathy-related ER stress by triglyceride storage.  


Mutations affecting the N-glycosylation site in Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (BSCL)-associated gene BSCL2/seipin lead to a dominantly inherited spastic paraplegia termed seipinopathy. While the loss of function of seipin leads to severe congenital lipodystrophy, the effects of seipin N-glycosylation mutations on lipid balance in the nervous system are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of seipin N-glycosylation mutant N88S led to decreased triglyceride (TG) content in astrocytoma and motor neuron cell lines. This was corrected by supplementation with exogenous oleic acid. Upon oleic acid loading, seipin N88S protein was relocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the surface of lipid droplets and this was paralleled by alleviation of ER stress induced by the mutant protein. This effect was not limited to seipin N88S, as oleic acid loading also reduced tunicamycin-induced ER stress in motor neuron cells. Furthermore, both seipin N88S and tunicamycin-induced ER stress were decreased by inhibiting lipolysis, suggesting that lipid droplets protected neuronal cells from ER stress. In developing zebrafish larvae, seipin N88S expression led to TG imbalance and reduced spontaneous free swimming. Importantly, supplementation with exogenous oleic acid reduced ER stress in the zebrafish head and increased fish motility. We propose that the decreased TG content contributes to the pathology induced by seipin N88S, and that rescuing TG levels may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in seipinopathy. PMID:23250914

Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Salo, Veijo T; Ohsaki, Yuki; Suster, Maximiliano L; Ikonen, Elina



Expression of Human Hepatic Lipase in the Rabbit Model Preferentially Enhances the Clearance of Triglyceride-Enriched Versus Native High-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We have shown previously that triglyceride (TG) enrichment of HDL, as occurs in hypertriglyceridemic states, contributes to HDL lowering in humans by enhancing the clearance of HDL apolipoprotein (apo) A-I from the circulation. In the New Zealand White rabbit, an animal naturally deficient in hepatic lipase (HL), we demonstrated that TG enrichment of HDL per se is not sufficient to

Shirya Rashid; Denny K. Trinh; Kristine D. Uffelman; Jeffrey S. Cohn; Daniel J. Rader; Gary F. Lewis



Plasma triglyceride lowering by exercise desp ite increased food intake in pati e nts with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise can lower fasting plasma triglyceride levels (TG). This study was undertaken to determine whether the exercise-induced decrease in TG is the result of a negative caloric balance . Five subjects with primary type IV hyperlipoproteinemia were given diets comparable in composition to their usual diets. During one experimental period the subjects exercised while maintaining their usual caloric intakes. During

Gustav Schonfeld; Michael J. Rennie; Stuart W. Weidman


Relationship between apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with triglyceride level in patients with renal diseases.  


Abstract Apolipoprotein E (apoE), one of the major plasma lipoproteins, plays a major role in the transport and metabolism of lipids by acting as a ligand. apoE gene contains three potential alleles: ?2, ?3 and ?4, forming six genotypes: E2E2, E2E3, E2E4, E3E3, E3E3 and E4E4. Association between apoE gene polymorphism and triglyceride (TG) is still controversial. There was no any meta-analysis to explore the association of apoE gene polymorphism with triglyceride level, and this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between apoE gene polymorphism and triglyceride in patients with renal diseases. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic databases. Twenty-four articles were identified for the analysis of association between apoE gene polymorphism and triglyceride level. Subjects with E2E3 or E3E4 had a higher TG than those with E3E3. Subjects with ?4 had a higher TG than those with ?3. Subjects with ?2 had a slightly higher TG than those with ?3, although there was no statistical difference. Interestingly, subjects with ?4 had a much higher TG than those with ?2. In conclusion, E2E3, E3E4 or ?4 was associated with higher level of TG. However, more studies should be performed in the future. PMID:24001346

Dong, Chun-Qiang; Luo, Yi-Ge; Dong, Kun; Chen, Chao; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Ti-Quan



Remnant-like particle cholesterol and triglyceride levels of hypertriglyceridemic patients in the fed and fasted state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentially atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipopro- tein (TRL) remnants can be isolated and quantitated as remnant-like particles (RLP), using an immunoaffinity gel containing specific anti-human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoB-100 monoclonal antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between postprandial changes in RLP levels and changes in total serum triglyceride (TG) in patients with different forms of

Caroline Marcoux; Paul N. Hopkins; Tao Wang; Elizabeth Teng Leary; Katsuyuki Nakajima; Jean Davignon; Jeffrey S. Cohn


Triglyceride alters lysosomal cholesterol ester metabolism in cholesteryl ester-laden macrophage foam cells[S  

PubMed Central

In late-stage atherosclerosis, much of the cholesterol in macrophage foam cells resides within enlarged lysosomes. Similarly, human macrophages incubated in vitro with modified LDLs contain significant amounts of lysosomal free cholesterol and cholesteryl ester (CE), which disrupts lysosomal function similar to macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. The lysosomal cholesterol cannot be removed, even in the presence of strong efflux promoters. Thus, efflux of sterol is prevented. In the artery wall, foam cells interact with triglyceride-rich particles (TRPs) in addition to modified LDLs. Little is known about how TRP metabolism affects macrophage cholesterol. Therefore, we explored the effect of TRP on intracellular CE metabolism. Triglyceride (TG), delivered to lysosomes in TRP, reduced CE accumulation by 50%. Increased TG levels within the cell, particularly within lysosomes, correlated with reductions in CE content. The volume of cholesterol-engorged lysosomes decreased after TRP treatment, indicating cholesterol was cleared. Lysosomal TG also reduced the cholesterol-induced inhibition of lysosomal acidification allowing lysosomes to remain active. Enhanced degradation and clearance of CE may be explained by movement of cholesterol out of the lysosome to sites where it is effluxed. Thus, our results show that introduction of TG into CE-laden foam cells influences CE metabolism and, potentially, atherogenesis.—Ullery-Ricewick, J. C., B. E. Cox, E. E. Griffin, and W. G. Jerome. Triglyceride alters lysosomal cholesterol ester metabolism in cholesteryl ester-laden macrophage foam cells.

Ullery-Ricewick, Jody C.; Cox, Brian E.; Griffin, Evelyn E.; Jerome, W. Gray



Fenofibrate, A Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Agonist, Alters Triglyceride Metabolism In Enterocytes of Mice  

PubMed Central

Fenofibrate, a drug in the fibrate class of amphiphathic carboxylic acids, has multiple blood lipid modifying actions, which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. One of its benefits is in lowering fasting and postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hypotriglyceridemic actions of fenofibrate in the postprandial state include alterations in TG and fatty acid metabolism in the small intestine. We found that the hypotriglyceridemic actions of fenofibrate in the postprandial state of high-fat (HF) fed mice include a decrease in supply of TG for secretion by the small intestine. A decreased supply of TG for secretion was due in part to decreased dietary fat absorption and increased intestinal fatty acid oxidation in fenofibrate compared to vehicle treated HF fed mice. These results suggest that the effects of fenofibrate on the small intestine play a critical role in the hypotriglyceridemic effects of fenofibrate.

Uchida, Aki; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K.



Purification of GLA-Triglycerides from Evening Primrose Oil by Gravimetric Column Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravimetric normal-phase silver ion–silica gel column chromatography has been used for the novel application of purification\\u000a of GLA-containing triglycerides (GLA-TGs) from evening primrose seed oil (EPO). Gradient elution with increasing polarity\\u000a enabled separation of valuable TG species containing ?-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6). Enzymatic hydrolysis revealed the distribution of fatty acids (FAs) in the isolated TG species,\\u000a with GLA in the

M. A. Rincón-Cervera; I. Rodríguez-García; J. L. Guil-Guerrero



Relationship between plasma free fatty acid, intramyocellular triglycerides and long-chain acylcarnitines in resting humans  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are trafficked directly to intramyocellular long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) rather than transiting intramyocellular triglycerides (imTG) on the way to resting muscle fatty acid oxidation. Overnight fasted adults (n= 61) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0830 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) labelling plasma NEFA, imTG, imLCAC and im-non-esterified FA (imNEFA). Two muscle biopsies (0830 and 1400 h) were performed following 6 h, overlapping, sequential palmitate/oleate tracer infusions. Enrichment of plasma palmitate was ?15 times greater than enrichment of imTG, imNEFA-palmitate and im-palmitoyl-carnitine. Fatty acid enrichment in LCAC was correlated with imTG and imNEFA; there was a significant correlation between imTG concentrations and imLCAC concentrations in women (r= 0.51, P= 0.005), but not men (r= 0.30, P= 0.11). We estimated that ?11% of NEFA were stored in imTG. imTG NEFA storage was correlated only with NEFA concentrations (r= 0.52, P= 0.004) in women and with (r= 0.45, P= 0.02) in men. At rest, plasma NEFA are trafficked largely to imTG before they enter LCAC oxidative pools; thus, imTG are an important, central pool that regulates the delivery of fatty acids to the intracellular environment. Factors relating to plasma NEFA storage into imTG differ in men and women.

Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D



Mitochondrial dysfunction induces triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells: role of fatty acid  -oxidation and glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial cytopathy has been associated with modifications of lipid metabolism in various situations, such as the acquisition of an abnormal adipocyte phenotype ob- served in multiple symmetrical lipomatosis or triglyceride (TG) accumulation in muscles associated with the myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers syndrome. However, the mo- lecular signaling leading to fat metabolism dysregulation in cells with impaired mitochondrial activity

Sébastien Vankoningsloo; Marie Piens; Christophe Lecocq; Audrey Gilson; Aurélia De Pauw; Patricia Renard; Catherine Demazy; Andrée Houbion; Martine Raes; Thierry Arnould




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women has been shown to increase both triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. To better understand the effects of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the 2 most commonly prescrib...


Genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci influencing LDL size and plasma triglyceride in familial hypertriglyceridemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small, dense LDLs and hypertriglyceridemia, two highly correlated and genetically influenced risk factors, are known to predict for risk of coronary heart disease. The ob- jective of this study was to perform a whole-genome scan for linkage to LDL size and triglyceride (TG) levels in 26 kindreds with familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). LDL size was estimated using gradient gel electrophoresis, and

Melissa A. Austin; Karen L. Edwards; Stephanie A. Monks; Kent M. Koprowicz; John D. Brunzell; Arno G. Motulsky; Michael C. Mahaney; James E. Hixson



Adipose triglyceride lipase is implicated in fuel- and non-fuel-stimulated insulin secretion.  


Reduced lipolysis in hormone-sensitive lipase-deficient mice is associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), suggesting that endogenous beta-cell lipid stores provide signaling molecules for insulin release. Measurements of lipolysis and triglyceride (TG) lipase activity in islets from HSL(-/-) mice indicated the presence of other TG lipase(s) in the beta-cell. Using real time-quantitative PCR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was found to be the most abundant TG lipase in rat islets and INS832/13 cells. To assess its role in insulin secretion, ATGL expression was decreased in INS832/13 cells (ATGL-knockdown (KD)) by small hairpin RNA. ATGL-KD increased the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) into TG. ATGL-KD cells showed decreased glucose- or Gln + Leu-induced insulin release, as well as reduced response to KCl or palmitate at high, but not low, glucose. The K(ATP)-independent/amplification pathway of GSIS was considerably reduced in ATGL-KD cells. ATGL(-/-) mice were hypoinsulinemic and hypoglycemic and showed decreased plasma TG and FFAs. A hyperglycemic clamp revealed increased insulin sensitivity and decreased GSIS and arginine-induced insulin secretion in ATGL(-/-) mice. Accordingly, isolated islets from ATGL(-/-) mice showed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose, glucose + palmitate, and KCl. Islet TG content and FFA esterification into TG were increased by 2-fold in ATGL(-/-) islets, but glucose usage and oxidation were unaltered. The results demonstrate the importance of ATGL and intracellular lipid signaling for fuel- and non-fuel-induced insulin secretion. PMID:19389712

Peyot, Marie-Line; Guay, Claudiane; Latour, Martin G; Lamontagne, Julien; Lussier, Roxane; Pineda, Marco; Ruderman, Neil B; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Poitout, Vincent; Prentki, Marc



Polymer Characterization Using TG-MS Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of polymers has been analyzed using TG-MS techniques. Detection and identification of volatile gases evolved under programmed heating rates are correlated with sample weight loss to provide information concerning polymer stability. For the case o...



The Hyplip2 locus causes hypertriglyceridemia by decreased clearance of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hyplip2 congenic mouse strain contains part of chromosome 15 from MRL\\/MpJ on the BALB\\/cJ back- ground. Hyplip2 mice show increased plasma levels of cholesterol and predominantly triglycerides (TGs) and are susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. This study aimed at elucidation of the mechanism(s) explaining the hyper- triglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia can result from in- creased intestinal or hepatic TG production and\\/or by

Corina J. A. Moen; Aart P. Tholens; Peter J. Voshol; Willeke de Haan; Louis M. Havekes; Peter Gargalovic; Aldons J. Lusis; Ko Willems van Dyk; Rune R. Frants; Marten H. Hofker; Patrick C. N. Rensen



Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy lipid levels are among the leading controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease. To identify the psychological factors associated with dyslipidemia, this study investigates the personality correlates of cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) and triglycerides. A community-based sample (N=5,532) from Sardinia, Italy, had their cholesterol and triglyceride levels assessed and completed a comprehensive personality questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R. All analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and diabetes. Low Conscientiousness and traits related to impulsivity were associated with lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides. Compared to the lowest 10%, those who scored in top 10% on Impulsivity had a 2.5 times greater risk of exceeding the clinical threshold for elevated triglycerides (OR=2.51, CI=1.56–4.07). In addition, sex moderated the association between trait depression (a component of Neuroticism) and HDL cholesterol, such that trait depression was associated with lower levels of HDL cholesterol in women but not men. When considering the connection between personality and health, unhealthy lipid profiles may be one intermediate biomarker between personality and morbidity and mortality.

Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Deiana, Barbara; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Lakatta, Edward G.; Costa, Paul T.



Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during alimentary lipemia.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of chylomicron remnants and VLDL was studied in healthy controls and normo- (NTG) and hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients with coronary artery disease after intake of an oral fat load. Specific determination of apo B-48 and B-100 enabled separation of the respective contribution of the two lipoprotein species. The postprandial plasma levels of small (Sf 20-60) and large (Sf 60-400) chylomicron remnants increased in controls and NTG patients. In contrast, only large chylomicron remnants increased in the HTG patients. An increase of large VLDL was seen in response to the oral fat load in all groups, whereas small VLDL were either unchanged in the controls and the NTG patients, or decreased in the HTG patient group. The whole plasma concentration of C apolipoproteins was essentially uninfluenced by the oral fat load, whereas the content in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins paralleled the apo B elevations in controls and NTG patients. An even more prominent increase of apo B in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the HTG group was not accompanied by an increase of C apolipoproteins. These findings indicate that chylomicrons compete with VLDL for removal of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and that the postprandial metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is severely defective in hypertriglyceridemia.

Karpe, F; Steiner, G; Olivecrona, T; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A



Polymorphisms, de novo lipogenesis, and plasma triglyceride response following fish oil supplementation.  


Interindividual variability in the response of plasma triglyceride concentrations (TG) following fish oil consumption has been observed. Our objective was to examine the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding proteins involved in de novo lipogenesis and the relative change in plasma TG levels following a fish oil supplementation. Two hundred and eight participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9-2.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid. SNPs within SREBF1, ACLY, and ACACA genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. After correction for multiple comparison, only two SNPs, rs8071753 (ACLY) and rs1714987 (ACACA), were associated with the relative change in plasma TG concentrations (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively). These two SNPs explained 7.73% of the variance in plasma TG relative change following fish oil consumption. Genotype frequencies of rs8071753 according to the TG response groups (responders versus nonresponders) were different (P = 0.02). We conclude that the presence of certain SNPs within genes, such as ACLY and ACACA, encoding proteins involved in de novo lipogenesis seem to influence the plasma TG response following fish oil consumption. PMID:23886516

Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude



Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from (14C)acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells.

Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.



Tocotrienol attenuates triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells and F344 rats.  


Tocotrienol (T3) is an important phytonutrient found in rice bran and palm oil. T3 has gained much interest for lipid lowering effects, especially for cholesterol (Cho) by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Also, usefulness of T3 in improving triglyceride (TG) profiles has been suggested, but its efficacy and mechanism have been unclear. We investigated how T3 decreases TG concentration in cultured cells and animals. In a cell culture study, human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were incubated in a control or a fat (1 mM oleic acid)-loaded medium containing ?-T3 for 24 h. We found that 10-15 ?M ?-T3 inhibited cellular TG accumulation significantly, especially in the fat-loaded medium. This manifestation was supported by mRNA and protein expressions of fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and cytochrome P450 3A4. In concordance with these results, rice bran T3 supplementation to F344 rats (5 or 10 mg T3/day/rat) receiving a high fat diet for 3 weeks significantly reduced TG and the oxidative stress marker (phospholipid hydroperoxides, PLOOH) in the liver and blood plasma. T3 supplementation did not show changes in the Cho level. These results provided new information and the mechanism of the TG-lowering effect of T3. The lipid lowering effects of dietary T3 might be mediated by the reduction of TG synthesis. PMID:22367056

Burdeos, Gregor Carpentero; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo



Cholesterol Intake Modulates Plasma Triglyceride Levels in GPIHBP1-deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Adult GPIHBP1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1?/?) have severe hypertriglyceridemia; however, the plasma triglyceride levels are only mildly elevated during the suckling phase when lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) is expressed at high levels in the liver. Lpl expression in the liver can be induced in adult mice with dietary cholesterol. We therefore hypothesized that plasma triglyceride levels in adult Gpihbp1?/? mice would be sensitive to cholesterol intake. Methods and Results After 4–8 weeks on a western diet containing 0.15% cholesterol, plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1?/? mice were 10,000–12,000 mg/dl. When 0.005% ezetimibe was added to the diet to block cholesterol absorption, Lpl expression in the liver was reduced significantly, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher (>15,000 mg/dl). We also assessed plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1?/? mice fed western diets containing either high (1.3%) or low (0.05%) amounts of cholesterol. The high-cholesterol diet significantly increased Lpl expression in the liver and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Conclusions Treatment of Gpihbp1?/? mice with ezetimibe lowers Lpl expression in the liver and increases plasma triglyceride levels. A high-cholesterol diet had the opposite effects. Thus, cholesterol intake modulates plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1?/? mice.

Weinstein, Michael M.; Tu, Yiping; Beigneux, Anne P.; Davies, Brandon S. J.; Gin, Peter; Voss, Constance; Walzem, Rosemary L.; Reue, Karen; Tontonoz, Peter; Bensadoun, Andre; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.



Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju



Transglutaminase (TG) involvement in early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Transglutaminase (TG) has been examined in different stages of preimplantation mouse embryogenesis. The specific activity of this enzyme in the soluble cellular fraction increases 2-fold from 2-cell embryos to 8-cell morulae and 4-fold from 2-cell embryos to blastocyst. The same developmental profile was seen when either N,N-dimethylcasein or endogenous substrates were used in the TG assay. Using high-speed supernatants from different stage embryos as a source of enzyme and (/sup 3/H)putrescine as acyl acceptor, the major acyl donor components were tubulin and a high molecular weight (HMW) cross-linkage product, as assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. When either assembled or monomeric cytoskeleton proteins were compared as subtrates, microtubules were the best acyl donors. These studies indicate that TG activity is modulated during the changing demands of blastomeres for microtubule cytoskeleton in early embryogenesis.

Maccioni, R.B.; Arechaga, J.



Thyroglobulin (Tg) induces thyroid cell growth in a concentration-specific manner by a mechanism other than thyrotropin/cAMP stimulation.  


Thyroglobulin (Tg), a major product of the thyroid gland, serves as a macromolecular precursor of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. In addition, Tg stored in the thyroid follicles is a potent regulator of thyroid-specific gene expression. In conjunction with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and iodide, Tg regulates thyroid follicle function, which is the minimal functional unit of the thyroid gland. In the present study, we show that Tg stimulates growth of FRTL-5 thyroid cells in the absence of TSH, insulin and serum. Unlike TSH, Tg did not increase cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels; rather, the TSH signal counteracted Tg-induced cell growth. A specific inhibitor of A-kinase, H-89, did not modulate the effect of Tg. Tg increased kinase activity of Akt to the same level as TSH, insulin and 5% serum, while LY294002 abolished Tg-induced growth. Interestingly, low Tg concentrations maximized growth-promotion activity and induction of the apical iodide transporter (PDS; SLC26A4), whereas high Tg concentrations suppressed both cell growth and the expression of thyroid-specific genes. These results suggest that a low levels of Tg in the follicular lumen might stimulates cell growth and iodide transport to accelerate the iodide organification process; however, elevated Tg levels in the follicle might then shut down all of these functions. PMID:19951699

Noguchi, Yoshihiko; Harii, Norikazu; Giuliani, Cesidio; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Kohn, Leonard D



Thermal characterization of HCN polymers by TG–MS, TG, DTA and DSC methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a thermogravimetry (TG) study of hydrogen cyanide polymers, synthesized from the reaction of equimolar aqueous solutions of sodium cyanide and ammonium chloride. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also used to evaluate the thermal behaviour of these black polymers, which play an important role in prebiotic chemistry. A coupled TG–mass spectrometer (MS) system

José L. de la Fuente; Marta Ruiz-Bermejo; Susana Osuna-Esteban



Surface-to-core and interparticle equilibrium distributions of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein lipids.  


The phase equilibria of human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and monkey chylomicron lipids was examined. Triglyceride (TG), cholesterol ester (CE), and cholesterol (C) partitioned into both surface monolayer and oil "core" phases of emulsions of lipoprotein lipids, whereas phospholipid was found exclusively in the surface. In addition to phospholipid, the surface lipids consisted of 2-4% (by weight) TG, less than 1% CE, and 22% C (VLDL), 5-8% C (chylomicrons). The oil lipids consisted mainly of TG, but also 13-16% CE (VLDL), 3% CE (chylomicrons), and 1-2% C (VLDL), 0.3-0.4% C (chylomicrons). The equilibrium state of lipids within size subfractions of native lipoproteins was defined using phase diagram analysis. Subfractions were in equilibrium with respect to surface-to-core and interparticle distributions of C molecules. In contrast, subfracitions were not in a state of interparticle TG and CE equilibrium. By using the phase diagrams, the percentages of the total particle lipids carried in the phases of lipoproteins of varying size were calculated. For Sf greater than 400 particles, greater than or equal to 30% of the total particle C molecules are carried in the core, and less than 3% of the TG and CE molecules are located in the surface. Nascent, plasma, remnant, and beta-migrating TG-rich lipoprotein compositions taken from the literature were compared using phase diagrams. Although the total compositions of nascent liver VLDL and lymph chylomicrons vary substantially, they have identical concentrations of C in their respective phases. Upon equilibration with plasma, the surface and core of nascent TG-rich lipoproteins become enriched (2-4-fold) with C. Remnants and beta-VLDL have the most C-rich phases of the TG-rich lipoproteins examined. The analysis indicates that the C concentrations of the phases of a lipoprotein are related to its metabolic status. PMID:6643453

Miller, K W; Small, D M



Triglyceride Synthesis in Epididymal Adipose Tissue  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic has generated interest in determining the contribution of various pathways to triglyceride synthesis, including an elucidation of the origin of triglyceride fatty acids and triglyceride glycerol. We hypothesized that a dietary intervention would demonstrate the importance of using glucose versus non-glucose carbon sources to synthesize triglycerides in white adipose tissue. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low fat, high carbohydrate (HC) diet or a high fat, carbohydrate-free (CF) diet and maintained on 2H2O (to determine total triglyceride dynamics) or infused with [6,6-2H]glucose (to quantify the contribution of glucose to triglyceride glycerol). The 2H2O labeling data demonstrate that although de novo lipogenesis contributed ?80% versus ?5% to the pool of triglyceride palmitate in HC- versus CF-fed mice, the epididymal adipose tissue synthesized ?1.5-fold more triglyceride in CF- versus HC-fed mice, i.e. 37 ± 5 versus 25 ± 3 ?mol × day–1. The [6,6-2H]glucose labeling data demonstrate that ?69 and ?28% of triglyceride glycerol is synthesized from glucose in HC- versus CF-fed mice, respectively. Although these data are consistent with the notion that non-glucose carbon sources (e.g. glyceroneogenesis) can make substantial contributions to the synthesis of triglyceride glycerol (i.e. the absolute synthesis of triglyceride glycerol from non-glucose substrates increased from ?8 to ?26 ?mol × day–1 in HC- versus CF-fed mice), these observations suggest (i) the importance of nutritional status in affecting flux rates and (ii) the operation of a glycerol-glucose cycle.

Bederman, Ilya R.; Foy, Steven; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Alexander, James C.; Previs, Stephen F.



TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions.

R Bassilakis; R. M Carangelo; M. A Wójtowicz



Reduced Triglyceride Secretion in Response to an Acute Dietary Fat Challenge in Obese Compared to Lean Mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG) storage in tissues such as liver, heart, and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after a 6-h fast. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at 6?h fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage, and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

Uchida, Aki; Whitsitt, Mary C.; Eustaquio, Trisha; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Leary, James F.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K.



Effect of Acute Negative and Positive Energy Balance on Basal Very-Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Metabolism in Women  

PubMed Central

Background Acute reduction in dietary energy intake reduces very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) concentration. Although chronic dietary energy surplus and obesity are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of acute overfeeding on VLDL-TG metabolism is not known. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute negative and positive energy balance on VLDL-TG metabolism in healthy women. Design Ten healthy women (age: 22.0±2.9 years, BMI: 21.2±1.3 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) isocaloric feeding (control) ii) hypocaloric feeding with a dietary energy restriction of 2.89±0.42 MJ and iii) hypercaloric feeding with a dietary energy surplus of 2.91±0.32 MJ. The three diets had the same macronutrient composition. Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations decreased by ?26% after hypocaloric feeding relative to the control trial (P?=?0.037), owing to decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (by 21%, P?=?0.023) and increased VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate (by ?12%, P?=?0.016). Hypercaloric feeding increased plasma glucose concentration (P?=?0.042) but had no effect on VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics compared to the control trial. Conclusion Acute dietary energy deficit (?3MJ) leads to hypotriglyceridemia via a combination of decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and increased VLDL-TG clearance. On the other hand, acute dietary energy surplus (?3MJ) does not affect basal VLDL-TG metabolism but disrupts glucose homeostasis in healthy women.

Bellou, Elena; Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Botonaki, Helena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Sidossis, Labros S.



Determination of serum triglyceride by enzyme electrode using covalently immobilized enzyme on egg shell membrane.  


A mixture of commercial lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase was co-immobilized onto egg shell membrane through covalent coupling. A method is described for fabrication of a triglyceride (TG) biosensor using egg shell membrane bound enzymes. The biosensor measured current, i.e. flow of electrons generated from H(2)O(2), maximally when polarized at 0.4V. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10 sec at pH 7.0 and 35°C. The current was in proportion to concentration of TG in the range 0.56-2.25 mM. An amperometric method was developed for determination of TG employing this enzyme electrode. The minimum detection limit of the method was 0.28 mM. The analytic recovery of added TG was 95.00% and 96.50%. Within batch and between batch coefficients of variations (CV) were <2.14% and <3.48% respectively. A good correlation (r=0.985) was obtained between serum TG level by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present method. Serum substances such as urea, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid had no interference. The enzyme electrode was used 200 times over a period of 70 days without any considerable loss of activity, when stored at 4°C. PMID:20832421

Narang, Jagriti; Minakshi; Bhambi, Manu; Pundir, C S



Hepatocyte-specific IKK-? activation enhances VLDL-triglyceride production in APOE*3-Leiden mice.  


Low-grade inflammation in different tissues, including activation of the nuclear factor ?B pathway in liver, is involved in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the relation between chronic hepatocyte-specific overexpression of IkB kinase (IKK)-? and hypertriglyceridemia, an important risk factor for CVD, by evaluating whether activation of IKK-? only in the hepatocyte affects VLDL-triglyceride (TG) metabolism directly. Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active human IKK-? specifically in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden mice clearly induced hypertriglyceridemia. Mechanistic in vivo studies revealed that the hypertriglyceridemia was caused by increased hepatic VLDL-TG production rather than a change in plasma VLDL-TG clearance. Studies in primary hepatocytes showed that IKK-? overexpression also enhances TG secretion in vitro, indicating a direct relation between IKK-? activation and TG production within the hepatocyte. Hepatic lipid analysis and hepatic gene expression analysis of pathways involved in lipid metabolism suggested that hepatocyte-specific IKK-? overexpression increases VLDL production not by increased steatosis or decreased FA oxidation, but most likely by carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein-mediated upregulation of Fas expression. These findings implicate that specific activation of inflammatory pathways exclusively within hepatocytes induces hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we identify the hepatocytic IKK-? pathway as a possible target to treat hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:21357939

van Diepen, Janna A; Wong, Man C; Guigas, Bruno; Bos, Jasper; Stienstra, Rinke; Hodson, Leanne; Shoelson, Steven E; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Romijn, Johannes A; Havekes, Louis M; Voshol, Peter J



Mice lacking ANGPTL8 (Betatrophin) manifest disrupted triglyceride metabolism without impaired glucose homeostasis.  


Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)8 (alternatively called TD26, RIFL, Lipasin, and Betatrophin) is a newly recognized ANGPTL family member that has been implicated in both triglyceride (TG) and glucose metabolism. Hepatic overexpression of ANGPTL8 causes hypertriglyceridemia and increased insulin secretion. Here we examined the effects of inactivating Angptl8 on TG and glucose metabolism in mice. Angptl8 knockout (Angptl8(-/-)) mice gained weight more slowly than wild-type littermates due to a selective reduction in adipose tissue accretion. Plasma levels of TGs of the Angptl8(-/-) mice were similar to wild-type animals in the fasted state but paradoxically decreased after refeeding. The lower TG levels were associated with both a reduction in very low density lipoprotein secretion and an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Despite the increase in LPL activity, the uptake of very low density lipoprotein-TG is markedly reduced in adipose tissue but preserved in hearts of fed Angptl8(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data indicate that ANGPTL8 plays a key role in the metabolic transition between fasting and refeeding; it is required to direct fatty acids to adipose tissue for storage in the fed state. Finally, glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed no alterations in glucose homeostasis in mice fed either a chow or high fat diet. Thus, although absence of ANGPTL8 profoundly disrupts TG metabolism, we found no evidence that it is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. PMID:24043787

Wang, Yan; Quagliarini, Fabiana; Gusarova, Viktoria; Gromada, Jesper; Valenzuela, David M; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H



Mice lacking ANGPTL8 (Betatrophin) manifest disrupted triglyceride metabolism without impaired glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)8 (alternatively called TD26, RIFL, Lipasin, and Betatrophin) is a newly recognized ANGPTL family member that has been implicated in both triglyceride (TG) and glucose metabolism. Hepatic overexpression of ANGPTL8 causes hypertriglyceridemia and increased insulin secretion. Here we examined the effects of inactivating Angptl8 on TG and glucose metabolism in mice. Angptl8 knockout (Angptl8?/?) mice gained weight more slowly than wild-type littermates due to a selective reduction in adipose tissue accretion. Plasma levels of TGs of the Angptl8?/? mice were similar to wild-type animals in the fasted state but paradoxically decreased after refeeding. The lower TG levels were associated with both a reduction in very low density lipoprotein secretion and an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Despite the increase in LPL activity, the uptake of very low density lipoprotein-TG is markedly reduced in adipose tissue but preserved in hearts of fed Angptl8?/? mice. Taken together, these data indicate that ANGPTL8 plays a key role in the metabolic transition between fasting and refeeding; it is required to direct fatty acids to adipose tissue for storage in the fed state. Finally, glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed no alterations in glucose homeostasis in mice fed either a chow or high fat diet. Thus, although absence of ANGPTL8 profoundly disrupts TG metabolism, we found no evidence that it is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

Wang, Yan; Quagliarini, Fabiana; Gusarova, Viktoria; Gromada, Jesper; Valenzuela, David M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.



Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level.  


Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16537411

Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C Ronald



Macrophage Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective The consequences of macrophage triglyceride (TG) accumulation on atherosclerosis have not been studied in detail so far. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the initial step in TG hydrolysis. Because ATGL knockout (KO) mice exhibit massive TG accumulation in macrophages, we used ATGL KO mice to study the effects of macrophage TG accumulation on atherogenesis. Methods and Results Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) KO mice were transplanted with bone marrow from ATGL KO (ATGL KO?LDLr KO) or wild-type (wild-type?LDLr KO) mice and challenged with a Western-type diet for 9 weeks. Despite TG accumulation in ATGL KO macrophages, atherosclerosis in ATGL KO?LDLr KO mice was 43% reduced associated with decreased plasma MCP-1 and macrophage interleukin-6 concentrations. This coincided with a reduced amount of macrophages, possibly because of a 39% increase in intraplaque apoptosis and a decreased migratory capacity of ATGL KO macrophages. The reduced number of white blood cells might be due to a 36% decreased Lin?Sca-1+cKit+ hematopoietic stem cell population. Conclusion We conclude that the attenuation of atherogenesis in ATGL KO?LDLr KO mice is due to decreased infiltration of less inflammatory macrophages into the arterial wall and increased macrophage apoptosis.

Lammers, Bart; Chandak, Prakash G.; Aflaki, Elma; Van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Radovic, Branislav; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; Meurs, Illiana; Out, Ruud; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Kolb, Dagmar; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Van Eck, Miranda; Kratky, Dagmar



SCD1 activity in muscle increases triglyceride PUFA content, exercise capacity, and PPAR? expression in mice.  


Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 converts saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids. Using muscle overexpression, we sought to determine the role of SCD1 expression in glucose and lipid metabolism and its effects on exercise capacity in mice. Wild-type C57Bl/6 (WT) and SCD1 muscle transgenic (SCD1-Tg) mice were generated, and expression of the SCD1 transgene was restricted to skeletal muscle. SCD1 overexpression was associated with increased triglyceride (TG) content. The fatty acid composition of the muscle revealed a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of TG, including linoleate (18:2n6). Untrained SCD1-Tg mice also displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity (WT = 6.6 ± 3 min, Tg = 71.9 ± 9.5 min; P = 0.0009). SCD1-Tg mice had decreased fasting plasma glucose, glucose transporter (GLUT)1 mRNA, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial content, and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and Pgc-1 protein expression in skeletal muscle. In vitro studies in C2C12 myocytes revealed that linoleate (18:2n6) and not oleate (18:1n9) caused a 3-fold increase in PPAR? and a 9-fold increase in CPT-1b with a subsequent increase in fat oxidation. The present model suggests that increasing delta-9 desaturase activity of muscle increases metabolic function, exercise capacity, and lipid oxidation likely through increased PUFA content, which increases PPAR? expression and activity. However, the mechanism of action that results in increased PUFA content of SCD1-Tg mice remains to be elucidated. PMID:23918045

Rogowski, Michael P; Flowers, Matthew T; Stamatikos, Alexis D; Ntambi, James M; Paton, Chad M



Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Controls Hepatic VLDL-Triglyceride Secretion in Rats via the Sympathetic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Excessive secretion of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG) contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia. Earlier studies have indicated a possible role for the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in the regulation of VLDL-TG. In the current study, we investigated whether the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) release during fasting regulates hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. We report that, in fasted rats, an intact hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and hepatic sympathetic innervation are necessary to maintain VLDL-TG secretion. Furthermore, the hepatic sympathetic innervation is necessary to mediate the stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular administration of NPY on VLDL-TG secretion. Since the intracerebroventricular administration of NPY increases VLDL-TG secretion by the liver without affecting lipolysis, its effect on lipid metabolism appears to be selective to the liver. Together, our findings indicate that the increased release of NPY during fasting stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to maintain VLDL-TG secretion at a postprandial level.

Bruinstroop, Eveline; Pei, Lei; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Foppen, Ewout; Borgers, Anke J.; Kwakkel, Joan; Alkemade, Anneke; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries



Elevated vascular ?-butyrobetaine levels attenuate the development of high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of vascular tissue levels of l-carnitine and its precursor, ?-butyrobetaine (GBB), on the development of endothelial dysfunction induced by 5 ?mol/L lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 10 mmol/L triglycerides (TG) or a high glucose concentration (44 mmol/L). Changes in vascular tissue levels of l-carnitine and GBB were induced by administration of l-carnitine (100 mg/kg), mildronate (100 mg/kg; an inhibitor of l-carnitine synthesis) or their combination to male Wistar rats for 2 weeks. Treatment with l-carnitine elevated vascular tissue levels of l-carnitine, whereas administration of mildronate reduced l-carnitine levels and increased GBB levels. Experimental animals that received the combination of both drugs showed elevated tissue levels of GBB. The results from organ bath experiments demonstrated that increased GBB levels with preserved l-carnitine content in vascular tissues attenuated the development of endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose. However, changes in vascular tissue l-carnitine and GBB levels had no impact on endothelial dysfunction induced by TG or LPC. The results demonstrate that increased levels of GBB with preserved l-carnitine content in vascular tissue attenuate the development of endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose concentrations. PMID:23710938

Vilskersts, Reinis; Zharkova-Malkova, Olga; Mezhapuke, Rudolfs; Grinberga, Solveiga; Cirule, Helena; Dambrova, Maija



Triglyceride analysis with glass capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analyses of triglycerides on capillary columns is reported. Applications in which this technique can be used include:\\u000a rapid identification of fats and oils, measurement of butter fat or coconut oil content in margarine or chocolate, monitoring\\u000a of processes such as fractionation, transesterification or heat treatment. Although separation of all isomers within a group\\u000a of triglycerides with identical carbon numbers

K. Grob; H. P. Neukom; R. Battaglia



The relationship in African-Americans of sex differences in insulin-mediated suppression of nonesterified fatty acids to sex differences in fasting triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin is a potent antilipolytic hormone that promotes the deposition of fat and decreases the release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate in African-Americans (AAs) sex differences in insulin-mediated suppression of plasma NEFA and fasting triglyceride (TG) levels. Ninety AAs, 44 men and 46 women with a mean age of

Anne E. Sumner; Harvey Kushner; Thomas N. Tulenko; Bonita Falkner; Julian B. Marsh



Racial difference in Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) correlates to triglyceride in non-obese and obese African American and Caucasian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) has been shown to influence adipose tissue triglyceride (TG) storage. The aim was to examine ethnic differences in ASP and leptin levels in relation to lipid profiles and postprandial changes amongst African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) women matched for BMI. METHODS: 129 women were recruited in total (age 21 – 73 y): 24

Thea Scantlebury-Manning; Joseph Bower; Katherine Cianflone; Hisham Barakat



Females with angina pectoris have altered lipoprotein metabolism with elevated cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and impaired high-density lipoproteins-associated antioxidant enzymes  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate non-invasive biomarkers for angina pectoris (AP), we analyzed the lipid and protein composition in individual lipoproteins from females with angina pectoris (n=22) and age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). In the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction, the triglycerides (TG) and protein content increased in the AP group compared to the control group. The AP group had lower total cholesterol (TC) and elevated TG in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. In the AP group, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was enhanced in HDL and LDL, while lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in HDL3 was almost depleted. Antioxidant activity was significantly decreased in the HDL3 fraction, with a decrease in the HDL2 particle size. In the HDL3 fraction, paraoxonase and platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity were much lower and the levels of CETP and apoC-III were elevated in the AP group. The LDL from the AP group was more sensitive to cupric ion-mediated oxidation with faster mobility. In conclusion, the lipoprotein fractions in the AP group had impaired antioxidant activity and increased TG and apoC-III with structural and functional changes.




Ethnic differences in the ability of triglyceride levels to identify insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metabolic Syndrome is used to predict the onset of coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes. As the predictive value of the Metabolic Syndrome has been challenged, alternative syndromes have been developed. All of these syndromes were developed in populations that were predominantly non-Hispanic white (NHW). They include the Enlarged Waist Elevated Triglyceride Syndrome, the Overweight-Lipid Syndrome and the

Anne E. Sumner; Catherine C. Cowie



Ethnic differences in maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during pregnancy: the contribution of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Lipid disturbances during pregnancy may lead to early onset of metabolic diseases in the offspring. However, there is little knowledge on ethnic differences in lipid levels during pregnancy. We evaluated ethnic differences in non-fasting total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels during early gestation and the role of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics.Subjects\\/Methods:Non-diabetic pregnant women (N=3025) from the Amsterdam

Y J Schreuder; B A Hutten; M van Eijsden; E H Jansen; M N Vissers; M T Twickler; T G M Vrijkotte; TGM Vrijkotte



Endurance training has little effect on active muscle free fatty acid, lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride net balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We evaluated the hypothesis that net leg total free fatty acid (FFA), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) uptake and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) release during moderate ,intensity cycling exercise would ,be increased following endurance training. Eight sedentary men (26 ± 1 yr, 77.4 ± 3.7 kg) were studied in the postprandial state during 90 min of rest and 60

Kevin. A. Jacobs; Jill A. Fattor; Michael A. Horning; Anne L. Friedlander; Todd A. Hagobian; Eugene E. Wolfel; George A. Brooks



Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To investigate the effects of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) on blood triglyceride (TG) in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects.Methods:A double-blind controlled clinical trial was carried out, in which 112 subjects with hypertriglyceridemia were randomly divided into two dietary oil groups: (1) long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) and (2) MLCT. All subjects were requested to ingest fixed energy and to continue their normal activity

C Xue; Y Liu; J Wang; R Zhang; Y Zhang; J Zhang; Z Zheng; X Yu; H Jing; N Nosaka; C Arai; M Kasai; T Aoyama; J Wu



Mechanisms of triglyceride accumulation in activated macrophages  

PubMed Central

LPS treatment of macrophages induces TG accumulation, which is accentuated by TG-rich lipoproteins or FFA. We defined pathways altered during macrophage activation that contribute to TG accumulation. Glucose uptake increased with activation, accompanied by increased GLUT1. Oxidation of glucose markedly decreased, whereas incorporation of glucose-derived carbon into FA and sterols increased. Macrophage activation also increased uptake of FFA, associated with an increase in CD36. Oxidation of FA was markedly reduced, whereas the incorporation of FA into TGs increased, associated with increased GPAT3 and DGAT2. Additionally, macrophage activation decreased TG lipolysis; however, expression of ATGL or HSL was not altered. Macrophage activation altered gene expression similarly when incubated with exogenous FA or AcLDL. Whereas activation with ligands of TLR2 (zymosan), TLR3 (poly I:C), or TLR4 (LPS) induced alterations in macrophage gene expression, leading to TG accumulation, treatment of macrophages with cytokines had minimal effects. Thus, activation of TLRs leads to accumulation of TG in macrophages by multiple pathways that may have beneficial effects in host defense but could contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis in chronic infections and inflammatory diseases.

Feingold, Kenneth R.; Shigenaga, Judy K.; Kazemi, Mahmood R.; McDonald, Carol M.; Patzek, Sophie M.; Cross, Andrew S.; Moser, Arthur; Grunfeld, Carl



Association between Myocardial Triglyceride Content and Cardiac Function in Healthy Subjects and Endurance Athletes  

PubMed Central

Ectopic fat accumulation plays important roles in various metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies reported that myocardial triglyceride (TG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is associated with aging, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac dysfunction. However, myocardial TG content in athletes has not yet been investigated. We performed 1H-MRS and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 10 male endurance athletes and 15 healthy male controls. Serum markers and other clinical parameters including arterial stiffness were measured. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was also performed. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics including age, anthropometric parameters, blood test results, or arterial stiffness between the two groups. Peak oxygen uptakes, end–diastolic volume (EDV), end–systolic volume (ESV), left ventricular (LV) mass, peak ejection rates and peak filling rates were significantly higher in the athlete group than in the control group (all P<0.02). Myocardial TG content was significantly lower in the athlete group than in the control group (0.60±0.20 vs. 0.89±0.41%, P<0.05). Myocardial TG content was negatively correlated with EDV (r?=??0.47), ESV (r?=??0.64), LV mass (r?=??0.44), and epicardial fat volume (r?=?0.47) (all P<0.05). In conclusion, lower levels of myocardial TG content were observed in endurance athletes and were associated with morphological changes related to physiological LV alteration in athletes, suggesting that metabolic imaging for measurement of myocardial TG content by 1H-MRS may be a useful technique for noninvasively assessing the “athlete’s heart”.

Sai, Eiryu; Shimada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Sato, Shuji; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Hiki, Makoto; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Aoki, Shigeki; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Daida, Hiroyuki



The activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is essential for accumulation of triglyceride within microsomes in McA-RH7777 cells. A unified model for the assembly of very low density lipoproteins.  


Previously, based on distinct requirement of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and kinetics of triglyceride (TG) utilization, we concluded that assembly of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) containing B48 or B100 was achieved through different paths (Wang, Y. , McLeod, R. S., and Yao, Z. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 12272-12278). To test if the apparent dual mechanisms were accounted for by apolipoprotein B (apoB) length, we studied VLDL assembly using transfected cells expressing various apoB forms (e.g. B64, B72, B80, and B100). For each apoB, enlargement of lipoprotein to form VLDL via bulk TG incorporation was induced by exogenous oleate, which could be blocked by MTP inhibitor BMS-197636 treatment. While particle enlargement was readily demonstrable by density ultracentrifugation for B64- and B72-VLDL, it was not obvious for B80- and B100-VLDL unless the VLDL was further resolved by cumulative rate flotation into VLDL(1) (S(f) > 100) and VLDL(2) (S(f) 20-100). BMS-197636 diminished B100 secretion in a dose-dependent manner (0.05-0.5 microM) and also blocked the particle enlargement from small to large B100-lipoproteins. These results yield a unified model that can accommodate VLDL assembly with all apoB forms, which invalidates our previous conclusion. To gain a better understanding of the MTP action, we examined the effect of BMS-197636 on lipid and apoB synthesis during VLDL assembly. While BMS-197636 (0.2 microM) entirely abolished B100-VLDL(1) assembly/secretion, it did not affect B100 translation or translocation across the microsomal membrane, nor did it affect TG synthesis and cell TG mass. However, BMS-197636 drastically decreased accumulation of [(3)H]glycerol-labeled TG and TG mass within microsomal lumen. The decreased TG accumulation was not a result of impaired B100-VLDL assembly, because in cells treated with brefeldin A (0.2 microgram/ml), the assembly of B100-VLDL was blocked yet lumenal TG accumulation was normal. Thus, MTP plays a role in facilitating accumulation of TG within microsomes, a prerequisite for the post-translational assembly of TG-enriched VLDL. PMID:10488124

Wang, Y; Tran, K; Yao, Z



Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation.  


Fatty liver is a frequent subclinical health disorder in dairy cows that may lead to disorders related to the liver function. However, the effect of triglyceride (TG) accumulation on liver metabolic pathways is still unclear. The objective was, therefore, to characterize quantitative differences in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis and decreased oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, liver gluconeogenesis is apparently not impaired by an increased liver TG content. Based on correlations between liver proteins and plasma components, we suggest that future studies investigate the sensitivity and specificity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, ?-hydroxybutyrate, total bilirubin, total bile acids, and ?-glutamyltransferase for potential use as blood-based biomarkers for early detection of fatty liver in dairy cows. Our study is the first to study the proteome of dairy cows with naturally occurring fatty liver in early lactation. PMID:22541469

Sejersen, H; Sørensen, M T; Larsen, T; Bendixen, E; Ingvartsen, K L



Triglyceride metabolism in bone tissue is associated with osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation: a gene expression study.  


The role of bone marrow adipocytes in bone tissue is not yet understood. Adipocytes express enzymes for metabolism of free fatty acids and adipokines such as adiponectin, which have been shown to exert different effects on bone cells. Our aim was to find out whether triglyceride (TG) metabolism in bone tissue is associated with osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation by gene expression analysis of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), fatty acid synthase (FASN), adiponectin, RUNX2, RANK, RANKL and OPG. Bone tissue was obtained from patients undergoing hip arthroplasty due to osteoporosis (OP) (50) or osteoarthritis (OA) (48) or from healthy autopsy controls (14). Lower bone mineral density and microstructural parameters were observed in OP compared to OA. The FASN expression did not differ between groups suggesting similar de novo lipogenesis. Lower LPL and HSL in OP suggest lower FFA release and uptake in OP bone tissue. Adiponectin expression was lower in OP than in OA and a trend was seen for controls. These results suggest OP bone has lower TG metabolism than OA and normal bone. In OP bone, lower osteoblastogenesis and higher osteoclast formation were observed and correlation analysis suggests adiponectin, LPL and HSL are associated with higher osteoblastogenesis and lower osteoclastogenesis. This study gives insights into TG metabolism in the human bone microenvironment. We conclude that OP bone tissue exhibits lower osteoblastogenesis, higher osteoclastogenesis and lower TG metabolism compared to OA or healthy controls. PMID:23588618

Dragojevi?, Jana; Zupan, Janja; Haring, Gregor; Herman, Simon; Komadina, Radko; Marc, Janja



Vapor-liquid equilibria of triglycerides-methanol mixtures and their influence on the biodiesel synthesis under supercritical con- ditions of methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-catalytic synthesis of biodiesel (fatty acids methyl esters) from triglycerides and methanol proceeds at elevated pressures above 100 bar and tem- peratures above 523 K. Kinetic investigations of the system revealed an unusual be- havior of the reaction rate constant with increasing temperature and pressure. In or- der to explain this phenomenon, the phase behavior of the triglycerides-methanol mixture



Rare loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL family members contribute to plasma triglyceride levels in humans  

PubMed Central

The relative activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in different tissues controls the partitioning of lipoprotein-derived fatty acids between sites of fat storage (adipose tissue) and oxidation (heart and skeletal muscle). Here we used a reverse genetic strategy to test the hypothesis that 4 angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL3, -4, -5, and -6) play key roles in triglyceride (TG) metabolism in humans. We re-sequenced the coding regions of the genes encoding these proteins and identified multiple rare nonsynonymous (NS) sequence variations that were associated with low plasma TG levels but not with other metabolic phenotypes. Functional studies revealed that all mutant alleles of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 that were associated with low plasma TG levels interfered either with the synthesis or secretion of the protein or with the ability of the ANGPTL protein to inhibit LPL. A total of 1% of the Dallas Heart Study population and 4% of those participants with a plasma TG in the lowest quartile had a rare loss-of-function mutation in ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, or ANGPTL5. Thus, ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL5, but not ANGPTL6, play nonredundant roles in TG metabolism, and multiple alleles at these loci cumulatively contribute to variability in plasma TG levels in humans.

Romeo, Stefano; Yin, Wu; Kozlitina, Julia; Pennacchio, Len A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hobbs, Helen H.; Cohen, Jonathan C.



Influence of obesity and body fat distribution on postprandial lipemia and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in adult women.  


We know that upper body obesity is associated with metabolic complications, but we don't know how regional body fat distribution influences postprandial lipemia in obese adults. Thus, this study explored the respective effects of android or gynoid types of obesity and fasting triglyceridemia on postprandial lipid metabolism and especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Twenty-four obese and 6 lean normotriglyceridemic women (control), age 24-57 yr, were enrolled. Among obese women with an android phenotype, 9 exhibited normal plasma triglyceride levels (mean: 1.38 mmol/L) (NTAO), and 7 displayed a frank hypertriglyceridemia (mean: 2.40 mmol/L) (HTAO). The 8 patients with a gynoid phenotype had normal triglyceride levels (mean: 1.00 mmol/L) (GO). All were given a mixed test meal providing 40 g triglycerides. Serum and incremental chylomicron triglycerides 0-7 h areas under the curve (AUCs) as well as triglyceride levels in apoB-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRLs) or chylomicrons were significantly higher in HTAOs and NTAOs than in GOs and controls postprandially. The size of chylomicron particles was bigger in controls and GOs than in HTAOs and NTAOs postprandially. Android obese subjects showed abnormally elevated fasting apoB-48 and apoB-100 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) levels. Most abnormalities that were found correlated to plasma levels of insulin and apoC-III. In conclusion, an abnormal postprandial lipid pattern is a trait of abdominal obesity even without fasting hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:9920081

Mekki, N; Christofilis, M A; Charbonnier, M; Atlan-Gepner, C; Defoort, C; Juhel, C; Borel, P; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Vialettes, B; Lairon, D



Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.  


Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S



Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.  


Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis. PMID:24059726

Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Alvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina



Aspects of spatial memory and behavioral disinhibition in Tg2576 transgenic mice as a model of Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been recently advanced. Tg2576 mice have been shown to develop progressive ?-amyloid (A?) neuritic plaques and exhibit impairment of cognitive function. The aim of this study was a better characterization of different aspects of spatial memory performance of transgenic mice, observed at a time when levels of soluble A? are elevated and

Elisa Ognibene; Silvia Middei; Stefania Daniele; Walter Adriani; Orlando Ghirardi; Antonio Caprioli; Giovanni Laviola



Acute exposure to 2,4-dinitrophenol alters zebrafish swimming performance and whole body triglyceride levels.  


While swimming endurance (critical swimming speed or U(crit)) and lipid stores have both been reported to acutely decrease after exposure to a variety of toxicants, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. In order to examine these relationships, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control (ethanol) or two nominal concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a mitochondrial electron transport chain uncoupler, for a 24-h period. Following exposure, fish were placed in a swim tunnel in clean water for swimming testing or euthanized immediately without testing, followed by analysis of whole body triglyceride levels. U(crit) decreased in both the 6 mg/L and 12 mg/L DNP groups, with 12 mg/L approaching the LC??. A decrease in tail beat frequency was observed without a significant change in tail beat amplitude. In contrast, triglyceride levels were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in the DNP exposure groups, but only in fish subjected to swimming tests. This increase in triglyceride stores may be due to a direct interference of DNP on lipid catabolism as well as increased triglyceride production when zebrafish were subjected to the co-stressors of swimming and toxicant exposure. Future studies should be directed at determining how acute DNP exposure combines with swimming to cause alterations in triglyceride accumulation. PMID:21406246

Marit, Jordan S; Weber, Lynn P



QSPR Calculations of Tg of Electroactive Molecular Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous molecular glasses are used in a variety of electronic devices. Higher temperature performance requires the design of higher Tg glasses. QSPR techniques have been applied to calculate the Tg's of a series of triaryl amines that may be used in electroluminescent displays. The molecular descriptors described in Cerius2, (Molecular Simulations Inc.) were used with a Genetic Function Analysis to fit the experimental Tg data. For 31 molecules, Tg can be fitted within +_4C (std. error) and a max. deviation of 11 C with 5 molecular descriptors. Comparisons of these data with related QSAR calculations are discussed.

O'Reilly, James M.; Putta, Santosh; Patkar, Priyan



Kinetic model for production and metabolism of very low density lipoprotein triglycerides. Evidence for a slow production pathway and results for normolipidemic subjects.  

PubMed Central

A model for the synthesis and degradation of very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) in man is proposed to explain plasma VLDL-TG radioactivity data from studies conducted over a 48-h interval after injection of glycerol labeled with 14C, 3H, or both. The curve describing the radioactivity of plasma VLDL triglycerides reaches a maximum at about 2 h, after which the decay is biphasic in all cases; the late curvature becoming evident only after 8--12 h. To fit the complex curve, it was necessary to postulate two pathways for the incorporation of plasma glycerol into VLDL-TG, one much slower than the other. A process of stepwise delipidation of VLDL in the plasma compartment, previously proposed for VLDL apoprotein models, was also necessary. Predicted VLDL-TG synthesis rates calculated with this model can differ significantly from those based on experiments of shorter duration in which the slow VLDL-TG component is not apparent. The results of these studies strongly support the interpretation that the late, slow component of the VLDL-TG activity curve is predominantly due to the slowly turning-over precursor compartment in the conversion pathway and is not due either to a slow compartment in the labeled precursor, plasma free glycerol, or to an exchange of plasma VLDL-TG with an extravascular compartment. It also cannot, in these studies, be attributed to a slowly turning-over VLDL-TG moiety in the plasma. The model was tested with data from 59 studies including normal subjects and patients with obesity and(or) various forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Good fits were obtained in all cases, and the estimated parameter values and their uncertainties for 13 normolipemic nonobese subjects are presented. Sensitivty testing was carried out to determine how critical various parameter estimations are to the assumptions introduced in the modeling.

Zech, L A; Grundy, S M; Steinberg, D; Berman, M



Hepatocyte-specific IKK-? activation enhances VLDL-triglyceride production in APOE*3-Leiden mice[S  

PubMed Central

Low-grade inflammation in different tissues, including activation of the nuclear factor ?B pathway in liver, is involved in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the relation between chronic hepatocyte-specific overexpression of IkB kinase (IKK)-? and hypertriglyceridemia, an important risk factor for CVD, by evaluating whether activation of IKK-? only in the hepatocyte affects VLDL-triglyceride (TG) metabolism directly. Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active human IKK-? specifically in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden mice clearly induced hypertriglyceridemia. Mechanistic in vivo studies revealed that the hypertriglyceridemia was caused by increased hepatic VLDL-TG production rather than a change in plasma VLDL-TG clearance. Studies in primary hepatocytes showed that IKK-? overexpression also enhances TG secretion in vitro, indicating a direct relation between IKK-? activation and TG production within the hepatocyte. Hepatic lipid analysis and hepatic gene expression analysis of pathways involved in lipid metabolism suggested that hepatocyte-specific IKK-? overexpression increases VLDL production not by increased steatosis or decreased FA oxidation, but most likely by carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein-mediated upregulation of Fas expression. These findings implicate that specific activation of inflammatory pathways exclusively within hepatocytes induces hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we identify the hepatocytic IKK-? pathway as a possible target to treat hypertriglyceridemia.

van Diepen, Janna A.; Wong, Man C.; Guigas, Bruno; Bos, Jasper; Stienstra, Rinke; Hodson, Leanne; Shoelson, Steven E.; Berbee, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.



FSP27 Promotes Lipid Droplet Clustering and Then Fusion to Regulate Triglyceride Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Fat Specific Protein 27 (FSP27), a lipid droplet (LD) associated protein in adipocytes, regulates triglyceride (TG) storage. In the present study we demonstrate that FSP27 plays a key role in LD morphology to accumulate TGs. We show here that FSP27 promotes clustering of the LDs which is followed by their fusion into fewer and enlarged droplets. To map the domains of FSP27 responsible for these events, we generated GFP-fusion constructs of deletion mutants of FSP27. Microscopic analysis revealed that amino acids 173–220 of FSP27 are necessary and sufficient for both the targeting of FSP27 to LDs and the initial clustering of the droplets. Amino acids 120–140 are essential but not sufficient for LD enlargement, whereas amino acids 120–210 are necessary and sufficient for both clustering and fusion of LDs to form enlarged droplets. In addition, we found that FSP27-mediated enlargement of LDs, but not their clustering, is associated with triglyceride accumulation. These results suggest a model in which FSP27 facilitates LD clustering and then promotes their fusion to form enlarged droplets in two discrete, sequential steps, and a subsequent triglyceride accumulation.

Khan, Waheed; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Puri, Vishwajeet



FSP27 promotes lipid droplet clustering and then fusion to regulate triglyceride accumulation.  


Fat Specific Protein 27 (FSP27), a lipid droplet (LD) associated protein in adipocytes, regulates triglyceride (TG) storage. In the present study we demonstrate that FSP27 plays a key role in LD morphology to accumulate TGs. We show here that FSP27 promotes clustering of the LDs which is followed by their fusion into fewer and enlarged droplets. To map the domains of FSP27 responsible for these events, we generated GFP-fusion constructs of deletion mutants of FSP27. Microscopic analysis revealed that amino acids 173-220 of FSP27 are necessary and sufficient for both the targeting of FSP27 to LDs and the initial clustering of the droplets. Amino acids 120-140 are essential but not sufficient for LD enlargement, whereas amino acids 120-210 are necessary and sufficient for both clustering and fusion of LDs to form enlarged droplets. In addition, we found that FSP27-mediated enlargement of LDs, but not their clustering, is associated with triglyceride accumulation. These results suggest a model in which FSP27 facilitates LD clustering and then promotes their fusion to form enlarged droplets in two discrete, sequential steps, and a subsequent triglyceride accumulation. PMID:22194867

Jambunathan, Srikarthika; Yin, Jun; Khan, Waheed; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Puri, Vishwajeet



Physical aging of even saturated monoacid triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphism and kinetics of phase transformations of triglycerides have been investigated using a polarizing microscope\\u000a equipped with a variable temperature gradient stage. Differential thermal analysis, X-ray, NMR, and IR data supplement the\\u000a visual observations. The ?-polymorphic transformation was observed to change with time in the cases of trilaurin, trimyristin,\\u000a tripalmitin, tristearin, triarachidin, and tribehenin and can be described by

James H. Whittam; Henri L. Rosano



Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of chiral triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain reaction conditions, the acidolysis of tripalmitin with oleic acid using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei resulted in a higher level of monosubstituted oleoyldipalmitoyl (OPP) triglycerides than had been predicted according to\\u000a kinetic modeling. The reaction products were subjected to chiral analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),\\u000a which indicated that the enzyme was more active at the sn-1 position

Ian C. Chandler; Paul T. Quinlan; Gerald P. McNeill



Miniaturization of EISCAP sensor for triglyceride detection.  


In this paper we discuss the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized triglyceride biosensors on crystalline silicon and porous silicon (PS) substrates. The sensors are miniaturized Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (mini-EISCAPs), which primarily sense the pH variation of the electrolyte used. The lipase enzyme, which catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides, was immobilized on the sensor surface. Triglyceride solutions introduced into the enzyme immobilized sensor produced butyric acid which causes the change in pH of the electrolyte. Miniaturized EISCAP sensors were fabricated using bulk micromachining technique and have silicon nitride as the pH sensitive dielectric layer. The sensors are cubical pits of dimensions 1,500 microm x 1,500 microm x 100 microm which can hold an electrolyte volume of 0.1 microl. The pH changes in the solution can be sensed through the EISCAP sensors by monitoring the flatband voltage shift in the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characteristics taken during the course of the reaction. The reaction rate is found to be quite high in the miniature cells when compared to the sensors of bigger dimensions. PMID:18649048

Vemulachedu, Hareesh; Fernandez, Renny Edwin; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju




PubMed Central

This report provides information on the morphology of fat absorption in rat intestinal epithelial cells. Three types of experiments were performed: (a) intubation of corn oil into fasted rats, (b) injection of physiological fatty-chyme prepared from fat-fed donor rats into ligated segments of jejunum of fasted animals, and (c) administration of electron-opaque particles in corn oil and markers given concurrently with the fat. These results support the hypothesis that fat is absorbed by selective diffusion of monoglycerides and fatty acids from micelles rather than by pinocytosis of unhydrolized triglycerides. Evidence is presented that the pits between the microvilli, previously believed to function in the transport of fat, are not involved in this process. Instead they appear to contribute their contents to lysosomes in the apical cytoplasm. Arguments are offered that the monoglycerides and fatty acids diffuse from the micelle while the latter is associated with the microvillous membrane of the absorptive cell. These micellar components penetrate the plasma membrane and diffuse into the cytoplasmic matrix where they encounter the SER. Triglyceride synthesis occurs in the SER and results in the deposition of fat droplets within its lumina. The synthesis of triglycerides and their sequestration into the SER establishes an inward diffusion gradient of monoglycerides and fatty acids.

Cardell, Robert R.; Badenhausen, Susan; Porter, Keith R.



Absence of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Increases Amyloid ?-Protein Pathology in Tg-5xFAD Mice  

PubMed Central

Aim The abnormal accumulation, assembly and deposition of the amyloid ?-protein (A?) are prominent pathological features of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders. A number of factors in the brain can influence A? accumulation and associated pathologies. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of deleting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, the endothelial form of NOS, in Tg-5xFAD mice, a model of parenchymal AD-like amyloid pathology. Methods Tg-5xFAD mice were bred with NOS3?/? mice. Cohorts of Tg-5xFAD mice and bigenic Tg-5xFAD/NOS3?/? mice were aged to six months followed by collection of the blood and brain tissues from the mice for biochemical and pathological analyses. Results ELISA analyses show that the absence of NOS3 results in elevated levels of cerebral and plasma A? peptides in Tg-5xFAD mice. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the absence of NOS3 increased the amount of parenchymal A? deposition and fibrillar amyloid accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice. The elevated levels of A? were not due to changes in the expression levels of transgene encoded human amyloid precursor protein (APP), endogenous ?-secretase, or increased proteolytic processing of APP. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the loss of NOS3 activity enhances A? pathology in Tg-5xFAD mice. These findings are similar to previous studies of NOS2 deletion suggesting that reduced NOS activity and NO levels enhance amyloid-associated pathologies in human APP transgenic mice.

Hu, Zishuo Ian; Kotarba, Ann Marie E.; Van Nostrand, William E.



SCD1 activity in muscle increases triglyceride PUFA content, exercise capacity, and PPAR? expression in mice[S  

PubMed Central

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 converts saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids. Using muscle overexpression, we sought to determine the role of SCD1 expression in glucose and lipid metabolism and its effects on exercise capacity in mice. Wild-type C57Bl/6 (WT) and SCD1 muscle transgenic (SCD1-Tg) mice were generated, and expression of the SCD1 transgene was restricted to skeletal muscle. SCD1 overexpression was associated with increased triglyceride (TG) content. The fatty acid composition of the muscle revealed a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of TG, including linoleate (18:2n6). Untrained SCD1-Tg mice also displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity (WT = 6.6 ± 3 min, Tg = 71.9 ± 9.5 min; P = 0.0009). SCD1-Tg mice had decreased fasting plasma glucose, glucose transporter (GLUT)1 mRNA, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial content, and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and Pgc-1 protein expression in skeletal muscle. In vitro studies in C2C12 myocytes revealed that linoleate (18:2n6) and not oleate (18:1n9) caused a 3-fold increase in PPAR? and a 9-fold increase in CPT-1b with a subsequent increase in fat oxidation. The present model suggests that increasing delta-9 desaturase activity of muscle increases metabolic function, exercise capacity, and lipid oxidation likely through increased PUFA content, which increases PPAR? expression and activity. However, the mechanism of action that results in increased PUFA content of SCD1-Tg mice remains to be elucidated.

Rogowski, Michael P.; Flowers, Matthew T.; Stamatikos, Alexis D.; Ntambi, James M.; Paton, Chad M.



ApoA-IV modulates the secretory trafficking of apoB and the size of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

Although the evidence linking apoA-IV expression and triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein assembly and secretion is compelling, the intracellular mechanisms by which apoA-IV could modulate these processes remain poorly understood. We therefore examined the functional impact of apoA-IV expression on endogenous apoB, TG, and VLDL secretion in stably transfected McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells. Expression of apoA-IV modified with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal KDEL (apoA-IV-KDEL) dramatically decreased both the rate and efficiency of endogenous apoB secretion, suggesting a presecretory interaction between apoA-IV-KDEL and apoB or apoB-containing lipoproteins. Expression of native apoA-IV using either a constitutive or tetracycline-inducible promoter delayed the initial rate of apoB secretion and reduced the final secretion efficiency by ?40%. However, whereas apoA-IV-KDEL reduced TG secretion by 75%, expression of native apoA-IV caused a 20–35% increase in TG secretion, accompanied by a ?55% increase in VLDL-associated apoB, an increase in the TG:phospholipid ratio of secreted d < 1.006 lipoproteins, and a 10.1 nm increase in peak VLDL1 particle diameter. Native apoA-IV expression had a negligible impact on expression of the MTP gene. These data suggest that by interacting with apoB in the secretory pathway, apoA-IV alters the trafficking kinetics of apoB-containing TG-rich lipoproteins through cellular lipidation compartments, which in turn, enhances particle expansion and increases TG secretion.

Weinberg, Richard B.; Gallagher, James W.; Fabritius, Melissa A.; Shelness, Gregory S.



The use of fasting vs. non-fasting triglyceride concentration for estimating the prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in population surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  For practical reasons it is not easy to obtain fasting samples in large population health surveys. Non-fasting triglyceride\\u000a (Tg) values are difficult to interpret. The authors compared the accuracy of statistically corrected non-fasting Tg values\\u000a with true fasting values and estimated the misclassification of subjects with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)\\u000a and the metabolic syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Non-fasting blood was obtained from

Jouko Sundvall; Jaana Leiviskä; Tiina Laatikainen; Markku Peltonen; Veikko Salomaa; Mauno Vanhala; Eeva Korpi-Hyövälti; Jukka Lauronen; Georg Alfthan



A genome-wide association and gene-environment interaction study for serum triglycerides levels in a healthy Chinese male population.  


Triglyceride (TG) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes or loci affecting lipid levels; however, such studies in Chinese populations are limited. A two-stage GWAS were conducted to identify genetic variants that were associated with TG in a Chinese population of 3495 men. Gene-environment interactions on serum TG levels were further investigated for the seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were studied in both stages. Two previously reported SNPs (rs651821 in APOA5, rs328 in LPL) were replicated in the second stage, and the combined P-values were 9.19 × 10(-26) and 1.41 × 10(-9) for rs651821 and rs328, respectively. More importantly, a significant interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels were observed (P = 3.34 × 10(-5)). Rs671 was significantly associated with serum TG levels in drinkers (P = 1.90 × 10(-10)), while no association was observed in non-drinkers (P > 0.05). For drinkers, men carrying the AA/AG genotype have significantly lower serum TG levels, compared with men carrying the GG genotype. For men with the GG genotype, the serum TG levels increased with the quantity of alcohol intake (P = 1.28 × 10(-8) for trend test). We identified a novel, significant interaction effect between alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism on TG levels, which suggests that the effect of alcohol intake on TG occurs in a two-faceted manner. Just one drink can increase TG level in susceptible individuals who carry the GG genotype, while individuals carrying AA/AG genotypes may actually benefit from moderate drinking. PMID:22171074

Tan, Aihua; Sun, Jielin; Xia, Ning; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Shijun; Tao, Sha; Gao, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haiying; Kim, Seong-Tae; Peng, Tao; Lin, Xiaoling; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Liang, Zhengjia; Shi, Deyi; Huang, Zhang; Huang, Xianghua; Liu, Ming; Ding, Qiang; Trent, Jeffrey M; Zheng, S Lilly; Mo, Zengnan; Xu, Jianfeng



A High Fat Diet and theThr54 polymorphism of FABP2 Reduces Plasma Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). We hypothesized that the TRL response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the FABP2 A54T polymorphism, specifically that a high fat diet would reduce TRL and that the T54 allele would have an enhanced response. Sixteen healthy, post-menopausal women completed a cross-over dietary intervention that included three 8-week, isocaloric diet treatments. The treatments consisted of high fat (HF, 40% of energy as fat), low fat (LF, 20% of energy), and low fat + n-3 fatty acids (LF+n-3, 20% of energy plus 3% as n-3 fatty acids). Eight subjects were homozygous for the wild-type (A/A) of the FABP2 polymorphism while eight subjects had at least one Thr54 allele (7 = A/T, 1 = T/T). HF diet showed significantly reduced plasma triglycerides (TG), chylomicron TG, and very-low density lipoprotein TG from baseline in all participants. Although, carriers of the Thr54 allele of the FABP2 polymorphism had significantly reduced TLR, there is no evidence of an interaction which does not support our hypothesis. The Ala54 allele did not influence the dietary effects on the plasma lipids.

McColley, Steven P; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K



Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on lipid metabolism in the chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of corn oil, coconut oil, and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT, a glyceride mixture consisting almost exclusively\\u000a of fatty acids of 8 and 10 carbons in length) ingestion on lipid metabolism was studied in chicks. In chicks fed cholesterol-free\\u000a diets, MCT ingestion elevated plasma total lipids and cholesterol and depressed liver total lipids and cholesterol when compared\\u000a to chicks receiving

Gilbert A. Leveille; Ronald S. Pardini; Jerry Ann Tillotson



Pomegranate Juice Protects Macrophages from Triglyceride Accumulation: Inhibitory Effect on DGAT1 Activity and on Triglyceride Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To analyze the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) and punicalagin on macrophage triglyceride metabolism. Methods: Triglyceride metabolism was analyzed in PJ- or punicalagin-treated J774A.1 macrophages or in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) harvested from C57BL\\/6 mice or from paraoxonase 2 (PON2)-deficient mice. Results: PJ (0–50 ?M) significantly and dose-dependently decreased the triglyceride content and triglyceride biosynthesis rate in J774A.1 macrophages

Mira Rosenblat; Michael Aviram



High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.  


Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán



Characterization of petroleum feedstocks by TG-FTIR  

SciTech Connect

For the characterization of hydrocarbons, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis techniques have proved very useful. However, TG analysis by itself does not identify the decomposition products. When TG analysis is coupled with evolved product analysis by FT-IR, a wealth of information regarding the composition of pyrolysis and oxidation products is obtained. The application of TG-FTIR to coal and petroleum source rock has been described in two recent publications. The most difficult to analyze effluents are the heavy decomposition products which condense at room temperature. These condensates such as tars from coal, asphaltenes and pre-asphaltenes from petroleum or coal derived liquids, and oligomers from polymers are invariably the major evolved products from most hydrocarbons. Their amount and composition are important in predicting the behavior of the hydrocarbon in an upgrading or conversion application. A recently designed apparatus, the Bomem TG/Plus, which combines a DEUPONT 951 TGA with a multi-pass gas cell and a MICHELSON FT-IR provides a standard TG analysis while simultaneously monitoring these condensible products as well as gases. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of the TG/PLUS for the analysis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Solomon, P.R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Gravel, D.; Baillargeon, M.; Baudais, F.; Vail, G.



Relationship between total cholesterol\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglyceride\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and high-density lipoprotein subclasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in plasma lipid levels can influence the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. This study evaluated the relationship between plasma total cholesterol (TC)\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglyceride (TG)\\/HDL-C ratio, and HDL subclass distribution. The apolipoprotein A-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were quantitated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection in 442

Lianqun Jia; Shiyin Long; Mingde Fu; Bingyu Yan; Ying Tian; Yanhua Xu; Lantu Gou



Association of the Endotoxin Antagonist E5564 with High-Density Lipoproteins In Vitro: Dependence on Low-Density and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the distribution profile of the novel endotoxin antagonist E5564 in plasma obtained from fasted human subjects with various lipid concentrations. Radiolabeled E5564 at 1 M was incubated in fasted plasma from seven human subjects with various total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations for 0.5 t o6ha t37°C. Following these incubations, plasma

Kishor M. Wasan; Olena Sivak; Richard A. Cote; Aaron I. MacInnes; Kathy D. Boulanger; Melvyn Lynn; William J. Christ; Lynn D. Hawkins; Daniel P. Rossignol



Gene by Smoking Interaction: Evidence for Effects on LowDensity Lipoprotein Size and Plasma Levels of Triglyceride and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We seek to detennine whether significant gene X smoking interaction effects exist on plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and median LDL particle diameter (LDL-MPD) in Mexican American families enrolled in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. The sample consisted of 1,392 individuals distributed in 42 extended pedigrees, ranging in age from 16 years to 92 years. Separate

Stefan A. Czerwinski; Michael C. Mahaney; Savic L. Rainwater; John L. Vandeberg; Jean W. MacCluer; Michael P. Stern; John Blangero



Elevated depressive symptoms and compositional changes in LDL particles in middle-aged men.  


Depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are closely associated, but the mechanisms underlying this connection are unclear. Regardless of the low cholesterol levels observed in depression, a small particle size of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), as well as elevated apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels, are related to increased CVD risk, even when levels of LDL cholesterol are low. We examined the association between elevated depressive symptoms and compositional changes in serum LDL particles in a sample of 2,456 middle-aged Finnish men. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 18-item Human Population Laboratory Depression Scale, and the study population was divided into two groups (elevated depressive symptoms, n = 269; non-depressed, n = 2,187). The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and ApoB were determined. The LDL-C/ApoB ratio, a marker of compositional changes in LDL particle size, was calculated. The group with elevated depressive symptoms had lowered levels of serum TC (P = 0.028) and LDL-C (P = 0.008). No differences were observed in the LDL-C/ApoB ratio. The likelihood for belonging to the group with elevated depressive symptoms increased 10% for each 0.5 mmol/l decrease in the levels of TC (P = 0.002) or LDL-C (P = 0.001) in regression models adjusted for age, examination years, marital and socioeconomic status, energy expenditure, body mass index, CVD history, alcohol consumption, smoking, and the use of lipid-lowering, antidepressant and antipsychotic medications. Our findings suggest that greater small-particle LDL levels are not associated with depression, and are thus unlikely to underlie the association between cardiovascular risk and depression. PMID:20414796

Lehto, Soili M; Ruusunen, Anu; Niskanen, Leo; Tolmunen, Tommi; Voutilainen, Sari; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kaplan, George A; Kauhanen, Jussi



Effect of n-3 fatty acids on the key enzymes involved in cholesterol and triglyceride turnover in rat liver.  


The effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on hepatic key enzymes of cholesterol metabolism and triglyceride biosynthesis was investigated in two rat models. In the first model, rats were intravenously infused for two weeks with a fat emulsion containing 20% of triglycerides in which either n-6 or n-3 fatty acids predominated. The treatment with n-3 fatty acids led to a reduction primarily of serum cholesterol (45%), but also of serum triglycerides (18%). HMG-CoA reductase activity and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity were reduced by 45% and 36%, respectively. There were no significant effects on diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) or phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) activities. In the second model, rats were fed a diet enriched with sucrose, coconut oil and either sunflower oil (n-6 fatty acids) or fish oil (long-chain n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters). The treatment with n-3 fatty acids decreased serum triglycerides (41%) and, to a lesser extent, serum cholesterol (17%). Neither glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) or DGAT were affected by n-3 fatty acids. In contrast, PAP activity was reduced by 26%. HMG-CoA reductase was not significantly affected, whereas cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was reduced by 36%. The results indicate that part of the TG-lowering effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be mediated by inhibition of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. The effect on serum cholesterol may be partly due to inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:1895886

al-Shurbaji, A; Larsson-Backström, C; Berglund, L; Eggertsen, G; Björkhem, I



Does the arrhenius temperature dependence of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation persist above T(g)?  


Dielectric spectra of the polyalcohols sorbitol and xylitol were measured under isobaric pressures up to 1.8 GPa. At elevated pressure, the separation between the alpha and beta relaxation peaks is larger than at ambient pressure, enabling the beta relaxation times to be unambiguously determined. Taking advantage of this, we show that the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the beta relaxation time does not persist for temperatures above T(g). This result, consistent with inferences drawn from dielectric relaxation measurements at ambient pressure, is obtained directly, without the usual problematic deconvolution the beta and alpha processes. PMID:14525441

Paluch, M; Roland, C M; Pawlus, S; Zio?o, J; Ngai, K L



The predictive ability of triglycerides and waist (hypertriglyceridemic waist) in assessing metabolic triad change in obese children and adolescents.  


Abstract Background: The metabolic triad [fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and low-density lipoporotein (LDL) peak particle density] is characteristic of increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance and can be predicted by the simple and adoptable screening tool, the hypertriglyceridemic waist. The associations between hypertriglyceridemic waist components [fasting triglycerides (TG) and waist circumference cut-points derived from a child-specific metabolic syndrome definition] with the metabolic triad were examined in obese youth before and after weight loss. Methods: A continuous metabolic triad score (MTS) was calculated as a cumulative and standardized residual score of fasting insulin, apolipoprotein B, and LDL peak particle density (z-scores of the metabolic triad variables regressed onto age and sex). The predictive ability of TG and waist in assessing metabolic triad change was undertaken in 75 clinically obese boys and girls, aged 8-18, body mass index (BMI) 34.2±6.4 kg/m(2) before and after weight loss. Results: Fasting TG concentrations (r(2)=0.216, P<0.0001) and waist circumference (r(2)=0.049, P=0.019) were both significant independent predictors of the cumulative MTS, together accounting for 26.5% of its total variance. All cardiometabolic risk factors [except a reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] were favorably modified following weight loss. Fasting TG change was the only significant predictor of the MTS change (r(2)=0.177, P<0.0001). Waist circumference was not a significant predictor of MTS change. Conclusion: The reduction in fasting TG concentration (but not waist circumference) was the only significant predictor of MTS change. Fasting TG may be the most important metabolic syndrome component to best characterize the metabolic heterogeneity in obese cohorts and the changes in metabolic risk in clinically obese youth. PMID:23758076

Hobkirk, James P; King, Roderick F; Gately, Paul; Pemberton, Philip; Smith, Alexander; Barth, Julian H; Harman, Nicola; Davies, Ian; Carroll, Sean



Disruption of IFT results in both exocrine and endocrine abnormalities in the pancreas of Tg737(orpk) mutant mice.  


While relatively ignored for years as vestigial, cilia have recently become the focus of intense interest as organelles that result in severe pathologies when disrupted. Here, we further establish a connection between cilia dysfunction and disease by showing that loss of polaris (Tg737), an intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein required for ciliogenesis, causes abnormalities in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas of the Tg737(orpk) mouse. Pathology is evident late in gestation as dilatations of the pancreatic ducts that continue to expand postnatally. Shortly after birth, the acini become disorganized, undergo apoptosis, and are largely ablated in late stage pathology. In addition, serum amylase levels are elevated and carboxypeptidase is abnormally activated within the pancreas. Ultrastructural analysis reveals that the acini undergo extensive vacuolization and have numerous 'halo-granules' similar to that seen in induced models of pancreatitis resulting from duct obstruction. Intriguingly, although the acini are severely affected in Tg737(orpk) mutants, cilia and Tg737 expression are restricted to the ducts and islets and are not detected on acinar cells. Analysis of the endocrine pancreas in Tg737(orpk) mutants revealed normal differentiation and distribution of cell types in the islets. However, after fasting, mutant blood glucose levels are significantly lower than controls and when challenged in glucose tolerance tests, Tg737(orpk) mutants exhibited defects in glucose uptake. These findings are interesting in light of the recently proposed role for polaris, the protein encoded by the Tg737 gene, in the hedgehog pathway and hedgehog signaling in insulin production and glucose homeostasis. PMID:15580285

Zhang, Qihong; Davenport, James R; Croyle, Mandy J; Haycraft, Courtney J; Yoder, Bradley K



Regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein by apolipoprotein A-IV in newborn swine intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV overexpression enhances chylomicron (CM) assembly and secretion in newborn swine intestinal epithelial cells by producing larger particles (Lu S, Yao Y, Cheng X, Mitchell S, Leng S, Meng S, Gallagher JW, Shelness GS, Morris GS, Mahan J, Frase S, Mansbach CM, Weinberg RB, Black DD. J Biol Chem 281: 3473–3483, 2006). To determine the impact of apo A-IV on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), IPEC-1 cell lines containing a tetracycline-regulatable expression system were used to overexpress native swine apo A-IV and “piglike” human apo A-IV, a mutant human apo A-IV with deletion of the EQQQ-rich COOH-terminus, previously shown to upregulate basolateral triglyceride (TG) secretion 5-fold and 25-fold, respectively. Cells were incubated 24 h with and without doxycycline and oleic acid (OA, 0.8 mM). Overexpression of the native swine apo A-IV and piglike human apo A-IV increased MTTP lipid transfer activity by 39.7% (P = 0.006) and 53.6% (P = 0.0001), respectively, compared with controls. Changes in mRNA and protein levels generally paralleled changes in activity. Interestingly, native swine apo A-IV overexpression also increased MTTP large subunit mRNA, protein levels, and lipid transfer activity in the absence of OA, suggesting a mechanism not mediated by lipid absorption. Overexpression of piglike human apo A-IV significantly increased partitioning of radiolabeled OA from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to lumen, suggesting increased net transfer of membrane TG to luminal particles. These results suggest that the increased packaging of TG into nascent CMs in the ER lumen, induced by apo A-IV, is associated with upregulation of MTTP activity at the pretranslational level. Thus MTTP is regulated by apo A-IV in a manner to promote increased packaging of TG into the CM core, which may be important in neonatal fat absorption.

Yao, Ying; Lu, Song; Huang, Yue; Beeman-Black, Casey C.; Lu, Rena; Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood



N-3 fatty acid rich triglyceride emulsions are neuroprotective after cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal mice.  


We questioned if acute administration of n-3 fatty acids (FA) carried in n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions provides neuroprotection in neonatal mice subjected to hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) brain injury. We examined specificity of FA, optimal doses, and therapeutic windows for neuroprotection after H/I. H/I insult was induced in C57BL/6J 10-day-old mice by right carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% O(2) for 15 minutes at 37°C. Intraperitoneal injection with n-3-rich TG emulsions, n-6 rich TG emulsions or saline for control was administered at different time points before and/or after H/I. In separate experiments, dose responses were determined with TG containing only docosahexaenoic acid (Tri-DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (Tri-EPA) with a range of 0.1-0.375 g n-3 TG/kg, administered immediately after H/I insult. Infarct volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured. Treatment with n-3 TG emulsions both before- and after- H/I significantly reduced total infarct volume by a mean of 43% when administered 90 min prior to H/I and by 47% when administered immediately after H/I. In post-H/I experiments Tri-DHA, but not Tri-EPA exhibited neuroprotective effects with both low and high doses (p<0.05). Moreover, delayed post-H/I treatment with Tri-DHA significantly decreased total infarct volume by a mean of 51% when administered at 0 hr, by 46% at 1 hr, and by 51% at 2 hr after H/I insult. No protective effect occurred with Tri-DHA injection at 4 hr after H/I. There were no n-3 TG related differences in CBF. A significant reduction in brain tissue death was maintained after Tri-DHA injection at 8 wk after the initial brain injury. Thus, n-3 TG, specifically containing DHA, is protective against H/I induced brain infarction when administered up to 2 hr after H/I injury. Acute administration of TG-rich DHA may prove effective for treatment of stroke in humans. PMID:23437099

Williams, Jill J; Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Vannucci, Susan J; Mastropietro, Christopher; Bazan, Nicolas G; Ten, Vadim S; Deckelbaum, Richard J



Relationship between insulin sensitivity and the triglyceride-HDL-C ratio in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a MONET study.  


The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between the triglyceride-HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C) and insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 131 non-diabetic overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age; 57.7+/-5.0 y; body mass index (BMI), 32.2+/-4.3 kg/m2). Subjects were characterized by dividing the entire cohort into tertiles based on the TG:HDL-C (T1<0.86 vs. T2=0.86 to 1.35 vs. T3>1.35, respectively). We measured (i) insulin sensitivity (using the hyperinsulinenic-euglycemic clamp and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)), (ii) body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), (iii) visceral fat (using computed tomography), (iv) plasma lipids, C-reactive protein, 2 h glucose concentration during an oral glucose tolerance test (2 h glucose), as well as fasting glucose and insulin, (v) peak oxygen consumption, and (vi) lower-body muscle strength (using weight training equipment). Significant correlations were observed between the TG:HDL-C and the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (r=-0.45; p<0.0001), as well as with HOMA (r=0.42; p<0.0001). Moreover, the TG:HDL-C significantly correlated with lean body mass, visceral fat, 2 h glucose, C-reactive protein, and muscle strength. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the TG:HDL-C explained 16.4% of the variation in glucose disposal in our cohort, which accounted for the greatest source of unique variance. Other independent predictors of glucose disposal were 2 h glucose (10.1%), C-reactive protein (CRP; 7.6%), and peak oxygen consumption (5.8%), collectively (including the TG:HDL-C) explaining 39.9% of the unique variance. In addition, the TG:HDL-C was the second predictor for HOMA, accounting for 11.7% of the variation. High levels of insulin sensitivity were associated with low levels of the TG:HDL-C. In addition, the TG:HDL-C was a predictor for glucose disposal rates and HOMA values in our cohort of overweight and obese postmenopausal women. PMID:18059582

Karelis, Antony D; Pasternyk, Stephanie M; Messier, Lyne; St-Pierre, David H; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Garrel, Dominique; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi



N-3 Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Are Neuroprotective after Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice  

PubMed Central

We questioned if acute administration of n-3 fatty acids (FA) carried in n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions provides neuroprotection in neonatal mice subjected to hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) brain injury. We examined specificity of FA, optimal doses, and therapeutic windows for neuroprotection after H/I. H/I insult was induced in C57BL/6J 10-day-old mice by right carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 15 minutes at 37°C. Intraperitoneal injection with n-3-rich TG emulsions, n-6 rich TG emulsions or saline for control was administered at different time points before and/or after H/I. In separate experiments, dose responses were determined with TG containing only docosahexaenoic acid (Tri-DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (Tri-EPA) with a range of 0.1–0.375 g n-3 TG/kg, administered immediately after H/I insult. Infarct volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured. Treatment with n-3 TG emulsions both before- and after- H/I significantly reduced total infarct volume by a mean of 43% when administered 90 min prior to H/I and by 47% when administered immediately after H/I. In post-H/I experiments Tri-DHA, but not Tri-EPA exhibited neuroprotective effects with both low and high doses (p<0.05). Moreover, delayed post-H/I treatment with Tri-DHA significantly decreased total infarct volume by a mean of 51% when administered at 0 hr, by 46% at 1 hr, and by 51% at 2 hr after H/I insult. No protective effect occurred with Tri-DHA injection at 4 hr after H/I. There were no n-3 TG related differences in CBF. A significant reduction in brain tissue death was maintained after Tri-DHA injection at 8 wk after the initial brain injury. Thus, n-3 TG, specifically containing DHA, is protective against H/I induced brain infarction when administered up to 2 hr after H/I injury. Acute administration of TG-rich DHA may prove effective for treatment of stroke in humans.

Vannucci, Susan J.; Mastropietro, Christopher; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Ten, Vadim S.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.



Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.  


Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, Zhongmao



Deranged aortic intima-media thickness, plasma triglycerides and granulopoiesis in Sl/Sl(d) mice.  

PubMed Central

Studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of a high-fat dietary regimen on aortic wall thickness, peripheral blood leukocyte profile, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the mast cell-deficient Sl/Sl(d) mouse. The results demonstrated that the mean aortic wall thickness of Sl/Sl(d) mice was significantly higher than their normal littermates, and were increased in both genotypes after a 17-day high-fat regimen. In comparison with normal littermates, Sl/Sl(d) genotypes had elevated levels of plasma triglycerides with normal levels of plasma cholesterol, and the high-fat diet markedly lowered the triglyceride levels. Total peripheral blood leukocytes, the monocyte and granulocyte counts, and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in Sl/Sl(d) mice, although the number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the same in both genotypes. Interestingly, the high-fat diet regimen elevated leukocyte counts and the number of monocytes and granulocytes in Sl/Sl(d) mice.

Dileepan, Kottarappat N; Johnston, Thomas P; Li, Yuai; Tawfik, Ossama; Stechschulte, Daniel J



Regulation of hamster hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA levels by dietary fats.  


The effect of dietary fat on hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein(MTP) large subunit mRNA levels in the hamster was examined. Increasing the dietary fat concentration from 11.7 energy % to 46.8 energy % caused a 60% increase in hepatic MTP mRNA; this increase was shown to be dose-dependent (r = 0.688 p = 0.0023). MTP mRNA levels correlated significantly with several plasma lipoprotein cholesterol parameters. No significant relationship was observed between MTP mRNA and either plasma or VLDL triglyceride. The nature of the dietary fatty acids also influenced MTP mRNA levels, with trimyristin and tripalmitin enriched diets significantly elevating MTP mRNA relative to diets enriched in triolein and trilinolein. PMID:7626061

Bennett, A J; Billett, M A; Salter, A M; White, D A





An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.



Changes in liver uptake of a radioiodinated triglyceride analog in ethanol-fed rats  

SciTech Connect

A radioiodinated triglyceride (TG) analog, ({sup 125}I)-glycerol-2-palmitoyl-1,3-di-15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoate (DPPG) has been synthesized and shown to accumulate within the liver of normal rats within 15 min of i.v. administration. With time, the radioactivity clears and more activity appears as the fatty acid metabolite than as parent compound. In this study, rats were fed a commercial liquid diet containing 36% of the calories either as ethanol (ET) or sucrose (CON). After six weeks, the ET rats had significantly higher plasma and liver TG levels than CON rats. In addition, the ET rats showed fatty infiltration of the liver by histopathologic examination. DPPG formulated in a detergent-saline vehicle was administered and different patterns of both uptake and clearance were seen in these groups of rats. The CON rats showed greater uptake and more rapid clearance of radioactivity than ET rats. A similar pattern was observed noninvasively by gamma camera scintigraphy. In addition, PAGE analysis of the plasma revealed that 90% of the radioactivity in the plasma was associated with plasma lipoproteins within 5 m. By 120 m 40% of the plasma activity in CON rats was associated with albumin, indicating hydrolysis to the free fatty acid. In the ET rats only 22% was albumin bound at this time. Thus, DPPG shows promise as an agent to diagnose changes in liver lipid metabolism in such disease states as alcoholism.

Schwendner, S.W.; Skinner, R.S.W.; Gross, M.; Ruyan, M.; Counsell, R.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States) VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))



Tg and Cure of a Polycyanurate at the Nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale constraint is known to have a significant impact on the thermal properties of materials. Although thermosetting resins have been cured in the presence of nanoparticles and nanotubes, cure of thermosetting resins under the well defined nanoscale constraints imposed by controlled pore glass (CPG) or similar matrices has not been previously documented. In this work, we investigate the isothermal curing under nanoscale constraint of a thermosetting resin, bisphenol M dicyanate ester (BMDC), which trimerizes to form a polycyanurate network material. Differential scanning calorimeter is used to monitor the evolution of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the conversion during cure as a function of the diameter of the silanized control pore glass matrix which is used for confinement. A Tg depression is observed for both the bisphenol M dicyanate ester monomer and the polycyanurate networks; the depression is only a few degrees for the monomer, whereas a 56 K depression is observed for the ``fully-cured'' network in 11.5 nm pores. The nanoscale constraint is also found to accelerate the cure of the bisphenol M dicyanate ester, but it does not affect the normalized Tg versus conversion relationship. The appearance of a secondary Tg above the primary Tg in the smaller pores and the associated length scale are discussed.

Simon, Sindee; Li, Qingxiu



Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor contributes to triglyceride degradation.  


Pigment epithelium-derived factor is well known as a secreted glycoprotein with multiple functions, such as anti-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-tumor activities. However, its intracellular role remains unknown. The present study was performed to demonstrate the intracellular function of pigment epithelium-derived factor on triglyceride degradation. Hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor levels increased at the early stage and subsequently decreased after 16 weeks in high-fat-diet-fed mice compared to those in chow-fed mice. Similarly, oleic acid led to long-term downregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor in HepG2 cells. Endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor was an intracellular protein with cytoplasmic distribution in hepatocytes by immunostaining. Exogenous FITC-labeled pigment epithelium-derived factor could be absorbed into hepatocytes. Both signal peptide deletion and full-length pigment epithelium-derived factor transfection HeLa cells and hepatocytes promoted triglyceride degradation. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor co-immunoprecipitated with adipose triglyceride lipase and promoted triglyceride degradation in an adipose triglyceride lipase-dependent manner. Additionally, pigment epithelium-derived factor bound to the C-terminal of adipose triglyceride lipase (aa268-504) and adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 complex simultaneously, which facilitated adipose triglyceride lipase-G0/G1 switch gene-2 translocation onto lipid droplet using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous pigment epithelium-derived factor in hepatocytes diminished triglyceride degradation. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor was decreased in obese mice accompanied with hepatic steatosis. Intracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to and facilitates adipose triglyceride lipase translocation onto lipid droplet, which promotes triglyceride degradation. These findings suggest that a decreased level of hepatic pigment epithelium-derived factor may contribute to hepatic steatosis in obesity. PMID:23886488

Dai, Zhiyu; Zhou, Ti; Li, Cen; Qi, Weiwei; Mao, Yuling; Lu, Juling; Yao, Yachao; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Hong, Honghai; Li, Shuai; Cai, Weibin; Yang, Zhonghan; Ma, Jianxing; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan



Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women.  


It is known that chronic endurance training leads to improvements in the lipoprotein profile, but less is known about changes that occur during postexercise recovery acutely. We analyzed triglyceride (TG), cholesterol classes and apolipoproteins in samples collected before, during and after individual moderate- and hard-intensity exercise sessions in men and women that were isoenergetic between intensities. Young healthy men (n = 9) and young healthy women (n = 9) were studied under three different conditions with diet unchanged between trials: (1) before, during and 3 h after 90 min of exercise at 45% VO(2)peak (E45); (2) before, during and 3 h after 60 min of exercise at 65% VO(2)peak (E65), and (3) in a time-matched sedentary control trial (C). At baseline, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in women than men (P < 0.05). In men and in women, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL peak particle size were unaltered by exercise either during exertion or after 3 h of recovery. In women, but not in men, average plasma TG was significantly reduced below C at 3 h postexercise by approximately 15% in E45 and 25% in E65 (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between exercise intensities. In summary, plasma TG concentration rapidly declines following exercise in women, but not in men. These results demonstrate an important mechanism by which each individual exercise session may incrementally reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. PMID:20217117

Henderson, Gregory C; Krauss, Ronald M; Fattor, Jill A; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Luke-Zeitoun, Mona; Brooks, George A



1914G variant of BCHE gene associated with enzyme activity, obesity and triglyceride levels.  


Polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) have been reported to be associated to weight, BMI variance and hypertriglyceridemia in adults and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of -116A (SNP: G/A; rs1126680) and 1914G (SNP: A/G; rs3495) variants of BCHE gene with anthropometric and biochemical variables associated with obesity in population sample of 115 individuals, from Southern Brazil. Participants were grouped in two categories: obese (BMI?30) and non-obese (BMI<30). The 1914G allele showed significantly higher frequency in the obese group, and carriers of 1914G allele showed lower mean BChE activity when compared to 1914A carriers (p=0.006). Higher means of BMI (p=0.02) and triglyceride (TG; p=0.01) were found in 1914G carriers (BMI=27.57kg/m(2); TG=150.8mg/dL) when compared to 1914A homozygotes (BMI=25.55kg/m(2); TG=107.9mg/dL). Carriers of the -116A allele showed lower mean BChE activity than usual homozygotes, and the -116A variant was found in cis with 1914G (p<0.0001; D'=1). The region of BCHE gene that contains the 1914G mutation site is target of microRNAs (miRs) and the response of BChE to glucocorticoids is especially influenced by these miRs. Therefore, it is possible that the 1914G allele can be interfering in gluconeogenesis, hyperglycemia, lipolysis and body fat distribution. This lower activity may cause an imbalance in lipid metabolism, which may lead to an increased predisposition to obesity and to a lower ability to maintain metabolic homeostasis. PMID:24001779

Lima, Jovana Karoline; Leite, Neiva; Turek, Luciane Viater; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen Rodrigues; da Silva Timossi, Luciana; Osiecki, Ana Claudia Vecchi; Osiecki, Raul; Furtado-Alle, Lupe



Process of Preparing Stable Triglycerides of Fat Forming Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process is for producing the thermodynamically stable polymorphic form of solid fatty triglycerides. The triglyceride mixture at a temperature below the melting point and at a pressure of at least 1000 p.s.i. is forced through an orifice about .01 inc...

R. O. Feuge W. Landmann



Iodination of human thyroglobulin (Tg) alters its immunoreactivity. II. Fine specificity of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes iodinated Tg  

PubMed Central

In a previous investigation, we found that murine MoAb 42C3, raised against human Tg, recognized Tg differently depending upon its level of iodination of Tg. A possible explanation for this finding is that iodine is directly involved with the specific epitope recognized by MoAb 42C3. In the present study, we report that the binding of MoAb 42C3 to iodinated Tg is inhibited by T4, T3, reverse T3 (rT3), triiodothyroacetic acid (triac), diiodothyronine (T2), diiodotyrosine (DIT), but not by thyronine (T0) or tyrosine. The order of inhibition of these iodinated compounds is T4 > T3 > rT3 > triac > T2 > DIT. The MoAb 42C3 does not have the same specificity as the T3, T4-receptor since the order of binding of these iodinated compounds on the receptor differed from the order of their inhibition of this MoAb. Monoclonal antibody 42C3 also recognized non-iodinated Tg that was subsequently iodinated in vitro. It failed to recognize another protein, bovine serum albumin, that was iodinated in vitro by the same method. These results suggest that iodinated tyrosines and thyronines determine the binding specificity of MoAb 42C3. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on MoAb 42C3 depend on their iodine content as well as location of iodine in the aromatic ring.

Saboori, A M; Rose, N R; Burek, C L



Iodination of human thyroglobulin (Tg) alters its immunoreactivity. II. Fine specificity of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes iodinated Tg.  


In a previous investigation, we found that murine MoAb 42C3, raised against human Tg, recognized Tg differently depending upon its level of iodination of Tg. A possible explanation for this finding is that iodine is directly involved with the specific epitope recognized by MoAb 42C3. In the present study, we report that the binding of MoAb 42C3 to iodinated Tg is inhibited by T4, T3, reverse T3 (rT3), triiodothyroacetic acid (triac), diiodothyronine (T2), diiodotyrosine (DIT), but not by thyronine (TO) or tyrosine. The order of inhibition of these iodinated compounds is T4 > T3 > rT3 > triac > T2 > DIT. The MoAb 42C3 does not have the same specificity as the T3, T4-receptor since the order of binding of these iodinated compounds on the receptor differed from the order of their inhibition of this MoAb. Monoclonal antibody 42C3 also recognized non-iodinated Tg that was subsequently iodinated in vitro. It failed to recognize another protein, bovine serum albumin, that was iodinated in vitro by the same method. These results suggest that iodinated tyrosines and thyronines determine the binding specificity of MoAb 42C3. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on MoAb 42C3 depend on their iodine content as well as location of iodine in the aromatic ring. PMID:9717982

Saboori, A M; Rose, N R; Burek, C L



Plasma post-heparin lipolytic activity and triglyceride clearance in uremic and hemodialysis patients and renal allograft recipients.  


In order to study mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridemia in uremia, maintenance hemodialysis, and post-renal transplantation, plasma post-heparin lipolytic acitivity was measured and the kinetics of triglyceride removal were determined during infusions of triglyceride in patients from each of these groups and in healthy control subjects. In addition, plasma lipolytic activity was measured both during the course of a single hemodialysis treatment and in response to daily hemodialysis over a five-day period. The mean serum triglyceride level was significantly elevated and the mean plasma post-heparin lipolytic activity significantly reduced in all three groups. Post-heparin lipolytic activity in transplant recipients with a normal serum creatinine concentration was not significantly different from that in control subjects. Those transplant recipients with mildly impaired graft function had levels of post-heparin lipolytic activity comparable to those in patients with end-stage renal failure. Triglyceride clearance was significantly reduced in both the transplant recipients and in the uremic patients. During a single hemodialysis treatment with systemic heparinization plasma lipolytic activity decreased after the first hour. With daily hemodialysis, predialysis post-heparin lipolytic activity progressively declined after the second day. It is concluded that reduced post-heparin lipolytic activity and decreased triglyceride clearance contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia seen not only in uremic patients and in patients on maintenance hemodialysis but also in renal allograft recipients. Diminished lipolytic activity in hemodialysis patients may be in part due to heparin-induced depletion. PMID:775004

Ibels, S L; Reardon, M F; Nestel, P J



log(TG)/HDL-C is related to both residual cardiometabolic risk and ?-cell function loss in type 2 diabetes males  

PubMed Central

Background T2DM is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD), defined as decreased HDL-C plus raised triglycerides (TG). AD confers increased risk for CAD, even when LDL-C is at target. AD is rarely assessed due to lack of screening methods consensus. Aim To establish the prevalence and severity of AD from log(TG)/HDL-C in T2DM males, and to determine how it relates to cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis, micro- and macrovascular complications, and 10-year UKPDS CV risk. Methods 585 T2DM males divided according to quintiles (Q) of log(TG)/HDL-C. AD prevalence defined as HDL-C <40 mg.dL-1 plus TG ?150 mg.dL-1. ?-cell function assessed with HOMA. Results Mean HDL-C and TG were 44 (13) and 204 (155) mg.dL-1. AD prevalence was 35%. AD correlated with lower ?-cell function, with accelerated loss of insulin secretion, and with poorer HbA1c levels. AD was related to a high prevalence of CAD, and also to 10-year absolute CAD risk. Conclusions log(TG)/HDL-C is a simple means to estimate AD and the residual CV risk it confers in T2DM. AD closely associates with major cardiometabolic and glucose homeostasis determinants and poorer metabolic control. The ratio also relates to macroangiopathy prevalence and ranks future CAD risk, and is well-suited to capture non-LDL-related macrovascular residual risk and major glycemic determinants.



Randomized trial of exercise effect on intrahepatic triglyceride content and lipid kinetics in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alterations in hepatic lipoprotein kinetics are common metabolic complications associated with obesity. Lifestyle modification involving diet-induced weight loss and regular exercise decreases intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) secretion rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight loss-independent effect of following the physical activity guidelines recommended by the Department of Health and Human Services on IHTG content and VLDL kinetics in obese persons with NAFLD. Eighteen obese people (BMI: 38.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) with NAFLD were randomized to 16 weeks of exercise training (45-55% V?O2peak, 30-60 min × 5 days/week; n = 12) or observation (control; n = 6). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stable isotope tracer infusions in conjunction with compartmental modeling were used to evaluate IHTG content and hepatic VLDL-TG and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) secretion rates. Exercise training resulted in a 10.3 ± 4.6 % decrease in IHTG content (p<0.05), but did not change total body weight (103.1 ± 4.2 kg before and 102.9 ± 4.2 kg after training) or percent body fat (38.9 ± 2.1 % before and 39.2 ± 2.1 % after training). Exercise training did not change the hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (17.7 ± 3.9 ?mol/min before and 16.8 ± 5.4 ?mol/min after training) or VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate (1.5 ± 0.5 nmol/min before and 1.6 ± 0.6 nmol/min after training). Conclusions: Following the Department of Health and Human Services recommended physical activity guidelines has small but beneficial effects on IHTG content, but does not improve hepatic lipoprotein kinetics, in obese persons with NAFLD.

Sullivan, Shelby; Kirk, Erik P.; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel



Expression of tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG) and the effect of tTG inhibitor on the hippocampal CA1 region after transient ischemia in gerbils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronological changes of tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG) were observed in the hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. In the sham-operated group, tTG immunoreactivity was weakly detected in blood vessels which were immunostained with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), and tTG immunoreactivity in blood vessels was highest 5 days after ischemia\\/reperfusion. In addition, tTG immunoreaction was expressed in microglia

In Koo Hwang; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Sun Shin Yi; Il Yong Kim; Hye Sook Hwang; Kyung-Yul Lee; Sun Mi Choi; In Se Lee; Yeo Sung Yoon; Soo Youl Kim; Moo Ho Won; Je Kyung Seong



Characterization of Triglyceride Rich Lipoproteins with Very Light Density by Ultracentrifugation and Agarose Gel Electrophoresis using Triglyceride and Cholesterol-Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. This risk is most likely due to accumulation of circulating triglyceride rich lipoproteins with heterogeneous particles. The identification and characterization of these triglyceride rich lipoproteins is important to detect abnormality of triglyceride metabolism. In the present study, we developed a new method that combines ultra- centrifugation and agarose gel electrophoresis with triglyceride-

Hiroya Hidaka; Minoru Tozuka; Barbara Meyer; Kazuyoshi Yamauchi; Mitsutoshi Sugano; Tetsuo Nakabayashi; Tsutomu Katsuyama


?-Tocotrienol attenuates triglyceride through effect on lipogenic gene expressions in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa 1-6.  


Vitamin E is the generic name for tocopherol (Toc) and tocotrienol (T3), which have saturated and unsaturated side chains, respectively. Such differences allow T3 to be different from Toc in terms of their functions. T3 has been known to attenuate cholesterol (Cho) level by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). Recent reports also showed the efficacy of T3 in improving triglyceride (TG) profiles in both in vivo and in vitro studies. However the mechanism involved in this biological activity is still unclear and needs to be further investigated. In the present study, we elucidated the effect of ?-T3 on lipid levels and lipogenic gene expressions in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa 1-6. ?-T3 showed attenuation of TG through effect on fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A gene expression in Hepa 1-6. In contrast, the Cho level remained unchanged. These results expanded our previous finding of lipid-lowering effects of T3, especially for TG. Therefore, T3 is a potential lipid-lowering compound candidate with realistic prospects for its use as a therapy for lipid-related diseases in humans. PMID:23727646

Burdeos, Gregor Carpentero; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Akio; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo



Some Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Structure of Cellulose and its Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many commercial processes cellulose is exposed to elevated temperatures in the 100 to 200°C range. Though this range is below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of dry cellulose, in the presence of polar media Tg is depressed, and molecular mobility is sufficient to allow structural reorganization. In the present study, a number of regenerated celluloses, some amorphous and some

R. H. Atalla; J. D. Ellis; L. R. Schroeder



Postprandial Adiponectin Levels Are Associated with Improvements in Postprandial Triglycerides After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.  


Abstract Background: Postprandial hypertrygliceridemia is a known factor for cardiovascular disease and is often observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and visceral adiposity. Adiponectin is a hormone with antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, which decreases in obesity and T2DM subjects. The weight loss induced by diet or bariatric surgery could be restoring adiponectin levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, which could restore adiponectin and triglycerides (TG) levels in obese and diabetic patients. Methods: Ten patients with T2DM (BMI 39.3+2.44) were evaluated before and at 7 and 90 days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A meal test was performed and plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose, TG, and adiponectin levels were measured at fasting and at 30, 60, 90, and 120?min postprandial. Results: Seven days after surgery, significant reductions in the insulin resistance were observed, while TG and adiponectin levels remained unchanged during the meal test. Ninety days after surgery, TG and glucose levels decreased significantly at fasting, and postprandial, adiponectin, GLP-1, and insulin curves increased significantly after meal ingestion. Both changes in the area under the curve (AUC) of adiponectin correlated with changes in the AUC of TG (R=-0.64, P=0.003) and changes in AUC of adiponectin correlated with changes in total fat mass. No correlation was found between changes in insulin, GLP-1, and TG levels. Conclusions: The adiponectin levels may be involved in the mechanism responsible for high TG levels in obese and diabetic patients. These abnormalities can be reversed by RYGB. PMID:23745620

Umeda, Luciana M; Pereira, Andrea Z; Carneiro, Glaucia; Arasaki, Carlos H; Zanella, Maria Teresa



Calibration of the Gamma Knife using a new phantom following the AAPM TG51 and TG21 protocols  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare calibration of the Leksell Gamma Knife according to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Groups 21 and 51 protocols. A new phantom was fabricated for this purpose. Its design, physical properties, and composition are described. Materials and methods: The Gamma Knife TG-51 calibration phantom is designed to be filled with water and support an ionization chamber positioned at its center. The phantom is thimble-shaped, with a 2 mm plastic wall to contain water. The phantom and chamber assembly was mounted in a LeksellTM stereotactic frame. The location of the chamber's sensitive volume was determined using computed tomography. The chamber-phantom assembly was attached to the 18 mm helmet in the Gamma Knife by the stereotactic frame. The phantom's geometry allowed radiation beams from each of the 201 Gamma Knife cobalt-60 sources to converge after an 8 cm path to the ionization chamber's sensitive volume. This is similar to the arrangement by which one calibrates the Gamma Knife using the manufacturer-supplied polystyrene phantom. Results: The phantom was attached to the Gamma Knife so that the ionization chamber was reproducibly positioned at the convergence of the radiation beams. Because of the phantom's design, the phantom could be affixed to either trunnions or the automatic patient positioning system, once mounted in the LeksellTM stereotectic frame. Comparisons using different phantoms and protocols resulted in the following calibration ratios for TG-21 in the polystyrene sphere phantom, TG-21 in the water phantom, and TG-51 in the water phantom, respectively: 1.000, 1.008, 0.986, when corrected for transmission through the plastic water reservoir wall and using the same ionization chamber. Transmission measurements using a 1 cm thickness of the same material in the Co-60 beam determined that the phantom's 2 mm plastic wall resulted in a reduction in the measured the output by 0.5%. Conclusions: Calibration of the Gamma Knife can be performed in liquid water using the AAPM TG-51 protocol and this new phantom, thereby eliminating uncertainties with respect to the composition of the manufacturer's phantom. Perturbation of calibration measurements by nonwater materials was characterized and could be corrected. Calibration values for the Gamma Knife that were obtained using the three methods for our phantoms agree to within 1.4%. TG21 and TG51 calibration of the Gamma Knife using the water phantom agreed to within 2.2%.

Drzymala, R. E.; Wood, R. C.; Levy, J. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, New York 12865 (United States)



Medium Chain Triglycerides in Paediatric Practice  

PubMed Central

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) bypass the steps necessary for the absorption of long chain fats (LCT), and so have theoretical grounds for their use in various disease states, particularly malabsorptive disorders. In childhood, MCT have particular advantages since they allow restriction of dietary long chain fats without limiting the intake of protein necessary for growth while providing adequate calories. In malabsorptive states, MCT have been used mostly in cystic fibrosis, where they may reduce steatorrhoea. However, the long-term growth patterns of these children are dependent on the extent and severity of their chest disease. MCT may be a useful source of calories for those with anorexia due to infection or liver disease and in babies recovering from meconium ileus. The decrease in offensive stools, flatus, and abdominal discomfort improves well-being and social acceptability which is important for many schoolchildren and adolescents. Rectal prolapse may be helped. Where there is loss of the small intestinal absorptive surface, particularly after massive small bowel resection, MCT can help to maintain weight and nutrition. They may also be a useful supplementary nutritional measure in patients severely affected with coeliac disease while awaiting response to a gluten-free diet, and in patients with regional enteritis. In children with liver disease, MCT provide a ready source of calories while avoiding the loss of fat in their stools. Infants with neonatal hepatitis or biliary atresia remain well nourished, and some older children with liver disease grow more rapidly and have fewer and less offensive stools and less abdominal discomfort. Where an abnormal number of faecal organisms colonize the small intestine (`contaminated small bowel syndrome' or `blind loop syndrome') intraluminal bile salts become deconjugated and cause steatorrhoea. A combination of antibiotic and surgical treatment is usually indicated, but MCT can be used to improve nutrition before operation and may be indicated for associated conditions, such as massive intestinal resection. MCT have also been helpful in patients with defective chylomicron formation due to a-?-lipoproteinaemia. In the congenital and less commonly encountered acquired lymphatic disorders in childhood, MCT have given encouraging results. This group includes patients with gross protein and fat loss due to intestinal lymphangiectasia and others with lymphatic anomalies at other sites. Hyperchylomicronaemia (familial fat-induced hypertriglyceridaemia) responds well to dietary treatment with MCT.

Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Anderson, Charlotte M.



Synthesis of structured triglycerides from peanut oil with immobilized lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured triglycerides (ST) that contain medium- and long-chain fatty acids were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification\\u000a between tricaprylin and peanut oil. To select appropriate enzymes, we investigated nine commercial lipase preparations for\\u000a their ability to hydrolyze pure triglycerides as well as natural oils. Three microbial lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (RML), Candida sp. (CSL), and Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL) gave good results, and

Mohamed M. Soumanou; Uwe T. Bornscheuer; Ulrich Menge; Rolf D. Schmid



Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) for total parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total parenteral nutrition is an important measure in optimal treatment of patients under intensive care. Recently, the administration of macronutrients protein, carbohydrates, and fat has been extended to medium-chain triglycerides. Meanwhile, the well-known advantages of these fats in enteral feeding has also been confirmed for parenteral application. Medium-chain triglycerides are quickly removed from the blood, taken up by extrahepatic tissues,

G. Wolfram



Hydrolysis of triglycerides in the isolated perfused rat lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrolysis of saturated and unsaturated triglycerides by lung lipoprotein\\u000a lipase and to measure the incorporation of triglyceride fatty acids into lung tissue lipids. Lipolytic activity was studied\\u000a in the isolated ventilated rat lung, perfused for 100 min in a recycling system with Krebs Ringer bicarbonate containing bovine\\u000a serum albumin, 5.6 mM

Suzanne K. Compton; Margit Hamosh; Paul Hamosh



Phase equilibrium modelling of triglycerides with near critical solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Group Contribution Equation of State (GC-EOS) is applied to calculate vapor–liquid and liquid–liquid equilibria of supercritical alkane–vegetable oil mixtures. A new functional group is defined, in order to represent the triglyceride nucleus of vegetable oil molecules. Pure group and binary interaction parameters for this group are given. The size of the high molecular weight triglyceride component is characterized by

Susana B Bottini; Tiziana Fornari; Esteban A Brignole



Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are a family of triglycerides, containing predominantly, caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) fatty acids with lesser amounts of caproic (C6) and lauric (C12) fatty acids. MCTs are widely used for parenteral nutrition in individuals requiring supplemental nutrition and are being more widely used in foods, drugs and cosmetics. MCTs are essentially non-toxic in acute toxicity tests

K. A Traul; A Driedger; D. L Ingle; D Nakhasi



The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression  

SciTech Connect

Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)



TG2, a novel extracellular protein with multiple functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

TG2 is multifunctional enzyme which can be secreted to the cell surface by an unknown mechanism where its Ca2+-dependent transamidase activity is implicated in a number of events important to cell behaviour. However, this activity may\\u000a only be transient due to the oxidation of the enzyme in the extracellular environment including its reaction with NO probably\\u000a accounting for its many

Zhuo Wang; Martin Griffin


Computer kinetic analysis of simultaneously obtained TG and DTG curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer kinetic analysis of simultaneously obtained TG and DTG curves of CaCO3 decomposition has been carried out. Ten different kinetic equations have been tested to decide the mechanism which drives the reaction. Either a two-thirds kinetic equation (phase boundary process) or a Jander equation (diffusion process) satisfactorily describe the kinetic data of both decomposition curves. From these results we

J. M. Criado; J. Morales; V. Rives



TG and ORG as energy converters from low enthalpy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing with the expliotation of low enthalpy sources, different engines and systems have been studied for many years. Among them two were developed at Dipartimento di Energetica del Politecnico di MilAno with sharing of C.E.E. (European Economic Community), ENEL (National Electric Energy Board) and C.N.R. (National Research Council); one is the so called Thermogravimetric system (TG)which operates the different density

S. Arosio; P. Parolini



Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

Background Both apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III gene polymorphism and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased serum triglyceride (TG) levels, but their interactions on serum TG levels are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128) polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels. Methods A total of 516 unrelated nondrinkers and 514 drinkers aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoC-III 3238C>G was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed by using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor. Results Serum total cholesterol (TC), TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA-I and ApoB levels were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.05-0.001). There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two groups. Serum TG levels in nondrinkers were higher in CG genotype than in CC genotype (P < 0.01). Serum TC, TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in drinkers were higher in GG genotype than in CC or CG genotype (P < 0.01 for all). Serum HDL-C levels in drinkers were higher in CG genotype than in CC genotype (P < 0.01). Serum TC, TG, HDL-C and ApoA-I levels in CC genotype, TC, HDL-C, ApoA-I levels and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB in CG genotype, and TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoA-I and ApoB levels in GG genotype were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.05-0.01). But the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB in GG genotype was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of TC, TG and ApoB were correlated with genotype in nondrinkers (P < 0.05 for all). The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB were associated with genotype in drinkers (P < 0.01 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both groups. Conclusions This study suggests that the ApoC-III 3238CG heterozygotes benefited more from alcohol consumption than CC and GG homozygotes in increasing serum levels of HDL-C, ApoA-I, and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB, and lowering serum levels of TC and TG.



Effects of dietary triglycerides on serum and liver lipids and sterol excretion of rats.  


The effects of several highly purified simple and mixed dietary triglycerides (TGs) on serum and liver cholesterol and on sterol excretion were studied in rats. The TGs contained 4- to 18-carbon fatty acids with melting points of -75 to 63.5 degrees C. Ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ranged from 0.1 to 105. Ratios of total unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ranged from 0.1 to 115. All diets contained 8% TG plus 0.82% safflower oil. Sterols were quantified directly by a new and improved high resolution gas chromatographic method and were identified by mass spectrometry. TG digestibilities correlated negatively with melting points above 30 degrees C (R = -0.9). Serum cholesterol was lower in rats fed tributyrin, tricaproin, tricaprylin, tricaprin, trielaidin, trilinolein or partially hydrogenated soybean oil (43-49 mg/dl) than in those fed trilaurin, trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein or corn oil (54-59 mg/dl). Liver lipid levels correlated (R = 0.65) with the degree of unsaturation of dietary TGs. Liver cholesterol levels correlated negatively with fecal excretion of coprostanol plus cholesterol (R = -0.4). Coprostanol plus cholesterol excreted in feces correlated weakly (R = 0.3) with intake of total sterol and of polyunsaturated TGs (R greater than or equal to 0.4 are at least 80% significant). The results demonstrate that consumption of polyunsaturated TGs was associated with higher hepatic lipid levels. Also, greater fecal excretion of coprostanol plus cholesterol was associated with lower hepatic cholesterol levels. PMID:3088226

Clifford, A J; Smith, L M; Creveling, R K; Hamblin, C L; Clifford, C K



Identification of benzophenone C-glucosides from mango tree leaves and their inhibitory effect on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  


A 70% ethanol-water extract from the leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) inhibited triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. From the active fraction, seven new benzophenone C-glycosides, foliamangiferosides A (1), A(1) (2), A(2) (3), B (4), C(1) (5), C(2) (6), and C(3) (7), together with five known compounds were isolated and the structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The effects of these compounds on TG and the free fatty acid level in 3T3-L1 cells were determined, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. On the basis of the AMPK signaling pathway, several compounds were found to increase the AMPK enzyme expression and down-regulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression such as SREBP1c, FAS, and HSL. PMID:21923172

Zhang, Yi; Qian, Qian; Ge, Dandan; Li, Yuhong; Wang, Xinrui; Chen, Qiu; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao



Isolation, structural elucidation, MS profiling, and evaluation of triglyceride accumulation inhibitory effects of benzophenone C-glucosides from leaves of Mangifera indica L.  


Seventy percent ethanol-water extract from the leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) was found to show an inhibitory effect on triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. From the active fraction, six new benzophenone C-glucosides, foliamangiferosides A(3) (1), A(4) (2), C(4) (3), C(5) (4), C(6) (5), and C(7) (6) together with 11 known benzophenone C-glucosides (7-17) were obtained. In this paper, isolation, structure elucidation (1-6), and MS fragment cleavage pathways of all 17 isolates were studied. 1-6 showed inhibitory effects on TG and free fatty acid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells at 10 ?M. PMID:23368644

Zhang, Yi; Han, Lifeng; Ge, Dandan; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Erwei; Wu, Chunhua; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao



Long distance runners and body-builders exhibit elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a).  


A one-point cross-sectional study of 20 sedentary individuals, 20 low-aerobic athletes (body-builders), and 20 high-aerobic athletes (long distance, endurance runners) was conducted in Mexico City, Mexico to determine the influence of these diverse life-styles on the plasma levels of Lp(a). Only non-obese male subjects, aged 23-33, who were nonsmokers, non-alcoholics, and had never used anabolic steroids were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn 24 h following the last period of physical activity, and after a 12-14-h fast-period and a 15-min sitting-rest. Plasma levels of Lp(a) and other parameters, including postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as % body fat and muscle mass, and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) were measured to determine possible correlations with Lp(a) and to serve as convenient internal standards. Mean Lp(a) concentrations were significantly higher in the runners (52 +/- 19 mg/dl) than in the body-builders (40 +/- 6.4 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and the sedentary subjects (24 +/- 5 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Positive correlations between Lp(a) and Vo2max (P < 0.001), HDL-C (P < 0.005) and HDL2-C subfraction (P < 0.005), and a negative correlation with TG were determined. Agglomerative cluster methods suggested three close-distance clusters and a fourth cluster which is composed of four runners who exhibited low LDL-C/HDL-C and high LPL/HL ratios, high mean Lp(a), HDL2-C, and Vo2max levels, but low TG levels. These data show that some individuals who maintain a life-style of very high level physical exertion may have remarkably elevated plasma Lp(a) concentrations. The highly increased concentrations of Lp(a) in high exercise athletes may represent a normal metabolic response to repeated small tissue injuries resulting from frequent and prolonged large muscle movement. PMID:8187216

Cardoso, G C; Posadas, C; Orvanaños, O O; Peniche, C; Zamora, J; Aguilar, R; Holguin, J A; Raynaud, A S; Morrisett, J D; Guevara, J



A?PP-Overexpressing Transgenic Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease Utilizing the Tg2576 Mouse Protocol.  


The current study examined behavioral and histological effects of amyloid-? (A?) protein precursor (A?PP) overexpression in transgenic (Tg) rats created using the same gene, mutation, and promoter as the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Male Tg+ rats were bred with female wild-type rats to generate litters of hemizygous Tg+ and Tg- offspring. Tg+ rats and Tg- littermates were tested for memory deficits at 4, 8, and 12 months old using a water-maze procedure. There were no significant behavioral differences between Tg+ rats and Tg- littermates at 4 months old but there were significant differences at 8 and 12 months old, and in probe trials at 8 and 12 months old, the Tg+ rats spent significantly less time and covered less distance in the platform zone. Under acquisition of a fixed-consecutive number schedule at 3 months old, Tg- littermates demonstrated a longer latency to learning the response rule than Tg+ rats; while this might seem paradoxical, it is consistent with the role of overexpression of A?PP in learning. Histological analyses revealed activated astrocytes in brains of Tg+ rats but not Tg- littermates at 6 months old, and thioflavin-S positive staining in the hippocampus and cortex of 17-month old Tg+ rats but not Tg- littermates. Quantification of A? load in the brain at 22 months indicated high levels of A?38, A?40, and A?42 in the Tg+ rats. These data suggest this model might provide a valuable resource for AD research. PMID:23780661

O'Hare, Eugene; Ardis, Tara; Page, Deaglan; Scopes, David I C; Kim, Eun-Mee



Genomewide scan for familial combined hyperlipidemia genes in finnish families, suggesting multiple susceptibility loci influencing triglyceride, cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels.  

PubMed Central

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The disease is characterized by increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), or both. We recently localized the first locus for FCHL, on chromosome 1q21-q23. In the present study, a genomewide screen for additional FCHL loci was performed. In stage 1, we genotyped 368 polymorphic markers in 35 carefully characterized Finnish FCHL families. We identified six chromosomal regions with markers showing LOD score (Z) values >1.0, by using a dominant mode of inheritance for the FCHL trait. In addition, two more regions emerged showing Z>2.0 with a TG trait. In stage 2, we genotyped 26 more markers and seven additional FCHL families for these interesting regions. Two chromosomal regions revealed Z>2.0 in the linkage analysis: 10p11.2, Z=3.20 (theta=.00), with the TG trait; and 21q21, Z=2.24 (theta=.10), with the apoB trait. Furthermore, two more chromosomal regions produced Z>2.0 in the affected-sib-pair analysis: 10q11.2-10qter produced Z=2.59 with the TC trait and Z=2.29 with FCHL, and 2q31 produced Z=2.25 with the TG trait. Our results suggest additional putative loci influencing FCHL in Finnish families, some potentially affecting TG levels and some potentially affecting TC or apoB levels.

Pajukanta, P; Terwilliger, J D; Perola, M; Hiekkalinna, T; Nuotio, I; Ellonen, P; Parkkonen, M; Hartiala, J; Ylitalo, K; Pihlajamaki, J; Porkka, K; Laakso, M; Viikari, J; Ehnholm, C; Taskinen, M R; Peltonen, L



Effects of rice proteins from two cultivars, Koshihikari and Shunyo, on cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in growing and adult rats.  


The effect and mechanism of two types of rice protein, one from regular japonica rice Koshihikari and another from rice cultivar Shunyo, with low glutelin and high prolamin content, on cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism were compared by feeding casein and soy protein to male Wistar strain rats 7 and 20 weeks old ad libitum for 2 weeks. The results in adult rats clearly indicated that both rice proteins had cholesterol-lowering effects in the plasma and the liver, comparable to soy protein, and the effects were accompanied with TG-lowering effects in the liver. Similar effects were also observed in growing rats when the diets were supplemented with cholesterol. The mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effects by these rice proteins cannot be explained solely by fecal steroid excretion, but the results indicate that not only regular rice protein but also Shunyo rice protein possesses improving effects on lipid metabolism, especially in the adult period. PMID:17341819

Yang, Lin; Kumagai, Takehisa; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Masatoshi; Fujimura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Reiko; Kadowaki, Motoni



Construction of an amperometric TG biosensor based on AuPPy nanocomposite and poly (indole-5-carboxylic acid) modified Au electrode.  


A method is described for construction of an amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor based on covalent co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase onto gold polypyrrole nanocomposite decorated poly indole-5-carboxylic acid electrodeposited on the surface of a gold electrode. The enzyme electrode was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Biosensor showed optimum response within 4 s at pH 6.5 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.1 V against Ag/AgCl. There was a linear relationship between sensor response and triolein concentration in the range 50-700 mg/dl. Biosensor was employed for determination of TG in serum. Detection limit of the biosensor was 20 mg/dl. Biosensor was evaluated with 91-95 % recovery of added triolein in sera and 4.14 and 5.85 % within and between batch coefficients of variation, respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera TG values by standard method (Enzymic colorimetric) and the present method. The biosensor was unaffected by a number of serum substances at their physiological concentration. Biosensor lost 50 % of its initial activity after its 100 uses over 7 months, when stored at 4 °C. PMID:22903594

Narang, Jagriti; Chauhan, Nidhi; Rani, Poonam; Pundir, C S



Loss of the Tg737 protein results in skeletal patterning defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tg737 mutant mice exhibit pathologic conditions in numerous tissues along with skeletal patterning defects. Herein, we characterize the skeletal pathologic conditions and confirm a role for Tg737 in skeletal patterning through transgenic rescue. Analyses were conducted in both the hypomorphic Tg737(orpk) allele that results in duplication of digit one and in the null Tg737(Delta2-3betaGal) allele that is an embryonic lethal

Qihong Zhang; Noel S. Murcia; Laura R. Chittenden; William G. Richards; Edward J. Michaud; Richard P. Woychik; Bradley K. Yoder



Effect of chlorinated alkanes on hepatic triglyceride secretion.  


The effect of a series of monochloroalkanes (1-chloropropane through 1-chlorohexane) and a series of dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane through 1,5-dichloropentane) on hepatic triglyceride secretion in vivo and in vitro was investigated. It was demonstrated that a dose related decrease in hepatic triglyceride secretion is a common effect produced by both series of chlorinated alkanes. Using isolated hepatocytes a positive correlation between chlorinated alkane potency and increasing solvent lipid solubility was observed. However, this order of potency did not correlate with in vivo findings in which the less lipid soluble solvents were found to be the most potent. Possible reasons for the discrepancy between the two systems are proposed. It is suggested that the lipophilicity of the chlorinated alkanes may be important factor in solvent induced inhibition in triglyceride secretion. PMID:3823612

Selan, F M; Evans, M A



Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Norwegian adolescent school children.  


The frequency distribution of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in 172 boys and 232 girls, 13--16 years, from four elementary schools in Oslo has been determined. The cholesterol values were significantly higher for girls 15--16 years than for boys of the same age group. In the case of triglycerides boys 15--16 years had significantly higher values than boys 13--14 years. Otherwise no statistically significant differences with regard to sex and age were observed. The 85th percentiles have been suggested as appropriate upper normal limits. In all groups the 85th percentile for plasma cholesterol was slightly below 6 mmol/l. The corresponding plasma triglyceride value was below 2 mmol/l. PMID:626074

Askevold, R; Høstmark, A T; Vellar, O D; Von Kraemer Bryn, M; Glattre, E



Reduced Serum Levels of Triglyceride, Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown a lower incidence of stroke in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The role of the lipids and lipoproteins as risk factors for stroke is uncertain in the lower prevalence of stroke in PD patients. Objectives To explore the lipids and lipoproteins serum levels in PD patients. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 110 PD patients (PD group), 130 controls with non-cerebrovascular neurological diseases (OD group), 140 acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients (ICH group) and 140 acute cerebral infarction patients (CI group). The records about serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed. Results There were significant differences for the serum level of triglyceride (F = 5.031, p=0.002), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (F = 5.313, p=0.001), apolipoprotein B (F = 16.038, p<0.0001) in the four groups. PD group had a significantly lower serum level of triglyceride (TG) than the OD (p=0.032), ICH (p=0.00047) and CI (p=0.001) groups. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) serum level was significantly lower in PD group than in OD (p=0.039), ICH (p=0.00021) and CI (p=0.001) groups. There was a significantly lower serum level of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in PD group than in OD (p=0.002), ICH (p<0.0001) and CI (p<0.0001) groups. Conclusions There are reduced serum levels of TG, VLDL-C and apo B in PD patients, which may be related to the decreased prevalence of stroke in PD patients.

Tian, Yanghua; Xu, Fangcheng; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai



Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins prevent septic death in rats  

PubMed Central

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins bind and inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro and prevent death when given before a lethal dose of endotoxin in animals. However, lipoproteins have not yet been demonstrated to improve survival in polymicrobial gram-negative sepsis. We therefore tested the ability of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to prevent death after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. Animals were given bolus infusions of either chylomicrons (1 g triglyceride/kg per 4 h) or an equal volume of saline for 28 h after CLP. Chylomicron infusions significantly improved survival (measured at 96 h) compared with saline controls (80 vs 27%, P < or = 0.03). Chylomicron infusions also reduced serum levels of endotoxin, measured 90 min (26 +/- 3 vs 136 +/- 51 pg/ml, mean +/- SEM, P < or = 0.03) and 6 h (121 +/- 54 vs 1,026 +/- 459 pg/ml, P < or = 0.05) after CLP. The reduction in serum endotoxin correlated with a reduction in serum tumor necrosis factor, measured 6 h after CLP (0 +/- 0 vs 58 +/- 24 pg/ml, P < or = 0.03), suggesting that chylomicrons improve survival in this model by limiting macrophage exposure to endotoxin and thereby reducing secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Infusions of a synthetic triglyceride-rich lipid emulsion (Intralipid; KabiVitrum, Inc., Alameda, CA) (1 g triglyceride/kg) also significantly improved survival compared with saline controls (71 vs 27%, P < or = 0.03). These data demonstrate that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins can protect animals from lethal polymicrobial gram- negative sepsis.



Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.  


Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10(-6)) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10(-4)), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L



TG-FTIR methods for the evaluation on lubricant contamination  

SciTech Connect

A typical Air Force base will produce several thousand gallons per year of used turbine engine lubricants. The potential for contamination of the collected lubricants, particularly with halogenated, compounds such as decreasing solvents and other fluids, reduces the effectiveness of a previously developed reclamation process. In this project, the feasibility of using two different thermally analysis methods in combination with advanced data analysis techniques to detect contamination in used turbine engine lubricants was investigated. The first method, TG/FT-IR combined with advanced data analysis routines, was shown to be capable of detecting the presence of several different types of contaminants in synthetic lubricants at concentrations of about 5%. It was demonstrated that data analysis routines based on factor analysis (SIMCA) and neural networks could be used for identifying the presence of a contaminant. The second method, TG/secondary oxidation/FT-IR, was developed specifically for detecting trace levels of chlorinated contaminants in lubricants. Optimization of this method using existing instrumentation led to a detection limit of about 300 ppm (w/w) organic chlorine in the lubricant. Further improvements in hardware and software components could lead to detection limits of <10 ppm. This instrumentation could also be used to characterize used motor oils, cooking oils or pyrolysis oils.

Bonanno, A.S.; Bassilakis, R.; Serio, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)



Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase is synthesized as a precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARhizomucor miehie cDNA library constructed inEscherichia coli was screened with synthetic oligonucleotides designed from knowledge of a partial amino acid sequence of the secreted triglyceride\\u000a lipase (triacyl-glycerol acylhydrolase EC from this fungus. Lipase-specific recombinants were isolated and their\\u000a insert sequenced. Unlike characterized bacterial and mammalian triglyceride lipases, the fungal enzyme is synthesized as a\\u000a precursor, including a 70 amino

Esper Boel; Birgitte Huge-Jensen; Mogens Christensen; Lars Thim; Niels P. Fiil



Mutations of the Microsomal Triglyceride-Transfer-Protein Gene in Abetalipoproteinemia  

PubMed Central

Elevated plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)–containing lipoproteins constitute a major risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In the rare recessively inherited disorder abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) the production of apoB-containing lipoproteins is abolished, despite no abnormality of the apoB gene. In the current study we have characterized the gene encoding a microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTP), localized to chromosome 4q22-24, and have identified a mutation of the MTP gene in both alleles of all individuals in a cohort of eight patients with classical ABL. Each mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated form of MTP with a variable number of aberrant amino acids at its C-terminal end. Expression of genetically engineered forms of MTP in Cos-1 cells indicates that the C-terminal portion of MTP is necessary for triglyceride-transfer activity. Deletion of 20 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of the 894-amino-acid protein and a missense mutation of cysteine 878 to serine both abolished activity. These results establish that defects of the MTP gene are the predominant, if not sole, cause of hereditary ABL and that an intact carboxyl terminus is necessary for activity. ImagesFigure 1p1304-aFigure 3Figure 4

Narcisi, Teresa M. E.; Shoulders, Carol C.; Chester, S. Ann; Read, Jacqueline; Brett, David J.; Harrison, Georgina B.; Grantham, Tamsin T.; Fox, Margaret F.; Povey, Sue; de Bruin, Tjerk W. A.; Erkelens, D. Willem; Muller, David P. R.; Lloyd, June K.; Scott, James



Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and ?-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.



Deformation and fracture of a silicate melt around Tg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important factor to understand a volcanic explosion is the rheology of magma near its glass transition temperature, Tg. Although the Tg of magma has already been well studied, how a magma passes the transition and fractures have not been sufficiently investigated. We have started a series of experiments intended to evaluate the mechanical and fracture properties of magma. Here, we present methods and results of uniaxial compression tests and three-pint bending tests on a magma analogue. We use a synthetic magma with diopside-anorthite eutectic composition because of the following reasons. (1) It represents the melt structure of actual magma well and simply. (2) Its properties are well documented. (3) The glass transition temperature is relatively low and reachable by the present experimental apparatus. We used a servo- hydraulic compression apparatus for low strain-rate (less than 0.001 1/s) tests, and a Kolsky (Hopkinson) bar apparatus for high strain-rate (~1000 1/s) tests. The compression bars in both apparatus are made of a nickel base superalloy (Inconel 718) which retains a high strength up to 900 degree C. The specimen was sandwiched between two compression bars and heated in a furnace. Then it was deformed at a given constant strain rate and stress-strain curves are obtained. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures and strain rates over the glass transition condition. Then elastic deformation, fracture, and flow of the specimen were observed. In the low-rate tests below Tg, fractures started with longitudinal cracks developing at about 2 MPa. In one test, the specimen sustained stress as large as 1.5 GPa without cracking and then completely fragmented into powders. In the fluid side condition of the glass transition, large flow of a specimen was observed. Elastic-plastic deformation was observed at the transition. In high-rate tests, the specimen sustained stress of up to 1 GPa and fragmented into powder at temperatures well above the static glass transition temperature. In all the cases, the solid-like fractures occurred in elastic regime of the material with very little ductile flow. Further analyses of the data are planned, including considerations on magma behaviors including fracturing and non-linear deformation.

Ichihara, M.; Rittel, D.



Heats of fusion for some triglycerides by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heats of fusion of tristearin, tripalmitin, trimyristin, trilaurin and several standards were determined by the relatively\\u000a new technique of Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The data obtained on the standards shows good precision and accuracy.\\u000a The results obtained for the triglycerides are 1–10% lower than values which have been reported elsewhere.

J. W. Hampson; H. L. Rothbart



Triglyceride specific heat determined by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific heats of the three polymorphic forms of trilaurin, trimyristin, tripalmitin and tristearin have been determined\\u000a by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from -90 to +100 C for the triglycerides were obtained and compared with\\u000a the literature values determined by classical methods. Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.

J. W. Hampson; H. L. Rothbart



Phase equilibrium modeling of triglycerides in supercritical fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To design a reactor and separator for a supercritical biodiesel process, phase equilibria of multi-component mixtures in supercritical fluids should be determined using group contribution with association equation of state (GCA-EOS) as a thermodynamics method. The model is considered for two systems of reactants and products. System 1 is comprised of methanol and triglycerides from two sources (palm and Jatropha

T. Srinophakun; B. Phithakchokchai



Triglyceride Oil-Derived Water-Dispersible Urethane Resin Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel class of water-dispersible urethane resin coating compositions is prepared from triglyceride oils by a three-step, one kettle process. The steps of preparation are all characterized by low energy reaction conditions, and the resultant coating comp...

W. J. Schneider L. E. Gast



Association of ADRB2 polymorphism with triglyceride levels in Tongans  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous study demonstrated that the A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs34623097 located in the upstream region of the ?2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is significantly associated with risk for obesity in Oceanic populations. Methods To investigate whether the ADRB2 polymorphisms explain part of the individual differences in lipid mobilization, energy expenditure and glycogen breakdown, the associations of 10 ADRB2 SNPs with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were examined in 128 adults in Tonga. Results A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index revealed that rs34623097 was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (P-value?=?0.037). A copy of the rs34623097-A allele increased serum triglyceride levels by 70.1 mg/dL (0.791 mmol/L). None of the ADRB2 SNPs showed a significant association with total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions In a Tongan population, a SNP located in the upstream region of ADRB2 is associated with triglyceride levels independent of body mass index.



Effects of Bean Meal on Serum Cholesterol and Triglycerides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of a bean diet on serum cholesterol and triglycerides were investigated in 123 cases with hyperlipidemia. The subjects were asked to take a meal of beans containing 50-100 gm of whole beans (including Phaseolus vulgaris L, Phaseolus radiatus L...

B. Liu Z. Wu W. Liu R. Zhang



Fasting blood sugar and serum triglyceride as the risk factors of colorectal adenoma in korean population receiving screening colonoscopy.  


In several previously reported studies, metabolic syndrome (MS) was found to be associated with colorectal adenomas. While the incidence of colorectal adenoma is growing in Korean population, there are only few studies that examined the association between MS and colorectal adenoma in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between prevalence of colorectal adenoma and MS components. We conducted a cross sectional study using data from individuals who had undergone complete colonoscopy for health examinations at the Health Promotion Center of Korea University Medical Center from July 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010. A total of 7481 subjects (4459 males and 3022 females) were included; 1733 subjects with pathologically proven adenoma were assigned to the case group, and other 5748 subjects were assigned to the non-case group. All the participants underwent colonoscopy and received blood biochemical tests (fasting blood sugar [FBS], insulin, lipid profile, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], creatinine). Univariate analysis showed that the prevalence of colorectal adenoma was higher in individuals with higher blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), FBS and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterols (HDL-C) levels, compared to those with low levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high levels of BMI (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.34, P trend = 0.01), TG (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.51, P trend = 0.006), and FBS (OR 1.19 95% CI 1.01-1.40, P trend = 0.05) were significantly associated with prevalence of colorectal adenoma. Subjects with high levels of BMI, TG and FBS have increased prevalence of developing colorectal adenoma in Korea. PMID:23429421

Pyo, Jeung Hui; Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Kim, Young Ha; Lee, Jung Eun



The orbital evolution of NEA 30825 1900 TG1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbital evolution of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 30825 1990 TG1 has been studied by numerical integration of the equations of its motion over the 100 000-year time interval with allowance for perturbations from eight major planets and Pluto, and the variations in its osculating orbit over this time interval were determined. The numerical integrations were performed using two methods: the Bulirsch-Stoer method and the Everhart method. The comparative analysis of the two resulting orbital evolutions of motion is presented for the time interval examined. The evolution of the asteroid motion is qualitatively the same for both variants, but the rate of evolution of the orbital elements is different. Our research confirms the known fact that the application of different integrators to the study of the long-term evolution of the NEA orbit may lead to different evolution tracks.

Timoshkova, E. I.



Reduced Expression of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Enhances Tumor Necrosis Factor ?-induced Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells via Protein Kinase C-dependent Activation of Nuclear Factor-?B*  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on the initiation of atherosclerosis. ATGL was recently identified as a rate-limiting triglyceride (TG) lipase. Mutations in the human ATGL gene are associated with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, a rare genetic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of TG in multiple tissues. The cardiac phenotype, known as triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy, shows massive TG accumulation in both coronary atherosclerotic lesions and the myocardium. Recent reports show that myocardial triglyceride content is significantly higher in patients with prediabetes or diabetes and that ATGL expression is decreased in the obese insulin-resistant state. Therefore, we investigated the effect of decreased ATGL activity on the development of atherosclerosis using human aortic endothelial cells. We found that ATGL knockdown enhanced monocyte adhesion via increased expression of TNF?-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Next, we determined the pathways (MAPK, PKC, or NF?B) involved in ICAM-1 up-regulation induced by ATGL knockdown. Both phosphorylation of PKC and degradation of I?B? were increased in ATGL knockdown human aortic endothelial cells. In addition, intracellular diacylglycerol levels and free fatty acid uptake via CD36 were significantly increased in these cells. Inhibition of the PKC pathway using calphostin C and GF109203X suppressed TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we showed that ATGL knockdown increased monocyte adhesion to the endothelium through enhanced TNF?-induced ICAM-1 expression via activation of NF?B and PKC. These results suggest that reduced ATGL expression may influence the atherogenic process in neutral lipid storage diseases and in the insulin-resistant state.

Inoue, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Fujii, Masakazu; Maeda, Yasutaka; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi



Traditional Chinese Medicine improves dysfunction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein on abnormalities in lipid metabolism in ethanol-fed rats.  


We report the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma oriental, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata. The rats were separated randomly into five groups; the CD group (n=10), which was fed a control diet for 10 weeks, the ED group (n=10), which was fed an isocaloric liquid diet containing ethanol for 10 weeks and given daily oral doses of TCM (0.222 g/kg/day; TCM222, 0.667 g/kg/day; TCM667, and 2.000 g/kg/day; TCM2000, n=10, respectively) over the last four weeks of the study. The ED group developed fatty livers, as determined by their lipid profiles and liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotransferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group. Also, free fatty acids (FFA) levels increased in both plasma and liver during the administration of ethanol. On the other hand, when rats were administrated with TCM, their liver/body weight, plasma TG, TC and FFA, liver TG, TC and FFA, plasma ALT and AST decreased significantly and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group. Proper function of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is essential for the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the secretion of triglycerides from the liver. mRNAs for PPARalpha and MTP were reduced in the livers of ethanol-fed rats. TCM restored the mRNA levels of PPARalpha and MTP, and prevented development of fatty livers in ethanol-fed rats. Impairment of PPARalpha and MTP function during ethanol consumption contributes to the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver, which can be overcome by TCM. PMID:16410638

Kwon, Hyun Jeong; Hyun, Sun Hee; Choung, Se Young



A reversible early oxidized redox state that precedes macromolecular ROS damage in aging non-transgenic and 3xTg-AD mouse neurons  

PubMed Central

The brain depends on redox electrons from NADH to produce ATP and oxyradicals (ROS). Since ROS damage and mitochondrial dysregulation are prominent in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their relationship to redox state is unclear, we wanted to know whether an oxidative redox shift precedes these markers and leads to macromolecular damage in a mouse model of AD. We used the 3xTg-AD mouse model that displays cognitive deficits beginning at 4 months. Hippocampal/cortical neurons were isolated across the age-span and cultured in common nutrients to control for possible hormonal and vascular differences. We found an increase of NAD(P)H levels and redox state in non-transgenic neurons until middle age, followed by a decline in old age. The 3xTg-AD neurons maintained much lower resting NAD(P)H and redox state after 4 months, but the NADH regenerating capacity continuously declined with age beginning at 2 months. These redox characteristics were partially reversible with nicotinamide, a biosynthetic precursor of NAD+. Nicotinamide also protected against glutamate excitotoxicity. Compared to non-transgenic neurons, 3xTg-AD neurons possessed more mitochondria/neuron and lower glutathione levels which preceeded age-related increases in ROS levels. These glutathione deficits were again reversible with nicotinamide in 3xTg-AD neurons. Surprisingly, low macromolecular ROS damage was only elevated after 4 months in the 3xTg-AD neurons if anti-oxidants were removed. The present data suggest that a more oxidized redox state and a lower antioxidant glutathione defense can be dissociated from neuronal ROS damage, changes that precede the onset of cognitive deficits in the 3xTg-AD model.

Ghosh, D.; LeVault, K.; Barnett, A.; Brewer, G.J.



Making the Tg-Confinement Effect Disappear in Thin Polystyrene Films: Good Physics vs. Inappropriate Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tg-confinement effect in polymers was first characterized in supported polystyrene (PS) films by Keddie et al. in 1994. Since then, many researchers have shown that (pseudo-)thermodynamic Tg measurements of supported PS films taken on cooling consistently yield the same qualitative results, with a decrease from bulk Tg beginning at 40-60 nm thickness and becoming very strong below 20 nm thickness. Some quantitative differences have been noted between studies, which may be ascribed to measurement method or the analysis employed. In 2004, we showed that the Tg-confinement effect in PS may be suppressed by adding several wt% of small-molecule diluents such as dioctyl phthalate. Recently, Kremer and co-workers (Macromolecules 2010, 43, 9937) reported that there was no Tg-confinement in supported PS films based on an analysis of the second derivative of ellipsometry data and use of a ninth order polynomial fit. Here, we demonstrate a new method for suppressing the Tg-confinement effect. In particular, PS made by emulsion polymerization yields no Tg-confinement effect as measured by ellipsometry or fluorescence, while PS made by anionic or conventional free radical polymerization yield strong Tg-confinement effects. The difference is hypothesized to result from surfactant in the emulsion polymerized PS. We also show that the absence of the Tg-confinement effect reported by Kremer is due to inappropriate analysis of ellipsometry data and that correct analysis yields Tg-confinement effects.

Torkelson, John; Chen, Lawrence



Characterization of Anopheles gambiae transglutaminase 3 (AgTG3) and its native substrate Plugin.  


Male Anopheles mosquitoes coagulate their seminal fluids via cross-linking of a substrate, called Plugin, by the seminal transglutaminase AgTG3. Formation of the "mating plug" by cross-linking Plugin is necessary for efficient sperm storage by females. AgTG3 has a similar degree of sequence identity (~30%) to both human Factor XIII (FXIII) and tissue transglutaminase 2 (hTG2). Here we report the solution structure and in vitro activity for the cross-linking reaction of AgTG3 and Plugin. AgTG3 is a dimer in solution and exhibits Ca(2+)-dependent nonproteolytic activation analogous to cytoplasmic FXIII. The C-terminal domain of Plugin is predominantly ?-helical with extended tertiary structure and oligomerizes in solution. The specific activity of AgTG3 was measured as 4.25 × 10(-2) units mg(-1). AgTG3 is less active than hTG2 assayed using the general substrate TVQQEL but has 8-10× higher relative activity when Plugin is the substrate. Mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked Plugin detects specific peptides including a predicted consensus motif for cross-linking by AgTG3. These results support the development of AgTG3 inhibitors as specific and effective chemosterilants for A. gambiae. PMID:23288850

Le, Binh V; Nguyen, Jennifer B; Logarajah, Shankar; Wang, Bo; Marcus, Jacob; Williams, Hazel P; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Baxter, Richard H G



Postprandial lipemia in the elderly involves increased incorporation of ingested fat in plasma free fatty acids and small (Sf 20-400) triglyceride-rich lipoproteins  

PubMed Central

In the elderly, the rise in postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations is increased, contributing to their increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the incorporation of ingested fat (whipping cream enriched with [1,1,1-13C]triolein) into plasma lipids during the postprandial period in six healthy elderly (67 ± 1 yr old) and six healthy young (23 ± 2 yr old) subjects. Blood and expired air samples were taken before and at 2-h intervals during the 8-h postprandial period. As expected, the area under the curve of postprandial plasma TG concentrations was larger in the elderly compared with the young subjects (152 ± 38 vs. 66 ± 27 mg·dl?1·h, P < 0.05). The incorporation of [13C]oleate in plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) and TG of the small (Sf = 20–400) triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was significantly higher in the elderly compared with the young subjects, resulting in increased postprandial contributions of the ingested lipid to plasma FFAs (41 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 6%, P < 0.05) and the small TRL fraction (36 ± 5 vs. 21 ± 3%, P < 0.05) in elderly. Plasma apoB-100 concentration was higher, whereas the rate of oxidation of the ingested lipid was lower (P < 0.05) in the elderly. We conclude that increased postprandial lipemia in the elderly involves increased contribution of ingested lipid to the plasma small TRLs. This appears to be driven at least in part by increased appearance of the ingested fat as plasma FFA and increased availability of apo B-100 lipoproteins in the elderly.

Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J.



Role of caspase-1 in regulation of triglyceride metabolism  

PubMed Central

Caspase-1 is a cysteine protease that can be activated by both endogenous and exogenous inflammatory stimuli and has been shown to have important functions in processes as diverse as proteolytic activation of cytokines, cell death, and membrane repair. Caspase-1–dependent production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-18 has also been implicated in the regulation of appetite, body weight, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. Consistent with the emerging views of caspase-1 in metabolic regulation, we find that caspase-1–deficient mice have dramatically accelerated triglyceride clearance, without alteration in lipid production or absorption, and resultant decrease in steady-state circulating triglyceride and fatty acid levels. Surprisingly, this effect is independent of IL-1-family signaling, supporting the concept that caspase-1 influences lipid metabolism through multiple mechanisms, not limited to cytokines.

Kotas, Maya E.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Annicelli, Charles; Gillum, Matthew P.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Medzhitov, Ruslan



Highly purified eicosapentaenoic Acid may increase low-density lipoprotein particle size by improving triglyceride metabolism in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.  


Background:?The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, as one of the possible mechanisms by which intake of EPA may prevent coronary events. Methods and Results:?Hypertriglyceridemic subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=72) or an EPA group (n=72; EPA regimen 1,800mg/day for 6 months). In the EPA group, the serum LDL-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remained unchanged, but there was a significant increase in LDL particle size based on LDL-relative mobility measured on lipoprotein polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and a significant decrease in serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) level. None of these changes were observed in the control group. After adjustments for coronary risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified elevation of serum EPA-related markers (6-month EPA, 6-month EPA/arachidonic acid [AA] ratio, change in [?] EPA, and EPA/AA), and treatment with statins and EPA as independent variables associated with increase in LDL particle size. Negative correlations were found between ?TRLs and ?LDL particle size, suggesting that improvement in triglyceride metabolism was associated with an increase in LDL particle size. Conclusions:?EPA increases LDL particle size by improving triglyceride metabolism; and serum EPA level and EPA/AA ratio after EPA treatment may be useful markers of increased LDL particle size.??(Circ J?2013; 77: 2349-2357). PMID:23811682

Tani, Shigemasa; Nagao, Ken; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Hirayama, Atsushi



Heterozygosity for a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT2 improves plasma triglyceride clearance in man.  


Genome-wide association studies have identified GALNT2 as a candidate gene in lipid metabolism, but it is not known how the encoded enzyme ppGalNAc-T2, which contributes to the initiation of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation, mediates this effect. In two probands with elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced triglycerides, we identified a mutation in GALNT2. It is shown that carriers have improved postprandial triglyceride clearance, which is likely attributable to attenuated glycosylation of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, as observed in their plasma. This protein inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses plasma triglycerides. We show that an apoC-III-based peptide is a substrate for ppGalNAc-T2 while its glycosylation by the mutant enzyme is impaired. In addition, neuraminidase treatment of apoC-III which removes the sialic acids from its glycan chain decreases its potential to inhibit LPL. Combined, these data suggest that ppGalNAc-T2 can affect lipid metabolism through apoC-III glycosylation, thereby establishing GALNT2 as a lipid-modifying gene. PMID:22152306

Holleboom, Adriaan G; Karlsson, Helen; Lin, Ruei-Shiuan; Beres, Thomas M; Sierts, Jeroen A; Herman, Daniel S; Stroes, Erik S G; Aerts, Johannes M; Kastelein, John J P; Motazacker, Mohammad M; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Levels, Johannes H M; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E; Ljunggren, Stefan; Lefeber, Dirk J; Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A; Fritz, Timothy A; Tabak, Lawrence A; Lindahl, Mats; Hovingh, G Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert



Heterozygosity for a Loss-of-Function Mutation in GALNT2 Improves Plasma Triglyceride Clearance in Man  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies have identified GALNT2 as a candidate gene in lipid metabolism, but it is not known how the encoded enzyme ppGal-NAc-T2, which contributes to the initiation of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation, mediates this effect. In two probands with elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced triglycerides, we identified a mutation in GALNT2. It is shown that carriers have improved postprandial triglyceride clearance, which is likely attributable to attenuated glycosylation of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, as observed in their plasma. This protein inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyses plasma triglycerides. We show that an apoC-III-based peptide is a substrate for ppGalNAc-T2 while its glycosylation by the mutant enzyme is impaired. In addition, neuraminidase treatment of apoC-III which removes the sialic acids from its glycan chain decreases its potential to inhibit LPL. Combined, these data suggest that ppGalNAc-T2 can affect lipid metabolism through apoC-III glycosylation, thereby establishing GALNT2 as a lipid-modifying gene.

Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Karlsson, Helen; Lin, Ruei-Shiuan; Beres, Thomas M.; Sierts, Jeroen A.; Herman, Daniel S.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Levels, Johannes H.M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Ljunggren, Stefan; Lefeber, Dirk J.; Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A.; Fritz, Timothy A.; Tabak, Lawrence A.; Lindahl, Mats; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert



Naturally functionalized triglyceride oils in interpenetrating polymer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of naturally functionalized triglyceride oils in interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) is reviewed. An oil bearing\\u000a either hydroxyl or epoxide functionality may be crosslinked to form a soft elastomer in the presence of another monomer or\\u000a network to form an IPN, or in the presence of a linear polymer, to form a semi-IPN. Polymerization and characterization of\\u000a naturally functionalized

L. W. Barretta; L. H. Sperling; C. J. Murphy



Effect of heat on triglycerides of corn oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study on the effect of heating corn oil in air to a 200C temp are reported. Heated oil was separated on a silicic\\u000a acid column into 8 fractions. The first four fractions, constituting about 62% original oil, were found to be unchanged triglycerides.\\u000a The remaining 4 fractions constituted polymeric and degraded products of high molecular wt. Percentage

M. R. Sahasrabudhe; I. G. Farn



Uptake and metabolism of circulating chylomicron triglyceride by rabbit aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if chylomicron triglycerides are taken up and metabolized by the arterial wall, rabbit abdominal aortas were perfused in situ for various times up to 2 hr with blood-buffer containing isotopically labeled substrates. Labeled chylomicrons were obtained by feeding (aH)palmitic acid or (aH)glyceryl trioleate to rats and rabbits with cannulated thoracic ducts. After aortic perfusion with these chylomicrons, more

Alan Vost


Radiolysis of lipids: Mode of cleavage in simple triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gamma radiation on simple triglycerides was investigated. Trilaurin, trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin, tripalmitolein,\\u000a triolein and trilinolenin were irradiated under vacuum at 6 megarads. The volatile breakdown products were separated by vacuum\\u000a distillation and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Qualitative and quantitative data show that the cleavage\\u000a in fatty acids essentially follows a specific pattern and is

M. F. Dubravcic; W. W. Nawar



Enzymatic glycerolysis of a triglyceride in aqueous and nonaqueous microemulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic solvolysis of a model triglyceride, palm oil, was performed in microemulsions containing isooctane, sodiumbis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), palm oil and a combination of water and glycerol as the polar component. Using a 1,3-specific\\u000a lipase both hydrolysis, leading to the formation of fatty acid and one mole of monoglyceride, and glycerolysis, giving three\\u000a moles of monoglyceride, occur. The reaction was very slow

Krister Holmberg; Bo Lassen; Maj-Britt Stark



Nutritional evaluation of medium-chain triglycerides in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional evaluation of a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) preparation, containing about 75% octanoic acid and 25% decanoic\\u000a acid, was carried out in short- and long-term experiments in rats. A casein diet containing 19.6% MCT and 2.5% safflower oil,\\u000a the latter to supply essential fatty acids, was compared with similar diets containing conventional dietary fats. Data obtained\\u000a in a 47-week study showed

Robert W. Harkins; Herbert P. Sarett



A Phellinus baumii extract reduces obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice and absorption of triglyceride in lipid-loaded mice.  


This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Phellinus baumii extract (PBE) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, normal chow diet plus vehicle; HFD-control, high-fat plus vehicle; HFD plus orlistat (Xenical(®), Roche, Basel, Switzerland) (50?mg/kg); and HFD plus PBE (500?mg/kg). PBE was administered daily by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Oral administration of PBE (500?mg/kg) significantly reduced body weight gain, hepatic lipid concentrations, and fat accumulation in epididymal adipocytes compared with mice fed HFD alone (P?triglyceride (TG) synthesis was suppressed in the PBE groups, and fatty acid synthase activity was also significantly inhibited (P?TG absorption and detected marked reduction in TG absorption in Xenical- and PBE-treated mice compared with the control group (P?

Noh, Jung-Ran; Lee, In-Kyoung; Ly, Sun-Yung; Yang, Keum-Jin; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Hwang, Jung-Hwan; Yun, Bong-Sik; Lee, Chul-Ho



Synthesis and properties of minor crypto-active triglycerides of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. The crypto-active triglycerides sn-PPO, sn-SSO, and sn-OSS have been synthesized.\\u000a \\u000a 2. It has been shown that the melting points of mixtures of the main racemic triglyceride components of cocoa butter are affected\\u000a by more unsaturated triglycerides. Cryptoactive triglycerides scarcely affect the melting points of the mixtures.

M. S. Bainova; G. I. Bazilevskaya; I. K. Sarycheva; R. P. Evstigneeva



Predictive value of early changes in triglycerides and weight for longer-term changes in metabolic measures during olanzapine, ziprasidone or aripiprazole treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder post hoc analyses of 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials.  


The objective of this study was to determine if early changes in triglycerides and weight may be useful in predicting longer-term changes in weight and other metabolic parameters. Data were from three 24- to 28-week randomized, controlled studies comparing olanzapine to ziprasidone or aripiprazole for treatment of schizophrenia. Analyses were restricted to completers with fasting laboratory data at all protocol specified time points. Analyses were primarily descriptive and included mean changes and categorical outcomes. In all treatment groups, participants who did not experience a 20 mg/dL or greater increase in triglycerides at early time points were unlikely to experience a change of 50 mg/dL or more in triglycerides after 6 months. Negative predictive values were 83% to 95%. However, early change in triglycerides was not useful for predicting later change in glucose, cholesterol, or weight. Similarly, early weight change gave robust negative predictive values for longer-term weight change (?10 kg), but not for change in glucose or cholesterol. Lack of early elevation in triglyceride concentrations was predictive of later lack of substantial increase in triglycerides in olanzapine-, ziprasidone-, and aripiprazole-treated participants. Lack of early elevation in weight was predictive of later lack of substantial increase in weight in all 3 treatment groups. Early monitoring of triglyceride concentrations and weight may help clinicians assess risk that individuals will experience significant increase in triglycerides or weight gain, allowing assessments of potential risks and benefits earlier in treatment. Clinical monitoring is advised throughout treatment for all patients. PMID:21105275

Hoffmann, Vicki P; Case, Michael; Stauffer, Virginia L; Jacobson, Jennie G; Conley, Robert R



Omega3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. This study was under- taken to determine whether this effect was due to reduced production or increased clearance of chylomicrons. Healthy subjects (n ? 33) began with a 4-week, olive oil placebo (4 g\\/d) run-in period. After a 4-week wash-out period, subjects were randomized to supplementation with 4 g\\/d of ethyl

Yongsoon Park; William S. Harris



The effects of structurally defined triglycerides of differing fatty acid composition on postprandial haemostasis in young, healthy men.  


The aim of this study was to investigate whether a number of key haemostatic factors were altered when healthy young individuals were challenged with a fat load of physiological size contained within a meal composed of normal ingredients and whether this response was modified when the fatty acid composition of the meal was altered radically. Eight healthy male volunteers each randomly consumed four meals which were identical in terms of gross nutritional content (41% of energy provided as fat, 17% as protein and 42% as carbohydrate) but which differed in fatty acid composition. To reduce the possible influence of fatty acid position within the triglyceride molecule on lipid absorption and subsequent metabolic effects, the structural integrity of 91% of fat (test triglycerides such as 1,3 distearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (S-O-S), trioleine (O-O-O), and 1,3 dilinoleoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol, (L-O-L)) in the meals was controlled so that the principal fatty acid in the sn-2 position was oleic acid (18:1n-9). Meals rich in either a test triglyceride or a control oil provided 44+/-6 g of fat. No significant alterations from fasted values of elevated plasma factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) or F1 + 2 were observed. FVIIA varied significantly over the postprandial time course; however, when expressed as a percentage of the fasting value, the FVIIa responses to O-O-O and L-O-L differed significantly but this was not evident when the absolute values were analysed. Similarly, no difference in plasma fibrinopeptide A (FPA) concentrations were evident. After all four meals, chylomicron contained proportionately more palmitic acid and generally less oleic acid than the ingested lipids. This study clearly demonstrates that postprandial haemostatic responses of young healthy individuals to a physiological fat load are minimal, (irrespective of triglyceride structure). PMID:9920516

Hunter, K A; Crosbie, L C; Weir, A; Miller, G J; Dutta-Roy, A K



HPLC analysis of tocopherols and triglycerides in coffee and their use as authentication parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triglyceride and tocopherol contents of green and roasted coffee beans belonging to the arabica and robusta varieties were determined by reversed phase and normal phase high resolution liquid chromatography, respectively. Refractive index detector was used in the case of the triglycerides and fluorescence for tocopherols. Coffee oil was Soxhlet extracted with hexane. By considering the triglyceride and tocopherol profiles

A. G. González; F. Pablos; M. J. Mart??n; M. León-Camacho; M. S. Valdenebro



Relationship of Triglyceride Accumulation to Insulin Clearance and Hormonal Responsiveness in Bovine Hepatocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of triglycerides in the liver has been associated with reduced hepatic function; however, direct evidence that fat accumulation causes decreased liver function is lacking. Hepatocyte monolayers isolated from ruminating calves with an initial low triglyceride concentration were either loaded or not loaded with triglycerides by incubation with 1.5 or 0 mM exogenous nonesterified fatty acids from 12 to

B. D. Strang; S. J. Bertics; R. R. Grummer; L. E. Armentano



p38 MAPK protects human monocytes from postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-induced toxicity.  


Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport dietary fatty acids through the circulatory system to satisfy the energy and structural needs of the tissues. However, fatty acids are also able to modulate gene expression and/or induce cell death. We investigated the underlying mechanism by which postprandial TRLs of different fatty acid compositions can induce cell death in human monocytes. Three types of dietary fat [refined olive oil (ROO), high-palmitic sunflower oil (HPSO), and butter] with progressively increasing SFA:MUFA ratios (0.18, 0.41, and 2.08, respectively) were used as a source of postprandial TRLs (TRL-ROO, TRL-HPSO, and TRL-BUTTER) from healthy men. The monocytic cell line THP-1 was used as a model for this study. We demonstrated that postprandial TRLs increased intracellular lipid accumulation (31-106%), reactive oxygen species production (268-349%), DNA damage (133-1467%), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (800-1710%) and caspase-3 (696-1244%) activities, and phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) (54 kDa, 141-288%) and p38 (24-92%). These effects were significantly greater with TRL-BUTTER, and TRL-ROO did not induce DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, or p38 phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of p38, but not of JNK, significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and increased cell death in postprandial TRL-treated cells. These results suggest that in human monocytes, p38 is involved in survival signaling pathways that protect against the lipid-mediated cytotoxicity induced by postprandial TRLs that are abundant in saturated fatty acids. PMID:23486980

Lopez, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega, Almudena; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G



Very mild disease phenotype of congenic CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu cystic fibrosis mice  

PubMed Central

Background A major boost to cystic fibrosis disease research was given by the generation of various mouse models using gene targeting in embryonal stem cells. Moreover, the introduction of the same mutation on different inbred strains generating congenic strains facilitated the search for modifier genes. From the original CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu mouse model with a divergent genetic background (129/Sv, C57BL/6, HsdOla:MF1) two inbred mutant mouse strains CF/1-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu and CF/3-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu had been generated using strict brother × sister mating. CF/1-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu and CF/3-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu mice were fertile and showed normal growth and lifespan. In this work the CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu insertional mutation was backcrossed from CF/3-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu onto the inbred backgrounds C57BL/6J and DBA/2J generating congenic animals in order to clarify the differential impact of the Cftr mutation and the genetic background on the disease phenotype of the cystic fibrosis mutant mice. Clinical and electrophysiological features of the two congenic strains were compared with those of CF/1-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu and CF/3-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu and wild type controls. Results Under the standardized housing conditions of the animal facility, the four mouse strains CF/1-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu, CF/3-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu, D2.129P2(CF/3)-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu and B6.129P2(CF/3)-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu exhibited normal life expectancy. Growth of congenic cystic fibrosis mice was comparable with that of wild type controls. All mice but D2.129P2(CF/3)-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu females were fertile. Short circuit current measurements revealed characteristic response profiles of the HsdOla:MF1, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J backgrounds in nose, ileum and colon. All cystic fibrosis mouse lines showed the disease-typical hyperresponsiveness to amiloride in the respiratory epithelium. The mean chloride secretory responses to carbachol or forskolin were 15–100% of those of the cognate wild type control animals. Conclusion The amelioration of the clinical features and of the basic defect that had emerged during the generation of CF/3-CftrTgH(neoim)Hgu mice was retained in the congenic mice indicating that the Cftr linkage group or other loci shared between the inbred strains contain(s) the major modifier(s) of attenuation of cystic fibrosis symptoms.

Toth, Balazs; Wilke, Martina; Stanke, Frauke; Dorsch, Martina; Jansen, Silke; Wedekind, Dirk; Charizopoulou, Nikoletta; Bot, Alice; Burmester, Marion; Leonhard-Marek, Sabine; de Jonge, Hugo R; Hedrich, Hans-Jurgen; Breves, Gerhard; Tummler, Burkhard



The Role of TG2 in Regulating S100A4-Mediated Mammary Tumour Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

The importance of S100A4, a Ca2+-binding protein, in mediating tumour cell migration, both intracellularly and extracellularly, is well documented. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) a Ca2+-dependent protein crosslinking enzyme, has also been shown to enhance cell migration. Here by using the well characterised non-metastatic rat mammary R37 cells (transfected with empty vector) and highly metastatic KP1 cells (R37 cells transfected with S100A4), we demonstrate that inhibition of TG2 either by TG2 inhibitors or transfection of cells with TG2 shRNA block S100A4-accelerated cell migration in the KP1cells and in R37 cells treated with exogenous S100A4. Cell migration was also blocked by the treatment with the non-cell permeabilizing TG2 inhibitor R294, in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 (Clone 16, which has a high level of TG2 expression). Inhibition was paralleled by a decrease in S100A4 polymer formation. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation and Far Western blotting assays and cross-linking assays showed not only the direct interaction between TG2 and S100A4, but also confirmed S100A4 as a substrate for TG2. Using specific functional blocking antibodies, a targeting peptide and a recombinant protein as a competitive treatment, we revealed the involvement of syndecan-4 and ?5?1 integrin co-signalling pathways linked by activation of PKC? in this TG2 and S100A4-mediated cell migration. We propose a mechanism for TG2-regulated S100A4-related mediated cell migration, which is dependent on TG2 crosslinking.

Wang, Zhuo; Griffin, Martin



Lack of toxicity by medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in canines during a 90-day feeding study.  


Dietary fats in food are natural energy sources to animals and are included in the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) manual as a requirement for dog food. Medium chain triglycerides are comprised of a glycerol backbone esterified to medium chain length (8-12 carbon) fatty acids (FA) and, in the context of this report, are all saturated FA. Unlike esterified long chain (>12 carbons) FA (long chain triglycerides or LCT), MCT are lower in caloric value, and are eliminated from the body more quickly than LCT. The objective of this study was to determine the safety of MCT when fed to beagles for 90 days at levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% MCT added to conventional feed. The beagles were monitored for signs of toxicity by clinical observations, body weight measurements, food consumption level, physical examinations, hematology and serum chemistry, ophthalmic examinations, and urinalysis. There were no signs of toxic effects observed in any of the animals that were related to feed, and the animal viability was 100% at the end of the study. Some animals exhibited significant increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and cholesterol levels in the 10% and 15% MCT-fed groups. Also, in the same groups with elevated nitrogen, there were concomitant reductions in total blood protein and urine volumes. These changes in serum chemistry may be the result of protein sparing effects due to the high levels of MCT intake, and are not deemed to be pathological in nature. Animals receiving 15% MCT in feed had lower levels of food intake due to palatability issues. From the other examination parameters, there were no significant changes noted between groups receiving MCT and vehicle feed. No safety concerns were noted at any dose level, although an issue with palatability precluded identifying 15% as the highest dose level tested. PMID:19135768

Matulka, Ray A; Thompson, D V M Larry; Burdock, George A



The role of TG2 in ECV304-related vasculogenic mimicry.  


Tumour vasculogenesis can occur by a process referred to as vasculogenic mimicry, whereby the vascular structures are derived from the tumour itself. These tumours are highly aggressive and do not respond well to anti-angiogenic therapy. Here, we use the well characterised ECV304 cell line, now known as the bladder cancer epithelial cell line T24/83 which shows both epithelial and endothelial characteristics, as a model of in vitro vasculogenic mimicry. Using optimised ratios of co-cultures of ECV304 and C378 human fibroblasts, tubular structures were identifiable after 8 days. The tubular structures showed high levels of TG2 antigen and TG in situ activity. Tubular structures and in situ activity could be blocked either by site-directed irreversible inhibitors of TG2 or by silencing the ECV304 TG2 by antisense transfection. In situ activity for TG2 showed co-localisation with both fibronectin and collagen IV. Deposition of these proteins into the extracellular matrix could be reduced by inclusion of non-cell penetrating TG inhibitors when analysed by Western blotting suggesting that the contribution of TG2 to tube formation is extracellular. Incubation of ECV304 cells with these same irreversible inhibitors reduced cell migration which paralleled a loss in focal adhesion assembly, actin cytoskeleton formation and fibronectin deposition. TG2 appears essential for ECV304 tube formation, thus representing a potential novel therapeutic target in the inhibition of vasculogenic mimicry. PMID:22231926

Jones, Richard A; Wang, Zhuo; Dookie, Shakthi; Griffin, Martin



Loss of the Tg737 protein results in skeletal patterning defects.  


Tg737 mutant mice exhibit pathologic conditions in numerous tissues along with skeletal patterning defects. Herein, we characterize the skeletal pathologic conditions and confirm a role for Tg737 in skeletal patterning through transgenic rescue. Analyses were conducted in both the hypomorphic Tg737(orpk) allele that results in duplication of digit one and in the null Tg737(delta2-3betaGal) allele that is an embryonic lethal mutation exhibiting eight digits per limb. In early limb buds, Tg737 expression is detected throughout the mesenchyme becoming concentrated in precartilage condensations at later stages. In situ analyses indicate that the Tg737(orpk) mutant limb defects are not associated with changes in expression of Shh, Ihh, HoxD11-13, Patched, BMPs, or Glis. Likewise, in Tg737(delta2-3betaGal) mutant embryos, there was no change in Shh expression. However, in both alleles, Fgf4 was ectopically expressed on the anterior apical ectodermal ridge. Collectively, the data argue for a dosage effect of Tg737 on the limb phenotypes and that the polydactyly is independent of Shh misexpression. PMID:12701101

Zhang, Qihong; Murcia, Noel S; Chittenden, Laura R; Richards, William G; Michaud, Edward J; Woychik, Richard P; Yoder, Bradley K



Elevated Lipoprotein Lipids and Gestational Hormones in Women With Diet-Treated Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Healthy Pregnant Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe plasma and lipoprotein perturbations in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to controls, and determine if alterations in lipids are related to gestational hormones and\\/or glucose control. Maternal HbA1c, free fatty acids (FFA), ?-estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and plasma, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), HDL2 and HDL3 triglyceride (TG), cholesterol,

Sarah C Couch; Elliot H Philipson; Robert B Bendel; Lillian M Pujda; Robert A Milvae; Carol J Lammi-Keefe



A Report of High Triglyceride Level in Cord Blood of Iranian Newborns  

PubMed Central

Background: Since cord blood triglyceride level have been reported very different in recent articles, the purpose of this study is determination of triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns and compare it with other reports. Methods: In this study, cord blood of 174 healthy term newborn infants (97 girls, 77 boys) born from healthy mothers have been used. Triglyceride level has been measured by calorie metric method Statistical analysis was performed by independent t test, Mann-Whitney regression test and Spearman correlation coefficient method using SPSS 16 .0 software (SPSS, USA). Results: The mean of cord blood triglyceride was 1.37 ± 4.81 mg /dl and there was no statistical difference between two sexes. There was not exist linear relationship between triglyceride and weight, height, head circumference, body mass index and sex of the babies. In 8.6% of our new born infants, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in Iranian population. In 33.9% of our cases, triglyceride levels were more than 95th percentile of triglyceride level reported in the Nelson text book of Pediatrics. In this study, the 95th percentile of triglyceride level in cord blood was 132.5 mg /dl. Conclusion: The mean and 95th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome.

Kazemi, Seyed Ali Naghi; Mousavinasab, Nooreddin; Mellati, Ali Awsat; Sadeghzadeh, Mansour



Cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease expressing mutated APP, PS1, and Mapt (3xTg-AD).  


3xTg-AD mutant mice are characterized by parenchymal A? plaques and neurofibrillary tangles resembling those found in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The mutants were compared with non-transgenic controls in sensorimotor and learning tests. 3xTg-AD mutants were deficient in T-maze reversal, object recognition, and passive avoidance learning. In addition, the mutants showed hypoactivity in two open-field tests, fewer fecal boli in an observation jar, and reduced enclosed arm entries and head-dipping in the elevated plus-maze. On the contrary, the mutants did not differ from controls in pain thresholds, nest-building, and various reflexes determined by the SHIRPA primary screen and were even better on the rotorod test of motor coordination. PMID:22796601

Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Theriault, Peter; Julien, Carl; Calon, Frederic; Planel, Emmanuel



Adipose triglyceride lipase in immune response, inflammation, and atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Consistent with its central importance in lipid and energy homeostasis, lipolysis occurs in essentially all tissues and cell types, including macrophages. The hydrolytic cleavage of triacylglycerol by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) generates non-esterified fatty acids, which are subsequently used as essential precursors for lipid and membrane synthesis, mediators in cell signaling processes or as energy substrate in mitochondria. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the consequences of ATGL deficiency in macrophages with particular emphasis on macrophage (dys)-function, apoptosis, and atherosclerosis.

Radovic, Branislav; Aflaki, Elma; Kratky, Dagmar



Altered pH(i) regulation and Na(+)/HCO3(-) transporter activity in choroid plexus of cilia-defective Tg737(orpk) mutant mouse.  


Tg737(orpk) mice have defects in cilia assembly and develop hydrocephalus in the perinatal period of life. Hydrocephalus is progressive and is thought to be initiated by abnormal ion and water transport across the choroid plexus epithelium. The pathology is further aggravated by the slow and disorganized beating of motile cilia on ependymal cells that contribute to decreased cerebrospinal fluid movement through the ventricles. Previously, we demonstrated that the hydrocephalus phenotype is associated with a marked increase in intracellular cAMP levels in choroid plexus epithelium, which is known to have regulatory effects on ion and fluid movement in many secretory epithelia. To evaluate whether the hydrocephalus in Tg737(orpk) mutants is associated with defects in ion transport, we compared the steady-state pH(i) and Na(+)-dependent transport activities of isolated choroid plexus epithelium tissue from Tg737(orpk) mutant and wild-type mice. The data indicate that Tg737(orpk) mutant choroid plexus epithelium have lower pH(i) and higher Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport activity compared with wild-type choroid plexus epithelium. In addition, wild-type choroid plexus epithelium could be converted to a mutant phenotype with regard to the activity of Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport by addition of dibutyryl-cAMP and mutant choroid plexus epithelium toward the wild-type phenotype by inhibiting PKA activity with H-89. Together, these data suggest that cilia have an important role in regulating normal physiology of choroid plexus epithelium and that ciliary dysfunction in Tg737(orpk) mutants disrupts a signaling pathway leading to elevated intracellular cAMP levels and aberrant regulation of pH(i) and ion transport activity. PMID:17182727

Banizs, Boglarka; Komlosi, Peter; Bevensee, Mark O; Schwiebert, Erik M; Bell, Phillip D; Yoder, Bradley K



3xTgAD mice exhibit altered behavior and elevated A? after chronic mild social stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic stress may be a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), but most studies of the effects of stress in models of AD utilize acute adverse stressors of questionable clinical relevance. The goal of this work was to determine how chronic psychosocial stress affects behavioral and pathological outcomes in an animal model of AD, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms.

Sarah M. Rothman; Nathan Herdener; Simonetta Camandola; Sarah J. Texel; Mohamed R. Mughal; Wei-Na Cong; Bronwen Martin; Mark P. Mattson


Effect of dietary triglycerides on lymphocyte transformation in rats.  


Weanling rats were fed casein-based diets containing purified and mixed triglycerides to evaluate the effect of these lipids on mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation, lymphoid organ weights, and fatty acid profiles of the total lipid in plasma, spleen, and thymus. Test lipids were added at a level of 8 g per 100 g of diet. All diets contained 0.82 g of safflower oil per 100 g. The digestibility coefficients for tristearin, tripalmitin, and trimyristin were 20, 37, and 85%, respectively. Digestibility coefficients for all remaining triglycerides were 90% or greater. The differences in mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation among rats fed the various dietary lipids were unrelated to saturation of the lipid and correlated negatively with total lipid absorbed. Except for tripalmitin and tristearin, dietary lipids significantly altered the fatty acid profiles of the total lipids in plasma, spleen and thymus. It was concluded that the fatty acid profiles of the total lipid in plasma, spleen and thymus can be altered without accompanying major changes in mitogen-induced blood lymphocyte transformation. It was further concluded that mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation was unrelated to saturation of dietary lipid and appeared to be associated negatively and weakly with the quantity of dietary lipid absorbed. PMID:6600786

Clifford, C K; Smith, L M; Erickson, K L; Hamblin, C L; Creveling, R K; Clifford, A J



Interactions of Perilipin-5 (Plin5) with Adipose Triglyceride Lipase*  

PubMed Central

Members of the perilipin family of lipid droplet scaffold proteins are thought to play important roles in tissue-specific regulation of triglyceride metabolism, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Present results indicate that adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) interacts with perilipin-5 (Plin5) but not perilipin-1 (Plin1). Protein interaction assays in live cells and in situ binding experiments showed that Atgl and its protein activator, ?-?-hydrolase domain-containing 5 (Abhd5), each bind Plin5. Surprisingly, competition experiments indicated that individual Plin5 molecules bind Atgl or Abhd5 but not both simultaneously. Thus, the ability of Plin5 to concentrate these proteins at droplet surfaces involves binding to different Plin5 molecules, possibly in an oligomeric complex. The association of Plin5-Abhd5 complexes on lipid droplet surfaces was more stable than Plin5-Atgl complexes, and oleic acid treatment selectively promoted the interaction of Plin5 and Abhd5. Analysis of chimeric and mutant perilipin proteins demonstrated that amino acids 200–463 are necessary and sufficient to bind both Atgl and Abhd5 and that the C-terminal 64 amino acids of Plin5 are critical for the differential binding of Atgl to Plin5 and Plin1. Mutant Plin5 that binds Abhd5 but not Atgl was defective in preventing neutral lipid accumulation compared with wild type Plin5, indicating that the ability of Plin5 to concentrate these proteins on lipid droplets is critical to functional Atgl activity in cells.

Granneman, James G.; Moore, Hsiao-Ping H.; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Zhu, Zhengxian; Zhou, Li



An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Omega-3 fatty acids, such as those present in fish oil, have been reported to prolong life in myocardial infarction survivors. These fatty acids can decrease serum triglyceride concentrations, but so far the doses used in trials examining their effects on coronary end points have had only minimal triglyceride lowering effects.?OBJECTIVE—To examine the triglyceride lowering effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of Omacor, a concentrate of omega-3, long chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (84% of the total as opposed to an average of 35% in fish oil) over one year in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia, despite receiving simvastatin in doses similar to those employed in the Scandinavian simvastatin survival study.?SUBJECTS AND METHODS—59 patients with CHD, receiving simvastatin 10-40 mg daily with serum triglycerides > 2.3 mmol/l, were randomised to receive Omacor 2 g twice a day or placebo for 24 weeks in a double blind trial. Forty six patients accepted the offer of active treatment for a further 24 weeks in an open phase of the trial.?RESULTS—There was a sustained significant decrease in serum triglycerides by 20-30% (p < 0.005) and in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol by 30-40% (p < 0.005) in patients receiving active Omacor at three, six, and 12 months compared either to baseline or placebo. Omacor did not have any deleterious effect on low density or high density lipoprotein cholesterol or on biochemical and haematological safety tests. There was no adverse effect on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes, who showed a decrease in serum triglyceride, which was at least as great as in non-diabetic patients. One patient receiving placebo died of acute myocardial infarction. Three patients withdrew from the trial (two on placebo and one on active treatment). Omacor was generally well tolerated.?CONCLUSION—Omacor was found to be a safe and effective means of lowering serum triglycerides over one year in patients with CHD and combined hyperlipidaemia, whose triglycerides remained elevated despite simvastatin treatment.???Keywords: coronary heart disease; hypertriglyceridaemia; polyunsaturated fat; statin treatment

Durrington, P; Bhatnagar, D; Mackness, M; Morgan, J; Julier, K; Khan, M; France, M



Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management  

PubMed Central

Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (?1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal.

Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Boren, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.



Increased ?-Amyloid Deposition in Tg-SWDI Transgenic Mouse Brain Following In Vivo Lead Exposure  

PubMed Central

Previous studies in humans and animals have suggested a possible association between lead (Pb) exposure and the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Animals acutely exposed to Pb display an over-expressed amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the ensuing accumulation of beta-amyloid (A?) in brain extracellular spaces. This study was designed to examine whether in vivo Pb exposure increased brain concentrations of A?, resulting in amyloid plaque deposition in brain tissues. Human Tg-SWDI APP transgenic mice, which genetically over-express amyloid plaques at age of 2-3 months, received oral gavages of 50 mg/kg Pb acetate once daily for 6 wk; a control group of the same mouse strain received the same molar concentration of Na acetate. ELISA results revealed a significant increase of A? in the CSF, brain cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry displayed a detectable increase of amyloid plaques in brains of Pb-exposed animals. Neurobehavioral test using Morris water maze showed an impaired spatial learning ability in Pb-treated mice, but not in C57BL/6 wild type mice with the same age. In vitro studies further uncovered that Pb facilitated A? fibril formation. Moreover, the synchrotron X-ray fluorescent studies demonstrated a high level of Pb present in amyloid plaques in mice exposed to Pb in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that Pb exposure with ensuing elevated A? level in mouse brains appears to be associated with the amyloid plaques formation. Pb apparently facilitates A? fibril formation and participates in deposition of amyloid plaques.

Gu, Huiying; Robison, Gregory; Hong, Lan; Barrea, Raul; Wei, Xing; Farlow, Martin R.; Pushkar, Yulia N; Du, Yansheng; Zheng, Wei



Engineering E. coli for triglyceride accumulation through native and heterologous metabolic reactions.  


Triglycerides, traditionally sourced from plant oils, are heavily used in both industrial and healthcare applications. Commercially significant products produced from triglycerides include biodiesel, lubricants, moisturizers, and oils for cooking and dietary supplements. The need to rely upon plant-based production, however, raises concerns of increasing demand and sustainability. The reliance on crop yields and a strong demand for triglycerides provides motivation to engineer production from a robust microbial platform. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered to synthesize and accumulate triglycerides. Triglycerides were produced from cell wall phospholipid precursors through engineered expression of two enzymes, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to analyze the production of triglycerides by the engineered E. coli strains. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated a yield of 1.1 mg/L triglycerides (2 g/L dry cell weight) in lysogeny broth medium containing 5 g/L glucose at 8 h following induction of PAP and DGAT expression. LC-MS results also demonstrated that the intracellular triglyceride composition of E. coli was highly conserved. Triglycerides containing the fatty acid distributions 16:0/16:0/16:1, 16:0/16:0/18:1, and 18:1/16:0/16:1 were found in highest concentrations and represent ?70 % of triglycerides observed. PMID:23404315

Rucker, Joanna; Paul, Julie; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Lee, Kyongbum



Thermodyanmic Scaling of Polymer Dynamics versus Shifting by T-Tg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A universal scaling law for the relaxation time (?) of amorphous liquids as a function of temperature and volume has been proposed by Roland and coworkers: ?(T,V) = F(TV^?), where ? is a material-dependent constant. We test this law for four materials, linear polystyrene, star polystyrene, and two polycyanurate networks using PVT data obtained in our laboratory coupled with the temperature dependent shift factors used to reduce the viscoelastic bulk modulus at different pressures and the dynamic shear properties at ambient pressure. In all cases, ? can be reduced both by the scaling law and by shifting to account for the changes in Tg with pressure, i.e., by plotting versus T - Tg(P). In the polycyanurate case, time-crosslink density superposition holds and ? for the two materials can be reduced simply by shifting the temperature with respect to Tg to account for the changes in Tg with crosslink density; however, the thermodynamic scaling for the two materials does not superpose unless the thermodynamic function is normalized by TgVg^?. The validity of the scaling function and its relationship to T - Tg will be further examined. In addition, the impact of errors in T, Tg, and V on the ability to satisfactorily reduce data and obtain universal scaling will be discussed.

Guo, Jiaxi; Simon, Sindee



Serological and structural characterization of the O-antigens of the unclassified Proteus mirabilis strains TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:  Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin, LPS) is an important potential virulence factor of Proteus rods. The serological specificity of the bacteria is defined by the structure of the O-polysaccharide chain (O-antigen) of\\u000a the LPS. Until now, 76 O-serogroups have been differentiated among Proteus strains.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:  LPSs were isolated from Proteus mirabilis TG 83, TG 319, and CCUG 10700 (OA) strains by phenol\\/water

Agnieszka Zab?otni; Krystyna Zych; Anna N. Kondakova; Ma?gorzata Siwi?ska; Yuriy A. Knirel; Zygmunt Sidorczyk



Phosphorylation of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) at serine-216 has a role in TG2 mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and in the downregulation of PTEN  

PubMed Central

Background Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and its phosphorylation have been consistently found to be upregulated in a number of cancer cell types. At the molecular level, TG2 has been associated with the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and in the downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). However, the underlying mechanism involved is not known. We have reported that protein kinase A (PKA) induced phosphorylation of TG2 at serine-216 (Ser216) regulates TG2 function and facilitates protein-protein interaction. However, the role of TG2 phosphorylation in the modulation of NF-?B, Akt and PTEN is not explored. Methods In this study we have investigated the effect of TG2 phosphorylation on NF-?B, Akt and PTEN using embryonic fibroblasts derived from TG2 null mice (MEFtg2-/-) overexpressing native TG2 or mutant-TG2 (m-TG2) lacking Ser216 phosphorylation site with and without dibutyryl cyclic-AMP (db-cAMP) stimulation. Functional consequences on cell cycle and cell motility were determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and cell migration assay respectively. Results PKA activation in TG2 overexpressing MEFtg2-/- cells resulted in an increased activation of NF-?B and Akt phosphorylation in comparison to empty vector transfected control cells as determined by the reporter-gene assay and immunoblot analysis respectively. These effects were not observed in MEFtg2-/- cells overexpressing m-TG2. Similarly, a significant downregulation of PTEN at both, the mRNA and protein levels were found in cells overexpressing TG2 in comparison to empty vector control and m-TG2 transfected cells. Furthermore, Akt activation correlated with the simultaneous activation of NF-?B and a decrease in PTEN suggesting that the facilitatory effect of TG2 on Akt activation occurs in a PTEN-dependent manner. Similar results were found with MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells overexpressing TG2 and m-TG2 further supporting the role of TG2 phosphorylation in NF-?B activation and in the downregulation of PTEN. Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest that phosphorylation of TG2 at Ser216 plays a role in TG2 mediated activation of NF-?B, Akt and in the downregulation of PTEN. Blocking TG2 phosphorylation may provide a novel strategy to attenuate NF-?B activation and downregulation of PTEN in TG2 overexpressing cancers.



L-type Ca(2+) currents at CA1 synapses, but not CA3 or dentate granule neuron synapses, are increased in 3xTgAD mice in an age-dependent manner.  


Abnormal neuronal excitability and impaired synaptic plasticity might occur before the degeneration and death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate potential biophysical alterations underlying aberrant neuronal network activity in AD, we performed whole-cell patch clamp analyses of L-type (nifedipine-sensitive) Ca(2+) currents (L-VGCC), 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) currents, and AMPA (2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) currents in CA1, CA3, and dentate granule neurons in hippocampal slices from young, middle-age, and old 3xTgAD mice and age-matched wild type mice. 3xTgAD mice develop progressive widespread accumulation of amyloid ?-peptide, and selective hyperphosphorylated tau pathology in hippocampal CA1 neurons, which are associated with cognitive deficits, but independent of overt neuronal degeneration. An age-related elevation of L-type Ca(2+) channel current density occurred in CA1 neurons in 3xTgAD mice, but not in wild type mice, with the magnitude being significantly greater in older 3xTgAD mice. The NMDA current was also significantly elevated in CA1 neurons of old 3xTgAD mice compared with in old wild type mice. There were no differences in the amplitude of K(+) or AMPA currents in CA1 neurons of 3xTgAD mice compared with wild type mice at any age. There were no significant differences in Ca(2+), K(+), AMPA, or NMDA currents in CA3 and dentate neurons from 3xTgAD mice compared with wild type mice at any age. Our results reveal an age-related increase of L-VGCC density in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3 or dentate granule neurons, of 3xTgAD mice. These findings suggest a potential contribution of altered L-VGCC to the selective vulnerability of CA1 neurons to tau pathology in the 3xTgAD mice and to their degeneration in AD patients. PMID:23932880

Wang, Yue; Mattson, Mark P



Upregulation of triglyceride synthesis in skeletal muscle overexpressing DGAT1.  


The gene encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a functional and positional candidate gene for milk and intramuscular fat content. A bovine DGAT1 overexpression vector was constructed containing mouse MCK promoter and bovine DGAT1 cDNA. MCK-DGAT1 transgene in FVB mice was researched in present study. The transgene DGAT1 had a high level of expression in contrast to the endogenous DGAT1 in posterior tibial muscle of the transgenic mice, but a low expression level in the cardiac muscle. Compared with wild-type mice, triglyceride and DGAT1 content were approximately fourfold and 50% increased in posterior tibial muscle of the transgenic mice, respectively, while a little increase in cardiac muscle. PMID:23642106

Yang, Feifei; Wei, Zhuying; Ding, Xiangbin; Liu, Xinfeng; Ge, Xiuguo; Song, Guimin; Li, Guangpeng; Guo, Hong



Raman spectroscopy investigation of various saturated monoacid triglycerides.  


A study of the vibrational behavior of five saturated monoacid triacylglycerides is performed by Raman spectroscopy at room temperature in the 3100-500 cm(-1) spectral range. The splitting of the CO stretching mode leads to conclude on the existence of two or three geometries of CO in the "knot" group OCO. The CO stretching mode seems to be a good tool for distinguishing the polymorphic forms of the studied triglycerides. The assignments of the different CH stretching modes are performed in the 1500-500 cm(-1) spectral range. The I(2845)/I(2880) (in the CH stretching spectral region) and I(1445)/I(1296) intensity ratios (between the maximal intensity I(1445) of the CH(2) scissoring mode and the maximal intensity I(1296) of the skeletal vibration of (CH(2))(n) in-phase twist) seem to depend on the type of polymorphic forms of these molecules. PMID:15784230

Bresson, S; El Marssi, M; Khelifa, B



Anticoccidial efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in calves.  


Anticoccidial efficacy of dietary fat was evaluated in calves with coccidial infection (Eimeria spp., including E. bovis and E. zuernii). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)--natural edible fats composed of caprylic (C8), capric (C10), and lauric (C12) acids -- were given orally with milk to 5 calves and with 10% glucose solution to 3 older, weaned calves by using the reticular groove reflex. After 3 to 11 days of MCT feeding, all Eimeria spp. oocysts had disappeared from the feces of all calves. MCT had no adverse effects on appetite or on fecal pH, ammonia, lactic acid, or volatile fatty acid levels. MCT feeding for coccidial control in calves has minimal side-effects and has benefits in terms of residue-free food production. PMID:15644612

Sato, Hiroshi; Nitanai, Atushi; Kurosawa, Takashi; Oikawa, Shin



Monolithic triglyceride matrices: a controlled-release system for proteins.  


Matrices made of glyceryl trimyristate as a bioerodible and biocompatible material were manufactured by compression in dimensions that would still allow an application via injection. Pyranine, as a low molecular hydrophilic compound with a low detection limit, and tetramethylrhodamine labeled bovine serum albumin (TAMRA-BSA), as a high molecular weight (66 kDa) protein compound, served as model drugs for release investigations. In vitro studies with pyranine revealed that release depends substantially on the gelatin content of the matrices, which proved to be a useful tool as a release modifier. The duration of the drug release period can be adjusted to a desired time interval ranging from days to weeks by choosing the right gelatin content. Moreover, results illustrated the importance of the molecular weight and the nature of the compound to be incorporated into such matrices, since investigations with TAMRA-BSA showed a more pronounced burst release and altered release profiles and periods. Experiments with hyaluronidase, which served as a model enzyme to assess the problem of protein integrity in such matrices, suggested that proteins may display sufficient stability during the manufacturing procedure of the cylinders or while in contact with the triglyceride matrices. In addition to in vitro investigations, a study in mice revealed that after 15 days of subcutaneous implantation the matrices showed a good in vivo stability. The main conclusion that could be drawn from these results was that triglycerides are a promising alternative to biodegradable polymers for the development of parenteral release systems for protein and peptide drugs. PMID:12665199

Vogelhuber, W; Magni, E; Mouro, M; Spruss, T; Guse, C; Gazzaniga, A; Göpferich, A



Analysis of triglycerides by consecutive chromatographic techniques. II. Ucuhuba kernel fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triglycerides from ucuhuba kernel fat (Virola surinamensis) were analyzed using thinlayer adsorption chromatography (TLC) followed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The triglycerides\\u000a were first separated into three fractions containing 0, 1, and 2 or more double bonds per molecule on silica gel TLC plates\\u000a impregnated with AgNO3. The total triglycerides and each individual TLC fraction were then analyzed by GLC

T. W. Culp; R. D. Harlow; Carter Litchfield; Raymond Reiser



The role of X-ray diffraction in studies of the crystallography of monoacid saturated triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution that x-ray diffraction has made to the understanding of triglyceride polymorphism is reviewed. The crystal\\u000a structure of these compounds is explained in terms of molecular orientation in the crystal lattices. At the present time only\\u000a the crystal structure of the monoacid saturated triglycerides has been reasonably well defined. Mixed triglycerides and mixtures\\u000a thereof have not yet been fully

C. W. Hoerr; F. R. Paulicka



HAVE CHRYSALIS Limited Evaluation of the Stemme S1OV (TG- 11) Motorglider.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the flight test results of a limited evaluation of the Stemme Si OV (TG-11) motorglider for the USAF Academy. The overall objective of the HAVE CHRYSALIS flight test program was to determine certain performance characteristics deemed ...

D. W. Hiltz D. B. Baysinger G. M. Folcik P. J. Hughes M. G. Rollinger




PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy develops in human subjects with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome, prior to overt hyperglycemia. The contributions of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, hypertriglyceridemia and/or increased NEFA, and hypercholesterolemia to this condition remain unknown. Niacin and its derivatives alleviate dyslipidemia with a minor effect on glucose homeostasis. This study evaluated the roles of impaired glucose tolerance versus dyslipidemia in prediabetic neuropathy using Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats and the niacin derivative acipimox, as well as the interplay of hypertriglyceridemia, increased NEFA, and oxidative-nitrosative stress. 16 wk-old Zucker fatty rats with impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and increased NEFA, displayed sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. Acipimox (100 mgkg?1d?1, 4 weeks) reduced serum insulin, NEFA, and triglyceride concentrations without affecting glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia. It alleviated sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, changes in behavioral measures of sensory function, and corrected oxidative-nitrosative stress, but not impaired insulin signaling, in peripheral nerve. Elevated NEFA increased total and mitochondrial superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in cultured human Schwann cells. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemia and/or increased NEFA concentrations cause prediabetic neuropathy through oxidative-nitrosative stress. Lipid-lowering agents and antioxidants may find use in management of this condition.

Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Hasanova, Nailia; Julius, Ulrich; G.Obrosova, Irina



Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein lipolysis releases neutral and oxidized FFAs that induce endothelial cell inflammation*  

PubMed Central

Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) lipolysis products provide a pro-inflammatory stimulus that can alter endothelial barrier function. To probe the mechanism of this lipolysis-induced event, we evaluated the pro-inflammatory potential of lipid classes derived from human postprandial TGRL by lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Incubation of TGRL with LpL for 30 min increased the saturated and unsaturated FFA content of the incubation solutions significantly. Furthermore, concentrations of the hydroxylated linoleates 9-hydroxy ocatadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and 13-HODE were elevated by LpL lipolysis, more than other measured oxylipids. The FFA fractions elicited pro-inflammatory responses inducing TNF? and intracellular adhesion molecule expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). The FFA-mediated increase in ROS was blocked by both the cytochrome P450 2C9 inhibitor sulfaphenazole and NADPH oxidase inhibitors. Compared with linoleate, 13-HODE was found to be a more potent inducer of ROS production in HAECs, an activity that was insensitive to both NADPH oxidase and cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Therefore, although the oxidative metabolism of FFA in endothelial cells can produce inflammatory responses, TGRL lipolysis can also release preformed mediators of oxidative stress (e.g., HODEs) that may influence endothelial cell function in vivo by stimulating intracellular ROS production.

Wang, Limin; Gill, Rajan; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Higgins, Laura J.; Newman, John W.; Rutledge, John C.



TG(M) and DTG(M) Techniques and Some of Their Applications on Material Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding a magnetic field gradient to the conventional TG system constructs the magnetic thermogravimetry analysis (TG(M) i.e. Faraday methods) and the magnetic derivative thermogravimetry (DTG(M)) techniques. We used the techniques to study the nanocrystalline processes of the FeCuNbSiB and FeCuNbCoSiB amorphous alloys. Some problems of their applications such as the characteristic temperature Tmin and TC are also discussed in detail.

D. M. Lin; H. S. Wang; M. L. Lin; M. H. Lin; Y. C. Wu



Thermal characterization of indinavir sulfate using TG, DSC and DSC-photovisual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the present work is to study the thermal characteristics of indinavir sulfate and to evaluate the quality of\\u000a the raw materials. Indinavir A, B, C and reference samples were obtained from different suppliers and submitted to TG, DSC\\u000a and DSC-photovisual analyses. TG\\/DTG curves indicated a desolvation and dehydration processes and were confirmed by DSC. According\\u000a to the

Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva; Flávia Patrícia Morais de Medeiros; T. G. Nascimento; R. O. Macêdo; P. J. R. Neto



Sub-Tg relaxations due to dipolar solutes in nonpolar glass-forming solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that rigid dipolar solutes (in smaller quantity) dispersed in a nonpolar glassy matrix exhibit a sub-Tg (or betas) relaxation due to the solute often designated as Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation, which is intermolecular in nature. In this article, we report the results of our study of such a sub-Tg process in a wide variety of dipolar solutes

S. S. N. Murthy



TG studies of a composite solid rocket propellant based on HTPB-binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition kinetics of solid rocket propellants based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-HTPB binder was studied\\u000a by applying the Arrhenius and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa's methods. The thermal decomposition data of the propellant samples were analyzed\\u000a by thermogravimetric analysis (TG\\/DTG) at different heating rates in the temperature range of 300-1200 K. TG curves showed\\u000a that the thermal degradation occurred in three main stages regardless of

J. A. F. F. Rocco; J. E. S. Lima; A. G. Frutuoso; K. Iha; M. Ionashiro; J. R. Matos; M. E. V Suárez-Iha



Green tea catechin leads to global improvement among Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in NSE/hAPP-C105 Tg mice.  


Amyloid ? (??) has been reported to be responsible for the functional and structural abnormalities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the induction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not treatment of transgenic (Tg) mice with green tea catechin (GTC), a radical scavenger, improves AD phenotypes. To test this, 7-month-old Tg mice were treated with a low (1 mg) or high (10 mg) dose of GTC for 6 months. Surprisingly, GTC-treated Tg mice exhibited significant decreases in behavioral impairment, A?-42 production, APP-C99/89 expression, ?-secretase component and Wnt protein levels, ?-secretase activity and MAPK activation. In contrast, the levels of APP-C83 protein and enzyme activities (?-secretase, neprilysin and Pin1) were elevated in the GTC-treated groups. Moreover, GTC-treated groups showed lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased. These results provide the first experimental evidence that GTC improves AD phenotypes, thereby suggesting that GTC can be used in the prevention of AD or treatment of AD patients. PMID:23333093

Lim, Hwa Ja; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Lim, Chul Ju; Hong, Jin Tae; Sheen, Yhun Yong; Hwang, Dae Youn



Three weeks of running wheel exposure improves cognitive performance in the aged Tg2576 mouse  

PubMed Central

If begun early in life, exercise effectively reduces the development of cognitive deficits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effectiveness of exercise, once the cognitive impairments are established, is not as clear. In terms of translating research in animal models to treatments involving exercise in Alzheimer's disease patients, it is critical to evaluate exercise intervention at time points that address not only prevention, but also treatment of cognitive decline. We provided exercise wheels to Tg2576 (TG) (n=12) and C57BL6 (WT) (n=17) mice at 17-19 months of age for three weeks. At this age animals have significant cognitive impairment and neuropathology consistent with AD. Age matched sedentary TG (n=13) and WT (n=12) mice were also included, as well as groups provided access to an immobile wheel (TG n=9, WT n=12). After three weeks, animals were evaluated in a radial arm water maze. Significant impairments were observed in the sedentary TG mice compared to WT in reference/long-term and working/short-term memory, as well as in probe trials. Exercised TG mice demonstrated improvements in memory, which made them indistinguishable from WT mice on all tasks. In addition, animals provided with an immobile wheel exhibited improvement in some, but not all cognitive measures. Our findings demonstrate that exercise can improve cognitive performance in a mouse model of AD even if applied after the development of pathology.

Nichol, Kathryn E.; Parachikova, Anna I.; Cotman, Carl W.



Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.  


In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls. PMID:18977397

Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P



Recent advances in the development of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) inhibitors.  


Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme and probably the most ubiquitously expressed member of the mammalian transglutaminase family. TG2 plays a number of important roles in a variety of biological processes. Via its transamidating function, it is responsible for the cross-linking of proteins by forming isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues. Intracellularly, Ca(2+) activation of the enzyme is normally tightly regulated by the binding of GTP. However, upregulated levels of TG2 are associated with many disease states like celiac sprue, certain types of cancer, fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease. Selective inhibitors for TG2 both cell penetrating and non-cell penetrating would therefore serve as novel therapeutic tools for the treatment of these disease states. Moreover, they would provide useful tools to fully elucidate the cellular mechanisms TG2 is involved in and help comprehend how the enzyme is regulated at the cellular level. The current paper is intended to give an update on the recently discovered classes of TG2 inhibitors along with their structure-activity relationships. The biological properties of these derivatives, in terms of both activity and selectivity, will also be reported in order to translate their potential for future therapeutic developments. PMID:22160259

Badarau, E; Collighan, R J; Griffin, M



High critical temperature above T(g) may contribute to the stability of biological systems.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we characterized the molecular mobility around T(g) in sugars, poly-L-lysine and dry desiccation-tolerant biological systems, using ST-EPR, (1)H-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy, to understand the nature and composition of biological glasses. Two distinct changes in the temperature dependence of the rotational correlation time (tau(R)) of the spin probe 3-carboxy-proxyl or the second moment (M(2)) were measured in sugars and poly-L-lysine. With heating, the first change was associated with the melting of the glassy state (T(g)). The second change (T(c)), at which tau(R) abruptly decreased over several orders of magnitude, was found to correspond with the so-called cross-over temperature, where the dynamics changed from solid-like to liquid-like. The temperature interval between T(g) and T(c) increased in the order of sucrose < trehalose < raffinose 50 degrees C, implying that the stability above T(g) improved in the same order. These differences in temperature-dependent mobilities above T(g) suggest that proteins rather than sugars play an important role in the intracellular glass formation. The exceptionally high T(c) of intracellular glasses is expected to provide excellent long-term stability to dry organisms, maintaining a slow molecular motion in the cytoplasm even at temperatures far above T(g).

Buitink, J; van den Dries, I J; Hoekstra, F A; Alberda, M; Hemminga, M A




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report  

SciTech Connect

Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (L{sub amb}) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m{sup 2}, LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to ascertain the viewing cone within which contrast conformance to the GSDF is better than 30%/60% and LR is greater than 175/70 for primary/secondary displays, or alternatively, within which the on-axis contrast thresholds of the TG18-CT test pattern remain discernible. The evaluation of luminance spatial uniformity at two distinct luminance levels across the display faceplate using TG18-UNL test patterns should yield nonuniformity coefficients smaller than 30%. The resolution evaluation includes the visual scoring of the CX test target in the TG18-QC or TG18-CX test patterns, which should yield scores greater than 4/6 for primary/secondary displays. Noise evaluation includes visual evaluation of the contrast threshold in the TG18-AFC test pattern, which should yield a minimum of 3/2 targets visible for primary/secondary displays. The guidelines also include methodologies for more quantitative resolution and noise measurements based on MTF and NPS analyses. The display glare test, based on the visibility of the low-contrast targets of the TG18-GV test pattern or the measurement of the glare ratio (GR), is expected to yield scores greater than 3/1 and GRs greater than 400/150 for primary/secondary displays. Chromaticity, measured across a display faceplate or between two display devices, is expected to render a u{sup '},v{sup '} color separation of less than 0.01 for primary displays. The report offers further descriptions of prior standardization efforts, current display technologies, testing prerequisites, streamlined procedures and timelines, and TG18 test patterns.

Samei, Ehsan; Badano, Aldo; Chakraborty, Dev [Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Departments of Radiology, Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, DUMC 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States) and FDA, CDRH (United States)] [and others



High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

PubMed Central

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.



High plasma cholesterol, but low triglycerides and plaque-free arteries, in Mexican free-tailed bats.  


Female mammals typically become hyperphagic from mid- to late pregnancy and during lactation. Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, double their nightly food intake from late pregnancy to peak lactation and consume an insect diet that is exceptionally high in fat. During late pregnancy and throughout lactation, fasting plasma levels of cholesterol in this insectivorous bat are high (215 +/- 8 mg/dl) and are nearly 10-fold higher than in three species of Old World frugivorous bats. Fasting triglycerides were unexpectedly low in T. brasiliensis (25 +/- 2 mg/dl), despite evidence of high fat intake during nightly feeding bouts (postprandial cholesterol and triglycerides, 268 +/- 18 and 122 +/- 20 mg/dl, respectively). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were extraordinarily high (124 +/- 5 mg/dl) and unaffected by feeding. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were correspondingly low (86 +/- 7 mg/dl). This unusual plasma lipid profile was not associated with coronary or aortic atherosclerosis, nor was there evidence of hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia. A high-fat diet and high levels of cholesterol in T. brasiliensis are not correlated with cardiovascular disease or (possibly) insulin resistance. Among several possible factors that might account for these observations, nightly bouts of powered flight (commuting and foraging for food) may contribute to elevated HDL cholesterol, which may protect this species from developing atherosclerosis. PMID:8945941

Widmaier, E P; Gornstein, E R; Hennessey, J L; Bloss, J M; Greenberg, J A; Kunz, T H



Use of stable isotopically labeled tracers to measure very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer methods for VLDL-TG kinetics vary in their ability to account for the effect of tracer recycling, which can influence the calculation of VLDL-TG fractional catabolic rates (FCRs). We evaluated a novel approach, in- volving stable isotopically labeled glycerol or palmitate tracers in conjunction with compartmental modeling, for measur- ing VLDL-TG kinetics in normolipidemic human subjects. When administered as a

Bruce W. Patterson; Bettina Mittendorfer; Nizar Elias; Raj Satyanarayana; Samuel Klein


Short-term overexpression of DGAT1 or DGAT2 increases hepatic triglyceride but not VLDL triglyceride or apoB production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased triglyceride synthesis resulting from enhanced flux of fatty acids into liver is frequently associated with VLDL overproduction. This has led to the common belief that hepatic triglyceride synthesis can directly modu- late VLDL production. We used adenoviral vectors contain- ing either murine acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol transferase 1 (DGAT1) or DGAT2 cDNA to determine the effect of a short-term increase in

John S. Millar; Scot J. Stone; Uwe J. F. Tietge; Bryan Tow; Jeffrey T. Billheimer; Jinny S. Wong; Robert L. Hamilton; Robert V. Farese; Daniel J. Rader



Elevated DNA damage in a mouse model of oxidative stress: impacts of ionizing radiation and a protective dietary supplement.  


Transgenic growth hormone (Tg) mice express elevated free radical processes and a progeroid syndrome of accelerated ageing. We examined bone marrow cells of Tg mice and their normal (Nr) siblings for three markers of DNA damage and assessed the impact of free radical stress using ionizing radiation. We also evaluated the radiation protection afforded by a dietary supplement that we previously demonstrated to extend longevity and reduce cognitive ageing of Nr and Tg mice. Spectral karyotyping revealed few spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in Nr or Tg. Tg mice, however, had significantly greater constitutive levels of both gammaH2AX and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) compared to Nr. When exposed to a 2-Gy whole-body dose of ionizing radiation, both Nr and Tg mice showed significant increases in DNA damage. Compared to Nr mice, irradiated Tg mice had dramatically higher levels of gammaH2AX foci and double the levels of chromosomal aberrations. In unirradiated mice, the dietary supplement significantly reduced constitutive gammaH2AX and 8-OHdG in both Nr and Tg mice (normalizing both gammaH2AX and 8-OHdG in Tg), with little difference in gammaH2AX and 8-OHdG over constitutive levels. Induced chromosomal aberrations were also reduced, and in Nr mice, virtually absent. Remarkably, supplemented mice expressed 6-fold lower levels of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations compared to unsupplemented Nr or Tg mice. Based on our data, the dietary supplement appeared to scavenge free radicals before they could cause damage. This study validates Tg mice as an exemplary model of oxidative stress and radiation hypersensitivity and documents unprecedented radioprotection by a dietary supplement comprised of ingredients available to the general public. PMID:18644833

Lemon, J A; Rollo, C D; Boreham, D R



Tissue transglutaminase (TG-2) modified amniotic membrane: a novel scaffold for biomedical applications.  


The amniotic membrane (AM) is considered as a natural cell culture substrate and has occasionally been exploited in regenerative medicine especially for ocular surface reconstruction and dermal wound healing applications. However, its use is limited by its relatively weak mechanical strength, difficulty during manual handling and susceptibility to proteolytic degradation in vivo. Therefore, in this study we aimed to enhance the mechanical and biological characteristics of the AM by enzymatically cross-linking it using tissue transglutaminase (TG)-a calcium-dependent enzyme capable of forming stable ?(?-glutamyl)lysine cross-linkages. Using a biological catalyst such as TG does not only prevent denaturation during sample preparation but also minimizes the potential of residual chemical cross-linking agents compared to alternative methodologies. Human AM, sourced from elective caesarean sectioning, were treated with TG, bovine serum albumin and/or a no-treatment control. Samples were then compared in terms of their physical and (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transparency, mechanical strength, susceptibility to proteolytic degradation) biological characteristics (in vitro cell culture, activation of dendritic cells (DC)) and their in vivo biocompatibility/angiogenic capacity (chick chorioallantoic membrane assay). TG-treated AM exhibited enhanced mechanical strength and greater resistance to proteolytic/collagenase degradation compared to the control(s). SEM imaging of the TG-treated membrane summarized a significantly closer association and greater interconnectivity of individual collagen fibres yet it had no effect on the overall transparency of the AM. In vitro cell culture demonstrated no detrimental effect of TG-treatment on the AM in terms of cell attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, an 'immune response' was not elicited based on extended in vitro culture with human-monocyte-derived DC. Interestingly, the TG-treated AM still allowed angiogenesis to occur and in some instances, demonstrated an enhancement compared to the control (n = 5). We hereby demonstrate that treating the AM with the cross-linking enzyme, TG, results in a novel biomaterial with enhanced mechanical and biological characteristics. Above all, this modified membrane demonstrates greater strength, maintains in vitro cell growth, retains optical transparency and allows angiogenesis to occur without inducing an immune response. Altogether, this study demonstrates the feasibility of TG as an alternate cross-linking treatment for the production of novel biomaterials and suggests that TG-treated AM may now be more commonly exploited as a therapeutic dressing for ocular or wound applications. PMID:22652528

Chau, David Y S; Brown, Sheridan V; Mather, Melissa L; Hutter, Victoria; Tint, Naing L; Dua, Harminder S; Rose, Felicity R A J; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M



Overexpression of Human S100B Exacerbates Cerebral Amyloidosis and Gliosis in the Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common progressive dementia and is pathologically characterized by brain deposition of amyloid-? (A?) peptide as senile plaques. Inflammatory and immune response pathways are chronically activated in AD patient brains at low levels, and likely play a role in disease progression. Like microglia, activated astrocytes produce numerous acute-phase reactants and proinflammatory molecules in the AD brain. One such molecule, S100B, is highly expressed by reactive astrocytes in close vicinity of ?-amyloid deposits. We have previously shown that augmented and prolonged activation of astrocytes has a detrimental impact on neuronal survival. Furthermore, we have implicated astrocyte-derived S100B as a candidate molecule responsible for this deleterious effect. To evaluate a putative relationship between S100B and AD pathogenesis, we crossed transgenic mice overexpressing human S100B (TghuS100B mice) with the Tg2576 mouse model of AD, and examined AD-like pathology. Brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular ?-amyloid deposits and A? levels were increased in bigenic Tg2576-huS100B mice. These effects were associated with increased cleavage of the ?-C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP), elevation of the N-terminal APP cleavage product (soluble APP?), and activation of ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1. In addition, double transgenic mice showed augmented reactive astrocytosis and microgliosis, high levels of S100 expression, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines as early as 7-9 months of age. These results provide evidence that (over)-expression of S100B acts to accelerate AD-like pathology, and suggest that inhibiting astrocytic activation by blocking S100B biosynthesis may be a promising therapeutic strategy to delay AD progression.




26-Week dermal oncogenicity study evaluating pure trans-capsaicin in Tg.AC hemizygous mice (FBV/N).  


The objective of this study was to assess the oncogenic potential of trans-capsaicin when administered weekly via topical application to the dorsal skin of Tg.AC mice for 26 weeks. Male and female Tg.AC mice (25 mice/sex/group) received dose formulations containing trans-capsaicin dissolved in diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME). The positive control was tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) dissolved in DGME. Appropriate controls, including a topical lidocaine local anesthetic pretreatment (4%w/w), were maintained. All groups were dosed once weekly, except for the TPA group, which was dosed twice per week. Analysis of the macroscopic observations after the final sacrifice revealed no noteworthy treatment-related findings, with the exception of dermal masses that were randomly dispersed throughout all treatment groups for both males and females. The frequency of dermal masses in the capsaicin-treated groups (at a dose level of up to 102 mg/kg and an application rate of 25.6 mg/cm2/kg/week) was not elevated in comparison to either concurrent vehicle or untreated controls. In contrast, a notable increase in the frequency of dermal masses was observed in the TPA-treated mice compared to both the concurrent vehicle and untreated controls. Dermal application of capsaicin resulted in no increased incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic skin lesions. In contrast, over half the male and female mice exposed to TPA had multiple skin papillomas; the majority of the TPA-treated animals either died early or was humanely euthanized due to tumor load. Spontaneously occurring neoplasms were not appreciably increased in capsaicin-treated animals. Capsaicin-related non-neoplastic microscopic findings were seen sporadically in both genders and included acanthosis, hyperkeratosis/parakeratosis (primarily females), epidermal crusts, subepidermal fibrosis, epidermal ulcerations/erosions, and chronic-active inflammation. There was no evidence of a dose response in either the incidence or severity of these findings. The lidocaine- (at a dose level of 162 mg/kg and at an application rate of 40.5 mg/cm2/kg/week) and DGME-treated (at a dose level of 4.0 g/kg and at an application rate of 1 g/cm2/kg/week) control groups also did not display any evidence of increase in dermal masses. Based on these results, trans-capsaicin, lidocaine, and DGME should be considered nononcogenic in the Tg.AC mouse dermal model. PMID:17454252

Chanda, Sanjay; Erexson, Gregory; Frost, Denzil; Babbar, Sunita; Burlew, Jo-Anne; Bley, Keith


Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in 17-year-old Jerusalem offspring of Jews from 19 countries of birth.  


The distribution of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was examined in 6,654 17-yr-old young men and women who attended an army medical examination. There were highly significant differences among the four main groups, classified according to their father's place of birth: Israel, the Asian Near East, North Africa and Europe (including the Americas, Oceania and Southern Africa). Mean levels of plasma cholesterol in each group varied in males from 126.9 to 137.4 mg/dl, TG from 72.1 to 77.8 mg/dl and HDL-C from 41.3 to 44.4 mg/dl. In females, the cholesterol levels ranged from 144.6 to 154.8 mg/dl, TG from 72.7 to 76.3 and HDL-C from 47.3 to 50.5 mg/dl. In the various groups, subjects of North African origin consistently had the lowest lipid values, and subjects whose fathers were born in Europe or Israel, the highest. When the subjects were classified according to their fathers' specific country of origin, mean cholesterol values ranged from a low of 126.2 mg/dl in Moroccan males to a high of 143.0 in Austrian and Swiss males, and from 137.6 mg/dl in Tunisian females to 161.6 in those whose fathers had emigrated from North American countries. HDL-C ranged in males from 40.0 mg/dl in the Egyptian group to 47.0 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group; in females, the values ranged from 46.0 mg/dl in the Algerian group to 53.4 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group. These findings are discussed in light of published reports of lipid and lipoprotein levels in individuals living in different countries. PMID:7161044

Halfon, S T; Eisenberg, S; Baras, M; Davies, A M; Halperin, G; Stein, Y



Triglyceride Levels and Not Adipokine Concentrations Are Closely Related to severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an Obesity surgery Cohort  

PubMed Central

Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent in obesity, the metabolic determinants of advanced liver disease remain unclear. Adipokines reflect inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and may identify advanced NAFLD. At the time of obesity surgery, 142 consecutive patients underwent liver biopsy and had their preoperative demographic and clinical data obtained. Liver histology was scored by the NAFLD activity score, and patients subdivided into four groups. Concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and leptin were determined ~1 week prior to surgery and results were related to liver histology. The prevalence of no NAFLD was 30%, simple steatosis 23%, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) 28%, and definitive NASH 18%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence were 39 and 75%, respectively, and did not differ across the four histological groups (P = NS). Triglyceride (TG) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, strongly associated with advanced stages of NAFLD and NASH (P = 0.04). TG levels >150 mg/dl, increased the likelihood of NASH 3.4-fold, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels predicted no NAFLD (P < 0.01). Concentrations of TNF-?, leptin, and RBP4 did not differ among histological groups and thus did not identify NASH; however, there was a trend for adiponectin to be lower in NASH vs. no NAFLD (P = 0.061). In summary, both TG and ALT levels assist in identification of NASH in an obesity surgery cohort. These findings underscore the importance of fatty acid delivery mechanisms to NASH development in severely obese individuals.

Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Diab, Dima L.; Baker, Allison R.; Yerian, Lisa; Bajaj, Harpreet; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Schauer, Philip R.; Gupta, Manjula; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Stein, Catherine M.



National Elevation Dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NED is designed to provide national elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, permit edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data.

Geological Survey (U.S.)



Delayed cystogenesis and increased ciliogenesis associated with the re-expression of polaris in Tg737 mutant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed cystogenesis and increased ciliogenesis associated with the re-expression of polaris inTg737mutant mice.BackgroundRenal cysts and shortened cilia on renal tubular epithelia have been observed in Tg737orpk (orpk) mutant mice, suggesting a potential connection between cystogenesis and ciliogenesis. To further test this hypothesis we have characterized the progression of cystic disease and cilia expression in orpk, orpk;Tg737Rsq (orpk rescue), and Tg737?2-3?Gal;Tg737Rsq

Nicole E Brown; Noel S Murcia



Spaceflight Influences both Mucosal and Peripheral Cytokine Production in PTN-Tg and Wild Type Mice  

PubMed Central

Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-?1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-?1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-?1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-?1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

Liu, Yi; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.



Intramolecular Fatty Acid Distribution in the Milk Fat Triglycerides of Several Species1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of fatty acids in the triglycerides of some ~ilk fats of nutritional importance was examined by the pancreatic lipase hydrolysis pro- cedure. Milk fats were from the cow, Indian buffalo, goat, sheep, and human. A substantially shortened hydrolysis period was employed, its use validated by a comparison of the original triglyceride composition with the residual mono- glyceride composition

C. P. Freeman; E. L. Jack; L. M. Smith



Phase behavior of carbon dioxide—low-molecular weight triglycerides binary systems: measurements and thermodynamic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution reports new experimental data on the fluid phase behavior of binary mixtures of carbon dioxide and three saturated, low-molecular weight triglycerides: tributyrin, tricaproin and tricaprylin. The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of the triglyceride molecular weight on the phase behavior of mixtures with carbon dioxide. The experimental work covers a temperature range between 276

L. J. Florusse; T. Fornari; S. B. Bottini; C. J. Peters



Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.  


Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ay?e; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stan?áková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S



Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia.  


Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is required for the biosynthesis of oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1). These monounsaturated fatty acids are the major components of phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters, and cholesterol esters. Mice with a targeted disruption of the SCD1 gene have very low levels of VLDL and impaired triglyceride and cholesterol ester biosynthesis. In the HYPLIP mouse, a model of hyperlipidemia, there was a 4-fold increase in hepatic SCD activity, a 1.8-fold increase in the desaturation index, and a 2-fold increase in plasma triglycerides. We used the plasma ratio of 18:1/18:0 (the "desaturation index") as an in vivo measure of SCD activity in human subjects. In human subjects with triglycerides ranging from 0.3 to 20 mM, the desaturation ratio accounted for one-third of the variance in plasma triglyceride levels. A 2-fold increase in the desaturation index was associated with a 4-fold increase in plasma triglycerides. In human subjects exposed to a high carbohydrate diet, the desaturation index explained 44% of the variance in triglycerides. We propose that many of the factors that influence plasma triglyceride levels do so by converging upon the regulation of SCD activity. PMID:12401889

Attie, Alan D; Krauss, Ronald M; Gray-Keller, Mark P; Brownlie, Alison; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kastelein, John J; Lusis, Aldons J; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Stoehr, Jonathan P; Hayden, Michael R; Ntambi, James M



The role of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in regulating the tumour progression of the mouse colon carcinoma CT26.  


The multifunctional enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is reported to both mediate and inhibit tumour progression. To elucidate these different roles of TG2, we established a series of stable-transfected mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells expressing a catalytically active (wild type) and a transamidating-inactive TG2 (Cys277Ser) mutant. Comparison of the TG2-transfected cells with the empty vector control indicated no differences in cell proliferation, apoptosis and susceptibility to doxorubicin, which correlated with no detectable changes in the activation of the transcription factor NF-?B. TG2-transfected cells showed increased expression of integrin ?3, and were more adherent and less migratory on fibronectin than control cells. Direct interaction of TG2 with ?3 integrins was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, suggesting that TG2 acts as a coreceptor for fibronectin with ?3 integrins. All cells expressed the same level of TGF? receptors I and II, but only cells transfected with active TG2 had increased levels of TGF?1 and matrix-deposited fibronectin, which could be inhibited by TG2 site-directed inhibitors. Moreover, only cells transfected with active TG2 were capable of inhibiting tumour growth when compared to the empty vector controls. We conclude that in this colon carcinoma model increased levels of active TG2 are unfavourable to tumour growth due to their role in activation of TGF?1 and increased matrix deposition, which in turn favours increased cell adhesion and a lowered migratory and invasive behaviour. PMID:21046178

Kotsakis, Panayiotis; Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell John; Griffin, Martin



Structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene was determined from multiple cosmid clones. All the exons, exon-intron junctions, and 845 bp of the 5{prime} and 254 bp of the 3{prime} flanking DNA were sequenced. Comparison of the exon sequences to three previously published cDNA sequences revealed differences in the sequence of the codons for residue 133, 193, 202, and 234 that may represent sequence polymorphisms. By primer extension, hepatic lipase mRNA initiates at an adenine 77 bases upstream of the translation initiation site. The hepatic lipase gene spans over 60 kb containing 9 exons and 8 introns, the latter being all located within the region encoding the mature protein. The exons are all of average size (118-234 bp). Exon 1 encodes the signal peptide, exon 4, a region that binds to the lipoprotein substrate, and exon 5, an evolutionarily highly conserved region of potential catalytic function, and exons 6 and 9 encode sequences rich in basic amino acids thought to be important in anchoring the enzyme to the endothelial surface by interacting with acidic domains of the surface glycosaminoglycans. The human lipoprotein lipase gene has been recently reported to have an identical exon-intron organization containing the analogous structural domains. The observations strongly support the common evolutionary origin of these two lipolytic enzymes.

Cai, Shengjian; Wong, D.M.; Chen, Sanhwan; Chan, L. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))



Thermodynamic investigations of nitroxoline sublimation by simultaneous DSC-FTIR method and isothermal TG analysis.  


To investigate the physicochemical characteristics, thermodynamics, possible sublimation process and kinetics of nitroxoline, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy equipped with a micro hot-stage of DSC microscopy assembly (simultaneous DSC-FTIR method) were used. The DSC result indicates that nitroxoline exhibited a sharp endothermic peak at 182 degrees C with enthalpy of 103.1 J/g due to the melting point of nitroxoline. A sublimation behavior of nitroxoline was found from 129 degrees C by gradual weight loss in TG curve. However, the nonisothermal DSC-FTIR method reveals that the temperature at 95 degrees C was the onset temperature of nitroxoline sublimation. A significant difference between DSC-FTIR method and TG analysis suggests that the simultaneous DSC-FTIR method was more sensitive than that of the TG analysis to detect the beginning temperature of nitroxoline sublimation. The sublimation kinetics of nitroxoline determined by isothermal TG analysis evidenced that the zero-order kinetics was followed over the sublimation time. The sublimation enthalpy correction was also carried out by a group additivity approach for the estimation of heat capacity. The enthalpy of nitroxoline sublimation estimated was 86.14 KJ/mol at 298.15 K. PMID:19530075

Gao, Gau-Yi; Lin, Shan-Yang



Chronic ethanol and triglyceride turnover in white adipose tissue in rats: inhibition of the anti-lipolytic action of insulin after chronic ethanol contributes to increased triglyceride degradation.  


Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts whole-body lipid metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that regulation of triglyceride homeostasis in adipose tissue is vulnerable to long-term ethanol exposure. After chronic ethanol feeding, total body fat content as well as the quantity of epididymal adipose tissue of male Wistar rats was decreased compared with pair-fed controls. Integrated rates of in vivo triglyceride turnover in epididymal adipose tissue were measured using (2)H(2)O as a tracer. Triglyceride turnover in adipose tissue was increased due to a 2.3-fold increase in triglyceride degradation in ethanol-fed rats compared with pair-fed controls with no effect of ethanol on triglyceride synthesis. Because increased lipolysis accompanied by the release of free fatty acids into the circulation is associated with insulin resistance and liver injury, we focused on determining the mechanisms for increased lipolysis in adipose tissue after chronic ethanol feeding. Chronic ethanol feeding suppressed beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated lipolysis in both in vivo and ex vivo assays; thus, enhanced triglyceride degradation during ethanol feeding was not due to increased beta-adrenergic-mediated lipolysis. Instead, chronic ethanol feeding markedly impaired insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis in conscious rats during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp as well as in adipocytes isolated from epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue. These data demonstrate for the first time that chronic ethanol feeding increased the rate of triglyceride degradation in adipose tissue. Furthermore, this enhanced rate of lipolysis was due to a suppression of the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in adipocytes after chronic ethanol feeding. PMID:17686776

Kang, Li; Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M; Pratt, Brian T; Bederman, Ilya R; Alexander, James C; Previs, Stephen F; Nagy, Laura E



Elevated serum triglycerides is the strongest single indicator for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes already fulfill one diagnostic criterion for MS according to the existing classifications. Our aim was to identify one single clinical parameter, which could effectively predict the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We studied all patients with type 2 diabetes who attended our Diabetes Outpatient Clinic during a three-month period. Waist circumference,

Maria Kompoti; Anargiros Mariolis; Alevizos Alevizos; Ioannis Kyriazis; Ioannis Protopsaltis; Eleni Dimou; Ioannis Lentzas; Dimitrios Levisianou; Afroditi Gova; Andreas Melidonis



Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides.  


We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of approximately 120 degrees between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h*-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h* conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T*=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy DeltaH. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of DeltaH in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h* model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h* model gave a value of DeltaH that was too small by a factor of approximately 3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm(-1) Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman bands in the temperature range of -20 degrees C < or = T < or = 90 degrees C. The experimental results were in accord with the predictions of the h-Y model and support the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)] that the liquid state is made up of molecules that are each, on average, in a Y conformation. Finally, we carried out computer simulations of minimal-model TLs in the liquid phase, and concluded that although the individual TL molecules are, on average, Y conformers, long-range discotic order is unlikely to exist. PMID:20136317

Pink, David A; Hanna, Charles B; Sandt, Christophe; MacDonald, Adam J; MacEachern, Ronald; Corkery, Robert; Rousseau, Dérick



In Vitro Activity of a Novel Antimicrobial Agent, TG44, for Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Due to concerns about the current therapeutic modalities for Helicobacter pylori infection, e.g., the increased emergence of drug-resistant strains and the adverse reactions of drugs currently administered, there is a need to develop an anti-H. pylori agent with higher efficacy and less toxicity. The antibacterial activity of TG44, an anti-H. pylori agent with a novel structural formula, against 54 clinical isolates of H. pylori was examined and compared with those of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLR), and metronidazole (MNZ). Consequently, TG44 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in an MIC range of 0.0625 to 1 ?g/ml. The MIC ranges of AMX, CLR, and MNZ were 0.0078 to 8 ?g/ml, 0.0156 to 64 ?g/ml, and 2 to 128 ?g/ml, respectively. The antibacterial activity of TG44 against AMX-, CLR-, and MNZ-resistant strains was nearly comparable to that against drug-susceptible ones. In a pH range of 3 to 7, TG44 at 3.13 to 12.5 ?g/ml exhibited potent bactericidal activity against H. pylori in the stationary phase of growth as early as 1 h after treatment began, in contrast to AMX, which showed no bactericidal activity at concentrations of up to 50 ?g/ml at the same time point of treatment. TG44 at 25 ?g/ml exhibited no antibacterial activity against 13 strains of aerobic bacteria, suggesting that its antibacterial activity against H. pylori is potent and highly specific. The present study indicated that TG44 possesses antibacterial activity which manifests quickly and is potentially useful for eradicating not only the antibiotic-susceptible but also the antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori by monotherapy.

Kamoda, Osamu; Anzai, Kinsei; Mizoguchi, Jun-ichi; Shiojiri, Masatoshi; Yanagi, Toshiharu; Nishino, Takeshi; Kamiya, Shigeru



Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and indicating incorporation of railroad retaining wall as the elevator's basement wall - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA


Cancer immunotherapy: phase II clinical studies with TG4010 (MVA-MUC1-IL2).  


Vaccines are well known in the context of prevention of diseases caused by infectious agents. Current research is now aimed at using vaccines to manipulate the immune system to eliminate established diseases, including cancer. Several such immunotherapeutic vaccines are now in clinical trials and are beginning to show clinical benefit. TG4010 is one such vaccine. It incorporates the MUC1 antigen, which is overexpressed in the majority of cancers, into a non-propagative pox viral vector, MVA. A second gene, interleukin-2 is also incorporated into TG4010 as an immune stimulus. The vaccine has been tested in breast, kidney, prostate and lung cancers with encouraging results. PMID:17935281

Acres, Bruce



Dehydration studies of rare earth p-toluenesulfonate hydrates by TG\\/DTG and DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dehydration process of the compounds RE(C7H7SO3)3·xH2O (where x=2 for RE=La–Ho, Tm, Yb and Y; x=7 and 6 for RE=Er and Lu, respectively) has been investigated by thermogravimetry\\/derivative thermogravimetry (TG\\/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The TG\\/DTG curves show that the dehydration process does not depend on the atmosphere used. For the compounds of La–Gd, dehydration occurs in a

A. V dos Santos; J. R Matos



Applicationof TG-DTG analysis in the study of the ammoxidised carbon materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect\\u000a of ammoxidation on thermal stability of carbonaceous materials characterised\\u000a by degree of coalification other than that of brown coal (Konin mine, Poland)\\u000a or sub-bituminous coal (So?nica mine, Poland) was studied by thermogravimetric\\u000a (TG-DTG) method. Analysis of TG-DTG curves has shown that coal samples ammoxidised\\u000a at the higher temperature show slightly lower thermal stability. It has been\\u000a established the

L. Wachowski; M. Hofman



Structural evolution during the sub-Tg relaxation of hyperquenched metallic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the structural characteristics during the sub-Tg relaxation in hyperquenched La55Al25Ni20 glasses. The sub-Tg relaxation is associated with the structural change in intermediate range order, as manifested by the appearance of a prepeak in the x-ray diffraction spectrum. Such structural change could be the source of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in metallic glasses. The mechanism governing the evolution of the prepeak is different between the glasses with the fictive temperature below 604 K and those above 604 K. Cooperative motion of atoms in La-centered clusters was further discussed in terms of the atomic bond deficiency model.

Hu, Lina; Zhang, Chunzhi; Yue, Yuanzheng



MrBayes tgMC3: A Tight GPU Implementation of MrBayes  

PubMed Central

MrBayes is model-based phylogenetic inference tool using Bayesian statistics. However, model-based assessment of phylogenetic trees adds to the computational burden of tree-searching, and so poses significant computational challenges. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have been proposed as high performance, low cost acceleration platforms and several parallelized versions of the Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Mote Carlo (MC3) algorithm in MrBayes have been presented that can run on GPUs. However, some bottlenecks decrease the efficiency of these implementations. To address these bottlenecks, we propose a tight GPU MC3 (tgMC3) algorithm. tgMC3 implements a different architecture from the one-to-one acceleration architecture employed in previously proposed methods. It merges multiply discrete GPU kernels according to the data dependency and hence decreases the number of kernels launched and the complexity of data transfer. We implemented tgMC3 and made performance comparisons with an earlier proposed algorithm, nMC3, and also with MrBayes MC3 under serial and multiply concurrent CPU processes. All of the methods were benchmarked on the same computing node from DEGIMA. Experiments indicate that the tgMC3 method outstrips nMC3 (v1.0) with speedup factors from 2.1 to 2.7×. In addition, tgMC3 outperforms the serial MrBayes MC3 by a factor of 6 to 30× when using a single GTX480 card, whereas a speedup factor of around 51× can be achieved by using two GTX 480 cards on relatively long sequences. Moreover, tgMC3 was compared with MrBayes accelerated by BEAGLE, and achieved speedup factors from 3.7 to 5.7×. The reported performance improvement of tgMC3 is significant and appears to scale well with increasing dataset sizes. In addition, the strategy proposed in tgMC3 could benefit the acceleration of other Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis methods using GPUs.

Ling, Cheng; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Bai, Jianing; Li, Xianbin; Chesters, Douglas; Zheng, Weimin; Shi, Weifeng



Obese yeast: triglyceride lipolysis is functionally conserved from mammals to yeast.  


Storage and degradation of triglycerides are essential processes to ensure energy homeostasis and availability of precursors for membrane lipid synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that an emerging class of enzymes containing a conserved patatin domain are centrally important players in lipid degradation. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a major triglyceride lipase of the adipose triglyceride lipase/Brummer family, Tgl4, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Elimination of Tgl4 in a tgl3 background led to fat yeast, rendering growing cells unable to degrade triglycerides. Tgl4 and Tgl3 lipases localized to lipid droplets, independent of each other. Serine 315 in the GXSXG lipase active site consensus sequence of the patatin domain of Tgl4 is essential for catalytic activity. Mouse adipose triglyceride lipase (which also contains a patatin domain but is otherwise highly divergent in primary structure from any yeast protein) localized to lipid droplets when expressed in yeast, and significantly restored triglyceride breakdown in tgl4 mutants in vivo. Our data identify yeast Tgl4 as a functional ortholog of mammalian adipose triglyceride lipase. PMID:16267052

Kurat, Christoph F; Natter, Klaus; Petschnigg, Julia; Wolinski, Heimo; Scheuringer, Kim; Scholz, Harald; Zimmermann, Robert; Leber, Regina; Zechner, Rudolf; Kohlwein, Sepp D



Effects of a Diet Higher in Carbohydrate/Lower in Fat Versus Lower in Carbohydrate/Higher in Monounsaturated Fat on Postmeal Triglyceride Concentrations and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of a eucaloric diet higher in carbohydrate/lower in fat versus lower in carbohydrate/higher in monounsaturated fat on postmeal triglyceride (TG) concentrations and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in nonobese subjects with type 1 diabetes and in good glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a parallel group design study, 30 subjects were randomly assigned and completed one of the two eucaloric diets. Assessments included: BMI, blood pressure, A1C, plasma lipids, and markers of oxidation, thrombosis, and inflammation. At 6 months, subjects were hospitalized for 24 h to measure plasma TG excursions. RESULTS There were no significant differences between groups other than decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels and weight gain in the lower-carbohydrate/higher–monounsaturated fat group. During the 24-h testing, the lower-carbohydrate/higher–monounsaturated fat group had a lower plasma TG profile. CONCLUSIONS A diet lower in carbohydrate/higher in monounsaturated fat could offer an appropriate choice for nonobese type 1 diabetic individuals with good metabolic and weight control.

Strychar, Irene; Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Renier, Genevieve; Rivard, Michele; Aris-Jilwan, Nahla; Beauregard, Hugues; Meltzer, Sara; Belanger, Andre; Dumas, Richard; Ishac, Alain; Radwan, Farouk; Yale, Jean-Francois



Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.



High levels of dietary arachidonic acid triglyceride exhibit no subchronic toxicity in rats.  


Arachidonic acid (AA), an n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA), serves an important role in the body as a structural fatty acid of many tissues including neurological tissues. It is also a precursor of the n-6 class of eicosanoids and is the most abundant n-6 LC-PUFA found in human breast milk. We have optimized the production of a microfungal source of a triglyceride oil (ARASCO) which is enriched in AA to about 40% by weight. To establish the safety of this oil as a food, we evaluated the effect of ARASCO in Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) gavaged at dose levels of 1.0 and 2.5 g/kg/d for a period of 90 d, paying special attention to any potential neurotoxicity of the oil. Two groups of control animals received either untreated standard laboratory diet (untreated control) or the same diet and vehicle oil at the same dose volume administered to the treated animals (vehicle control). Physical observations, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology parameters, neurobehavioral assessments, and macroscopic as well as microscopic postmortem evaluations were performed. Tissue fatty acid analyses indicated that the AA levels in the brain, heart, and liver of the high-dose ARASCO-fed animals increased by 8, 59, and 76%, respectively, indicating that the AA in the oil was readily incorporated into tissue lipids. In spite of this high elevation in tissue AA levels, no developmental, histopathological, or neuropathological differences were seen in the animals administered ARASCO compared with the vehicle control animals. Being highly enriched in AA, ARASCO offers the means to study the effect of this fatty acid in experimental settings and in human metabolic studies. PMID:9113628

Koskelo, E K; Boswell, K; Carl, L; Lanoue, S; Kelly, C; Kyle, D



Dufour's gland triglycerides from Anthophora, emphoropsis (Anthophoridae) and Megachile (Megachilidae) bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).  


Lipids secreted from the Dufour's glands of the bees Anthophora centriformis, Anthophora californica tarsata, Emphoropsis miserabilis, Megachile (Delomegachile) gemula, M. (Phaenosarus) fortis, M. (Argyropile) parallela, and M. (Melanosarus) xylocopoides primarily consist of short chain (C2-C20) fatty acid triglycerides. Nearly 95% of the triglycerides from Anthophora and Emphoropsis have one palmitoyl-, stearoyl- or arachidoyl moiety, plus two shorter acids (C2-C16). Virtually all triglycerides (98%) from the four Megachile species possess only short-chain fatty acids (C2-C16), often with one like pair of acids. PMID:6478803

Cane, J H; Carlson, R G



Male Gender, Increased Blood Viscosity, Body Mass Index and Triglyceride Levels Are Independently Associated with Systemic Relative Hypertension in Sickle Cell Anemia  

PubMed Central

Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events.

Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressieres, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe



Vitamin C supplementation lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Vitamin C has been shown to be an effective therapeutic for reducing total serum cholesterol, but epidemiologic studies have determined that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are actually better predictive measures of coronary heart disease risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on LDL and HDL cholesterol as well as triglycerides in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods Thirteen randomized controlled trials published between 1970 and June 2007 were identified using Medline and a manual search. From the 13 trials, 14 separate group populations with hypercholesterolemia and who were supplemented with at least 500 mg/d of vitamin C for between 3 and 24 weeks were entered into the meta-analysis. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model; and the overall effect sizes were calculated for changes in LDL and HDL cholesterol, as well as triglyceride concentrations. Results The pooled estimate of effect for vitamin C supplementation on LDL and HDL cholesterol was ?7.9 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], ?12.3 to ?3.5; P = .000) and 1.1 mg/dL (95% CI, ?0.2 to 2.3; not significant), respectively. The pooled estimate of effect for vitamin C supplementation on triglycerides was ?20.1 mg/dL (95% CI, ?33.3 to ?6.8; P < .003). Conclusion Supplementation with at least 500 mg/d of vitamin C, for a minimum of 4 weeks, can result in a significant decrease in serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. However, there was a nonsignificant elevation of serum HDL cholesterol.

McRae, Marc P.



Male gender, increased blood viscosity, body mass index and triglyceride levels are independently associated with systemic relative hypertension in sickle cell anemia.  


Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have usually lower diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure (BP) than the general population. However, BP values ?120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for acute and chronic complications in SCA. The aim of this study was to identify biological factors associated with relative hypertension in adults with SCA. We compared the hematological, lipid and hemolytic profiles, as well as blood viscosity, between SCA patients with normal BP (<120/70 mmHg, n?=?54) and those with relative hypertension (BP?120/70 mmHg, n?=?43). Our results demonstrated that male gender (OR: 3.49; 95%CI 1.20 to 10.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (OR: 9.19; 95% CI 2.29 to 36.95, p<0.01), blood viscosity (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.81, p<0.05) and body mass index (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.64, p<0.01) were independent risks factors for relative hypertension in SCA. No association was found between the BP status and the positive history of painful vaso-occlusive crisis or acute chest syndrome. An association between triglycerides level and the occurrence of these two major acute complications was detected. Our study suggests that male gender, increased triglycerides level, BMI and blood viscosity could increase the risk for developing relative hypertension in SCA. In addition, our results support a role of moderately elevated triglycerides in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive events. PMID:23785465

Lamarre, Yann; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Mougenel, Daniele; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tarer, Vanessa; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe



Space Elevator: Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the “centrifugal force” but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of

Lubos Perek



Azimuth and Elevation Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows users to see what the elevation, noon elevation, and azimuth of the Sun is for specific locations (requested by city or latitude and longitude) and time zone for the current date. This program also shows how long the Sun will be above or below the horizon for the current date and the location the user chooses.

Giesen, Juergen


Hippocampal Hyperexcitability Underlies Enhanced Fear Memories in TgNTRK3, a Panic Disorder Mouse Model.  


Panic attacks are a hallmark in panic disorder (PAND). During the panic attack, a strong association with the surrounding context is established suggesting that the hippocampus may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of PAND, given its role in contextual processing. We previously showed that variation in the expression of the neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) in both PAND patients and a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3) may have a role in PAND pathophysiology. Our study examines hippocampal function and activation of the brain fear network in TgNTRK3 mice. TgNTRK3 mice showed increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Moreover, TgNTRK3 mice also showed an unbalanced excitation-to-inhibition ratio in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3)-CA1 subcircuit toward hyperexcitability. The resulting hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies the enhanced fear memories, as supported by the efficacy of tiagabine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor, to rescue fear response. The fearful phenotype appears to be the result of hippocampal hyperexcitability and aberrant fear circuit activation. We conclude that NTRK3 plays a role in PAND by regulating hippocampus-dependent fear memories. PMID:24048855

Santos, Mónica; D'Amico, Davide; Spadoni, Ornella; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Stork, Oliver; Dierssen, Mara



Is a distinctive single Tg a reliable indicator for the homogeneity of amorphous solid dispersion?  


For an amorphous drug-polymer solid dispersion, a distinctive single T(g) intermediate of the two T(g) values of the two components has been widely considered as an indication of the mixing uniformity, which is critical for the stability of the amorphous drug against crystallization. In this study, two batches of amorphous solid dispersions consisting of BMS-A, a poorly water-soluble drug, and PVP-VA, were made by a twin-screw hot-melt extruder using different processing conditions. Both batches displayed an identical distinctive single T(g) that is consistent with the prediction of Fox equation assuming homogeneous mixing of the two components. Neither DSC nor PXRD detected any drug crystallinity in either batch. However, the two batches exhibited different physical stability against crystallization over time. The application of a Raman mapping method showed that the drug distributed over a much wider concentration range in the less stable solid dispersion. It is therefore experimentally demonstrated that, in the characterization of amorphous solid dispersions, a distinctive single T(g) may not always be a reliable indicator of homogeneity and optimal stability, and more examinations and new techniques may be required other than conventional studies. PMID:20562003

Qian, Feng; Huang, Jun; Zhu, Qing; Haddadin, Raja; Gawel, John; Garmise, Robert; Hussain, Munir



Characterization of monumental carbonate stones by thermal analysis (TG, DTG and DSC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), were found to be suitable instrumental techniques for the study of monumental rocks because they need small amounts of sample and provide extensive qualitative and quantitative information. From DTG curves, the calcite\\/dolomite ratio in the samples as well as the differences between limestones and dolomites can be quantitatively determined. DSC

L. M. Barcina; A. Espina; M. Suárez; J. R. García; J. Rodríguez



Review: Tg - reversible glass door to fabrication of photonic devices and integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review our development of sub-micron hot embossing or imprinting of glasses. We suggest that this is an emerging technology which shows great promise for the fabrication of glass photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The approach makes use of Tg (the glass transition) which gives inorganic compound glasses a key advantage over crystalline materials for fabricating photonic devices and PICs. Thus,

A. B. Seddon; D. Furniss; Z. G. Lian; W. J. Pan; T. M. Benson



The effect of procedural variables on TG, DTG and DTA curves of calcium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of procedural variables, including sample mass, heating rate, particle size and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, on TG, DTG and DTA curves for the decomposition of A. R. calcium carbonate and limestone has been studied. Such variables have a marked effect, similar in magnitude for both DTG and DTA. The effect of sample mass, or depth of undiluted

F. W. Wilburn; J. H. Sharp; D. M. Tinsley; R. M. McIntosh



The effect of procedural variables on TG, DTG and DTA curves of magnesite and dolomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

TG, DTG and DTA curves of magnesite are dependent on procedural variables, especially sample mass, heating rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, in a similar manner to those of calcite [1], although the magnitude of the effect is less for magnesite. The first stage of the decomposition of dolomite varies with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide in an

J. H. Sharp; F. W. Wilburn; R. M. McIntosh



Evaluation of the accuracy of fetal dose estimates using TG-36 data  

SciTech Connect

The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 36 report (TG-36) provides guidelines for managing radiation therapy of pregnant patients. Included in the report are data that can be used to estimate the dose to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of these fetal dose estimates as compared to clinically measured values. TG-36 calculations were performed and compared with measurements of the fetal dose made in vivo or in appropriately-designed phantoms. Calculation and measurement data was collected for eight pregnant patients who underwent radiation therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center as well as for several fetal dose studies in the literature. The maximum measured unshielded fetal dose was 47 cGy, which was 1.5% of the prescription dose. For all cases, TG-36 calculations and measured fetal doses differed by up to a factor of 3--the ratio of the calculated to measured dose ranged from 0.34 to 2.93. On average, TG-36 calculations underestimated the measured dose by 31%. No significant trends in the relationship between the calculated and measured fetal doses were found based on the distance from, or the size of, the treatment field.

Kry, Stephen F.; Starkschall, George; Antolak, John A.; Salehpour, Mohammad [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)



Study on combustion mechanism of asphalt binder by using TG–FTIR technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion mechanism of asphalt binder was investigated by using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG–FTIR) in a mixed gas environment of 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen. The results show that the combustion process of asphalt binder consists of three main consecutive stages at a low heating rate. The combustion reaction becomes more and more intense from

Tao Xu; Xiaoming Huang



GRK5 deficiency exaggerates inflammatory changes in TgAPPsw mice  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiency of membrane G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase-5 (GRK5) recently has been linked to early AD pathogenesis, and has been suggested to contribute to augmented microglial activation in vitro by sensitizing relevant GPCRs. However, GRK5 deficient mice did not show any signs of microgliosis, except for their moderate increase in axonal defects and synaptic degenerative changes during aging. We have speculated that one possible reason for the absence of microgliosis in these animals might be due to lack of an active inflammatory process involving activated GPCR signaling, since GRKs only act on activated GPCRs. The objective of this study was to determine whether the microgliosis is exaggerated in TgAPPsw (Tg2576) mice also deficient in GRK5, in which fibrillar ?-amyloid (A?) and an active inflammatory process involving activated GPCR signaling are present. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative immunochemistry methods were used to evaluate the microgliosis and astrogliosis in these animals. Results We found that inactivation of one copy of the GRK5 gene in the TgAPPsw mice resulted in approximately doubled extent of microgliosis, along with significantly exaggerated astrogliosis, in both hippocampus and cortex of the aged animals. Consistent with previous observations, the activated microglia were located primarily near or surrounding the fibrillar A? deposits. Conclusion The results demonstrate that GRK5 deficiency in vivo significantly exaggerates microgliosis and astrogliosis in the presence of an inflammatory initiator, such as the excess fibrillar A? and the subsequent active inflammatory reactions in the TgAPPsw mice.

Li, Longxuan; Liu, Jun; Suo, William Z



Impairment of nesting behaviour in 3xTg-AD mice.  


Deterioration in executive functions and daily life activities (DLA) are early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that signal the need for caregiver attention. We have addressed this issue in the 3xTg-AD mice model for AD and studied nesting behaviour as a natural DLA of parental structures as well as at early- (6 month-old) and advanced-stages (12 month-old) of the disease in isolated animals. The results show genetic, gender and age-dependent impairment of nesting behaviour but also aware about the relevance of factors such as the temporal course of nest construction and the nesting material. Paper towel consistently showed the impairment of nesting behavior in 3xTg-AD mice since early stages of the disease and in both social conditions. Their nest construction was slow temporal pattern and of poor quality, especially in females and advanced stages of the disease where the deficits were shown from the first day. In all cases, cotton elicited an intense behaviour that lead to perfect nesting during the first 48 h. Genotype, gender and age differences were found in the onset of nesting behaviour, with a time delay in the 3xTg-AD mice, particularly in females. The reported impairment of nesting behaviour in 3xTg-AD provides another behavioral tool to assess the benefits of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies, as well as the potential action of risk factors of AD, in this animal model. PMID:23523959

Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia



The role of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in regulating the tumour progression of the mouse colon carcinoma CT26  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifunctional enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is reported to both mediate and inhibit tumour progression. To elucidate\\u000a these different roles of TG2, we established a series of stable-transfected mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells expressing a\\u000a catalytically active (wild type) and a transamidating-inactive TG2 (Cys277Ser) mutant. Comparison of the TG2-transfected cells\\u000a with the empty vector control indicated no differences in cell

Panayiotis Kotsakis; Zhuo Wang; Russell John Collighan; Martin Griffin


TG2-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling has a critical role in warfarin-induced vascular calcification  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent from oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1,prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic trans-differentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification.

Beazley, Kelly E.; Deasey, Stephanie; Lima, Florence; Nurminskaya, Maria V.



Age-Dependent Neuroplasticity Mechanisms in Alzheimer Tg2576 Mice Following Modulation of Brain Amyloid-? Levels  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of modulating brain amyloid-? (A?) levels at different stages of amyloid pathology on synaptic function, inflammatory cell changes and hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. processes perturbed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Young (4- to 6-month-old) and older (15- to 18-month-old) APPSWE transgenic (Tg2576) mice were treated with the AD candidate drug (+)-phenserine for 16 consecutive days. We found significant reductions in insoluble A?1-42 levels in the cortices of both young and older transgenic mice, while significant reductions in soluble A?1-42 levels and insoluble A?1-40 levels were only found in animals aged 15–18 months. Autoradiography binding with the amyloid ligand Pittsburgh Compound B (3H-PIB) revealed a trend for reduced fibrillar A? deposition in the brains of older phenserine-treated Tg2576 mice. Phenserine treatment increased cortical synaptophysin levels in younger mice, while decreased interleukin-1? and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were detected in the cortices of older mice. The reduction in A?1-42 levels was associated with an increased number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in the hippocampi of both young and older Tg2576 mice. To determine whether the increased cell proliferation was accompanied by increased neuronal production, the endogenous early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) was examined in the dentate gyrus (DG) using immunohistochemical detection. Although no changes in the total number of DCX+-expressing neurons were detected in the DG in Tg2576 mice at either age following (+)-phenserine treatment, dendritic arborization was increased in differentiating neurons in young Tg2576 mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that reducing A?1-42 levels in Tg2576 mice at an early pathological stage affects synaptic function by modulating the maturation and plasticity of newborn neurons in the brain. In contrast, lowering A? levels in Tg2576 mice when A? plaque pathology is prominent mainly alters the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

Lilja, Anna M.; Rojdner, Jennie; Mustafiz, Tamanna; Thome, Carina M.; Storelli, Elisa; Gonzalez, Daniel; Unger-Lithner, Christina; Greig, Nigel H.; Nordberg, Agneta; Marutle, Amelia



TG-51: experience from 150 institutions, common errors, and helpful hints.  


The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) is a resource to the medical physics community for assistance regarding dosimetry procedures. Since the publication of the AAPM TG-51 calibration protocol, the RPC has responded to numerous phone calls raising questions and describing areas in the protocol where physicists have had problems. At the beginning of the year 2000, the RPC requested that institutions participating in national clinical trials provide the change in measured beam output resulting from the conversion from the TG-21 protocol to TG-51. So far, the RPC has received the requested data from approximately 150 of the approximately 1300 institutions in the RPC program. The RPC also undertook a comparison of TG-21 and TG-51 and determined the expected change in beam calibration for ion chambers in common use, and for the range of photon and electron beam energies used clinically. Analysis of these data revealed two significant outcomes: (i) a large number (approximately 1/2) of the reported calibration changes for photon and electron beams were outside the RPC's expected values, and (ii) the discrepancies in the reported versus the expected dose changes were as large as 8%. Numerous factors were determined to have contributed to these deviations. The most significant factors involved the use of plane-parallel chambers, the mixing of phantom materials and chambers between the two protocols, and the inconsistent use of depth-dose factors for transfer of dose from the measurement depth to the depth of dose maximum. In response to these observations, the RPC has identified a number of circumstances in which physicists might have difficulty with the protocol, including concerns related to electron calibration at low energies (R50<2 cm), and the use of a cylindrical chamber at 6 MeV electrons. In addition, helpful quantitative hints are presented, including the effect of the prescribed lead filter for photon energy measurements, the impact of shifting the chamber depth for photon depth-dose measurements, and the impact of updated stopping-power data used in TG-51 versus that used in TG-21, particularly for electron calibrations. PMID:12777144

Tailor, R C; Hanson, W F; Ibbott, G S



In vitro synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol in human gallbladder mucosa.  


Triglyceride and sterol synthesis was investigated in vitro in the gallbladder mucosa from control subjects and patients with acalculous cholesterolosis. The incorporation rate of 14C-acetate was 1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/g/h into cholesterol (sum of squalene, methyl sterols, and cholesterol) and 5.7 +/- 0.8 nmol/g/h into triglycerides. The rates were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.667). The conversion of 3H-mevalonate into cholesterol (49 +/- 10 nmol/g/h) and triglycerides (4.7 +/- 1.2 nmol/g/h) indicated a high activity in the postmevalonate cholesterol synthesis and an active shunt pathway of mevalonate metabolism. The synthesis rates of cholesterol, triglycerides, and sterol esters were closely interrelated, were unaltered in cholesterolosis, and were not correlated with the serum, biliary, and mucosal lipid concentrations. Thus, despite marked lipid accumulation the lipid synthesis proceeds effectively in the gallbladder mucosa with cholesterolosis. PMID:7134860

Tilvis, R S; Aro, J; Strandberg, T E; Lempinen, M; Miettinen, T A



Effects of diets of homogeneous saturated triglycerides on cholesterol balance in rats.  


The effects of a diet of 10% homogeneous triglycerides of 12 to 18-carbon chain saturated fatty acids on cholesterol absorption and turnover were studied in rats. Cholesterol absorption was successively significantly less in rats fed tristearin than in groups fed tripalmitin, trimyristin and trilaurin. Lesser fatty acid absorption may explain the differences in part, since cholesterol absorption was significantly correlated with fat absorption. Cholesterol removal from plasma was fastest in rats fed tristearin. Plasma cholesterol levels were increased with the trilaurin diet although the rate of cholesterol accumulation in lymph after gavage was slower with trilaurin. Lymph triglycerides were highest with trilaurin and trimyristin diets perhaps indicating endogenous mobilization of triglyceride for lipoprotein formation. Lymph triglycerides were, however, decreased with tristearin. Sterol turnover (production, absorption plus synthesis) was increased with tristearin or trilaurin by kinetic or balance methods. PMID:512711

Feldman, E B; Russell, B S; Schnare, F H; Moretti-Rojas, I; Miles, B C; Doyle, E A



Acetoxymethyl Derivatives of Polyunsaturated Fatty Triglycerides as Primary Plasticizers for Polyvinylchloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discusses acetoxymethyl derivatives of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty compounds including their vegetable oil triglycerides were prepared and found to function as primary plasticizers. Polyvinylchloride resins plasticized by the d...

E. N. Frankel E. H. Pryde



Antioxidant capacity and stability of liposomes containing a triglyceride derivative of lipoic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The multi-functional nutritional agent lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and then chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl d...


Immunoglobulin specificity of TG19318: a novel synthetic ligand for antibody affinity purification.  


A synthetic ligand [TG19318], able to mimic protein A in the recognition of the immunoglobulin Fc portion, has been previously identified in our laboratory through the synthesis and screening of multimeric combinatorial peptide libraries. In this study we have fully characterized its applicability in affinity chromatography for the downstream processing of antibodies, examining the specificity and selectivity for polyclonal and monoclonal immunoglobulins derived from different sources. Ligand specificity was broader than protein A, since IgG deriving from human, cow, horse, pig, mouse, rat, rabbit, goat and sheep sera, IgY obtained from egg yolk, and IgM, IgA and IgE were efficiently purified on TG19318 affinity columns. Adsorbed antibodies were conveniently eluted by a buffer change to 0.1 M acetic acid or 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate pH 9, with full retention of immunological properties. Monoclonal antibodies deriving from cell culture supernatants or ascitic fluids were also conveniently purified on TG19318 affinity columns, even from very diluted samples. The affinity constant for the TG19318-IgG interaction was 0.3 microM, as determined by optical biosensor measurements. Under optimized conditions, antibody purity after affinity purification was close to 95%, as determined by densitometric scanning of SDS-PAGE gels of purified fractions, and maximal column capacity reached 25 mg Ig/ml support. In vivo toxicity studies in mice indicated a ligand oral toxicity greater than 2000 mg kg-1 while intravenous toxicity was close to 150 mg kg-1. Validation of antibody affinity purification processes for therapeutic use, a very complex, laborious and costly procedure, is going to be simplified by the use of TG19318, which could reduce considerably the presence of biological contaminants in the purified preparation, a very recurrent problem when using recombinant or extractive biomolecules as affinity ligands. PMID:10076825

Fassina, G; Verdoliva, A; Palombo, G; Ruvo, M; Cassani, G



Knockout of 5-lipoxygenase prevents dexamethasone-induced tau pathology in 3xTg mice.  


Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, in aged persons put them at a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying such vulnerability remain to be unraveled. Pharmacologic inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5LO), an active player in AD pathogenesis whose protein level increases with aging in the human, has been shown to blunt glucocorticoid-mediated amyloid ? (Ab) formation in vitro. In this article, we investigated the role of this pathway in modulating the development of the corticosteroid-dependent AD-like phenotype in the triple transgenic mice (3xTg). Dexamethasone was administered for 1 week to 3xTg or 3xTg genetically deficient for 5LO (3xTg/5LO-/-) mice, and its effect on memory, amyloid-? and tau levels, and metabolism assessed. At the end of the treatment, we observed that dexamethasone did not induce changes in behavior. Compared with controls, treated mice did not show significant alterations in brain soluble A? levels. While total tau protein levels were unmodified in all groups, we found that dexamethasone significantly increased tau phosphorylation at S396, as recognized by the antibody PHF-13, which was specifically associated with an increase in the GSK3? activity. Additionally, dexamethasone-treated mice had a significant increase in the tau insoluble fraction and reduction in the postsynaptic protein PDS-95. By contrast, these modifications were blunted in the 3xTg/5LO-/- mice. Our findings highlight the functional role that 5LO plays in stress-induced AD tau pathology and support the hypothesis that pharmacologic inhibition of this enzyme could be a useful tool for individuals with this risk factor. PMID:23634895

Joshi, Yash B; Chu, Jin; Praticò, Domenico



TgCDPK3 Regulates Calcium-Dependent Egress of Toxoplasma gondii from Host Cells  

PubMed Central

The phylum Apicomplexa comprises a group of obligate intracellular parasites of broad medical and agricultural significance, including Toxoplasma gondii and the malaria-causing Plasmodium spp. Key to their parasitic lifestyle is the need to egress from an infected cell, actively move through tissue, and reinvade another cell, thus perpetuating infection. Ca2+-mediated signaling events modulate key steps required for host cell egress, invasion and motility, including secretion of microneme organelles and activation of the force-generating actomyosin-based motor. Here we show that a plant-like Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase (CDPK) in T. gondii, TgCDPK3, which localizes to the inner side of the plasma membrane, is not essential to the parasite but is required for optimal in vitro growth. We demonstrate that TgCDPK3, the orthologue of Plasmodium PfCDPK1, regulates Ca2+ ionophore- and DTT-induced host cell egress, but not motility or invasion. Furthermore, we show that targeting to the inner side of the plasma membrane by dual acylation is required for its activity. Interestingly, TgCDPK3 regulates microneme secretion when parasites are intracellular but not extracellular. Indeed, the requirement for TgCDPK3 is most likely determined by the high K+ concentration of the host cell. Our results therefore suggest that TgCDPK3's role differs from that previously hypothesized, and rather support a model where this kinase plays a role in rapidly responding to Ca2+ signaling in specific ionic environments to upregulate multiple processes required for gliding motility.

McCoy, James M.; Whitehead, Lachlan; van Dooren, Giel G.; Tonkin, Christopher J.



Utilization of Triglycerides and Related Feedstocks for Production of Clean Hydrocarbon Fuels and Petrochemicals: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic deoxygenation of triglycerides and related feedstocks for production of biofuels is reviewed in this paper. Green\\u000a diesel, triglyceride-based hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, is an attractive alternative to biodiesel—a product of transesterification\\u000a of vegetable oils, particularly due to its superior fuel properties and full compatibility with current diesel fuels. Two\\u000a basic approaches to production of green diesel—(i) hydrodeoxygenation of

Iva Kubi?ková; David Kubi?ka



Decreased microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity contributes to initiation of alcoholic liver steatosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To elucidate the role of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver, the effects of ethanol on MTP activity and gene expression were investigated.Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 37 days, respectively, showed 2.9- and 4.9-fold increases in hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride content in comparison with rats fed

Taizo Sugimoto; Shizuya Yamashita; Masato Ishigami; Naohiko Sakai; Ken-ichi Hirano; Minoru Tahara; Kunio Matsumoto; Toshikazu Nakamura; Yuji Matsuzawa



Propofol in a Medium and Long-Chain Triglyceride Emulsion: Pharmacological Characteristics and Potential Beneficial Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertriglyceridemia is a possible unwanted effect during long-term propofol sedation while using a for- mulation containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT) from soybean oil. The use of propofol formulated in a solvent consisting of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and LCT might reduce the risk. Because a new solvent may affect the pharmacological profile of propofol, in this prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blinded study

Hermann J. Theilen; Sigrid Adam; Michael D. Albrecht; Maximilian Ragaller



Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular death in men and women from the Norwegian Counties Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between nonfasting triglycerides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has recently been actualized. The aim of\\u000a the present study was to investigate nonfasting triglycerides as a predictor of CVD mortality in men and women. A total of\\u000a 86,261 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study 1974–2007, initially aged 20–50 years and free of CVD were included. We\\u000a estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for

Anja S. Lindman; M. B. Veierød; A. Tverdal; J. I. Pedersen; R. Selmer



Medium-Chain Triglycerides Increase Energy Expenditure and Decrease Adiposity in Overweight Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of diets rich in medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on body composition, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite, and ad libitum energy intake in overweight men.Research Methods and Procedures: Twenty-four healthy, overweight men with body mass indexes between 25 and 31 kg\\/m2 consumed diets rich in MCT

Marie-Pierre St-Onge; Robert Ross; William D. Parsons; Peter J. H. Jones



Mechanism of injection pain with long and longmedium chain triglyceride emulsive propofol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  t has been suggested that long-medium chain triglyceride (LCT\\/MCT) emulsive propofol causes less injection pain than long\\u000a chain triglyceride (LCT) emulsive propofol because of the decreased propofol concentration in the aqueous phase. Alternatively,\\u000a LCT propofol generates bradykinin causing the injection pain and activates complement, but these effects when using LCT\\/MCT\\u000a propofol have not been examined. To identify the mechanism for

Hiroshi Ohmizo; Shinju Obara; Hiroshi Iwama



Noradrenaline and ATP decrease the secretion of triglyceride and apoprotein B from perfused rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of hepatic sympathetic nerves on the secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), the effects of\\u000a sympathetic neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and ATP, on the secretion of triglyceride and apoprotein B (ApoB) from the liver\\u000a were studied using rat liver perfused in situ with recirculation. During liver perfusion with physiological medium, the amount\\u000a of triglyceride in the perfusate

Tadashige Yamauchi; M. Iwai; Nobuaki Kobayashi; Takashi Shimazu



Serum triglyceride concentrations and cancer risk in a large cohort study in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Blood lipid levels as part of the metabolic syndrome are thought to be linked to cancer risk. Few epidemiological studies have addressed the association between serum triglyceride (STG) concentrations and cancer risk.Methods:Serum triglyceride concentrations were collected in a health investigation (1988–2003). The analyses included 156 153 subjects (71 693 men and 84 460 women), with 5079 incident cancers in men

H Ulmer; W Borena; K Rapp; J Klenk; A Strasak; G Diem; H Concin; G Nagel



Triglyceride and Glucose Intolerance as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrophoresis of plasma lipoproteins frequently showed midbands between ?- and pre-?-lipoproteins in survivors of myocardial infarction. There were increases in intermediate-density-lipoprotein (IDL) cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in IDL cholesterol\\/triglycerides in the very-low-density-lipoprotein fraction, even if the increase in cholesterol was not so significant. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was also frequently found in these patients. Among the patients

Akira Yamamoto; Taku Yamamura; Akito Kawaguchi; Kaoru Kameda; Yuji Matsuzawa



Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels  

SciTech Connect

The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.



Specific heat capacities of pure triglycerides by heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific heat capacities of some triglycerides commonly found in palm oil were determined with a heat-flux differential\\u000a scanning calorimeter. The specific heat capacity measurements were made under the optimum operating conditions determined\\u000a earlier: scan rate 17 deg·min?1, sample mass 21 mg and purge gas (nitrogen) flow rate 50 ml\\/min. Pure triglycerides (four simple and four mixed) were used\\u000a in

N. A. Morad; M. Idrees; A. A. Hasan



Reactivity of fatty acids in the different positions of the triglycerides during hydrogenation of canola oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola oil was hydrogenated under selective and nonselective conditions. After various hydrogenation times, the triglycerides\\u000a were hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase and the monoglycerides separated by TLC. Triglycerides and monoglycerides were analyzed\\u000a for fatty acid composition andtrans isomer content. The reaction rate in the 2- and 1,3-positions of the glycerides was identical and of first order kinetics.\\u000a Since the 2-position of

Tie Fan; L. deMan; J. M. deMan



Low erucic acid canola oil does not induce heart triglyceride accumulation in neonatal pigs fed formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola oil is not approved for use in infant formula largely because of concerns over possible accumulation of triglyceride\\u000a in heart as a result of the small amounts of erucic acid (22?1n?9) in the oil. Therefore, the concentration and composition\\u000a of heart triglyceride were determined in piglets fed from birth for 10 (n=4–6) or 18 (n=6) d with formula containing

Timothy J. Green; Sheila M. Innis



Glyceroneogenesis Is the Dominant Pathway for Triglyceride Glycerol Synthesis in Vivo in the Rat*  

PubMed Central

Triglyceride synthesis in mammalian tissues requires glycerol 3-phosphate as the source of triglyceride glycerol. In this study the relative contribution of glyceroneogenesis and glycolysis to triglyceride glycerol synthesis was quantified in vivo in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver of the rat in response to a chow diet (controls), 48-h fast, and lipogenic (high sucrose) diet. The rate of glyceroneogenesis was quantified using the tritium ([3H2]O) labeling of body water, and the contribution of glucose, via glycolysis, was determined using a [U-14C]glucose tracer. In epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue of control rats, glyceroneogenesis accounted for ?90% of triglyceride glycerol synthesis. Fasting for 48 h did not alter glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue, whereas the contribution of glucose was negligible. In response to sucrose feeding, the synthesis of triglyceride glycerol via both glyceroneogenesis and glycolysis nearly doubled (versus controls); however, glyceroneogenesis remained quantitatively higher as compared with the contribution of glucose. Enhancement of triglyceride-fatty acid cycling by epinephrine infusion resulted in a higher rate of glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue, as compared with controls, whereas the contribution of glucose via glycolysis was not measurable. Glyceroneogenesis provided the majority of triglyceride glycerol in the gastrocnemius and soleus. In the liver the fractional contribution of glyceroneogenesis remained constant (?60%) under all conditions and was higher than that of glucose. Thus, glyceroneogenesis, in contrast to glucose, via glycolysis, is quantitatively the predominant source of triglyceride glycerol in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver of the rat during fasting and high sucrose feeding.

Nye, Colleen K.; Hanson, Richard W.; Kalhan, Satish C.



Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification\\u000a of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model\\u000a for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied\\u000a to determine the critical parameters

D. A. Stepanov; A. Ermakova; V. I. Anikeev



Calculation of phase equilibrium in supercritical extraction of C54 triglyceride (rapeseed oil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure phase equilibria have been calculated for systems of C54 triglyceride (rapeseed oil) + propane + carbon dioxide and C54 triglyceride (rapeseed oil) + ethanol + carbon dioxide, in the temperature range of 313–353 K and at pressures of 60–120 bar. The Peng-Robinson equation of state with a conventional mixing rule involving two parameters (2PCMR) was used. The critical parameters

Rudolf Steiner



Positional distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides from milk of several species of mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk triglycerides from the echidna, koala, Tammar wallaby, guinea pig, dog, cat, Weddell seal, horse, pig and cow were subjected\\u000a to fatty acid and stereospecific analysis to determine the positional distribution of the fatty acids in the triglycerides.\\u000a The samples presented a wide range of fatty acids, most of which varied in content among species. The compositions of the\\u000a acids

Peter W. Parodi



The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed fats of eight species ofLauraceae (laurel family), six species ofCuphea (Lythraceae family), and three species ofUlmaceae (elm family) were extracted, and the triglycerides were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. GLC of the triglycerides\\u000a on a silicone column resolved 10 to 18 peaks with a 22 to 58 carbon number range for each fat. These carbon number distributions\\u000a yielded considerable

Carter Litchfield; Earline Miller; R. D. Harlow; Raymond Reiser



Stereospecific analysis of the major triglyceride species in the monounsaturated fraction of cocoa butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereospecific analysis employing pancreatic lipase,Geotrichum candidum lipase and phospholipase A was applied to the monounsaturated triglyceride fraction of cocoa butter. Diacid triglycerides\\u000a required additional analyses involving the gas liquid chromatographic determination of the proportions of digly ceride acetates\\u000a produced by separately acetylating the ?,? and ?,?-digly cerides obtained from aG. candidum digestion mixture. Results indicated that the major triacid

J. Sampugna; R. G. Jensen



Triglyceride, small, dense low-density lipoprotein, and the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides an overview of the recent data evaluating triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size, two highly\\u000a interrelated, genetically influenced, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). An examination of new epidemiologic studies\\u000a continues to demonstrate that plasma triglyceride levels predict CVD. The first prospective study of the familial forms of\\u000a hypertriglyceridemia has shown that relatives in familial-combined hyperlipidemia families

Melissa A. Austin



Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular death in men and women from the Norwegian Counties Study.  


The association between nonfasting triglycerides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has recently been actualized. The aim of the present study was to investigate nonfasting triglycerides as a predictor of CVD mortality in men and women. A total of 86,261 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study 1974-2007, initially aged 20-50 years and free of CVD were included. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for deaths from CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke and all causes by level of nonfasting triglycerides. Mean follow-up was 27.0 years. A total of 9,528 men died (3,620 from CVD, 2,408 IHD, 543 stroke), and totally 5,267 women died (1,296 CVD, 626 IHD, 360 stroke). After adjustment for CVD risk factors other than HDL-cholesterol, the HRs (95% CI) per 1 mmol/l increase in nonfasting triglycerides were 1.16 (1.13-1.20), 1.20 (1.14-1.27), 1.26 (1.19-1.34) and 1.09 (0.96-1.23) for all cause mortality, CVD, IHD, and stroke mortality in women. Corresponding figures in men were 1.03 (1.01-1.04), 1.03 (1.00-1.05), 1.03 (1.00-1.06) and 0.99 (0.92-1.07). In a subsample where HDL-cholesterol was measured (n = 40,144), the association between CVD mortality and triglycerides observed in women disappeared after adjustment for HDL-cholesterol. In a model including the Framingham CHD risk score the effect of triglycerides disappeared in both men and women. In conclusion, nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increased risk of CVD death for both women and men. Adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, however, attenuated the effect. Nonfasting triglycerides added no predictive information on CVD mortality beyond the Framingham CHD risk score in men and women. PMID:20890636

Lindman, Anja S; Veierød, M B; Tverdal, A; Pedersen, J I; Selmer, R



Studies on effects of dietary fatty acids as related to their position on triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism\\u000a in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., by interesterification of the fat to randomize the positions of

J. Edward Hunter



Fatty Acid Distribution in Triglycerides of Yeasts Grown on Glucose or n-Alkanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Lipid contents of yeasts grown on glucose were: Candida lipolytica, 5.4%; C. tropicalis, 9'4 %; C. utilis, 2.7 yo; Candida 107, 41 %; Hansenula anomala, 12-5 %; Rhodotorula glutinis, 2.7 % ; and R. graminis, 9-1 %. In each yeast about 80 % of the lipid consisted of triglycerides. When the triglycerides from five of the yeasts were analysed




Direct Regulation of Myocardial Triglyceride Metabolism by the Cardiomyocyte Circadian Clock*  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the direct influence of a peripheral clock on cellular responses to fatty acids. To address this important issue, we utilized a genetic model of disrupted clock function specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo (termed cardiomyocyte clock mutant (CCM)). CCM mice exhibited altered myocardial response to chronic high fat feeding at the levels of the transcriptome and lipidome as well as metabolic fluxes, providing evidence that the cardiomyocyte clock regulates myocardial triglyceride metabolism. Time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial triglyceride levels, net triglyceride synthesis, and lipolysis were markedly attenuated in CCM hearts. Analysis of key proteins influencing triglyceride turnover suggest that the cardiomyocyte clock inactivates hormone-sensitive lipase during the active/awake phase both at transcriptional and post-translational (via AMP-activated protein kinase) levels. Consistent with increased net triglyceride synthesis during the end of the active/awake phase, high fat feeding at this time resulted in marked cardiac steatosis. These data provide evidence for direct regulation of triglyceride turnover by a peripheral clock and reveal a potential mechanistic explanation for accelerated metabolic pathologies after prevalent circadian misalignment in Western society.

Tsai, Ju-Yun; Kienesberger, Petra C.; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Sailors, Mary H.; Durgan, David J.; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Jahoor, Anil; Gonzalez, Raquel; Garvey, Merissa E.; Boland, Brandon; Blasier, Zachary; McElfresh, Tracy A.; Nannegari, Vijayalakshmi; Chow, Chi-Wing; Heird, William C.; Chandler, Margaret P.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Bray, Molly S.; Young, Martin E.



Low serum cholesterol and triglycerides and risk of death from suicide.  


Several studies suggest that a low or reduced blood cholesterol concentration is associated with a higher risk of mortality from suicide. The authors sought to determine whether a low cholesterol and triglyceride level is related to a higher rate of suicide attempts, alcohol or drug intoxication. A total of 216 patients, aged 15-93 years, admitted to a toxicological intensive care unit were assessed by blood cholesterol, triglycerides, psychiatric disease and former suicide attempts. Serum cholesterol levels, obtained from the admission biochemical values, were divided into levels below and above 160 mg/dl, serum triglyceride levels were divided into levels below and above 100 mg/dl. Compared to patients with cholesterol levels higher than 160 mg/dl and controls without suicide attempts, men with cholesterol levels equal or lower than 160 mg/dl had made no more suicide attempts. However, in the group with low cholesterol and attempted suicide a significant decrease of serum triglyceride levels was investigated. A significant correlation between low serum cholesterol with respect to triglycerides and alcohol or drug intoxication could not be proved. There was no association between low cholesterol levels and attempted suicide with respect to alcohol or drug intoxication. The significantly lowered serum triglycerides in the patient group with a low cholesterol and suicide attempt require further investigations. PMID:15374106

Seefried, G; Gumpel, K


Introduction to Grain Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.



High muscle lipid content in obesity is not due to enhanced activation of key triglyceride esterification enzymes or the suppression of lipolytic proteins  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying alterations in muscle lipid metabolism in obesity are poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to compare the abundance and/or activities of key proteins that regulate intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) concentration in the skeletal muscle obtained from obese (OB; n = 8, BMI 38 ± 1 kg/m2) and nonobese (NOB; n = 9, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2) women. IMTG concentration was nearly twofold greater in OB vs. NOB subjects (75 ± 15 vs. 40 ± 8 ?mol/g dry wt, P < 0.05). In contrast, the activity and protein abundance of key enzymes that regulate the esterification of IMTG (i.e., glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) were not elevated. We also found no differences between groups in muscle adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein abundance and no differences in phosphorylation of specific sites known to affect HSL activity. However, we did find the elevated IMTG in obesity to be accompanied by a greater abundance of the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 in the membrane fraction of muscle from OB vs. NOB subjects (P < 0.05), suggestive of an elevated fatty acid transport capacity. Additionally, protein abundance of the lipid-trafficking protein perilipin 3 was lower (P < 0.05) in muscle from OB vs. NOB when expressed relative to IMTG content. Our findings indicate that the elevated IMTG content found in obese women was not due to an upregulation of key lipogenic proteins or to the suppression of lipolytic proteins. The impact of a low perilipin protein abundance relative to the amount of IMTG in obesity remains to be clarified.

Li, Minghua; Paran, Christopher; Wolins, Nathan E.



Visual Perception of Elevation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiments demonstrate the importance for human observers of the retinal orientation and location of individual straight lines in determining (1) the physical elevation visually perceived as being at eye level (VPEL), and (2) the orientation within a...

L. Matin



Traction type elevator system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wire rope for use in a traction type elevator system is coated with a soft-solid agent or a greasy agent having a drip temperature higher than C. and exhibiting physical properties such that it is evaporated in an amount less than 1 weight percent at C. for an interval of eight hours and elevates the coefficient of friction or traction between the wire rope and the drive sheave when coated on the wire rope.

Suzuki; Katsuhiko (Nagoya, JP); Naganuma; Seihachi (Kawasaki, JP)



Overexpression of a cytosolic pyrophosphatase (TgPPase) reveals a regulatory role of PP(i) in glycolysis for Toxoplasma gondii.  


PP(i) is a critical element of cellular metabolism as both an energy donor and as an allosteric regulator of several metabolic pathways. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii uses PP(i) in place of ATP as an energy donor in at least two reactions: the glycolytic PP(i)-dependent PFK (phosphofructokinase) and V-H(+)-PPase [vacuolar H(+)-translocating PPase (pyrophosphatase)]. In the present study, we report the cloning, expression and characterization of cytosolic TgPPase (T. gondii soluble PPase). Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the gene encodes a family I soluble PPase. Overexpression of the enzyme in extracellular tachyzoites led to a 6-fold decrease in the cytosolic concentration of PP(i) relative to wild-type strain RH tachyzoites. Unexpectedly, this subsequent reduction in PP(i) was associated with a higher glycolytic flux in the overexpressing mutants, as evidenced by higher rates of proton and lactate extrusion. In addition to elevated glycolytic flux, TgPPase-overexpressing tachyzoites also possessed higher ATP concentrations relative to wild-type RH parasites. These results implicate PP(i) as having a significant regulatory role in glycolysis and, potentially, other downstream processes that regulate growth and cell division. PMID:21831041

Pace, Douglas A; Fang, Jianmin; Cintron, Roxana; Docampo, Melissa D; Moreno, Silvia N J



Draft Genome Sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. Strain TG-20, a Psychrophilic Bacterium Isolated from the Basal Ice of Taylor Glacier  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. strain TG-20, which is 4.12 Mb in size and consists of 4,071 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes. The genome sequence of Paenisporosarcina sp. TG-20 may provide useful information about molecular adaptations that enhance survival in icy subsurface environments.

Lee, Jun Hyuck; Koh, Hye Yeon; Lee, Sung Gu; Doyle, Shawn; Christner, Brent C.



Effects of Attractive Polymer-Substrate Interactions and Diluent Addition on Tg-Nanoconfinement Behavior in Polymer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fluorescence/multilayer method has recently been developed (Nature Materials 2003, 2, 695) that allows for the determination of the impact of nanoconfinement on glass transition temperature (Tg) in polymer films, including measurement at particular locations within films. This approach has been extended to investigate the effect of two parameters on Tg-nanoconfinement effects: attractive substrate interactions and diluent (plasticizer) addition. The effect of attractive substrate interactions are studied by replacing polystyrene (PS) films on glass with poly(vinyl pyridine) (PVP) films on glass, the latter allowing for hydrogen bonding between nitrogen atoms on each repeat units and hydroxyl groups naturally on the glass surface. Upon reducing film thickness below 150 nm, there is a major increase in Tg values for the PVP films. Free surface layers on bulk PVP films show a greatly reduced Tg relative to bulk. These results indicate that in ultrathin films the impact of the greatly reduced dynamics (increased Tg) of the substrate layer overwhelms the enhanced dynamics at the free surface in defining the whole film Tg. Addition low molecular weight diluent (pyrene or dioctyl phthalate) to thin and ultrathin PS and PVP films reveal that the effect of nanoconfinement on Tg can be reduced or even eliminated down to film thicknesses as thin as 14 nm. The implications of this for understanding how the average size scale of cooperatively rearranging regions impacts the length scale over which Tg-nanoconfinement effects are evident will be discussed.

Torkelson, John M.; Ruszkowski, Robert L.; Fredin, Nathaniel J.; Ellison, Christopher J.



Consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements using 21 ion-chamber models following the AAPM TG51 and TG21 calibration protocols  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, the AAPM introduced a reference dosimetry protocol, known as TG51, based on an absorbed dose standard. This replaced the previous protocol, known as TG21, which was based on an air kerma standard. A significant body of literature has emerged discussing the improved accuracy and robustness of the absorbed dose standard, and quantifying the changes in baseline dosimetry with the introduction of the absorbed dose protocol. A significant component playing a role in the overall accuracy of beam output determination is the variability due to the use of different dosimeters. This issue, not adequately addressed in the past, is the focus of the present study. This work provides a comparison of absorbed dose determinations using 21 different makes and models of ion chambers for low- and high-energy photon and electron beams. The study included 13 models of cylindrical ion chambers and eight models of plane-parallel chambers. A high degree of precision (<0.25%) resulted from measurements with all chambers in a single setting, a sufficient number of repeat readings, and the use of high quality ion chambers as external monitors. Cylindrical chambers in photon beams show an improvement in chamber-to-chamber consistency with TG51. For electron dosimetry with plane-parallel chambers, the parameters N{sub gas} and the product N{sub D,w}{center_dot}k{sub ecal} were each determined in two ways, based on (i) an ADCL calibration, and (ii) a cross comparison with an ADCL-calibrated cylindrical chamber in a high-energy electron beam. Plane-parallel chamber results, therefore, are presented for both methods of chamber calibration. Our electron results with technique (i) show that plane-parallel chambers, as a group, overestimate the beam output relative to cylindrical chambers by 1%-2% with either protocol. Technique (ii), by definition, normalizes the plane-parallel results to the cylindrical results. In all cases, the maximum spread in output from the various cylindrical chambers is <2% implying a standard deviation of less than 0.5%. For plane-parallel chambers, the maximum spread is somewhat larger, up to 3%. A few chambers have been identified as outliers.

Tailor, Ramesh C.; Hanson, William F.; Wells, Nathan; Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Hypertriglyceridemic Very Low Density Lipoproteins Induce Triglyceride Synthesis and Accumulation in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may be responsible for the lipid accumulation in macrophages that can occur in hypertriglyceridemia. Chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, total and with flotation constant [Sf] 100-400) from fasting hypertriglyceridemic subjects induced a massive accumulation of oil red O-positive inclusions in unstimulated peritoneal macrophages. Cell viability was not affected. The predominant lipid that accumulated in cells exposed to hypertriglyceridemic VLDL was triglyceride. Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL stimulated the incorporation of [14C]oleate into cellular triglyceride up to ninefold in 16 h, but not into cholesteryl esters. Mass increase in cellular triglyceride was 38-fold. The stimulation of cellular triglyceride formation was dependent on time, temperature, and concentration of hypertriglyceridemic VLDL. By contrast, VLDL, low density, and high density lipoproteins from fasting normolipemic subjects had no significant effect on oleate incorporation into neutral lipids or on visible lipid accumulation. 125I-Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL (Sf 100-400) were degraded by macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, with 50 and 100% saturation observed at 3 and 24 ?g protein/ml (2.5 and 20 nM), respectively. Hypertriglyceridemic VLDL inhibited the internalization and degradation of 125I-hypertriglyceridemic VLDL (4 nM) by 50% at 3 nM. Cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL from cholesterol-fed rabbits gave 50% inhibition at 5 nM. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) inhibited by 10% at 5 nM and 40% at 47 nM. Acetyl LDL at 130 nM had no effect. We conclude that the massive triglyceride accumulation produced in macrophages by hypertriglyceridemic VLDL is a direct consequence of uptake via specific receptors that also recognize cholesteryl ester-rich VLDL and LDL but are distinct from the acetyl LDL receptor. Uptake of these triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by monocyte-macrophages in vivo may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Images

Gianturco, Sandra H.; Bradley, William A.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Morrisett, Joel D.; Peavy, Duane L.



Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rats Improves Post-Prandial Lipid Clearance by Reducing Intestinal Triglyceride Secretion  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Post-prandial hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease and is associated with the consumption of high-fat diets and obesity. Bariatric surgeries result in superior and more durable weight loss than dieting. These surgeries are also associated with multiple metabolic improvements, including reduced plasma lipid levels. We investigated whether the beneficial effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on plasma lipid levels are weight-independent. Methods VSG was performed on Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity and pair-fed and ad libitum-fed rats that received sham operations (controls). We measured fasting and post-prandial levels of plasma lipid. To determine hepatic and intestinal triglyceride secretion, we injected the lipase inhibitor poloxamer 407 alone, or before oral lipid gavage. 13C-Triolein was used to estimate post-prandial uptake of lipid in the intestine. Results Rats that received VSG and high-fat diets (HFDs) had markedly lower fasting levels of plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid than obese and lean (pair-fed) controls that were fed HFD. Rats that received VSG had a marked, weight-independent reduction in secretion of intestinal triglycerides. VSG did not alter total intestinal triglyceride levels or size of the cholesterol storage pool, nor did it affect the expression of genes in the intestine that control triglyceride metabolism and synthesis . VSG did not affect fasting secretion of triglyceride, liver weight, hepatic lipid storage, or transcription of genes that regulate hepatic lipid processing. Conclusions VSG reduced post-prandial levels of plasma lipid, independently of body weight. This resulted from reduced intestinal secretion of triglycerides following ingestion of a lipid meal and indicates that VSG has important effects on metabolism.

Stefater, MA; Sandoval, DA; Chambers, AP; Wilson-Perez, HE; Hofmann, SM; Jandacek, R; Tso, P; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ



Acute elevations of medium-and long-chain fatty acids have different impacts on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has previously been shown that acute elevation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation\\u000a (EDV) in humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an elevation of both medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and LCFA\\u000a affects the endothelium differently from LCFA elevation alone. Ten healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of\\u000a Structolipid? (structured TG, MCFA\\/LCFA ratio 1?1) and

Peter Steer; Samar Basu; Hans Lithell; Bengt Vessby; Christian Berne; Lars Lind



TG-43U1 parameterization of elongated RadioCoil 103Pd brachytherapy sources.  


Recently, to eliminate problems associated with seed type sources, RadioMed Corporation (Tyngsboro, MA) introduced RadioCoil 103Pd sources for interstitial prostate implants. The RadioCoil sources are available in integral lengths ranging from 1.0 cm to 6.0 cm. In this project, dosimetric characteristics of these sources were determined following the TG-43U1 recommendations, with consideration of our recent publication on the evaluation of two-dimensional anisotropy function for elongated brachytherapy sources. Dosimetric parameters of these sources were determined experimentally in Solid Water (Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) and theoretically using Monte Carlo simulation in Solid Water and liquid water. Per the TG-43U1 protocol, the consensus of these results would be used for their clinical applications. PMID:17712301

Dini, Sharifeh A; Awan, Shahid B; Dou, Kai; Meigooni, Ali S



Submillimolar levels of calcium regulates DNA structure at the dinucleotide repeat (TG/AC)n  

PubMed Central

Submillimolar levels of calcium, similar to the physiological total (bound + free) intranuclear concentration (0.01–1 mM), induced a conformational change within d(TG/AC)n, one of the frequent dinucleotide repeats of the mammalian genome. This change is calcium-specific, because no other tested cation induced it and it was detected as a concentration-dependent transition from B- to a non-B-DNA conformation expanding from 3? end toward the 5? of the repeat. Genomic footprinting of various rat brain regions revealed the existence of similar non-B-DNA conformation within a d(TG/AC)28 repeat of the endogenous enkephalin gene only in enkephalin-expressing caudate nucleus and not in the nonexpressing thalamus. Binding assays demonstrated that DNA could bind calcium and can compete with calmodulin for calcium.

Dobi, A.; v. Agoston, D.



Direct comparison of mechanical and electro-optic responses of a low Tg photorefractive doped polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of the electro-optic responses in a low glass transition temperature (Tg) photorefractive polymer was investigated using an ellipsometric technique. The sample was composed of a carbazole functionalized polysiloxane doped with a push-pull chalcone derivative. The results provide information on the orientational dynamics of the chromophores doping the polymer host. For this purpose, the electro-optic response is directly

J.-C. Ribierre; G. Cheval; F. Huber; L. Mager; A. Fort; R. Muller; S. Méry; J. F. Nicoud



Thermal decomposition of copper(II) and zinc carbonate hydroxides by means of TG-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For the quantitative analyses of evolved CO2and H2O during the thermal decomposition of solids, calibration curves, i.e. the amounts of evolved gases vs. the corresponding\\u000a peak areas of mass chromatograms measured by TG-MS, were plotted as referenced by the reaction stoichiometry of the thermal\\u000a decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate NaHCO3. The accuracy and reliability of the quantitative analyses of the evolved

N. Koga; H. Tanaka



Evaluation of combustion characteristics of different size elbistan lignite by using TG\\/DTG and DTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the relationship between particle size and combustion kinetics and combustion properties of lignite samples\\u000a was examined by utilizing the thermogravimetric (TG\\/DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The lignite samples\\u000a separated into different size fractions were subjected to non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis between ambient and 900?C\\u000a in the presence of 50 mL min?1 air flow rate. Activation energy

H. Sis



Thermal characterization of dental composites by TG\\/DTG and DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental composites can be improved by heat treatment, as a possible way to increase mechanical properties due to additional\\u000a cure (post-cure). Direct dental composites are essentially similar to the indirect ones, supposing they have the same indication.\\u000a Therefore, to establish a heat treatment protocol for direct composites, using as indirect (photoactivated by continuous and\\u000a pulse-delay techniques), a characterization (TG\\/DTG and

Caroline Lumi Miyazaki; Igor Studart Medeiros; Jivaldo do Rosário Matos; Leonardo Eloy Rodrigues Filho



Cortical glucose metabolism is altered in aged transgenic Tg2576 mice that demonstrate Alzheimer plaque pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Alzheimer's disease is associated with markedly impaired cerebral glucose metabolism as detected by reduced cortical desoxyglucose\\u000a utilization, by altered activities of key glycolytic enzymes or by reduced densities of cortical glucose transporter subtypes.\\u000a To determine whether formation and\\/or deposition of ?-amyloid plays a role in the pathology of glucose metabolism, transgenic\\u000a Tg2576 mice that overexpress the Swedish mutation of

M. Bigl; J. Apelt; K. Eschrich; R. Schliebs



LPS- induced inflammation exacerbates phospho-tau pathology in rTg4510 mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammation and microglial activation are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Somewhat surprisingly, injection of a prototypical inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into brains of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice clears some of the pre-existing amyloid deposits. It is less well understood how brain inflammation modulates tau pathology in the absence of A?. These studies examined the role of LPS-induced inflammation on tau pathology. We used transgenic rTg4510 mice, which express the P301L mutation (4R0N TauP301L) and initiate tau pathology between 3-5 months of age. First, we found an age-dependent increase in several markers of microglial activation as these rTg4510 mice aged and tau tangles accumulated. LPS injections into the frontal cortex and hippocampus induced significant activation of CD45 and arginase 1 in rTg4510 and non-transgenic mice. In addition, activation of YM1 by LPS was exaggerated in transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic animals. Expression of Ser199/202 and phospho-tau Ser396 was increased in rTg4510 mice that received LPS compared to vehicle injections. However, the numbers of silver-positive neurons, implying presence of more pre- and mature tangles, was not significantly affected by LPS administration. These data suggest that inflammatory stimuli can facilitate tau phosphorylation. Coupled with prior results demonstrating clearance of A? by similar LPS injections, these results suggest that brain inflammation may have opposing effects on amyloid and tau pathology, possibly explaining the failures (to date) of anti-inflammatory therapies in AD patients.



TG-FTIR studies on biodegradable polyurethanes containing mono- and disaccharide components  

Microsoft Academic Search

TG-FTIR measurements of polyurethanes derived from mono- and disaccharides and their raw materials were carried out in order to investigate the thermal decomposition mechanism. It was found that polyurethanes decomposed in two steps; the first step of decomposition was observed at about 300 to 450°C and the second at about 450 t0 to 700°C. The first step was attributed to

Kunio Nakamura; Yuko Nishimura; Per Zetterlund; Tatsuko Hatakeyama; Hyoe Hatakeyama