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1

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

PubMed Central

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr?1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

2009-01-01

2

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

2009-01-01

3

Serum Uric Acid and Plasma Norepinephrine Concentrations Predict Subsequent Weight Gain and Blood Pressure Elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that hypertension and obesity often coexist with hyperuricemia. To clarify the relations between serum uric acid, plasma norepinephrine, and insulin or leptin levels in subjects with weight gain-induced blood pressure elevation, we conducted the present longitudinal study. In 433 young, nonobese, normotensive men, body mass index, blood pressure, and levels of serum uric acid, fasting plasma

Kazuko Masuo; Hideki Kawaguchi; Hiroshi Mikami; Toshio Ogihara; Michael L. Tuck

4

Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

Brooks, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

5

Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.  

PubMed

Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

2008-11-01

6

Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF  

PubMed Central

Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration on metabolism and cognitive performance, both in control rats and in rats placed on a high-fat diet. The effects of caffeine were significant: caffeine both (i) prevented the weight-gain associated with the high-fat diet and (ii) prevented cognitive impairment. Caffeine did not alter hippocampal metabolism or insulin signaling, likely because the high-fat-fed animals did not develop full-blown diabetes; however, caffeine did prevent or reverse a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen in high-fat-fed animals. These data confirm that caffeine may serve as a neuroprotective agent against cognitive impairment caused by obesity and/or a high-fat diet. Increased hippocampal BDNF following caffeine administration could explain, at least in part, the effects of caffeine on cognition and metabolism. PMID:23220362

Moy, Gregory A.; McNay, Ewan C.

2013-01-01

7

Design of an adjustable arm-supported table that is counterbalanced against gravity  

E-print Network

A prototype system was designed and constructed that used a wall-mounted, counterbalanced mechanical arm to support a workspace that can be adjusted for position. Possible applications of the system include use as a writing ...

Olle, Chase R

2013-01-01

8

Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic  

E-print Network

Dispatches Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive human interference in animal and plant dispersal, biological invasions are wreaking havoc that can become economically and ecologically threatening. Recent studies of biological invasions, however

Hufbauer, Ruth A.

9

Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?  

PubMed

Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings. PMID:24101972

Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemelä, Pekka

2013-09-01

10

Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?  

PubMed Central

Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings. PMID:24101972

Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemelä, Pekka

2013-01-01

11

Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M?(f ) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across Tg. The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below Tg. At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors.

Wojnarowska, Z.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Hawelek, L.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

2012-04-01

12

Elevated PDGFRB gene copy number gain is prognostic for improved survival outcomes in resected malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

PDGF/PDGFR pathway has been implicated in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) carcinogenesis, and evidence suggests autocrine mechanisms of proliferation. We sought to evaluate the incidence of PDGFRB gene copy number gain (CNG) by fluorescence in situ hybridization and PDGFR pathway protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlate it to patient clinical outcome. Eighty-eight archived tumor blocks from resected MPM with full clinical information were used to perform IHC biomarkers (PDGFR?, PDGFR?, p-PDGFR?) and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of PDGFRB gene CNG. Spearman rank correlation, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, BLiP plots, and Kaplan-Meier method were used to analyze the biomarkers and correlation to clinical outcome. Several correlations between the IHC biomarkers were seen; however, none correlated to clinically relevant patient demographics or histology. In the CNG analysis, PDGFRB gene CNG in >10% of tumor cells had lower cytoplasmic p-PDGFR? (P=.029), while PDGFRB gene CNG in >40% of tumor cells had a higher cytoplasmic PDGFR? (P=.04). PDGFRB gene CNG status did not associate with patient demographics or tumor characteristics. PDGFR pathway IHC biomarkers did not associate with survival outcomes. However, patients with PDGFRB CNG >40% of tumor cells had improved relapse-free survival (HR 0.25 [95% CI 0.09-0.72], P=.0096) and improved overall survival (HR 0.32 [95% CI 0.11-0.89], P=.029). PDGFRB CNG >40% of MPM tumor cells is a potential prognostic biomarker for surgery and may identify a unique population of mesothelioma patients. Future validation of this biomarker in prospective trials is needed. From a retrospective review of archived tissue specimens from patients with resected malignant pleural mesothelioma tumors, we show that patients with PDGFRB CNG >40% of tumor cells had improved relapse-free survival (HR 0.25 [95% CI 0.09-0.72], P=.0096) and improved overall survival (HR 0.32 [95% CI 0.11-0.89], P=.029). PDGFRB CNG >40% of MPM tumor cells is a potential prognostic biomarker for surgery and may identify a unique population of mesothelioma patients. PMID:24747001

Tsao, Anne S; Harun, Nusrat; Fujimoto, Junya; Devito, Vikki; Lee, J Jack; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Mehran, Reza; Rice, David; Moran, Cesar; Hong, Waun Ki; Shen, Li; Suraokar, Milind; Wistuba, Ignacio

2014-06-01

13

Dynamic counterbalancing the single-piston linear compressor of a Stirling cryogenic cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low vibration Stirling cryocoolers often rely on dual-piston linear compressors, the known disadvantages of which, as compared to their single-piston rivals, are: low reliability, increased power consumption, price, bulk, sensitivity to external vibration and g-forces. However, because of the inherently low level of vibration export, as required in numerous vibration sensitive electronic and electro-optic applications, the dual-piston approach has become prevalent in today's industrial practice. The authors report on the novel approach to the passive control of a fundamental component of a vibration export from a single-piston compressor down to the levels typical for the actively controlled dual-piston rival. The technique relies on the newly proposed principle of dynamic counterbalancing, where an auxiliary movable mass is flexibly attached to a movable piston assembly and to the stationary compressor casing using auxiliary mechanical springs. The proper design of such a "spring-mass-spring" counterbalancer yields zero vibration export at minimum electrical power and current consumed by the motor. Based on the theoretical analysis, the design of the single-piston compressor of 1 W@77 K Ricor model K529N Stirling cryocooler was enhanced by adding such a counterbalancer. The obtained experimental results are in full agreement with the theoretical prediction. From experiment, the vibration export at driving frequency was reduced 57-fold at practically the same electrical current and power consumed by the compressor actuator as compared with the basic cooler.

Veprik, A.; Nachman, I.; Pundak, N.

2009-05-01

14

A contractile and counterbalancing adhesion system controls the 3D shape of crawling cells  

PubMed Central

How adherent and contractile systems coordinate to promote cell shape changes is unclear. Here, we define a counterbalanced adhesion/contraction model for cell shape control. Live-cell microscopy data showed a crucial role for a contractile meshwork at the top of the cell, which is composed of actin arcs and myosin IIA filaments. The contractile actin meshwork is organized like muscle sarcomeres, with repeating myosin II filaments separated by the actin bundling protein ?-actinin, and is mechanically coupled to noncontractile dorsal actin fibers that run from top to bottom in the cell. When the meshwork contracts, it pulls the dorsal fibers away from the substrate. This pulling force is counterbalanced by the dorsal fibers’ attachment to focal adhesions, causing the fibers to bend downward and flattening the cell. This model is likely to be relevant for understanding how cells configure themselves to complex surfaces, protrude into tight spaces, and generate three-dimensional forces on the growth substrate under both healthy and diseased conditions. PMID:24711500

Burnette, Dylan T.; Shao, Lin; Ott, Carolyn; Pasapera, Ana M.; Fischer, Robert S.; Baird, Michelle A.; Der Loughian, Christelle; Delanoe-Ayari, Helene; Paszek, Matthew J.; Davidson, Michael W.; Betzig, Eric

2014-01-01

15

Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds.

Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

2011-11-01

16

Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy  

PubMed Central

High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds. PMID:22128989

Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

2011-01-01

17

Flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis using packed capillary columns: resolution of enantiomers and isotopomers.  

PubMed

A method with the ability to increase greatly both the resolution and efficiency of a given capillary electrophoretic system is described. This method differs from traditional capillary electrophoresis (CE) in that a counterflow is induced in the direction opposite to the electrokinetic migration of the analyte. This has the effect of extending not only the time the analytes migrate in the electric field but also the effective length and the effective applied voltage of the system. Previous work in our group with flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis has utilized an open tube of small inner diameter to reduce peak broadening caused by hydrodynamic flow. Narrow-diameter capillaries (5-10 microm) restricted analysis to fluorescent analytes and laser-induced fluorescence detection. The method described here uses a capillary of much larger inner diameter (75 microm) that has been packed with nonporous silica particles. The packing material reduces the amount of band broadening caused by pressure-induced flow relative to that experienced in an open tube. A larger diameter capillary allows the detection of analytes by UV absorption, not only eliminating the need to tag analytes with fluorescent tags but also allowing for the detection of a much broader range of analytes. The system was evaluated by studying the separations of several enantiomers using only beta-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector. The system was also used to resolve the two naturally occurring isotopes of bromine and to resolve phenylalanine from phenylalanine-d8. Relative to traditional CE, large improvements in resolution and separation efficiency have been achieved with this method. PMID:16255605

Henley, W Hampton; Wilburn, Richard T; Crouch, Andrew M; Jorgenson, James W

2005-11-01

18

Multiphase Tertiary erosion history and elevation gain of the High Plains of New Mexico and Texas: A signal of widespread mid-Tertiary lithospheric modification?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The undeformed High Plains of North America are located over 1,000 km east of the nearest plate boundary but reach elevations of >2 km at their boundary with the southern Rocky Mountains. East of the mountain front elevations decrease gradually, but remain as high as 1 km in northern Texas. Despite the accumulation of extensive geological and geophysical datasets, there is no consensus on the mechanisms that caused high elevations in the region or on how these mechanisms may be linked to the history of deformation and volcanism in the neighboring Rocky Mountains. The timing of unroofing and uplift is key to differentiating between these mechanisms, but this too remains debated. A 350 km-long integrated apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) east-west transect from the southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico across the High Plains into northern Texas provides insight into the spatial and temporal variability of unroofing across this region during Cenozoic time. The southern Sangre de Cristo Range separates the High Plains of northern New Mexico from the Rio Grande Rift. At the western edge of the southern Sangre de Cristo Range, AFT and AHe data from Precambrian basement samples show an age-elevation relationship and indicate cooling and rapid unroofing through the shallow crust during the early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. At the eastern edge of the range, both AFT and AHe data record a late Tertiary cooling episode as young as mid-Miocene. Samples from Triassic sandstones on the High Plains 50 km east of the mountain front yield mid-Tertiary AFT and late Tertiary AHe dates. These data require post-depositional heating of samples to above ~110 °C, followed by at least 1.5 km of relatively rapid unroofing on the western High Plains between 17 Ma and the initiation of Ogallala Group deposition at ~12 Ma. This interval of unroofing predates the <10 Ma volcanism along the nearby Jemez lineament. The easternmost samples in the Texas Panhandle suggest that a smaller degree of post-depositional heating caused minimal annealing of fission tracks and partial resetting of the AHe system prior to cooling and unroofing during the mid-Tertiary. Together these results indicate that multiphase Tertiary cooling and unroofing on the High Plains took place over a wide region that stretches as far as 300 km east of the rugged Cordilleran front. This implies Tertiary lithospheric modification over the same spatial extent as the cause, due either to volcanism associated with the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup or to the initiation of the Rio Grande Rift system. The results may therefore constrain the development of the low-velocity mantle that contributes to high elevations throughout the Rocky Mountain-High Plains region.

Landman, R.; Flowers, R. M.; Kelley, S.

2013-12-01

19

Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root-microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or `priming') or indirectly promote SOC gains (via `protection' through interactions with mineral particles). We developed a new SOC model to examine priming and protection responses to rising atmospheric CO2. The model captured disparate SOC responses at two temperate free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of `new' carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of `old' SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter and high clay content (for example, Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses induced through priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters and lower clay content (for example, Duke). The SOC model was fully integrated into a global terrestrial carbon cycle model to run global simulations of elevated CO2 effects. Although protected carbon provides an important constraint on priming effects, priming nonetheless reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from enhanced ecosystem productivity.

Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher; Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.

2014-12-01

20

ELEVATED CO2 DOES NOT STIMULATE C4 PHOTOSYNTHESIS DIRECTLY, BUT IMPACTS WATER RELATIONS AND INDIRECTLY ENHANCES CARBON GAIN DURING DROUGHT STRESS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) GROWN UNDER FREE-AIR CO2 ENRICHMENT (FACE).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for, and mechanism of, [CO2] effects on C4 plants has received considerable interest but remains poorly understood. In 2002 and 2004, a rain-fed field experiment utilizing FACE technology was undertaken, in the U.S. Corn Belt, to determine the effects of elevated [CO2] on Zea mays. F...

21

Elevated CO2 Does Not Stimulate C4 Photosynthesis Directly, but Impacts Water Relations and Indirectly Enhances Carbon Gain during Drought Stress in Maize (Zea Mays) grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mechanism of [CO2] effects upon C4 plants has received considerable research interest but remains poorly understood. In 2002 and 2004, a rainfed-field experiment utilizing FACE technology was undertaken, in the U.S. Corn Belt, to determine the effects of elevated [CO2] on Zea mays. FACE allows ...

22

Human iNKT and MAIT cells exhibit a PLZF-dependent proapoptotic propensity that is counterbalanced by XIAP  

PubMed Central

Invariant natural killer (iNKT) T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent peculiar T-lymphocyte subpopulations with innate-like properties that differ from conventional T cells. iNKT are reduced in the primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). By studying the mechanism of this depletion, we herein report that iNKT cells exhibit a high susceptibility to apoptosis that is not observed with conventional T cells. Elevated expression of caspases 3 and 7 accounts for the proapoptotic phenotype of iNKT cells, which is inhibited by XIAP although it exerts a moderate effect in conventional T cells. Similarly, MAIT cells exhibit a proapoptotic propensity with elevated expression of activated caspases and are decreased in XIAP-deficient individuals. Knockdown of the transcription factor PLZF/ZBTB-16, which is involved in the effector program of iNKT cells, diminishes their proapoptotic phenotype. Conversely, overexpression of PLZF/ZBTB-16 in conventional T cells leads to a proapoptotic phenotype. Our findings identify a previously unknown pathway of regulation of innate-like T-cell homeostasis depending on XIAP and PLZF. The proapoptotic feature of iNKT cells also gives a reliable explanation of their exhaustion observed in different human conditions including the XIAP immunodeficiency. PMID:23223428

Gérart, Stéphane; Sibéril, Sophie; Martin, Emmanuel; Lenoir, Christelle; Aguilar, Claire; Picard, Capucine; Lantz, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Latour, Sylvain

2013-01-01

23

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

24

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Infirmary, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

25

Weight Gain during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Weight gain during pregnancy When you’re pregnant, you ... in sight! Be careful about the amount of weight you gain during your pregnancy. Gaining too much ...

26

Hormonal treatment increases the response of the reward system at the menopause transition: a counterbalanced randomized placebo-controlled fMRI study.  

PubMed

Preclinical research using rodent models demonstrated that estrogens play neuroprotective effects if they are administered during a critical period near the time of cessation of ovarian function. In women, a number of controversial epidemiological studies reported that a neuroprotective effect of estradiol may be obtained on cognition and mood-related disorders if hormone therapy (HT) begins early at the beginning of menopause. Yet, little is known about the modulatory effects of early HT administration on brain activation near menopause. Here, we investigated whether HT, initiated early during the menopause transition, increases the response of the reward system, a key brain circuit involved in motivation and hedonic behavior. We used fMRI and a counterbalanced, double-blind, randomized and crossover placebo-controlled design to investigate whether sequential 17?-estradiol plus oral progesterone modulate reward-related brain activity. Each woman was scanned twice while presented with images of slot machines, once after receiving HT and once under placebo. The fMRI results demonstrate that HT, relative to placebo, increased the response of the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, two areas that have been shown to be respectively involved during reward anticipation and at the time of reward delivery. Our neuroimaging results bridge the gap between animal studies and human epidemiological studies of HT on cognition. These findings establish a neurobiological foundation for understanding the neurofunctional impact of early HT initiation on reward processing at the menopause transition. PMID:25222702

Thomas, Julie; Météreau, Elise; Déchaud, Henri; Pugeat, Michel; Dreher, Jean-Claude

2014-12-01

27

Preventing Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... a diet, it's a lifestyle! Share Compartir Preventing Weight Gain If you're currently at a healthy ... of cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful ...

28

No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population  

PubMed Central

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

2014-01-01

29

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

30

Invention and Gain Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

1989-01-01

31

Nutrition During Weight Gain  

E-print Network

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

32

Comparing gains and losses.  

PubMed

Loss aversion in choice is commonly assumed to arise from the anticipation that losses have a greater effect on feelings than gains, but evidence for this assumption in research on judged feelings is mixed. We argue that loss aversion is present in judged feelings when people compare gains and losses and assess them on a common scale. But many situations in which people judge and express their feelings lack these features. When judging their feelings about an outcome, people naturally consider a context of similar outcomes for comparison (e.g., they consider losses against other losses). This process permits gains and losses to be normed separately and produces psychological scale units that may not be the same in size or meaning for gains and losses. Our experiments show loss aversion in judged feelings for tasks that encourage gain-loss comparisons, but not tasks that discourage them, particularly those using bipolar scales. PMID:20739673

McGraw, A Peter; Larsen, Jeff T; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David

2010-10-01

33

Pregnancy and Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... based on current recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Nearly a third gained weight within the guidelines ...

34

Weight gain - unintentional  

MedlinePLUS

... control pills Corticosteroids Some drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression Some drugs used to treat ... gain without a known cause Hair loss Feel cold more often than before Swollen feet and shortness ...

35

Proton maser gain  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that in the low beam space-charge limit the small-signal gain for a proton maser, calculated from a dispersion relation, is proportional to (..omega../sub p//..omega../sub 0/)/sup 2/, and agrees to this order with that derived from orbital velocity perturbations, to order (qE/sub x//m..omega../sub 0/U/sub 0/)/sup 2/. The rf current density in the interaction space is derived; ''self-bunching'' and the underlying physics of the gain (''self-catching'') are explored and a comparison is made between the collective formulation and that of single-particle orbits.

Ensley, D.L.

1989-02-01

36

USGS Elevation Monument  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

37

Beyond secondary gain.  

PubMed

Research suggests that a conscious desire for external illness gain can have internal unconscious effects, in that subjective symptoms can be heightened by external reward. This mechanism can be explained on the basis of Freud's later work, in which he mentions two types of resistance, which resemble each other--the need to be punished and the need to be ill. The concept of the need to be ill can explain why in modern society, with its established systems of support, regulations, and procedures that are conducive to illness behavior, patients who consciously strive for external gain can experience strengthening feelings of being ill and even deterioration without being aware of this process. PMID:15959674

van Egmond, J J

2005-06-01

38

Helicopter high gain control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

1979-01-01

39

DAMPING OF VEHICLE ROLL DYNAMICS BY GAIN SCHEDULED ACTIVE STEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active steering is applied to robustly reduce the rollover risk of vehicles with an elevated center of gravity. An actu- ator sets an auxiliary steering angle which is mechanically added to the steering angle commanded by the driver. The control law presented, is based on feedback of the roll rate and the roll acceleration. The controller gains are scheduled with

Dirk Odenthal

1999-01-01

40

Trombe walls and direct gain: Patterns of nationwide applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic performance of Trombe wall and direct gain passive solar heating designs are elevated on a nationwide basis using the LASL\\/UNM solar economic performance code. Both designs are integrated into a ranch style tract home concept thereby facilitating regional comparisons. Solar add-on costs are established for each design with regional differences in material and labor prices accounted for at

S. A. Noll; J. F. Roach; S. Ben-David

1979-01-01

41

Tertiary gain and disability syndromes.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the concept of tertiary gain by Dansak in 1973, there has been little further publication or research on this topic. Yet, tertiary gain is often the subject of debate amongst physicians, therapists, insurers, the media, and even at times the general public. Much of the controversy of disability syndromes and the health and economic burden they present has focused on secondary gain and illness behaviour. The role of tertiary gain in illness behaviour is likely also relevant, and a model of tertiary gain is needed to begin further understanding the implications of this phenomenon for patients and those who treat them. This article introduces a phraseology for tertiary gain, and models the effects of tertiary gain on illness behaviour and the interactions of secondary and tertiary gain in the setting of disability syndromes. PMID:11601869

Kwan, O; Ferrari, R; Friel, J

2001-10-01

42

‘Loss’ and ‘gain’ in comics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses translations of comics, a topic rarely dealt with in Translation Studies, with specific reference to ‘loss ‘ and ‘gain ‘. It is suggested that —for the purpose of a cogent discussion ? we may distinguish between gain with loss’ and ‘gain without loss’. Translations of comics represent a special challenge in that, in order to be successful,

Maria Grun; Cay Dollerup

2003-01-01

43

Introduction to Grain Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

1998-01-01

44

Sinus floor elevation utilizing the transalveolar approach.  

PubMed

A transalveolar approach for sinus floor elevation with subsequent placement of dental implants was first suggested by Tatum in 1986. In 1994, Summers described a different transalveolar approach using a set of tapered osteotomes with increasing diameters. The transalveolar approach of sinus floor elevation, also referred to as 'osteotome sinus floor elevation', the 'Summers technique' or the 'Crestal approach', may be considered as being more conservative and less invasive than the conventional lateral window approach. This is reflected by the fact that more than nine out of 10 patients who experienced the surgical procedure would be willing to undergo it again. The main indication for transalveolar sinus floor elevation is reduced residual bone height, which does not allow standard implant placement. Contraindications for transalveolar sinus floor elevation may be intra-oral, local or medical. The surgical approach utilized over the last two decades is the technique described by Summers, with or without minor modifications. The surgical care after implant placement using the osteotome technique is similar to the surgical care after standard implant placement. The patients are usually advised to take antibiotic prophylaxis and to utilize antiseptic rinses. The main complications reported after performing a transalveolar sinus floor elevation were perforation of the Schneiderian membrane in 3.8% of patients and postoperative infections in 0.8% of patients. Other complications reported were postoperative hemorrhage, nasal bleeding, blocked nose, hematomas and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Whether it is necessary to use grafting material to maintain space for new bone formation after elevating the sinus membrane utilizing the osteotome technique is still controversial. Positive outcomes have been reported with and without using grafting material. A prospective study, evaluating both approaches, concluded that significantly more bone gain was seen when grafting material was used (4.1 mm mean bone gain compared with 1.7 mm when no grafting material was utilized). In a systematic review, including 19 studies reporting on 4388 implants inserted using the transalveolar sinus floor elevation technique, the 3-year implant survival rate was 92.8% (95% confidence interval: 87.4-96.0%). Furthermore, a subject-based analysis of the same material revealed an annual failure rate of 3.7%. Hence, one in 10 subjects experienced implant loss over 3 years. Several of the included studies demonstrated that transalveolar sinus floor elevation was most predictable when the residual alveolar bone height was ? 5 mm and the sinus floor anatomy was relatively flat. PMID:25123761

Pjetursson, Bjarni E; Lang, Niklaus P

2014-10-01

45

A Nanotube Space Elevator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, find out about the discovery of a new building material, the carbon nanotube, whose physical properties could theoretically enable the creation of a 22,000-mile elevator to space.

2008-08-26

46

Acting to gain information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

1993-01-01

47

location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

48

Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

49

ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)  

E-print Network

Elevation due to new information. Which FEMA programs now require using Advisory Base Flood ElevationsADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE) DURING REBUILDING What are the Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFE)? Answer: This is the NEW Base Flood Elevation for rebuilding. It has the same definition

50

Monocular elevation deficiency ("double elevator" palsy): a cautionary note.  

PubMed

Monocular elevation deficiency (or "double elevator" palsy) is a descriptive term denoting a congenital deficiency of monocular elevation that is equal in abduction and adduction. We describe a child with monocular elevation deficiency who displayed tethering and buckling of the central lower eyelid in downgaze. We caution that this manifestation of inferior rectus contracture can simulate impaired infraduction in the involved eye. PMID:21131851

Brodsky, Michael C; Karlsson, Virginia

2011-03-01

51

ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch  

E-print Network

ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch: · Just as you customize your resume and cover letter to individual companies, your elevator pitch can also be customized to highlight your most relevant skills and experience for a situation. · Your elevator pitch should have the ability

Barnes, Elizabeth A.

52

Smoking cessation and weight gain.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is the single most important preventable cause of death and illness. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Weight gain is cited as a primary reason for not trying to quit smoking. There is a great variability in the amount of weight gain but younger ages, lower socio-economic status and heavier smoking are predictors of higher weight gain. Weight change after smoking cessation appears to be influenced by underlying genetic factors. Besides, weight gain after smoking cessation is largely because of increased body fat and some studies suggest that it mostly occurs in the subcutaneous region of the body. The mechanism of weight gain includes increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, decreased physical activity and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Although there is convincing evidence for the association between smoking cessation and weight gain, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. This review summarizes current information of the effects of nicotine on peptides involved in feeding behaviour. Smoking was shown to impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that smokers are insulin-resistant and hyperinsulinaemic, as compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation seems to improve insulin sensitivity in spite of the weight gain. Nicotine replacement - in particular nicotine gum - appears to be effective in delaying post-cessation weight gain. In a group of women who failed to quit smoking because of weight gain, a dietary intervention (intermittent very-low-calorie diet) plus nicotine gum showed to both increase success rate in terms of smoking cessation and prevent weight gain. On the other hand, body weight gain at the end of treatment was significantly lower in the patients receiving bupropion or bupropion plus nicotine patch, compared with placebo. Studies with new drugs available for the treatment of obesity - sibutramine and orlistat - are warranted. PMID:15086863

Filozof, C; Fernández Pinilla, M C; Fernández-Cruz, A

2004-05-01

53

Computer algorithm for coding gain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

Dodd, E. E.

1974-01-01

54

Elevation Differences on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of apparent frost phenomena, occurring preferentially in the Martian bright areas, have in the past led to. the conclusion that the bright areas are elevations. The argument hinges on the implicit assumption that, near midday, highlands should be at lower temperatures than lowlands. On the earth, this assumption is valid, because of adiabatic cooling of rising air, a diminished

Carl Sagan; James B. Pollack

1968-01-01

55

A high-head flat counterbalanced gate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a In order to increase the capacity of high-head water intakes substantially, it is necessary to develop basically new designs\\u000a for the gates, providing not only for a decrease in frictional forces in the bearing-guide sections, and, in tum, a reduction\\u000a in the lifting capacity of the mechanisms, but also a reduction in the loads on the bearing-guide sections.

Yu. V. Kind; D. M. Savin

1976-01-01

56

Gain degradation and amplitude scintillation due to tropospheric turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that a simple physical model is adequate for the prediction of the long term statistics of both the reduced signal levels and increased peak-to-peak fluctuations. The model is based on conventional atmospheric turbulence theory and incorporates both amplitude and angle of arrival fluctuations. This model predicts the average variance of signals observed under clear air conditions at low elevation angles on earth-space paths at 2, 7.3, 20 and 30 GHz. Design curves based on this model for gain degradation, realizable gain, amplitude fluctuation as a function of antenna aperture size, frequency, and either terrestrial path length or earth-space path elevation angle are presented.

Theobold, D. M.; Hodge, D. B.

1978-01-01

57

The potential significance of elevated vitreous sodium levels at autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of sodium that may be detected in the analysis of post-mortem fluid samples may arise from a wide variety of organic illnesses and environmental factors that have caused either water depletion or solute gain. When hypernatraemia is suspected at autopsy a careful history is required with particular emphasis on pre-existing medical conditions such as renal or gastrointestinal disease.

Annabel I. Ingham; Roger W. Byard

2009-01-01

58

LOW-ELEVATION NESTING BY CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRDS IN THE WESTERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calliope Hummingbird breeds uncommonly to fairly commonly in the Sierra Nevada and other high mountain ranges in California. In the Sierra it typically nests above 4000 feet elevation (Grinnell and Miller 1944, Gaines 1992, pers. obs.), usually near moist meadows or other relatively level and wet sites with a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees, shrubs, and flowering plants

2001-01-01

59

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

1985-01-01

60

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Program is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to hot section components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Progress during the past year included linear-elastic fracture mechanics data reduction on nonlinear crack growth rate data on Alloy 718. The bulk of the analytical work centered on thermal gradient problems and proposed fracture mechanics parameters. Good correlation of thermal gradient experimental displacement data and finite element prediction was obtained.

Malik, S. N.; Vanstone, R. H.; Kim, K. S.; Laflen, J. H.

1987-01-01

61

Contour Lines and Elevation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation features a static image of a contour surface on the left and an oblique 3-D view of the same area. Upon starting the animation, by clicking adjacent arrows, a surface of water begins to rise. By examining the views in both windows, a simulated flood shows how contour lines trace out equal elevations and how concave/convex undulations in the contour lines would be represented in 3-D. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

Stephen J Reynolds

62

Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

63

49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION OF BODY BUILDING, 1980 (MMI) - Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company Plant, Between Joseph Campau & Conant Avenues, Hamtramck, Wayne County, MI

64

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

65

location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

66

location map, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location map, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, door and window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Central Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

67

north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

68

location plan, floor plan, section, north elevation, west elevation and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, section, north elevation, west elevation and window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Administration, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

69

33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

70

The Lloyd L. Gaines Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Born in 1911, Lloyd Lionel Gaines was one of eleven children. Gaines excelled in his studies and applied to the University of Missouri School of Law in 1936. He was denied admission solely on the grounds that Missouri's state constitution called for "separate education of the races." Gaines did not back down from this injustice, and he sought legal assistance from the NAACP. In 1938, Gaines won his case before the United States Supreme Court, but tragically Gaines disappeared at age 28 in Chicago and was never seen or heard from again. This engaging collection from the University of Missouri Law Library brings together documents related to Gaines's life, including photographs, family correspondence, materials related to his Supreme Court case, and related secondary materials. Visitors to the site can perform a simple search across all the materials, or dig in deeper by perform a citation search. Legal scholars will find the Case Materials area particularly engaging, as it includes links to the trial briefs, respondents' statements, and so on.

71

Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy  

E-print Network

Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Lessons Learned April 2011 #12 ...............................................................................................................................15 Additional information about Elevate America is available at: http://microsoft.com/elevateamerica #12;2 Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Preface On February 22, 2009

Bernstein, Phil

72

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

73

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

1992-01-01

74

Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients.  

PubMed

Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations. PMID:16670982

Altshuler, Douglas L

2006-02-01

75

Elevation leads to altruistic behavior  

E-print Network

of an emotion are key to understand- ing its origins, functions, or social consequences (e.g., Frijda, 1987; Lazarus, 1991; Nesse, 1990; Russell, 1991; Tooby & Cosmides, 2008). However, to date, there is only limited evi- dence that elevation affects prosocial... not test whether elevation affects altruism across divergent contexts, motivating helping outside of contexts that juxtapose compassion and group-based prejudice, or whether elevation motivates helping above and beyond the effect of general posi- tive...

Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M. T.

2010-01-01

76

Randoms and TOF gain revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) typically reduces the variance in the images by a factor that is proportional to the size of the object to be scanned, and inversely proportional to the time resolution of the PET scanner. Attempts to better characterize this relationship and understand its limits have been published, showing that such gain also increases with random fraction. In this paper, new experimental and simulated data are analyzed and old results are incorporated in the study. The proportionality of TOF gain with time resolution is confirmed, the proportionality constant is measured, the effect of the randoms is validated, and the limit of the model for small objects is investigated.

Eriksson, Lars; Conti, Maurizio

2015-02-01

77

Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

Jordan, E. H.

1985-01-01

78

Retirement communities gain higher acceptance.  

PubMed

Retirement community gains in acceptance could indicate a bright future for the industry, according to the latest Generations research. The first ever on-line international survey of seniors and the first dial group studies of seniors show Boomers, Silent Generation seniors, and GI Generation seniors alike have become more positive in their evaluation of retirement communities as an option for the future. PMID:11372491

Brooks, S A; Adams, R T

2001-01-01

79

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

80

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

81

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

82

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

83

A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

2013-01-01

84

A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser  

E-print Network

We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J

2012-01-01

85

Basic formulas find oscillator power gain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional circuit analysis defines the power gain of an oscillator to be finite, since there is an output without an input. By defining power gain as the ratio of output power to input power, however, finite power gain can be characterized. Several simple circuit equations which can be used to find power gain in an oscillator circuit are presented and discussed.

Kleinberg, Leonard L.

1990-01-01

86

Space Station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

1989-01-01

87

Investigation of the gain regimes and gain parameters of the free electron laser dispersion equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small signal gain curve and various gain parameters have been computed by solving numerically the generalized gain-dispersion equation of free electron lasers (FEL), which characterizes the conventional magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL, as well as a large number of other FEL devices. The method includes high gain, collective, and axial velocity spread effects, and some waveguide effects. The FEL gain regimes

E. Jerby; A. Gover

1985-01-01

88

Moral elevation can induce nursing.  

PubMed

There is little extant research on the psychological or physiological response to witnessing good deeds. The authors call the emotional reaction to virtue "moral elevation" and the authors examined its effects on mother-infant dyads. Breastfeeding women who watched a morally elevating video were more likely to nurse their infants and were marginally more likely to hug them, compared to women who watched an equally enjoyable comedy video. Both of these effects suggest that moral elevation may involve the release of oxytocin, a hormone associated with lactation and affiliation. PMID:18410202

Silvers, Jennifer A; Haidt, Jonathan

2008-04-01

89

Elevation Derivatives for National Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

U.S. Geological Survey

2005-01-01

90

Evaluation of temperature-enhanced gain degradation of verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dose rate on radiation-induced gain degradation is compared for verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors. High dose rate irradiations at elevated temperatures are more effective at simulating low dose rate degradation in the lateral pnp transistors.

Witczak, S.C.; Lacoe, R.C. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Electronics Technology Center; Galloway, K.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [and others

1997-03-01

91

Unidirectional high gain brake stop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

Lang, David J. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

92

Gain-assisted surface plasmon microcavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of cavity Q factor of a gain-assisted surface plasmon microcavity is experimentally demonstrated. This is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of gain-assisted cavity Q enhancement in a surface plasmon microcavity.

M. W. Kim; J. Moore; Y. H. Chen; Y. K. Wu; P. Bhattacharya; L. J. Guo; P. C. Ku

2009-01-01

93

ConcepTest: Elevated Terraces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of elevated terraces (former wave-cut platforms) along an active plate boundary coast is evidence for ______________. a. Sea level rise b. Uplift of continental crust c. Subsidence (sinking) of crust

94

Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

2009-01-01

95

Factors affecting feedlot gains of Hereford bulls  

E-print Network

correlation coefficients between 140-day gain, age, gain from weaning to start, initial condition and initial weight 19 5. General outline for nested analysis 21 6. Correlation coefficients between various periods of 140-day gain test... largely by grade and weight is correlated with grade (Koch aad Clark, 1955, report a correlation of 0. 66). The advantage of fast gain ing ability is obvious to the commercial producer, since rapid growth is usually the most economical growth. Warwick...

Thomas, Richard Carroll

1962-01-01

96

Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control  

E-print Network

Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control Ethiopia | Rwanda | Senegal | Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar) COUNTRY BRIEFS September 2011 #12;#12;SEpTEMbER 2011 MainTaining ThE gainS in MalaRia conTRol | ExEcuTivE SuMMaRy | 3 Key messages · aggressive campaigns to scale up malaria control have led

Klein, Ophir

97

Estimating gain fields in multispectral MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unsupervised, completely automatic method for gain field estimation and segmentation of multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images is presented. This new adaptive algorithm is based on statistical modeling of MR images using finite mixtures. Variability of gain field artifact with imaging parameters (i.e. TE, TR, and TI) is considered in the estimation process. Beside gain field, partial volume artifact is

Reza Golparvar Roozbahani; Mohammad-Hassan Ghassemian; Ahmad-Reza Sharafat

2000-01-01

98

CCPPolicyBriefing Gain or Pain  

E-print Network

CCPPolicyBriefing July 2008 Gain or Pain: Does Consumer Activity Reflect Utility Maximisation? W: www.ccp.uea.ac.uk T: +44 (0)1603 593715 A: UEA, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Gain or Pain: Does Consumer Activity. #12;CCPPolicyBriefing July 2008 Gain or Pain: Does Consumer Activity Reflect Utility Maximisation? W

Feigon, Brooke

99

Is Weight Gain after Smoking Cessation Inevitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied weight gain after smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting where all smokers quit and risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Suggests that an intensive program featuring dietary guidelines and increased physical activity can attenuate weight gain. (RJM)

Talcott, Gerald W.; And Others

1995-01-01

100

Discrimination Gain to Optimize Detection and Classification  

E-print Network

Discrimination Gain to Optimize Detection and Classification Keith Kastella \\Lambda UNISYS based on discrimination gain is pre­ sented. Expected discrimination gain is used to determine threshold of discrimination is motivated by its interpretation as a measure of the relative likelihood for alternative

101

Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the

David J. Nagel

2011-01-01

102

Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.  

PubMed

To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

2014-01-01

103

Weight Gain, Obesity, and Psychotropic Prescribing  

PubMed Central

A majority of psychiatric medications are known to generate weight gain and ultimately obesity in some patients. There is much speculation about the prevalence of weight gain and the degree of weight gain during acute and longitudinal treatment with these agents. There is newer literature looking at the etiology of this weight gain and the potential treatments being used to alleviate this side effect. The authors undertook a comprehensive literature review in order to present epidemiology, etiology, and treatment options of weight gain associated with antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. PMID:21318056

Nihalani, Nikhil; Schwartz, Thomas L.; Siddiqui, Umar A.; Megna, James L.

2011-01-01

104

76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1212] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2011-08-17

105

75 FR 61377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1147] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2010-10-05

106

76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1210] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2011-08-17

107

75 FR 32684 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1098] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2010-06-09

108

75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1085] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2010-02-05

109

75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1104] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2010-05-25

110

76 FR 61649 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FEMA-B-1221] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

2011-10-05

111

Insulin enhances the gain of arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans  

PubMed Central

Recent animal studies indicate that insulin increases arterial baroreflex control of lumbar sympathetic nerve activity; however, the extent to which these findings can be extrapolated to humans is unknown. To begin to address this, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial blood pressure were measured in 19 healthy subjects (27 ± 1 years) before, and for 120 min following, two common methodologies used to evoke sustained increases in plasma insulin: a mixed meal and a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Weighted linear regression analysis between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure was used to determine the gain (i.e. sensitivity) of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated within 30 min following meal intake (?34 ± 6 uIU ml?1; P < 0.05) and remained above baseline for up to 120 min. Similarly, after meal intake, arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain for burst incidence and total MSNA was increased and remained elevated for the duration of the protocol (e.g. burst incidence gain: ?3.29 ± 0.54 baseline vs.?5.64 ± 0.67 bursts (100 heart beats)?1 mmHg?1 at 120 min; P < 0.05). During the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, in which insulin was elevated to postprandial concentrations (?42 ± 6 ?IU ml?1; P < 0.05), while glucose was maintained constant, arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain was similarly enhanced (e.g. burst incidence gain: ?2.44 ± 0.29 baseline vs.?4.74 ± 0.71 bursts (100 heart beats)?1 mmHg?1 at 120 min; P < 0.05). Importantly, during time control experiments, with sustained fasting insulin concentrations, the arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain remained unchanged. These findings demonstrate, for the first time in healthy humans, that increases in plasma insulin enhance the gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. PMID:20643774

Young, Colin N; Deo, Shekhar H; Chaudhary, Kunal; Thyfault, John P; Fadel, Paul J

2010-01-01

112

Isostasy and Global Elevation Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This investigation explores the basic process of isostasy and its explanatory power for the observed bimodal distribution for global elevations. In Part A, the densities of representative rock samples of granite and basalt are determined experimentally and compared to typical crustal values. In Part B, the concept of isostasy is examined through a continent-to-ocean transect by determining if the hydrostatic pressure at a common asthenosphere depth is approximately equal under four different "columns" of overlying material. In Part C, a dynamic web-based isostasy model is used to predict elevations for lithospheric columns of different crustal thickness and density. In Part D, the bimodal distribution of global elevations is explicitly explored and connected to the fundamental components of isostasy as explored in Parts A, B, and C.

Stephen Schellenberg

113

ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.  

PubMed

The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

2014-10-26

114

Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

1993-01-01

115

Directive gain of circular Taylor patterns.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The practicality of various classes of planar aperture distributions in high-gain antenna design is discussed, and optimal circular Taylor distributions are illustrated. In particular, the directive gain of circular Taylor patterns is determined. It is shown that so-called optimum patterns - i.e., uniform sidelobes in all planes, are severly limited for planar apertures because of excessive sidelobe power. The optimum directive gain of the circular Taylor pattern with a given sidelobe level can be obtained by appropriate design.

Rudduck, R. C.; Wu, D. C. F.; Hyneman, R. F.

1971-01-01

116

Special Issue: High Elevation Forests  

E-print Network

pine beetle. But change in our forests is inevitable. To truly understand what is occurring in ColoradoSpecial Issue: High Elevation Forests 2008 The Health of Colorado's Forests Report #12;David A. Leatherman, Forest Entomologist, Colorado State Forest Service (retired), is the primary author of the 2008

117

Error margin for antenna gain measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The specification of measured antenna gain is incomplete without knowing the error of the measurement. Also, unless gain is measured many times for a single antenna or over many identical antennas, the uncertainty or error in a single measurement is only an estimate. In this paper, we will examine in detail a typical error budget for common antenna gain measurements. We will also compute the gain uncertainty for a specific UHF horn test that was recently performed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) antenna range. The paper concludes with comments on these results and how they compare with the 'unofficial' JPL range standard of +/- ?.

Cable, V.

2002-01-01

118

Estimating the rate and elevation dependence of net accretion in a freshwater tidal marsh using DEM-registered surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater marshes contribute to estuary health by filtering excess sediment and nutrients delivered from the watershed, but their extent and persistence is threatened by rising sea level. To maintain a semi-emergent position, the marsh surface must gain elevation by accreting mineral and/or organic material at a rate comparable to sea level rise. Historic records of sea level rise (SLR) are available from tide gages, but records of historic elevation change at the necessary precision are rare. Additionally, sedimentation, compaction, erosion, and the resultant net elevation gain are spatially heterogeneous across a marsh, varying with elevation, among other factors. We solve this issue at our study site by taking advantage of a 1992 total station survey of the marsh and RTK GPS surveys from 2005 and 2012, and registering them all against an airborne LiDAR derived DEM. Thus, although no points are directly reoccupied, survey vs. DEM trends can be found for each survey, and an average rate of elevation change can be calculated as a function of DEM elevation. We found rates of net elevation gain ranging spatially from 3-5 mm/yr between the years 1992-2012, similar to the historic rate of SLR at a nearby Washington, DC tide gage of 4 mm/yr over the past 28 years. Net elevation change varied as DEM elevation increased, with several local minima and maxima potentially related to variations and transitions in vegetation community. Assuming IPCC predicted sea level rise and a fixed relationship between elevation and net accretion, we then forecast marsh elevation relative to sea level and associated vegetative community changes through the 21st century using an inundation model that considers net accretion and a constant relationship between vegetation community type and elevation.

Cadol, D. D.; Elmore, A. J.; Engelhardt, K.; Sanders, G.

2012-12-01

119

Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a successful application of sheet metal forming technologies at elevated temperatures. Among data needed to settle a numerical model of the process, information about material formability may help in better designing and optimizing hot stamping operations. In the first part of the work, a new experimental apparatus based on Nakazima concept is presented; process parameters are optimized in order to accurately replicate the thermo-mechanical conditions typical of the industrial process, paying particular attention to the thermal and microstructural evolution. On the other hand, as commercial FE codes require the implementation of Forming Limit Diagrams at constant temperature, numerical investigations have been performed in order to determine the proper testing conditions to obtain FLD at nearly constant temperature.

Turetta, A.; Ghiotti, A. [DIMEG, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131, Padova (Italy); Bruschi, S. [DIMS, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38050, Trento (Italy)

2007-04-07

120

Current Feedback Loop Gain Analysis and  

E-print Network

presents a high imped- ance to the input voltage, V+ , so as to not load the driving source. Any voltage voltage to follow the non-inverting input voltage while also providing a low impedance path for an error-couple the signal gain from the loop gain part of the overall transfer function. Commonly available voltage feedback

Lanterman, Aaron

121

Can Free Trade Guarantee Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic gains from trade are the reasons why countries embark on the path of free trade, expecting this to promote industrialization and development. There is nothing, however, in the conventional theory of international trade that guarantees that these gains will materialize and even if they do, they may not accelerate industrialization and growth. This is because there are

Moritz Cruz

2008-01-01

122

Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators  

E-print Network

Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators Amit Mizrahi,* Vitaliy Lomakin, Boris A the metal and the gain medium in metal-coated laser resonators and demonstrate that it can significantly.6628, 140.5960, 350.4238. Subwavelength laser sources are expected to be key components in future

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

123

Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain  

E-print Network

, or as an Employee Wellness Program. The Maintain No Gain program can be flexible to meet the needs of the local groups, or for use in an employee wellness program or to start an employee wellness program. Agent Training Agents can be trained to deliver the Maintain No Gain program by participating in and/or viewing

124

Gain calibration methods for radio telescope arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radio telescope arrays, the complex receiver gains and sensor noise powers are initially unknown and have to be calibrated. Gain calibration can enhance the quality of astronomical sky images and, moreover, improve the effectiveness of array signal processing techniques for interference mitigation and spatial filtering. A challenging aspect is that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is usually well below 0

Albert-Jan Boonstra; Alle-Jan van der Veen

2003-01-01

125

GaInNAs laser gain  

SciTech Connect

The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

2000-05-23

126

Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

2010-01-01

127

Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive “wires”. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the “passive” view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g., putting in a contact lens) to highly forceful (emergency reactions). Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation. PMID:25120435

Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, Charles J.

2014-01-01

128

ST elevation without myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute myocarditis may mimic myocardial infarction because the affected patients report 'classical' chest pain; the ECG changes and echocardiography are identical to those observed in acute coronary syndromes, and serum markers are increased. We describe a case with ST segment elevation on admission ECG, and coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance with myocardial delayed enhancement sequences is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing myocarditis. PMID:24711464

Bitar, Zouheir Ibrahim; Swede, Mohammad; Almerri, Khaled

2014-01-01

129

Ion implantation at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

1985-11-01

130

Blue-green small-signal gain and saturation in a luminescent polymer gain medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the optical gain and saturation behavior in a blue-green-emitting luminescent polymer gain medium. Based on the results of amplified spontaneous emission measurements, the gain coefficients, the gain-length product, and the corresponding small-signal gain are determined. By the use of the variable stripe length method, large net gain coefficients of up to 106±6cm-1 have been measured under nanosecond photopumping. The large gain has favorable implications for the development of short wavelength lasers and amplifiers. Their study shows that a small-signal gain of 19dB is achievable with a very compact optical amplifier with a 400?m length.

Kobayashi, Takeyuki; Flämmich, Michael; Jordan, Grace; D'Arcy, Rebekah; Rüther, Manuel; Blau, Werner J.; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kaino, Toshikuni

2006-09-01

131

Early Weight Gain Related to Later Weight Gain in Adolescents on Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine if early weight gain in adolescents on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) predicts continued excessive weight gain and identify risk factors of early weight gain. Methods Adolescents (N=97) initiating DMPA were eligible to participate. Height and weight were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Early weight gain was defined as more than a 5% weight gain after 6 months of DMPA use. Mean body mass index (BMI) at 6-month intervals was estimated based on early weight gain status (less than or equal to 5% gain vs. greater than 5% gain). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) modeling was used to compare group BMI at each time point. Repeated measures analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) modeling was used to explore the association between early weight gain and percentage change in BMI at 12 and 18 months of DMPA use. Results Twenty patients (21%) had early weight gain. Mean BMI (kg/m2) for the 5% or less group and greater than 5% group was 23.4 and 24.5 (p=.31), 23.3 and 26.6 (p=.009), 24.2 and 28.7 (p=.007), and 25.7 and 32.1 (p=.01) at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Early weight gain was significantly associated with percentage change in BMI at 12 and 18 months (p < .001). No risk factors for early weight gain were identified. Conclusion Adolescents who experience more than 5% weight gain after 6 months of DMPA use are at risk for continued excessive weight gain. Weight gain after 6 months on DMPA can be used to identify adolescents at risk for continued weight gain, and appropriate counseling can be done at this time point. PMID:21422849

Bonny, Andrea E.; Secic, Michelle; Cromer, Barbara

2011-01-01

132

Provider advice about pregnancy weight gain and adequacy of weight gain.  

PubMed

To explore the association between health care provider advice about weight gain and gestational weight gain. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we explored the association between provider advice about weight gain in pregnancy with weight gain adequacy among 1,454 pregnant women. Provider advice was measured by maternal self-report at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Linear and Poisson regression were used to explore associations. Seventy-eight percent of the women gained outside current recommendations. Fifty-one percent reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider. Adjusted Generalized Linear Model (GLM) estimates showed weak effect of provider advice on inadequate or excessive gain (Relative Risk (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.74, 1.26 for inadequate gain and RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.06 for excessive gain). There is a need for more women to hear about their targeted weight gains during pregnancy and the present advice that exists does little to influence actual gains. Further studies are warranted to find better strategies for providers to motivate their patients to gain weight within the appropriate ranges. PMID:22362261

Ferrari, Renée M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

2013-02-01

133

Controlling gain one photon at a time  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

2013-01-01

134

Quantum theory of magnetic bremsstrahlung gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantum electrodynamic calculation of the gain associated with the stimulated emission and absorption of photons by high-energy electrons in the presence of a spatially periodic, static magnetic field. The calculation is relevant to the description of a high-energy electron laser in the long-interaction-length low-density (single-particle) regime. The different kinematic constraints imposed on the photon-emission and -absorption processes are shown to produce the effect of population inversion in an energetic electron beam which allows for a net gain in the number of photons produced per unit path length. The spectral dependence of the gain on the wave vector of the emitted photon has a width determined by the incident electron momentum distribution and a maximum in the vicinity of a k value [2(W10mc2)2 (2??0)] determined by the central electron momentum W10c and the spatial period of the magnetic field. Derived formulas for the gain and gain-minus-loss coefficients are compared with formulas obtained on the basis of the stimulated Comptonscattering model. While the separate gain and loss coefficients diverge in the limit ?-->0, the gain-minus-loss coefficient is shown to have a finite value in this limit which agrees with the result of a classical derivation.

Deck, Robert T.; Gill, Peter G.

1982-07-01

135

Mass Gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Exceed Losses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements of elevation change. The net gain (86 Gt/yr) over the West Antarctic (WA) and East Antarctic ice sheets (WA and EA) is essentially unchanged from revised results for 1992 to 2001 from ERS radar altimetry. Imbalances in individual drainage systems (DS) are large (-68% to +103% of input), as are temporal changes (-39% to +44%). The recent 90 Gt/yr loss from three DS (Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd Coast) of WA exceeds the earlier 61 Gt/yr loss, consistent with reports of accelerating ice flow and dynamic thinning. Similarly, the recent 24 Gt/yr loss from three DS in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is consistent with glacier accelerations following breakup of the Larsen B and other ice shelves. In contrast, net increases in the five other DS of WA and AP and three of the 16 DS in East Antarctica (EA) exceed the increased losses. Alternate interpretations of the mass changes driven by accumulation variations are given using results from atmospheric-model re-analysis and a parameterization based on 5% change in accumulation per degree of observed surface temperature change. A slow increase in snowfall with climate waRMing, consistent with model predictions, may be offsetting increased dynamic losses.

Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Brenner, Anita; Bromwich, David

2012-01-01

136

Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

McKee, K.L.; Cherry, J.A.

2009-01-01

137

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift...

2010-04-01

138

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift...

2012-04-01

139

77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...elevations, and communities affected for...sources: Baraboo River, Devil's Lake...feet, and/or communities affected for the Baraboo River. In this document...ground [caret] Communities affected elevation...Baraboo...

2012-11-09

140

78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Wednesday, January 2, 2013)] [Rules and Regulations...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations...practice and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...Larimer County, Colorado, and Incorporated...

2013-01-02

141

75 FR 23600 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet...Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. [caret] Mean...At the mouth of the +1147 City of Mosinee...Wisconsin River. Approximately 450 feet +1149 downstream of...

2010-05-04

142

Nurses gain more time with patients.  

PubMed

Clinical pathways that incorporate charting by exception eliminate repetitive documentation and give nurses more time to educate and care for patients. In this case, nurses report a gain of 15 minutes per patient each day. PMID:10614375

Wroblewski, M; Werrbach, K; Gattuso, M C

1999-09-01

143

Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

2014-12-01

144

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK  

E-print Network

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM INSOCIAL WORK parenthood, remarriage and stepfamilies. 3. Learn about models of social work intervention with families.00 Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists 251113.00 Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary

Cinabro, David

145

Yoga Gaining in Popularity Among Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Yoga Gaining in Popularity Among Americans More children, adults ... Alternative Medicine TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Yoga is increasingly popular among U.S. adults and children, ...

146

Discovering the Value of "Gaining Through Training"  

E-print Network

DISCOVERING THE VALUE OF "GAINING THROUGH TRAINING" Robert C. Lee Technical Training Supervisor Spirax Sarco, Inc. Houston, TX INTRODUCTION The challenge of creating the proper training program has taken on a new perspective in the past few...

Lee, R. C.; Hahn, G. E.

147

Gain and Phase-margin measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple battery-powered test circuit will contribute negligible error when taking open-loop measurements of gain and phase parameters. This is especially helpful when measuring high-grain circuits containing integrators.

Pierce, B. D.

1977-01-01

148

The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

Johnson, Michael R.

1994-01-01

149

A radiometric antenna gain calibration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiometric method is presented for measuring the power gain of a microwave antenna. It is particularly applicable to horns with gains in the range 20-45 dB, and an absolute uncertainty (3sigma) of less than 0.1 dB is achievable in favorable cases. An absorbing screen with a circular aperture is placed in the far-field of the test antenna. The diameter

B. Ulich; P. E. Mantey; L. J. Griffiths; B. B. Goode

1977-01-01

150

Renyi information gain on quantum key  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of maximum Renyi information gain from quantum key is important in eavesdropping and security analyses of quantum key distribution. It is particularly useful in the design optimization of eavesdropping probes. The present work reviews the quantitative measure of Renyi information gain, its optimization, and application to the design of eavesdropping probes in which single-photon probe states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver.

Brandt, Howard E.

2007-05-01

151

Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

PubMed Central

Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

2014-01-01

152

Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

2002-01-01

153

Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to "burn," very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed "heat after death" will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear "burning."

Nagel, David J.

2011-03-01

154

Elevations and Distances in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in elevations and distances with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. The entire document consists of statistical charts depicting the nation's 50 largest cities, extreme and mean elevations, elevations of named summits over 14,000 feet…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

155

The Elevator Pitch Audrey Iffert-Saleem  

E-print Network

The Elevator Pitch Audrey Iffert-Saleem Executive Director, Entrepreneurship & Innovation Initiatives SESE Postdoctoral Development Program #12;what is the difference between pitching and presenting? #12;what is an elevator pitch? #12;how long is an elevator pitch? #12;what are the elements

Rhoads, James

156

An elevator characterized group supervisory control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elevator group supervisory control system is used to supervise multiple elevators, ensuring that they are operated efficiently. A novel elevator supervisory control system was developed which improves plural control parameters according to users' requests. The proposed approach employs fuzzy theory and an expert system. The effectiveness of the control system was confirmed by simulations

T. Tobita; A. Fujino; H. Inaba; K. Yoneda; T. Ueshima

1991-01-01

157

Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

2014-12-01

158

Life Gain in Italian Smokers Who Quit  

PubMed Central

This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10–19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1–9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt. PMID:24577282

Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

2014-01-01

159

Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding  

E-print Network

In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate vs current (f-I) curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fi...

Hong, Sungho; Fairhall, Adrienne

2008-01-01

160

Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

1991-01-01

161

Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media  

DOEpatents

A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

2014-03-25

162

Gain loss asymmetry for emerging stock markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stock indexes for some European emerging markets are analyzed using an investment-horizon approach. Austrian ATX index and Dow Jones have been studied and compared with several emerging European markets. The optimal investment horizons are plotted as a function of an absolute return value. Gain-loss asymmetry, originally found for American DJIA index, is observed for all analyzed data. It is shown, that this asymmetry has different character for emerging and for established markets. For established markets, gain curve lies typically above loss curve, whereas in the case of emerging markets the situation is just the opposite. We propose a measure quantifying the gain-loss asymmetry that clearly exhibits a difference between emerging and established markets.

Karpio, Krzysztof; Za?uska–Kotur, Magdalena A.; Or?owski, Arkadiusz

2007-03-01

163

Pressure-gain combustion for gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation has been performed to evaluate {open_quotes}pressure-gain{close_quotes} combustion systems for gas turbine applications. Results from the investigation have shown that, due to the oscillatory combustion process, a pressure boost can be achieved for suitable combustor geometries. The pressure gains achieved thus far have been as high as 1 percent. It has also been shown that for some combustor designs operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively. It is believed that with optimized designs, further improvements in both pressure gain and emissions may be possible. We have concluded that this technology remains a candidate for improving the efficiency of a gas turbine while reducing pollutant emissions.

Gemmen, R.; Richards, G.; Janus, M.

1995-12-01

164

Raman gain in niobium-phosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, niobium-phosphate glasses doped with rare earths (Er and Sm) are investigated by Raman scattering. The goal of Raman characterization is twofold: (a) to perform a fine structural characterization of the synthesized glasses and (b) to measure the Raman gain coefficient of the samples and to compare it with fused silica. The results reveal the presence of NbO6 octahedra and Nb-O-P-Nb-O mixed chains. A broadening of bandwidth and a significant enhancement (˜24 times) in gain coefficient G with respect to conventional silica glasses are also demonstrated.

Sirleto, L.; Donato, M. G.; Messina, G.; Santangelo, S.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Tagantsev, D. K.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G. C.

2009-01-01

165

Superradiance and collective gain in multimode optomechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a description of a strongly driven multimode optomechanical system that shows the emergence of cooperative effects usually known from systems of atom-light interaction. Our calculations show that under application of a coherent pump field the system's response can be switched from a superradiant regime to a collective gain regime by varying the frequency detuning of the pump. In the superradiant regime, enhanced optical cooling of a single vibrational mode is possible, whereas the collective gain regime would potentially enable one to achieve almost thresholdless phonon laser action. The threshold pumping power scales as 1 /N .

Kipf, T.; Agarwal, G. S.

2014-11-01

166

The space station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

Anderson, Loren A.

1989-01-01

167

Biological invasions: paradox lost and paradise gained.  

PubMed

A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic variation for key life-history traits through multiple introductions and outcrossing to create genetically novel offspring. Furthermore, the invaders' offspring follow a unique life-history strategy that may enhance their ability to invade. PMID:18364226

Hufbauer, Ruth A

2008-03-25

168

VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain  

E-print Network

VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain for Redirected Walking Christian T. Neth, Jan L. Souman, David Engel, Uwe Kloos, Heinrich H. B¨ulthoff and Betty J. Mohler Abstract--Redirected walking techniques allow people to walk

169

VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain  

E-print Network

VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain for Redirected Walking Christian T. Neth, Jan L. Souman, David Engel, Uwe Kloos, Heinrich H. B¨ulthoff and Betty J. Mohler Abstract--Redirected walking (RDW) techniques allow people to walk

170

RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority  

E-print Network

49 LHP: HULME RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE AUTHORITY 2 How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority Mike Hulme Introduction Numerical climate models have become central to the unfolding story of climate change. Climate models underpin the knowledge claims and risk assessments

Hulme, Mike

171

Microwave Optoelectronic Oscillator with Optical Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optoelectronic oscillators (OEO) are unique compared to radio-frequency (RF) oscillators in that they do not fundamentally require a RF gain element in order to satisfy the amplitude threshold condition for oscillation. All of the energy required for oscillation can be obtained from the optical carrier. This, however, was not initially possible, due to the inefficiency and power limitations on the

C. W. Nelson; A. Hati; D. A. Howe; W. Zhou

2007-01-01

172

Staggered Gain for 100+ GHz Broadband Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broadband amplifier is realized with cascaded stagger-tuned stages that are equalized for high bandwidth and low gain ripple. The staggered frequency response is demon- strated to improve the transimpedance limit of active circuits. The staggered response is demonstrated with a Darlington feed- back amplifier and a constructive wave amplifier, which achieves low group delay. The broadband amplifier is implemented

Joohwa Kim; James F. Buckwalter

2011-01-01

173

Gainful Employment: The Real Issue. Policy Memo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes a proposed piece of legislation or new rule can catalyze debate about a key issue. That seems to be the case for the "gainful employment" rule currently being proposed by the Department of Education (DOE). The rule addresses a very real problem: The large amounts of debt being taken on by some students, mainly those attending for-profit…

Mandel, Michael

2010-01-01

174

Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork  

E-print Network

, the KIVA version of the code was developed as a robust, predictive model of internal combustion engines and customer constraints. The DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies-sponsored Advanced Combustion Engine R- 1 - Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork April 3, 2012 Car companies come calling

175

THE KEYS TO GAINING A PRESTIGIOUS SCHOLARSHIP  

E-print Network

THE KEYS TO GAINING A PRESTIGIOUS SCHOLARSHIP START PREPARING EARLY While graduation seems like will be competitive for graduate schools, scholarships, and employers. There are important things that you can do right now to prepare for your future. Graduate schools, scholarship committees, and employers look

Hart, Gus

176

Management of Weight Gain Associated with Antipsychotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in untreated patients with severe mental illness mimicks the trends seen in the general population. Furthermore, weight gain is likely to occur with the addition of pharmacotherapy with an antipsychotic. The literature does indicate that despite fundamental cognitive and psychosocial deficits seen in patients with severe and persistent mental disorders such as schizophrenia and

Julie Birt

2003-01-01

177

Gain International Work Experience in China  

E-print Network

Gain International Work Experience in China www.StudyCLI.org "The CLI internship gave me a huge boost both personally and professionally. At 21 years old, I've lived in China and can speak basic city of Guilin, China. CLIinternsengageinadynamicrangeofprojects: Y Establishnewrelationshipswith

Virginia Tech

178

Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

179

Ding! Going Up? Elevators and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students create model elevator carriages and calibrate them, similar to the work of design and quality control engineers. Students use measurements from rotary encoders to recreate the task of calibrating elevators for a high-rise building. They translate the rotations from an encoder to correspond to the heights of different floors in a hypothetical multi-story building. Students also determine the accuracy of their model elevators in getting passengers to their correct destinations.

2014-09-18

180

Phase-preserved optical elevator  

PubMed Central

The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

2013-01-01

181

Bayesian inference for the information gain model.  

PubMed

One of the most popular paradigms to use for studying human reasoning involves the Wason card selection task. In this task, the participant is presented with four cards and a conditional rule (e.g., "If there is an A on one side of the card, there is always a 2 on the other side"). Participants are asked which cards should be turned to verify whether or not the rule holds. In this simple task, participants consistently provide answers that are incorrect according to formal logic. To account for these errors, several models have been proposed, one of the most prominent being the information gain model (Oaksford & Chater, Psychological Review, 101, 608-631, 1994). This model is based on the assumption that people independently select cards based on the expected information gain of turning a particular card. In this article, we present two estimation methods to fit the information gain model: a maximum likelihood procedure (programmed in R) and a bayesian procedure (programmed in WinBUGS). We compare the two procedures and illustrate the flexibility of the bayesian hierarchical procedure by applying it to data from a meta-analysis of the Wason task (Oaksford & Chater, Psychological Review, 101, 608-631, 1994). We also show that the goodness of fit of the information gain model can be assessed by inspecting the posterior predictives of the model. These bayesian procedures make it easy to apply the information gain model to empirical data. Supplemental materials may be downloaded along with this article from www.springerlink.com. PMID:21302022

Stringer, Sven; Borsboom, Denny; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

2011-06-01

182

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

2014-04-01

183

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair...

2011-04-01

184

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

2013-04-01

185

Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.  

PubMed

Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

2012-01-01

186

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

187

Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding  

PubMed Central

Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

2012-01-01

188

National requirements for improved elevation data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or submerged topography, built features, vegetation structure, and other landscape detail. Additional information about NEEA and its later use in the development of a 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) can be found at http://nationalmap.gov/3DEP/index.html.

Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

2014-01-01

189

Simple gain form of 1.5 µm multimode laser diode incorporating band filling and intrinsic gain saturation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gain form of a 1.5 µm multimode laser diode was derived by phenomenologically adding an intrinsic gain saturation term to the linearized gain form described in our previous report. Although the proposed gain form was simple, it almost perfectly matched the complex laser diode gain in a direct transition model implicitly incorporating both band filling and intrinsic gain saturation effects. Using laser diode rate equations including the proposed gain form, the characteristic power spectrum of a gain-switched pulse from a 1.5 µm multimode laser diode was successfully simulated.

Wada, Kenji; Matsuyama, Tetsuya; Horinaka, Hiromichi

2015-03-01

190

Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

191

Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

192

75 FR 60013 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEMA-B-1140] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at...Approximately 1,192 +1400 +1397 Township of...

2010-09-29

193

Mallard Use of Elevated Nesting Structures  

E-print Network

B 752 Mallard Use of Elevated Nesting Structures 15 Years of Management in Eastern South Dakota.F. Higgins. 2007. Mallard use of elevated nesting structures: 15 years of management in eastern South Dakota interest in Mickelson Memorial Marsh and volunteer help with nesting structures at that site. We thank

194

Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

195

Recent Trends in Elevator Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest elevator systems have structural differ- ences from traditional systems, such as the use of destination calls, or multiple cars in the same hoistway. This requires the development of new elevator group control systems, which is best done by adopting modern soft-computing methods. We review some of these systems and the results of research so far, and suggest further

Sandor Markon; Ken' ichi Aoki; Masami Nakagawa; Takeshi Sudo

196

Design of Modern Elevator Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide good transportation services for passengers in modern buildings, a good elevator group control system (EGCS) is inevitably necessary. The viewpoint of designing the EGCS is very important. The passenger-based viewpoint proposed provides a new way to think about this system. The capacity constraint following consideration for the passengers is utilized to make the performance better. Details of elevator

Tsung-che Chiang; Li-chen Fu

2002-01-01

197

DIVISION 14 -CONVEYING SYSTEMS 14200 ELEVATORS  

E-print Network

on reproducible mylar drawings indicating the control wiring, motor data, and all pertinent elevator PART III in the hallway or inside the elevator should be on the University master key system. An exception of casings. (See SK-16) Part IV - Standard Details. 7. Control System: PART III - DIVISION 14 PAGE 2 RUTGERS

198

A Space Elevator Based Exploration Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances and recent studies have laid the groundwork for eventual construction of a space elevator. Within 15 years an operational space elevator could be running from Earth to beyond geosynchronous. The basic mechanical operation allows for low operational cost ($250/kg), high capacity (>13tons, >5tons/day/elevator), a range of destinations (LEO, GEO, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, and Venus), and minimal launch forces. The low risk operation of the space elevator would allow large scale robotic and human exploration of the solar system. An operational elevator will immediately move primary interest from LEO to GEO for many activities and open commercial space activities such as solar power satellite arrays for beaming power to Earth. Robotic exploration to all destinations would be able to use larger, fixed structures, more massive platforms and be launched for a fraction of current costs. Human exploration could start at GEO for maintaining commercial assets, and enhanced Earth-observing systems and then step to Mars where a receiving elevator could also be established. This paper will cover the basics of a space elevator and a comprehensive strategy for human and exploratory use of space based on the space elevator.

Edwards, Bradley C.

2004-02-01

199

Elevated CO, Conckntration in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repression of photosynthetic genes by increased soluble carbo- hydrate concentrations may explain acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO, concentration. This hypothesis was examined in a field crop of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown at both ambient (approximately 360 pmol mol-') and elevated (550 pmol mol-') atmospheric CO, concentrations using free-air CO, enrich- ment at Maricopa, Arizona. The correspondence of

Guiying Nie; Donald L. Hendrix; Andrew N. Webber; Bruce A. Kimball; Stephen P. Long

200

High gain, multiatmosphere CO2 laser amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel TE discharge, 15-mm aperture, multiatmosphere, CO2 laser amplifier is described, with measured electrical characteristics and gain measurements on the 9.294-micron, 9R (16) line. The electrical circuit used in this amplifier is a realistic alternative to the Marx bank or conventional LC inversion circuit and, similarly, it would be useful for excitation of other gas lasers as well. This automatically preionized, double-sided, fourfold LC inversion circuit uses only one spark gap, and it is shown to provide small-signal gains of 5.7 percent/cm, at 120 J/l atm and 10 atm. The generalization to an n-stage device, which would be suitable for higher pressures, and larger apertures, is discussed.

Stuart, G. C.; Houtman, H.; Meyer, J.

1987-02-01

201

Galileo Mission Planning Low Gain Antenna Operations  

E-print Network

The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tools to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial ware ...

Jet Propulsion Laboratory; R. Gershman; K. L. Buxbaum; B. G. Paczkowski

202

Open quantum systems with loss and gain  

E-print Network

We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system. Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.

Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter

2014-09-09

203

Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains  

E-print Network

Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... procedures coupled with this experiment include an extensive assessment of obtainable literature and existing studies along with consultation from noted authorities in similar fields. In addition, a range of commercially available roof coatings...

Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

2006-01-01

204

Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

1974-01-01

205

The Comstar D/3 gain degradation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of gain degradation measurements using the Comstar D/3 19.04 GHz beacon are reported. This experiment utilized 0.6 and 5 m aperture antennas aligned along the same propagation path to examine propagation effects which are related to the antenna aperture size. Sample data for clear air, scintillation in clear air, and precipitation fading are presented. Distributions of the received signal levels and variances for both antennas are also presented.

Lee, T. C.; Hodge, D. B.

1981-01-01

206

Probability gains expected for renewal process models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We usually use the Brownian distribution, lognormal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution, and exponential distribution to calculate long-term probability for the distribution of time intervals between successive events. The values of two parameters of these distributions are determined by the maximum likelihood method. The difference in log likelihood between the proposed model and the stationary Poisson process model, which scores both the period of no events and instances of each event, is considered as the index for evaluating the effectiveness of the earthquake probability model. First, we show that the expected value of the log-likelihood difference becomes the expected value of the logarithm of the probability gain. Next, by converting the time unit into the expected value of the interval, the hazard is made to represent a probability gain. This conversion reduces the degrees of freedom of model parameters to 1. We then demonstrate that the expected value of the probability gain in observed parameter values ranges between 2 and 5. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term probability calculated before an earthquake may become several times larger than that of the Poisson process model.

Imoto, M.

2004-06-01

207

HF overtone performance and residual fundamental gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overtone performance of a supersonic CW HF laser was optimized by the same set of flow rates that optimized the fundamental performance. When the absorption/scattering losses of the mirrors were taken into account, an overtone efficiency of 75 to 90 percent was achieved. Overtone performance was twice as sensitive to cavity pressure as fundamental performance. There was no significant change in overtone power and efficiency as the mode volume (mirror radii of curvature) increased. However, there were an increase in the number of lasing lines and a shift to higher J lines. The overtone efficiency decreased as the mirror reflectivity decreased. The residual fundamental gains for lines P1(4-9) and P2(4-9) were measured while the laser was operating on the overtone lines P20(7-10). The low J (4-6) fundamental gains were suppressed 50 to 82 percent and the high J (7-9) fundamental gains were suppressed 15 to 42 percent. For both low and high J lines, the maximum suppression occurred near the center of the overtone beam.

Sentman, L. H.; Carroll, D. L.; Theodoropoulos, P. T.; Waldo, R. E.

1991-06-01

208

Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.  

PubMed

Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration. PMID:20134695

Degnan, J J; Klein, B J

1974-10-01

209

Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

2014-01-01

210

Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

2015-02-01

211

Neuronal Substrates for Choice Under Ambiguity, Risk, Gains, and Losses  

E-print Network

Paradigm for Choice Processing Under Ambiguity, Risk, Gains, and Losses A B Risk/Gains Ambiguity/Gains (RGNeuronal Substrates for Choice Under Ambiguity, Risk, Gains, and Losses Kip Smith · John Dickhaut@csom.umn.edu · kmccabe@gmu.edu · pardo001@umn.edu Economic forces shape the behavior of individuals and institutions

Dukas, Reuven

212

IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

2012-01-01

213

Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD ?3.38 kg CI ?4.2 to ?2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD ? 1.16 kg CI ?1.9 to ?0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD ?1.69 kg CI ?2.8 to ?0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions. However, interpretation is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size, short study duration and by variability of the interventions themselves, their intensity and duration. Future studies adequately powered, with longer treatment duration and rigorous methodology will be needed in further evaluating the efficacy and safety of weight loss interventions for moderating weight gain. At this stage, there is insufficient evidence to support the general use of pharmacological interventions for weight management in people with schizophrenia. PMID:17253540

Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

2014-01-01

214

Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; York, Robbie Lynn [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2012-03-01

215

Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

2007-01-01

216

Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate  

PubMed Central

Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

2014-01-01

217

Antenna Gain Enhancement and Beamshaping using a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) Lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric and metamaterial lenses have been designed for gain enhancement and beam shaping. The motivation for this work came from a commercially available slotted waveguide antenna with a dielectric lens that shapes the beam and enhances the gain only in the azimuth plane. When two of these antennas, each with a dielectric lens, are stacked as an array to form the sum and difference patterns the elevation plane gain is low and the beam width too wide to be acceptable for radar applications. The objective of the present work is to design a diffractive optical element (DOE) lens for gain enhancement gain and beam shaping. As compared to other available lenses it is much thinner, lighter and easily machined. The DOE lens is made from rexolite which has a dielectric constant of 2.53. The DOE lens is composed of a series of zones which focus the light at a certain focal length. The phase is the same everywhere on each zone at the focal point. The phase difference between neighboring zones is 2pi, resulting in a constructive interference at the focus. These zones are able to focus the radiation from an antenna in order to enhance the gain and shape the beam. The design parameters include the lens diameter, number of zones, the center zone thickness for a particular frequency and refractive index of the dielectric material. A comprehensive study has been performed in CST Microwave Studio to illustrate the properties of the DOE lens. The focusing property for image formation is verified by a plane wave excitation. Lenses have been designed and tested at different frequencies and with varying design parameters. Gain enhancement and beam shaping are illustrated by modeling the DOE lens in CST and placing it in front of different antennas. This work presents lenses for 10GHz and 40GHz horn antennas, a 3GHz slotted waveguide antenna array, and a 10GHz microstrip patch arrays. Beam shaping and focusing is clearly illustrated for each type of antenna. It is seen that the size of the lens is directly proportional to gain increase which can be as high 20dB enhancement for a 40-GHz horn antenna. The 3GHz DOE lens illustrates for the slotted waveguide array, a gain enhancement of 7dB in the elevation plane, as well as decrease of the 3dB beamwidth from 20° to 13.5°. It is also proved that the DOE lens allows for the creation of a good difference pattern. Experimental validation for the focusing properties and the gain enhancement has been done using the 10GHz DOE, made from rexolite, and fabricated using CNC milling in the RIT Brinkman Lab. The image formation has been verified using an electric field probing station in the Nanoplasmonic lab at RIT. Two types of excitation have been done with a dipole and with a horn antenna, where another dipole probes the field in the transmission plane. The electric field intensity shows clearly the beam focusing by the DOE lens. The X-band anechoic chamber in the Electromagnetics Theory and Application (ETA) lab has been used to demonstrate the gain enhancement of a horn antenna with the fabricated DOE lens. The distance of the lens from the receive antenna has been varied to obtain a maximum received power. The results show a substantial gain enhancement of 6.6 dB for the horn antenna and of 5.6 dB for the patch array.

Torbitt, Christopher

218

Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients. PMID:23050155

Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Siglin, Joshua; Jin, Lianjin; Simone, Nicole L.

2012-01-01

219

Rapid Postnatal Weight Gain and Visceral Adiposity in Adulthood: The Fels Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Rapid infant weight gain is associated with increased abdominal adiposity, but there is no published report of the relationship of early infant growth to differences in specific adipose tissue depots in the abdomen, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In this study, we tested the associations of birth weight, infant weight gain, and other early life traits with VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and other body composition measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in middle adulthood (mean age = 46.5 years). The sample included 233 appropriate for gestational age singleton white children (114 males) enrolled in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Multivariate-adjusted general linear models were used to test the association of infant weight gain (from 0 to 2 years), maternal BMI, gestational age, parity, maternal age, and other covariates with adulthood body composition. Compared to infants with slow weight gain, rapid weight gain was associated with elevated risk of obesity (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 11.1), higher total body fat (+7 kg, P = 0.0002), percent body fat (+5%, P = 0.0006), logVAT mass (+0.43 kg, P = 0.02), logASAT mass (+0.47 kg, P = 0.001), and percent abdominal fat (+5%, P = 0.03). There was no evidence that the increased abdominal adipose tissue was due to a preferential deposition of VAT. In conclusion, rapid infant weight gain is associated with increases in both VAT and ASAT, as well as total adiposity and the risk of obesity in middle adulthood. PMID:19373221

Demerath, Ellen W.; Reed, Derek; Choh, Audrey C.; Soloway, Laura; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, William C.; Siervogel, Rogers M.; Towne, Bradford

2009-01-01

220

Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain  

DOEpatents

An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

Iwanczyk, Jan (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2003-04-01

221

Gain sideband splitting in dispersion oscillating fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the modulation instability spectrum in a varying dispersion optical fiber as a function of the dispersion oscillation amplitude. For large dispersion oscillations, we predict a novel sideband splitting into different sub-sidebands. The emergence of the new sidebands is observed whenever the classical perturbation analysis for parametric resonances predicts vanishing sideband amplitudes. The numerical results are in good quantitative agreement with Floquet or Bloch stability analysis of four-wave mixing in the periodic dispersion fiber. We have also shown that linear gain or loss may have a dramatic influence in reshaping the new sidebands.

Finot, Christophe; Feng, Fang; Chembo, Yanne; Wabnitz, Stefan

2014-10-01

222

Neuronal Plasticity: Increasing the Gain in Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe those sensations that are unpleasant, intense, or distressing as painful. Pain is not homogeneous, however, and comprises three categories: physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Multiple mechanisms contribute, each of which is subject to or an expression of neural plasticity-the capacity of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, or structure. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain, identifying distinct forms of plasticity, which we term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity.

Woolf, Clifford J.; Salter, Michael W.

2000-06-01

223

Biological Determinants Linking Infant Weight Gain and Child Obesity: Current Knowledge and Future Directions12  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence. PMID:22983846

Young, Bridget E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Krebs, Nancy F.

2012-01-01

224

DSN 70-meter antenna X- and S-band calibration. Part 1: Gain measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aperture efficiency measurements made during 1988 on the three 70-m stations (DSS-14, DSS-43, and DSS-63) at X-band (8420 MHz) and S-band (2295 MHz) have been analyzed and reduced to yield best estimates of antenna gain versus elevation. The analysis has been carried out by fitting the gain data to a theoretical expression based on the Ruze formula. Newly derived flux density and source-size correction factors for the natural radio calibration sources used in the measurements have been used in the reduction of the data. Peak gains measured at the three stations were 74.18 (plus or minus 0.10) dBi at X-band, and 63.34 (plus or minus 0.03) dBi at S-band, with corresponding peak aperture efficiencies of 0.687 (plus or minus 0.015) and 0.762 (plus or minus 0.006), respectively. The values quoted assume no atmosphere is present, and the estimated absolute accuracy of the gain measurements is approximately plus or minus 0.2 dB at X-band and plus or minus 0.1 dB at S-band (1-sigma values).

Richter, P. H.; Slobin, S. D.

1989-01-01

225

77 FR 50668 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...elevations, and communities affected for Smith County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas...44 CFR 67.4. The table, entitled ``Smith County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas...Smith County, Texas, and Incorporated...

2012-08-22

226

D-Dimer elevation and adverse outcomes.  

PubMed

D-Dimer is a biomarker of fibrin formation and degradation. While a D-dimer within normal limits is used to rule out the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among patients with a low clinical probability of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the prognostic association of an elevated D-dimer with adverse outcomes has received far less emphasis. An elevated D-dimer is independently associated with an increased risk for incident VTE, recurrent VTE, and mortality. An elevated D-dimer is an independent correlate of increased mortality and subsequent VTE across a broad variety of disease states. Therefore, medically ill subjects in whom the D-dimer is elevated constitute a high risk subgroup in which the prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic therapy is warranted. PMID:25006010

Halaby, Rim; Popma, Christopher J; Cohen, Ander; Chi, Gerald; Zacarkim, Marcelo Rodrigues; Romero, Gonzalo; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Hernandez, Adrian; Mentz, Robert; Harrington, Robert; Lip, Gregory; Peacock, Frank; Welker, James; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Gibson, C Michael

2015-01-01

227

76 FR 272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations are...Administrative practice and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting and recordkeeping...available for inspection at 1400 U.S. Route 180 East, Silver...Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated:...

2011-01-04

228

75 FR 52868 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Tributary and Highway 190. Bayou Joe Marcel Tributary 1.. At Alton Locks Street...Road......... +67 Bayou Joe Marcel Tributary 2.. Approximately 522 feet...Base Flood Elevations extend to Bayou Joe Marcel Tributary 3). At Ortego Street...

2010-08-30

229

Atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests  

SciTech Connect

Three important phenomena characterize atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests: (1) multiple deposition mechanisms (wet, dry, and cloud deposition), (2) high rates of deposition, and (3) high spatial variability. The high rates of deposition are caused by changes in meteorological conditions with elevation, especially increasing wind speed and cloud immersion frequency. The high spatial variability of deposition is a result of the regulation of cloud and dry deposition rates by microclimatic and canopy structure conditions, which can be extremely heterogeneous in mountain landscapes. Spruce-fir forests are often [open quotes]hot spots[close quotes] of deposition when viewed in a landscape or regional context because of their elevation, exposure, and evergreen canopy. In this talk we will consider atmospheric depositions to high-elevation forests in both the northeastern and southeastern U.S., using field data and geographic information systems to illustrate deposition patterns.

Lovett, G.M.; Weathers, K.C.; Lindberg, S.E. (Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-06-01

230

3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

Carswell, William J., Jr.

2015-01-01

231

3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

Carswell, William J., Jr.

2015-01-01

232

Combining earthquake forecasts using differential probability gains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an iterative method to combine seismicity forecasts. With this method, we produce the next generation of a starting forecast by incorporating predictive skill from one or more input forecasts. For a single iteration, we use the differential probability gain of an input forecast relative to the starting forecast. At each point in space and time, the rate in the next-generation forecast is the product of the starting rate and the local differential probability gain. The main advantage of this method is that it can produce high forecast rates using all types of numerical forecast models, even those that are not rate-based. Naturally, a limitation of this method is that the input forecast must have some information not already contained in the starting forecast. We illustrate this method using the Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale (EEPAS) and Early Aftershocks Statistics (EAST) models, which are currently being evaluated at the US testing center of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability. During a testing period from July 2009 to December 2011 (with 19 target earthquakes), the combined model we produce has better predictive performance - in terms of Molchan diagrams and likelihood - than the starting model (EEPAS) and the input model (EAST). Many of the target earthquakes occur in regions where the combined model has high forecast rates. Most importantly, the rates in these regions are substantially higher than if we had simply averaged the models.

Shebalin, Peter N.; Narteau, Clément; Zechar, Jeremy Douglas; Holschneider, Matthias

2014-12-01

233

Economic Gains from Trade Liberalization: NAFTA's Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The October 1997 Chicago Fed Letter issue, "Economic Gains from Trade Liberalization - NAFTA's impact" by Michael A. Kouparitsas, (available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) evaluates the gains from NAFTA. Recently, the debate over free trade has intensified in light of the failure of President Clinton to obtain fast-track authority from Congress. On September 17, 1997, President Clinton went against the liberals in his own party to request fast-track authority from Congress to negotiate new trade accords. The Senate approved the President's request for fast track on November 5, 1997 but the vote in the House was shelved when it appeared likely that fast-track would be defeated. The opponents of free-trade consist mainly of trade unions who are worried about the loss of jobs to countries with cheap labor, and environmentalists concerned about the effect of free trade on environmental standards. The supporters of free-trade are mainly businesses who see business potential in the larger market that would be created by expanding free trade.

Kouparitsas, Michael A.

1997-01-01

234

Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals  

PubMed Central

Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5??m). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

Sirleto, Luigi; Antonietta Ferrara, Maria; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

2012-01-01

235

Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation  

PubMed

Einstein's theory of special relativity and the principle of causality imply that the speed of any moving object cannot exceed that of light in a vacuum (c). Nevertheless, there exist various proposals for observing faster-than-c propagation of light pulses, using anomalous dispersion near an absorption line, nonlinear and linear gain lines, or tunnelling barriers. However, in all previous experimental demonstrations, the light pulses experienced either very large absorption or severe reshaping, resulting in controversies over the interpretation. Here we use gain-assisted linear anomalous dispersion to demonstrate superluminal light propagation in atomic caesium gas. The group velocity of a laser pulse in this region exceeds c and can even become negative, while the shape of the pulse is preserved. We measure a group-velocity index of n(g) = -310(+/- 5); in practice, this means that a light pulse propagating through the atomic vapour cell appears at the exit side so much earlier than if it had propagated the same distance in a vacuum that the peak of the pulse appears to leave the cell before entering it. The observed superluminal light pulse propagation is not at odds with causality, being a direct consequence of classical interference between its different frequency components in an anomalous dispersion region. PMID:10917523

Wang; Kuzmich; Dogariu

2000-07-20

236

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using surveys and topographic maps, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has determined distances between points and elevations of features, and put them into a data format at this website. Elevations of the 50 largest cities, highest and lowest points in each state, summits over 14,000 feet, summits east of the Rocky Mountains, geographic centers of each state, length of US boundaries, and extreme distances are covered at this site.

237

Do we intervene inappropriately for ST elevation?  

PubMed Central

ST elevation on a 12 lead ECG is one of the cardinal features of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet it also occurs with other clinical conditions such as spontaneous pneumothorax. Three cases are presented, all of whom had chest pain and ST elevation. All had pneumothoraces yet only one had an AMI. Thrombolysis was administered to one patient. With the current pressure on "door?to?needle" times, emergency physicians should take care to differentiate between these entities. PMID:16439724

Sanders, A; Froude, A; Probst, F

2006-01-01

238

HYDRO 1K Elevation Derivative Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Resources Observation Systems' Data Center at the US Geological Survey developed this database from the 30 arc-second digital elevation model of the world. The database contains six raster data sets in tar file format: elevation data, shaded relief, slope, aspect, flow direction, and flow accumulation; and two vector data sets in tar or gzipped ARC/INFO Export file formats: drainage basins and streams.

239

Design and implementation of the CAN based elevator control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a design and implementation of a modern elevator control system. The conventional elevator control system has several disadvantages (complicated circuits, a large number of wires, sensitivity to noise, low level security, etc). An alternative to conventional elevator control systems is a distributed elevator control system. This paper describes a network-based elevator control system via controller

Senad Huseinbegovic; Sead Kreso; Omer Tanovic

2009-01-01

240

Energy considerations in the partial space elevator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

2014-06-01

241

Unconventional modes in lasers with spatially varying gain and loss  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a class of lasing modes created by a spatially inhomogeneous gain profile. These lasing modes are ''extra modes,'' in addition to, and very different from, conventional lasing modes, which arise from the passive cavity resonances. These new modes do not have high intensity across the entire gain region, but instead are localized at the gain boundary and throughout the gain-free region. They are surface modes, originating from the transmission resonances of the gain-free region. Using an S-matrix description we connect these surface modes to the lasing modes in PT-symmetric (balanced gain-loss) cavities.

Ge Li; Tuereci, H. E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Chong, Y. D.; Stone, A. D. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rotter, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

2011-08-15

242

Orographic versus non-orographic precipitation isotopic elevation gradients: Implications for paleoaltimetry of continental plateaus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The link between topography and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in orographic settings is well established, despite a modest amount of global variation. Where moisture is derived primarily from a single source and experiences simple orographic ascent (e.g. the Andes, Himalaya or Sierra Nevada), regional ?18O (or ?D)-elevation gradients are well modeled by Rayleigh distillation, and precipitation becomes isotopically lighter with elevation gain (the “altitude effect”; ~ -2.8 ‰/km for ?18O or ~ -23 ‰/km for ?D). Temporal changes in the isotopic composition of paleoprecipitation at a specific location, as recorded in geologic proxies, can be used to infer changes in paleoelevation, given that a relationship between elevation and the isotopic composition of precipitation can be assumed. However, the applicability of this relationship, empirically observed in orographic settings, to continental plateaus has recently been questioned. Over the northern Tibetan Plateau, in particular, the change in isotopic composition per unit elevation appears to be half or less that observed across orographic barriers. If reduced isotopic elevation gradients are common over continental plateaus, then determination of paleoelevations of these regions may be significantly overestimated by applying a gradient typical of an orographic setting. Here we present isotopic compositions of small-catchment-area springs and streams in mountain ranges characterized by significant topographic relief (> 1500 m) and high elevation gradients across a latitudinal transect at ~36°N in the southwestern US. The results reveal distinct ?18O-elevation gradients for each mountain range that correlate with relative position east of the major regional orographic barrier, the southern Sierra Nevada (maximum elevations > 2500 m). Samples collected from two transects on the western (windward) slope of the Sierra Nevada yield isotopic elevation gradients typical of an orographic setting (-2.1‰/km and -2.8‰/km for the Tule River and Kern River, respectively). Samples collected from two ranges on the leeward side of the Sierra Nevada show progressively decreasing isotopic elevation gradients with distance from the Sierra Nevada (-1 ‰/km in the Panamint Mountains, ~100 km east of the Sierra Nevada, and -0.5 ‰/km in the Spring Mountains, ~225 km east of the Sierra Nevada). ?D vs. ?18O analyses in both the windward and leeward regions indicate the importance of moisture recycling and evaporative influence (both depositional and post-depositional) on the leeward side of the orographic barrier, processes which violate the assumptions underlying simple Rayleigh distillation. Surprisingly, however, the results do not reveal a systematic increase in these effects with distance from the orographic barrier. The observed progressive decrease in isotopic-elevation gradients provides new insights into constraints on the interpretation of paleoelevations from isotopic proxies.

Lechler, A. R.; Niemi, N. A.

2009-12-01

243

Characterization of ultrasound elevation beamwidth artifacts for prostate brachytherapy needle insertion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Ultrasound elevation beamwidth leads to image artifacts and uncertainties in localizing objects (such as a surgical needle) in ultrasound images. The authors examined the clinical significance of errors caused by elevation beamwidth artifacts and imaging parameters in needle insertion procedures. Methods: Beveled prostate brachytherapy needles were inserted through all holes of a grid template under real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The needle tip position as indicated by the TRUS image was compared to their observed physical location. A new device was developed to measure the ultrasound elevation beamwidth. Results: Imaging parameters of the TRUS scanner have direct impact on the localization error ranging from 0.5 up to 4 mm. The smallest localization error was observed laterally close to the center of the grid template and axially within the beam's focal zone. Largest localization error occurs laterally around both sides of the grid template and axially within the beam's far field. The authors also found that the localization errors vary with both lateral and elevation offsets. Conclusions: The authors found properly adjusting the TRUS imaging settings to lower the ultrasound gain and power effectively minimized the appearance of elevation beamwidth artifacts and in turn reduced the localization errors of the needle tip.

Peikari, Mohammad; Chen, Thomas Kuriran; Lasso, Anras; Heffter, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Burdette, Everette C. [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery (Perk), School of Computing, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Acoustic MedSystems, 208 Burwash Avenue, Savoy, Illinois 61874 (United States)

2012-01-15

244

Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2008-01-01

245

Energy gain induced by boundary crisis.  

PubMed

We consider a nonlinear system and show the unexpected and surprising result that, even for high dissipation, the mean energy of a particle can attain higher values than when there is no dissipation in the system. We reconsider the time-dependent annular billiard in the presence of inelastic collisions with the boundaries. For some magnitudes of dissipation, we observe the phenomenon of boundary crisis, which drives the particles to an asymptotic attractive fixed point located at a value of energy that is higher than the mean energy of the nondissipative case and so much higher than the mean energy just before the crisis. We should emphasize that the unexpected results presented here reveal the importance of a nonlinear dynamics analysis to explain the paradoxical strategy of introducing dissipation in the system in order to gain energy. PMID:22060472

Abud, C Vieira; de Carvalho, R Egydio

2011-09-01

246

Photocurrent relaxations and gain in semiconductor nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the transient and steady-state photoconductivity of semiconductor nanowires by putting forward the importance of surface recombination in the photocurrent formation. The phenomenological model based on existence of radius and time dependent surface band bending is able to explain both the dark conductivity and dynamics of photoconductivity transients in semiconductor nanowires. The dependence of the variation of surface recombination barrier height on the carrier capture by surface states leads to a non- exponential character of photoconductivity kinetics. Analytic equations are derived to calculate current-voltage and lux-ampere characteristics, photocurrent relaxation and gain under the excitation of light pulses. The analytical results are compared with the experimental data.

Petrosyan, Stepan; Yesayan, Ashkhen; Nersesyan, Suren

2014-12-01

247

Effects of prescribed burning on marsh-elevation change and the risk of wetland loss  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marsh-elevation change is the net effect of biophysical processes controlling inputs versus losses of soil volume. In many marshes, accumulation of organic matter is an important contributor to soil volume and vertical land building. In this study, we examined how prescribed burning, a common marsh-management practice, may affect elevation dynamics in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, Texas by altering organic-matter accumulation. Experimental plots were established in a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens, a grass found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic marshes. Experimental plots were subjected to burning and nutrient-addition treatments and monitored for 3.5 years (April 2005 – November 2008). Half of the plots were burned once in 2006; half of the plots were fertilized seasonally with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Before and after the burns, seasonal measurements were made of soil physicochemistry, vegetation structure, standing and fallen plant biomass, aboveground and belowground production, decomposition, and accretion and elevation change (measured with Surface Elevation Tables (SET)). Movements in different soil strata (surface, root zone, subroot zone) were evaluated to identify which processes were contributing to elevation change. Because several hurricanes occurred during the study period, we also assessed how these storms affected elevation change rates. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1. The main drivers of elevation change were accretion on the marsh surface and subsurface movement below the root zone, but the relative influence of these processes varied temporally. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike (September 2008), the main driver was subsurface movement; after the hurricane, both accretion and subsurface movement were important. 2. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike, rates of elevation gain and accretion above a marker horizon were higher in burned plots compared to nonburned plots, whereas nutrient addition had no detectable influence on elevation dynamics. 3. Burning decreased standing and fallen plant litter, reducing fuel load. Hurricanes Gustav and Ike also removed fallen litter from all plots. 4. Aboveground and belowground production rates varied annually but were unaffected by burning and nutrient treatments. 5. Decomposition (of a standard cellulose material) in upper soil layers was increased in burned plots but was unaffected by nutrient treatments. 6. Soil physicochemistry was unaffected by burning or nutrient treatments. 7. The elevation deficit (difference between rate of submergence and vertical land development) prior to hurricanes was less in burned plots (6.2 millimeters per year [mm yr-1]) compared to nonburned plots (7.2 mm yr-1). 8. Storm sediments delivered by Hurricane Ike raised elevations an average of 7.4 centimeters (cm), which countered an elevation deficit that had accrued over 11 years. Our findings provide preliminary insights into elevation dynamics occurring in brackish marshes of the Texas Chenier Plain under prescribed fire management. The results of this study indicate that prescribed burning conducted at 3- to 5-year intervals is not likely to negatively impact the long-term sustainability of S. patens-dominated brackish marshes at McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge and may offset existing elevation deficits by ? 1 mm yr-1. The primary drivers of elevation change varied in time and space, leading to a more complex situation in terms of predicting how disturbances may alter elevation trajectories. The potential effect of burning on elevation change in other marshes will depend on several site-specific factors, including geomorphic/ sedimentary setting, tide range, local rate of relative sea level rise, plant species composition, additional management practices (for example, for flood control), and disturbance types and frequency (for example, hurricanes or herbivore grazing). Increasing the scope of inference would require installation of SETs in replicate marshes undergoing different prescribed fire intervals

McKee, Karen L.; Grace, James B.

2012-01-01

248

Management of Antipsychotic-Related Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Despite variations across individuals and agents, antipsychotics are associated with clearly documented weight gain and adverse metabolic effects. Although increased appetite/caloric intake and various receptors, hormones and peptides have been implicated, biological mechanisms contributing to the increase in weight and glucose and lipid abnormalities with antipsychotics are largely unknown. This has hampered the creation of antipsychotics that are free of cardiometabolic effects, even in antipsychotic-naïve/early-phase patients, as well as the development of strategies that can prevent or drastically diminish the adverse cardiometabolic effects. In general, three strategies can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of antipsychotics: 1) switching to a less orexigenenic/metabolically adverse antipsychotic, 2) adjunctive behavioral treatments and 3) adjunctive pharmacologic interventions. However each of these strategies has only been modestly effective. Among different behavioral interventions (N=14, n=746), group and individual treatment, dietary counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy seem to be similarly effective. Among 15 different pharmacologic strategies (N=35 , n=1,629), only metformin, fenfluramine, sibutramine, topiramate and reboxetine were more effective than placebo, with the most evidence being available for metformin, yet without any head-to-head trials comparing individual pharmacologic interventions. Even in the most successful trials, however, the risk reduction was modest. Weight was not decreased to a pre-treatment level, and despite superiority compared to placebo, weight gain still often occurred, particularly in antipsychotic-naïve patients and when interventions were “preventively” co-initiated with antipsychotics. Future research should focus on combining treatment modalities or agents and on exploring novel mechanism-based interventions. PMID:20586697

Maayan, Lawrence; Correll, Christoph U.

2012-01-01

249

14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155...Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the positive limit...

2010-01-01

250

49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

2012-10-01

251

49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

2011-10-01

252

49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

2010-10-01

253

49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

2014-10-01

254

49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

2013-10-01

255

30 CFR 56.19038 - Platforms around elevated head sheaves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Platforms around elevated head sheaves. 56.19038 Section 56.19038...56.19038 Platforms around elevated head sheaves. Platforms with toeboards and handrails shall be provided around elevated head sheaves....

2010-07-01

256

30 CFR 57.19038 - Platforms around elevated head sheaves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Platforms around elevated head sheaves. 57.19038 Section 57.19038...57.19038 Platforms around elevated head sheaves. Platforms with toeboards and handrails shall be provided around elevated head sheaves....

2010-07-01

257

Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Overview of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) . . . . . . 1.2.1 Development History of Elevator Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Control Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Analysis of Energy Consumption of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) based

Fernandez, Thomas

258

Elevational Distribution and Extinction Risk in Birds  

PubMed Central

Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures – notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint) on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth) were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species’ current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data. PMID:25849620

White, Rachel L.; Bennett, Peter M.

2015-01-01

259

20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means...

2014-04-01

260

20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 416.910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means...

2012-04-01

261

24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to...

2013-04-01

262

24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to...

2014-04-01

263

24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to...

2012-04-01

264

Quantifying the mechanisms of domain gain in animal proteins  

E-print Network

innovation. However, the relative contributions of the different molecular mechanisms that underlie domain gains in animals are still unknown. By using animal gene phylogenies we were able to identify a set of high confidence domain gain events and by looking...

Buljan, Marija; Frankish, Adam; Bateman, Alex

2010-07-15

265

Effects of internal gain assumptions in building energy calculations  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of direct solar gains in buildings can be affected by operating profiles, such as schedules for internal gains, thermostat controls, and ventilation rates. Building energy analysis methods use various assumptions about these profiles. The effects of typical internal gain assumptions in energy calculations are described. Heating and cooling loads from simulations using the DOE 2.1 computer code are compared for various internal-gain inputs: typical hourly profiles, constant average profiles, and zero gain profiles. Prototype single-family-detached and multi-family-attached residential units are studied with various levels of insulation and infiltration. Small detached commercial buildings and attached zones in large commercial buildings are studied with various levels of internal gains. The results of this study indicate that calculations of annual heating and cooling loads are sensitive to internal gains, but in most cases are relatively insensitive to hourly variations in internal gains.

Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.

1981-01-01

266

Genotype-specific response of a lycaenid herbivore to elevated carbon dioxide and phosphorus availability in calcareous grassland.  

PubMed

Effects of elevated CO2 and P availability on plant growth of the legume Lotus corniculatus and consequences for the butterfly larvae of Polyommatus icarus feeding on L. corniculatus were investigated in screen-aided CO2 control chambers under natural conditions on a calcareous grassland in the Swiss Jura mountains. Elevated CO2 conditions and P fertilisation increased the biomass production of L. corniculatus plants and affected the plant chemical composition. CO2 enrichment increased the C/N ratio and sugar concentration and decreased the N and P concentrations. C- and N-based allelochemicals (cyanoglycosides, total polyphenols and condensed tannins) were only marginally affected by CO2 enrichment. P fertilisation increased the specific leaf area and concentrations of water, N, sugar and P, while the C/N ratio and the concentration of total polyphenols decreased. Furthermore, P availability marginally enhanced the effect of elevated CO2 on the total dry mass and sugar concentration while the opposite occurred for the total polyphenol concentration. The changes in food-plant chemistry as a result of P fertilisation positively affected larval mass gain and accelerated the development time of P. icarus. Only a marginal negative effect on larval mass gain was found for CO2 enrichment. However, we found genotype-specific responses in the development time of P. icarus to elevated CO2 conditions. Larvae originating from different mothers developed better either under elevated CO2 or under ambient CO2 but some did not react to CO2 elevation. As far as we know this is the first finding of a genotype-specific response of an insect herbivore to elevated CO2 which suggests genetic shifts in insect life history traits in response to elevated CO2. PMID:14986095

Goverde, Marcel; Erhardt, Andreas; Stöcklin, Jürg

2004-05-01

267

Gain anisotropy in low-pressure chemical lasers  

SciTech Connect

The gain coefficient in a low-pressure chemical laser during lasing differs when viewed along the optical resonator axis and when viewed normal to the axis. Expressions for axial and normal gain coefficients are deduced. The ratio of normal-to-axial gain coefficient is evaluated for a saturated multimode chemical laser employing a Fabry-Perot resonator. The results are useful for correlating numerical code calculations with experimental power on gain measurements made normal to the optical axis.

Mirels, H.

1983-05-01

268

Evaluation of Experimental Data from the Gains Balloon GPS Surface Reflection Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GPS Surface Reflection Instrument was integrated as an experiment on the GAINS (Global Airocean IN-situ System) 48-hour balloon mission flown in June 2002. The data collected by similar instruments in the past has been used to measure sea state from which ocean surface winds can be accurately estimated. The GPS signal has also been shown to be reflected from wetland areas and even from subsurface moisture. The current version of the instrument has been redesigned to be more compact, use less power, and withstand a greater variation in environmental conditions than previous versions. This instrument has also incorporated a new data collection mode to track 5 direct satellites (providing a continuous navigation solution) and multiplex the remaining 7 channels to track the reflected signal of the satellite tracked in channel 0. The new software mode has been shown to increase the signal to noise ratio of the collected data and enhance the science return of the instrument. During the GAINS balloon flight over the Northwest US, the instrument measured surface reflections as they were detected over the balloon's ground track. Since ground surface elevations in this area vary widely from the WGS-84 ellipsoid altitude, the instrument software has been modified to incorporate a surface altitude correction based on USGS 30-minute Digital Elevation Models. Information presented will include facts about instrument design goals, data collection methodologies and algorithms, and will focus on results of the science data analyses for the mission.

Ganoe, George G.; Johnson, Thomas A.; Somero, John Ryan

2002-01-01

269

Accepted Manuscript Title: Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow  

E-print Network

Accepted Manuscript Title: Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through. Turhan, T.A. Zawodzinski, M.M. Mench, Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through Modified Cell Architecture D. S. Aaron1 , Q. Liu1 , Z

Mench, Matthew M.

270

24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to calculate...specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this...

2011-04-01

271

24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to calculate...specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this...

2010-04-01

272

26 CFR 1.1014-5 - Gain or loss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...interests. In determining gain or loss from the sale or other disposition...section 1001(e), W realizes no loss; her gain is $370,000, the... Example 3. Unimproved land having a fair market value...section 1001(e). A realizes no loss; his gain is $12,500,...

2012-04-01

273

26 CFR 1.1014-5 - Gain or loss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...interests. In determining gain or loss from the sale or other disposition...section 1001(e), W realizes no loss; her gain is $370,000, the... Example 3. Unimproved land having a fair market value...section 1001(e). A realizes no loss; his gain is $12,500,...

2011-04-01

274

26 CFR 1.1014-5 - Gain or loss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...interests. In determining gain or loss from the sale or other disposition...section 1001(e), W realizes no loss; her gain is $370,000, the... Example 3. Unimproved land having a fair market value...section 1001(e). A realizes no loss; his gain is $12,500,...

2014-04-01

275

26 CFR 1.1014-5 - Gain or loss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interests. In determining gain or loss from the sale or other disposition...section 1001(e), W realizes no loss; her gain is $370,000, the... Example 3. Unimproved land having a fair market value...section 1001(e). A realizes no loss; his gain is $12,500,...

2010-04-01

276

26 CFR 1.1014-5 - Gain or loss.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...interests. In determining gain or loss from the sale or other disposition...section 1001(e), W realizes no loss; her gain is $370,000, the... Example 3. Unimproved land having a fair market value...section 1001(e). A realizes no loss; his gain is $12,500,...

2013-04-01

277

Collective Bargaining and Multiple Control Gains in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a study of the use of "control gains" in collective bargaining contracts of teacher unions in Ohio. Control gains are contract items that give unions control over some aspect of the work environment in lieu of financial gains. They can be offered in contract negotiations when school boards have limited funds. (MD)

Crisci, Pat E.; Giancola, Joseph M.

1986-01-01

278

New Gain Programmable Current Mirrors Based on Current Steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compact scheme for implementation of linear gain programmable current mirrors with wide range continuously adjustable gain is introduced. It is based on a balanced configuration of differential pairs used as current steering elements. All mirror transistors operate in saturated mode and in strong inversion. Applications of the mirrors for implementation of a linear OTA\\/multiplier with wide range gain

Jaime Ramirez-Angulo; S. R. S. Garimella; A. Lopez-Martin; R. G. Carvajal

2006-01-01

279

Investigation of oxygen gain in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) faces an efficiency loss, so called “oxygen gain”, when the cathode gas is changed from oxygen to air due to the reduced oxygen partial pressure. To reduce the oxygen gain of a PEMFC, performance and oxygen gain of the single cells were evaluated as a function of carbon support, Pt content in the

M. Prasanna; H. Y. Ha; E. A. Cho; S.-A. Hong; I.-H. Oh

2004-01-01

280

Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Species Gains and Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems worldwide are losing some species and gaining others, resulting in an interchange of species that is having profound impacts on how these ecosystems function. However, research on the effects of species gains and losses has developed largely independently of one another. Recent conceptual advances regarding effects of species gain have arisen from studies that have unraveled the mechanistic basis

David A. Wardle; Richard D. Bardgett; Ragan M. Callaway; Wim H. Van der Putten

2011-01-01

281

Absolute gain measurement of microstrip antennas under mismatched conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gain of a single microstrip patch and a two-layer parasitic array is measured using the image method under mismatched conditions. This method produces accurate results, even in the case of low-gain microstrip antennas. The advantages of this method over the gain comparison technique are discussed.

Lee, R. Q.; Baddour, M. F.

1988-01-01

282

Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement, (b) gains in…

Flynn, James R.

2010-01-01

283

Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

2000-01-01

284

Mapping Surface Elevation and Elevation Change of the (Greenland) Ice Sheet  

E-print Network

;Overview · Why do we need ice elevation data? · Greenland Ice sheet Mapping Project (GIMP) DEM · Elevation-Resolution DEM · Existing Available DEM's ­ Bamber et al. (2000), ~1 km resolution. ­ SRTM, No data north of 60 resolution, big errors at coasts ­ GDEM, big errors over ice sheets, masking issues · Higher Resolution

Berthier, Etienne

285

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

2005-01-01

286

Application of spring tabs to elevator controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

Phillips, William H

1944-01-01

287

Forest succession at elevated CO2  

SciTech Connect

We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

2002-02-01

288

Elevated Alpha Fetoprotein, No Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Alpha fetoprotein is a fetal specific glycoprotein which falls rapidly after birth. High level of alpha fetoprotein is suspicious of hepatocellular carcinoma but may be elevated in chronic viral hepatitis. A 35-year-old presented to us with jaundice for 7 days. He had chronic hepatitis B infection for last 12 months and was taking medicines irregularly for same. He had high alpha fetoprotein levels (740.9 ng/ml) without evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma which reduced with antiviral therapy. Such elevation can be explained due to hepatic inflammation and viral replication.

Patil, Mallikarjun; Sheth, Keyur A.; Adarsh, Channagiri K.

2013-01-01

289

Progress toward high-gain laser fusion  

SciTech Connect

A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

Storm, E.

1988-09-28

290

GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

2013-01-01

291

GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

2013-01-01

292

Electric top drives gain wide industry acceptance  

SciTech Connect

Since its introduction, the top drive drilling system has gained acceptance as a productive and safe method for drilling oil and gas wells. Originally, the system was used mostly for offshore and higher cost land drilling, and it had to be installed as a permanent installation because of its enormous weight and size. Essentially, a top drive replaces the kelly and rotary table as the means of rotating drillpipe on oil, gas and geothermal rigs and is considered to be 15% to 40% more efficient than a kelly drive. Top drive systems allow the operator to drill and maintain directional orientation for triple stands and provide tripping efficiency because of the ability to ream and circulate with triple stands, to reduce the risk of stuck pipe or lost wells, and to improve well control and pipe handling safety. The paper describes electric top drives with DC motors, top drives with AC motors, top drives with permanent magnet motors, and top drives with permanent magnet brushless synchronous motors.

Riahi, M.L.

1998-05-01

293

Heart failure and weight gain monitoring.  

PubMed

Heart failure is one of the most common diagnoses of the elderly in the United States. The nursing literature has demonstrated that nursing interventions aimed at effective discharge planning and appropriate self-care activities can improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with heart failure. The purpose of this research was to identify, through retrospective medical record review, the discharge instruction related to self-weight monitoring provided to a sample of heart failure patients. The patients in the sample were 65 years and older with an ICD-9 diagnostic code of heart failure upon discharge from an acute care hospital in the Midwest. Results demonstrated the lack of nursing attentiveness to teaching self-monitoring weight gain to heart failure patients while hospitalized and the need for more comprehensive planning for appropriate discharge referrals. Suggestions are made for expanding documentation tools to improve nursing discharge planning and case management to ensure that the patient or caregiver is able to carry out self-care activities at home. PMID:16317329

Lesperance, Mary Ellen; Bell, Sue Ellen; Ervin, Naomi E

2005-01-01

294

Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material.  

PubMed

We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split-ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive. PMID:25402101

Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

2014-11-17

295

Gain-phase grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain in cold atoms  

SciTech Connect

In order to obtain an atomic grating which can diffract light into the high-order directions more efficiently, a gain-phase grating (GPG) based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain is theoretically presented. This grating is induced by a pump field and a standing wave in ultracold atoms, and it not only diffracts a weak probe field propagating along a direction normal to the standing wave into the high-order directions, but also amplifies the amplitude of the zero-order diffraction. In contrast with electromagnetically induced grating or electromagnetically induced phase grating, the GPG has larger diffraction efficiencies in the high-order directions. Hence it is more suitable to be utilized as an all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

Kuang Shangqi; Jin Chunshui; Li Chun [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

2011-09-15

296

Interleukin-18 Activates Skeletal Muscle AMPK and Reduces Weight Gain and Insulin Resistance in Mice  

PubMed Central

Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the ?-isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R?/?) fed a standard chow or HFD. We next performed gain-of-function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R?/? mice display increased weight gain, ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation, and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL-18 into skeletal muscle activated AMPK and concomitantly inhibited HFD-induced weight gain. In summary, IL-18 enhances AMPK signaling and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle implicating IL-18 in metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23670974

Lindegaard, Birgitte; Matthews, Vance B.; Brandt, Claus; Hojman, Pernille; Allen, Tamara L.; Estevez, Emma; Watt, Matthew J.; Bruce, Clinton R.; Mortensen, Ole H.; Syberg, Susanne; Rudnicka, Caroline; Abildgaard, Julie; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hidalgo, Juan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Alsted, Thomas J.; Madsen, Andreas N.; Pedersen, Bente K.; Febbraio, Mark A.

2013-01-01

297

Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism.  

PubMed

Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of ?4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17?-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

2015-03-01

298

Community and Ecosystem Responses to Elevational  

E-print Network

for Global Change Maja K. Sundqvist,1 Nathan J. Sanders,2,3,4 and David A. Wardle1 1 Department of Forest Butte, Colorado 81224 4 Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much

Sanders, Nathan J.

299

Polyetheretherketone Membranes for Elevated Temperature PEMFCs  

E-print Network

the size of the heat exchanger is dictated by this tem- perature difference. Elevated temperatures may also enable reusing waste heat for domestic and industrial heating thereby improving overall efficiency exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs . For example, the current from a MEA made from PEEK membrane at 0.6 V

Weidner, John W.

300

ELEVATION DATA FOR OREGON AND WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

The WA 1:24,000 scale data have an elevation at approx. every 30 meters. The 1:250,000 scale data are gathered at intervals of approx. every 85 meters along the ground. These data may be used in the generation of graphics such as isometric projections displaying slope, directio...

301

Climatic change at high elevation sites  

SciTech Connect

A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

Dr. Henry F. Diaz

1998-07-23

302

75 FR 78654 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified...City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters...the stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised...

2010-12-16

303

ADENOSYLMETHIONINE ELEVATION IN LEUKEMIC WHITE BLOOD CELLS.  

PubMed

White blood cell preparations from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia have more S-adenosylmethionine, an important metabolic intermediate, than normal peripheral white cells or thoracic-duct lymphocytes. The previously reported elevation of cyanocobalamine (vitamin B(l2)) in the serum of patients with this disease is corroborated. The possible usefulness of methylation antimetabolites in cancer chemotherapy is suggested. PMID:14331187

BALDESSARINI, R J

1965-08-01

304

Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

1996-01-01

305

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

306

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi-Car Elevator Systems MCES DDES MCES AI AI GA Neural Network NN Fuzzy Logic FL Genetic Network Programming GNP

Fernandez, Thomas

307

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using such as tile-worlds models. EGSCS is the system, where the elevator group supervisory controller controls and real world problems. GNP was firstly applied to Elevator Group Supervisory Control Syste m (EGSCS

Fernandez, Thomas

308

Modern elevator group supervisory control systems and neural networks technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of neural networks to modern elevator group supervisory control systems is discussed. The significance of introducing neural networks is presented. Artificial neural networks and fuzzy neural networks are described for turning the status of elevator running speciality, elevator equipment and building speciality into training data of elevator group supervisory control systems. Practical application shows that

Zhu Dewen; Jiang Li; Zhou Yuwen; Shan Guanghui; He Kai

1997-01-01

309

A fuzzy approach to elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elevator group control systems are the control systems that manage systematically, three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers. In the elevator group control system, the area-weight which determines the load biases of elevators is a control parameter closely related to the system performance. This correspondence proposes a fuzzy model based method to determine the area

Chang Bum Kim; K. A. Seong; Hyung Lee-Kwang; J. O. Kim; Yong Bae Lim

1995-01-01

310

Are videogame training gains specific or general?  

PubMed

Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

2014-01-01

311

Are videogame training gains specific or general?  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

Patterson, Michael D.

2014-01-01

312

The design of the elevator control based on PLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevator is the vertical vehicle of modern high building,which has close relationship with the life of people.The elevator developed very quickly with the increasing demand of people.The drag of elevator developed to use the frequency conversion and voltage transformation to realize the speed regulation.The logic control of elevator is accomplished by PLC instead of relay control.The article uses the PLC to control the elevator based on existed current frequency transformer.Through the resonable choice and design,we can increase the control level of the elevator,and improve the safety and comfortable feeling of elevator,and obtain perfect contrl effect.

Zheng, Yanling; Ning, Xin; Wang, Zhankui

2011-10-01

313

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, I.C.

2007-01-01

314

35. To left of center is freight elevator used to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. To left of center is freight elevator used to move materials to the upper floors of the building. This elevator is also powered via the belts and drive shafts which operate the machine tools. Sign on elevator reads 'For Mr. Edison's Personal Use Only;' according to rumor, Edison was encouraged to use the elevator as he grew older, but refused. The elevator is designed for freight only. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

315

Study on Fuzzy Algorithm of Elevator Group Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control system is a complex, random, multi-objective, non-linear, uncertain decision-making problem. Fuzzy control algorithms are suitable for Elevator group control system because its algorithms are multiobjective. The algorithms optimize the elevator group control harmoniously. Simulation mode of elevator group control system is established in MATLAB in light of the property of elevator group control system and Fuzzy Control

Gu Deying; Yan Dongmei

2010-01-01

316

The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical high-resolution encoder interpolator relies on careful mechanical alignment of the encoder read-heads and tight electrical tolerances of the signal processing electronics to ensure linearity. As the interpolation factor increases, maintaining these tight mechanical and electrical tolerances becomes impractical. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is designed to utilize strip-type encoders on the main axes. Because of the very large scale of the telescope, the accumulative length of the azimuth and elevation encoder strips exceeds 80 meters, making optical tape prohibitively expensive. Consequently, the designers of the LBT incorporated the far less expensive Farrand Controls Inductosyn® linear strip encoder to encode the positions of the main axes and the instrument rotators. Since the cycle pitch of these encoders is very large compared to that of optical strip encoders, the interpolation factor must also be large in order to achieve the 0.005 arcsecond encoder resolution as specified. The authors present a description of the innovative DSP-based hardware / software solution that adaptively characterizes and removes common systematic cycle-to-cycle encoder interpolation errors. These errors can be caused by mechanical misalignment, encoder manufacturing flaws, variations in electrical gain, signal offset or cross-coupling of the encoder signals. Simulation data are presented to illustrate the performance of the interpolation algorithm, and telemetry data are presented to demonstrate the actual performance of the LBT main-axis encoder system.

Ashby, David S.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Rosato, Jerry; Brynnel, Joar G.

2008-08-01

317

Serotonin Affects Movement Gain Control in the Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input–output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

Glaser, Joshua I.; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K.; Stevenson, Ian H.; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J.; Kording, Konrad P.

2014-01-01

318

Serotonin affects movement gain control in the spinal cord.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input-output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

Wei, Kunlin; Glaser, Joshua I; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K; Stevenson, Ian H; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J; Kording, Konrad P

2014-09-17

319

Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged. PMID:25114844

Makari-Judson, Grace; Braun, Barry; Jerry, D Joseph; Mertens, Wilson C

2014-01-01

320

Improving G.728's hybrid window and excitation gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offset of gain filter is dealt unsuitably with a constant 32dB in G.728 standard. That is, the short-term stationary speech signal during the duration 20?30ms is unsuitably supposed as stationary at whole time axis. It is necessary to design optimizing hybrid window for improving gain filter. In this work, the exact expression of excitation gain is conducted and an

Gang Zhang; Keming Xie; Xueying Zhang; Liying Huangfu

2004-01-01

321

Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control  

DOEpatents

An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-07-18

322

A model of compliance?gaining message selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dimensionality of compliance?gaining message use ratings. Data from three studies are reanalyzed. The reanalyses suggest that the multidimensional solutions presented in these studies are spurious. Instead, a unidimensional model is shown to fit the data. This model predicts a nonlinear regression of compliance?gaining message use ratings onto total compliance?gaining message use score. Nonlinearity causes the regression

John E. Hunter; Franklin J. Boster

1987-01-01

323

Optical resonator design studies for high gain free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

Optical resonator design studies have been performed for free electron laser oscillator configurations driven by an rf linac. The resonator designs were for an FEL configuration with large saturated gain (50 to 100%) through the electron beam-wiggler region. For the case of large saturated gain, the power loading on the mirrors is reduced, however, the resonator design must compensate for the optical gain and refractive properties of the electron beam.

McVey, B.D.; Tokar, R.L.; Bender, S.C.

1987-01-01

324

Training children in pedestrian safety: distinguishing gains in knowledge from gains in safe behavior.  

PubMed

Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children's street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7-8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that should be considered independently for research and training purposes. PMID:24573688

Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A

2014-06-01

325

Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

1987-01-01

326

Instantaneous diversity gain in 10-30 GHz satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As usually defined, diversity gain is a statistical measure which conveys little or no information about the instantaneous behavior of site-diversity reception in a satellite communications system. A new quantity called instantaneous diversity gain is introduced and some measurements of it from an 11.6 GHz low-angle two-site downlink are presented. It is shown how instantaneous diversity gain is related to system reliability and some results are presented which indicate that designs based on statistical diversity gain will achieve their intended reliability levels.

Towner, G. C., III; Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.; Pratt, T.

1984-01-01

327

Plastic Responses to Elevated Temperature in Low and High Elevation Populations of Three Grassland Species  

PubMed Central

Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate. PMID:24901500

Frei, Esther R.; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R.

2014-01-01

328

Ionic leakage underlies a gain-of-function effect of dominant disease mutations affecting diverse P-type ATPases.  

PubMed

Type II P-type ATPases (PAIIs) constitute a family of conserved proteins that actively generate ionic gradients across membranes. Mutations in genes encoding PAIIs can cause heritable dominant diseases, with suggested etiology of haploinsufficiency. Using a Drosophila melanogaster genetic screen, we identified a dominant mutation altering the PAII member sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). This mutation conferred temperature-sensitive uncoordination in a gain-of-function manner. We established that this gain-of-function phenotype is linked to dominant disease-causing mutations affecting various human PAIIs. We further found that heterologous expression of mutant PAIIs elicited ion leakage that was exacerbated at elevated temperatures. Therefore, these dominant mutations result in ionic leakage and render PAIIs susceptible to deleterious effects from elevated temperatures. Accordingly, it was recently reported that missense mutations affecting the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase can elicit ionic leakage. We propose that ionic leakage is a pervasive gain-of-function mechanism that can underlie a variety of dominant PAII-related diseases. PMID:24336169

Kaneko, Maki; Desai, Bela S; Cook, Boaz

2014-02-01

329

Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

Bigelow, C. A.

1983-01-01

330

Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

1986-01-01

331

Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers: A new method to measure gain in Quantum Cascade Lasers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gain and Loss are the fundamental factors contributing to laser effectiveness. Simply put, the gain is the light produced by stimulated emission and loss is then the light lost. This can happen if a photon hits an electron in a low energy level state and the electron absorbs the energy and moves to a higher energy level state. It can also happen when light escapes the laser cavity. Lasing is the condition when the gain exceeds the loss. It is very important to know the gain to see how effective your laser really is. The traditional Hakki-Paoli Method was found to be ineffective for measuring gain in quantum cascade lasers. A new, more effective method of measuring gain in quantum cascade lasers was developed and tested.

Haslam, Bryan

2005-08-05

332

Automatic Geomorphometric Analysis for Digital Elevation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present an approach to perform geomorphometric analysis for Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to obtain the Cartographic Knowledge Domain (CKD) of the landscapes. CKD is oriented to represent the essential properties of DEM by means of concepts. These properties are\\u000a obtained by analyzing the terrain topography. This analysis is based on two classifications: landform and topographic ruggedness.\\u000a The approach involves

Miguel Moreno; Serguei Levachkine; Miguel Torres; Rolando Quintero; Giovanni Guzmán

2005-01-01

333

Elevated blood pressure in subjects with lipodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Case?control study. Participants: Forty-two patients with abnormal body fat (100%) and serum lipids (86%) (HIV-positive cohort) were matched by age and sex to 42 HIV-positive controls without previously diagnosed lipodystrophy and to 13 HIV-negative controls. Setting: Tertiary care, university-based, fully dedicated HIV clinic. Main outcome measures:

Fred R. Sattler; Dajun Qian; Stan Louie; Debra Johnson

334

Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the biological basis of schizophrenia is not known, possible causes include genetic defects, viruses1, amines2, brain structure and metabolism3-5, neuroreceptors6-8, and G proteins9. The hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is based on the fact that neuroleptics block dopamine D2 receptors in direct relation to their clinical antipsychotic potencies10-11. Moreover, dopamine D2 or D2-like receptors are elevated in postmortem

Philip Seeman; Hong-Chang Guan; Hubert H. M. van Tol

1993-01-01

335

Refractory intraoperative hypotension with elevated serum tryptase  

PubMed Central

Severe intraoperative hypotension has been reported in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists. We describe a patient on lisinopril who developed refractory intraoperative hypotension associated with increased serum tryptase level suggesting mast cell activation (allergic reaction). However, allergology workup ruled out an allergic etiology as well as mastocytosis, and hypotension recalcitrant to treatment was attributed to uninterrupted lisinopril therapy. Elevated serum tryptase was attributed to our patient's chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:25653920

Larson, Kelly J.; Divekar, Rohit D.; Butterfield, Joseph H.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Weingarten, Toby N.

2015-01-01

336

Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon college entry in women.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18-20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass. PMID:25049133

Bauer, Lance O

2014-11-01

337

A case report of elevated blood cadmium.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old male paint technician was identified as having an elevated whole-blood cadmium of 5.9 microg/l (Occupational and Safety Health Administration reference range for workers: elevated result. Eight weeks after returning to his original position with cadmium exposure, the value was 3.4 microg/l. No elevation in urine cadmium was noted at any point. An analysis of the tobacco revealed that the cadmium content of the new brand was almost 1.5-fold greater than the original brand. These results suggest that the consumption of different brands of cigarettes can lead to marked variations in whole-blood cadmium levels. PMID:19147796

Martin, Christopher J; Antonini, James M; Doney, Brent C

2009-03-01

338

Methods for structural design at elevated temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure which can be used to design elevated temperature structures is discussed. The desired goal is to have the same confidence in the structural integrity at elevated temperature as the factor of safety gives on mechanical loads at room temperature. Methods of design and analysis for creep, creep rupture, and creep buckling are presented. Example problems are included to illustrate the analytical methods. Creep data for some common structural materials are presented. Appendix B is description, user's manual, and listing for the creep analysis program. The program predicts time to a given creep or to creep rupture for a material subjected to a specified stress-temperature-time spectrum. Fatigue at elevated temperature is discussed. Methods of analysis for high stress-low cycle fatigue, fatigue below the creep range, and fatigue in the creep range are included. The interaction of thermal fatigue and mechanical loads is considered, and a detailed approach to fatigue analysis is given for structures operating below the creep range.

Ellison, A. M.; Jones, W. E., Jr.; Leimbach, K. R.

1973-01-01

339

Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.  

PubMed

Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2012-05-01

340

Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.  

PubMed

Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable. PMID:21114113

Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

2010-04-01

341

Learning Not to Generalize: Modular Adaptation of Visuomotor Gain  

PubMed Central

When a new sensorimotor mapping is learned through practice, learning commonly transfers to unpracticed regions of task space, that is, generalization ensues. Does generalization reflect fixed properties of movement representations in the nervous system and thereby limit what visuomotor mappings can and cannot be learned? Or does what needs to be learned determine the shape of generalization? We used the broad generalization properties of visuomotor gain adaptation to address these questions. Adaptation to a single gain for reaching movements is known to generalize broadly across movement directions. By training subjects on two different gains in two directions, we set up a potential conflict between generalization patterns: if generalization of gain adaptation indicates fixed properties of movement amplitude encoding, then learning two different gains in different directions should not be possible. Conversely, if generalization is flexible, then it should be possible to learn two gains. We found that subjects were able to learn two gains simultaneously, although more slowly than when they adapted to a single gain. Analysis of the resulting double-gain generalization patterns, however, unexpectedly revealed that generalization around each training direction did not arise de novo, but could be explained by a weighted combination of single-gain generalization patterns, in which the weighting takes into account the relative angular separation between training directions. Our findings therefore demonstrate that the mappings to each training target can be fully learned through reweighting of single-gain generalization patterns and not through a categorical alteration of these functions. These results are consistent with a modular decomposition approach to visuomotor adaptation, in which a complex mapping results from a combination of simpler mappings in a “mixture-of-experts” architecture. PMID:20357068

Pearson, Toni S.; Krakauer, John W.

2010-01-01

342

Physiologic and metabolic responses of wheat seedlings to elevated and super-elevated carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metabolic consequence of suboptimal (400 ?mol mol -1 or ppm), near-optimal (1500 ppm) and supra-optimal (10,000 ppm) atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO 2] was investigated in an attempt to reveal plausible underlying mechanisms for the differential physiological and developmental responses to increasing [CO 2]. Both non-targeted and targeted metabolite profiling by GC-MS and LC-MS were employed to examine primary and secondary metabolites in wheat ( Triticum aestivum, cv Yocoro rojo) continuously exposed to these [CO 2] levels for 14, 21 and 28 days. Metabolite profile was altered by both [CO 2] and physiological age. In general, plants grown under high [CO 2] exhibited a metabolite profile characteristic of older plants under ambient CO 2. Elevated [CO 2] resulted in higher levels of phosphorylated sugar intermediates, though no clear trend in the content of reducing sugars was observed. Transient starch content was enhanced by increasing [CO 2] to a much greater extent at 10,000 ppm CO 2 than at 1500 ppm CO 2. The percentage increase of starch content resulting from CO 2 enrichment declined as plants develope. In contrast, elevated [CO 2] promoted the accumulation of secondary metabolites (flavonoids) progressively to a greater extent as plants became mature. Elevated [CO 2] to 1500 ppm induced a higher initial growth rate, while super-elevated [CO 2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion. However, after 4 weeks, there was no difference in vegetative growth between 1500 and 10,000 ppm CO 2-grown plants, both elevated CO 2 levels resulted in an overall 25% increase in biomass over the control plants. More interestingly, elevated atmospheric [CO 2] reduced evapotranspiration rate (ET), but further increase to the supra-optimal level resulted in increased ET (a reversed trend), i.e. ET at 1500 ppm < ET at 10,000 ppm < ET at 400 ppm. The differential effect of elevated and super-elevated CO 2 on plants was further reflected in the nitrogen dynamics. These results provide the potential metabolic basis for the differential productivity and stomatal function of plants grown under elevated and super-elevated CO 2 levels.

Levine, Lanfang H.; Kasahara, Hirokazu; Kopka, Joachim; Erban, Alexander; Fehrl, Ines; Kaplan, Fatma; Zhao, Wei; Littell, Ramon C.; Guy, Charles; Wheeler, Raymond; Sager, John; Mills, Aaron; Levine, Howard G.

2008-12-01

343

Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting impact on surrounding communities due to triggered seismicity, landslides, and groundwater disruption or contamination. In both examples, our focus on phase differences across short spatial scales reduces the impact of some of the main sources of error in interferograms, such as atmospheric water vapor variations and errors in the satellite orbital positions.

Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

2013-12-01

344

24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and...SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat...

2011-04-01

345

24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and...SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat...

2010-04-01

346

GAIN Appraisal Program II. Second Report, November 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program provides job services, as well as training, education, and support services to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to help them attain unsubsidized employment. The GAIN program includes an initial appraisal of participants' basic reading, mathematics, and functional…

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System, San Diego, CA.

347

Gain variation of Raman amplifier in birefringent fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a simple analytical expression for the statistics of the polarization-dependent gain in a co-pumped Raman amplifier. Using this analysis, we evaluated the effects of PMD, wavelength difference between pump and signal, and pump loss on the polarization-dependent gain.

E. Son; J. Lee; Y. Chung

2003-01-01

348

Temperature-dependent gain and noise in fiber Raman amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the gain and noise performance of a silica-fiber Raman amplifier is described. A decrease in the Raman scattering cross section in a fiber amplifier cooled from a temperature of 300 K to 77 K was measured and found to be in agreement with theoretical values. No difference between the Raman gain coefficients

S. A. E. Lewis; S. V. Chernikov; J. R. Taylor

1999-01-01

349

Low-noise high gain dispersion compensating broadband Raman amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman gain module compensating for both loss and dispersion of a 40 km standard telecommunication fiber span over the 1510-1565 nm band is reported. The optimized configuration ensures a low signal-spontaneous noise figure and negligible double Rayleigh scattering noise. The high gain margin of the amplifier makes it applicable for compensation of an 80 km span

S. A. E. Lewis; F. Koch; S. V. Chernikov; J. R. Taylor

2000-01-01

350

Variation Aware Performance Analysis of Gain Cell Embedded DRAMs  

E-print Network

(destructive read) Poor (ratioed) Good (non ratioed, gain function) Cell cap process steps for the cell capacitor and the destructive read problem make 1T1C cells less attractive operation of a conventional 3T gain cell. In section 3, we examine the impact of TOX and VTH variation

Kim, Chris H.

351

High gain Sierpinski Gasket fractal shape antenna designed for RFID  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a high gain Sierpinski fractal shape antenna (reader) for RFID applications is proposed. With the increasing needs of multiband, high gain, very directive antennas and good capability of integration of various wireless technologies, the antenna's research can be oriented following different ways. One of them is use fractals elements. Traditionally, an antenna works at a single frequency

B. R. Franciscatto; T. P. Vuong; G. Fontgalland

2011-01-01

352

Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-period fiber gratings are used to flatten the gain spectrum of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A broadband amplifier with >0.2-dB gain variation over 30 nm is presented. We also show that a chain of amplifiers can be equalized, leading to a bandwidth enhancement by a factor of 3. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

Ashish M. Vengsarkar; J. Renee Pedrazzani; Justin B. Judkins; Paul J. Lemaire; Neal S. Bergano; Carl R. Davidson

1996-01-01

353

Power gain in a quantum-dot cellular automata latch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an experimental demonstration of power gain in quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) devices. Power gain is necessary in all practical electronic circuits where power dissipation leads to decay of logic levels. In QCA devices, charge configurations in quantum dots are used to encode and process binary information. The energy required to restore logic levels in QCA devices is drawn

Ravi K. Kummamuru; John Timler; Geza Toth; Craig S. Lent; Rajagopal Ramasubramaniam; Alexei O. Orlov; Gary H. Bernstein; Gregory L. Snider

2002-01-01

354

Gain-controlled wave chaos in a chaotic optical fibre  

E-print Network

Gain-controlled wave chaos in a chaotic optical fibre C. Michel, S. Tascu, V. Doya, O. Legrand, F of a multimode chaotic optical fibre. More precisely, we introduce Ytterbium in the optical fibre as a gain of a chaotic optical fibre as a device to visualise quantum chaos, we describe the amplification process

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Halftone color prints: dot gain and modeling of color distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of the total printing transfer function are studied using halftone test prints and automatic analysis of the acquired data. a method for determining the dot gain, both physical and optical, based on the colorimetric properties of the halftone dots is presented. To estimate the physical dot gain the method identifies the ink and discriminates between the different colors

Mikael Wedin; Bjorn Kruse

1995-01-01

356

Stimulated Rayleigh-Brillouin gain spectroscopy in pure gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stimulated Rayleigh-Brillouin gain spectra of pure gases are reported. Stimulated Rayleigh scattering is now clearly distinguishable from stimulated Brillouin scattering without the aid of induced absorption. As examples, spectral line shapes of Ar and SF6 at various pressures and the associated gain asymmetry are discussed. Potential applications of coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy are suggested.

She, C. Y.; Herring, G. C.; Moosmuller, H.; Lee, S. A.

1983-01-01

357

Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements  

E-print Network

/NO gas mixture. Molecular iodine was injected into the active oxygen flow from the electric discharge1 Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements G. F. Benavides,1,5 A. D. Palla,1 D. M (ElectricOIL) system that significantly increased the discharge performance, supersonic cavity gain

Carroll, David L.

358

Finding Optimal Gains In Linear-Quadratic Control Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical method based on Volterra factorization leads to new approximations for optimal control gains in finite-time linear-quadratic control problem of system having infinite number of dimensions. Circumvents need to analyze and solve Riccati equations and provides more transparent connection between dynamics of system and optimal gain.

Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

359

DUAL PROGRAMMABLE GAIN INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER ONE 5-VOLT SUPPLY REQUIRED  

E-print Network

requiring excitation. The maximum allowable current draw from this source is 5 ma. The EI-1040 canDUAL PROGRAMMABLE GAIN INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER ONE 5-VOLT SUPPLY REQUIRED DESCRIPTION The EI-1040 is a dual programmable gain instrumentation amplifier with a precision reference output for bridge

Haller, Gary L.

360

Steering Assistance System for Driver Characteristics using Gain Scheduling Control  

E-print Network

Steering Assistance System for Driver Characteristics using Gain Scheduling Control Yukihiro Shimotakanezawa, Haga-machi, Haga-gun, Tochigi, 321-3393, Japan Fax: +81-28-677-6730 Phone: +81-28-677-7259 e@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp Keywords:Driver support system, Vehicle control, H control, Gain-scheduling control, LMI. Abstract

Adachi, Shuichi

361

Cooperation in Academic Negotiations: A Guide to Mutual Gains Bargaining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide to mutual gains bargaining (MGB) is presented for faculty union leaders and college administrators, as well as school systems. MGB is based on applied behavioral sciences concepts and the use of bargaining teams and emphasizes problem-solving and improving communications and campus relationships. Two different uses of the mutual gains

Birnbaum, Robert; And Others

362

Do gains in test scores explain labor market outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this article investigates whether students who made relatively large test score gains during high school had larger earnings 7 years after high school compared to students whose scores improved little. In models that control for pre-high school test scores, family background, and demographic characteristics, employed women who gain one standard

Heather Rose

2006-01-01

363

Ethanol Consumption Does Not Promote Weight Gain in Female Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of obese adult women has increased dramatically in the United States. Individuals consuming alcoholic beverages may obtain as much as 6–10% of their calories from ethanol; consequently, ethanol may contribute to a positive energy balance and weight gain in women consuming ethanol. The objective of these studies is to determine if ethanol consumption affects weight gain or

Rebekah R. Smith; Jina Hong; Alison E. Harvey; Tamara Lewis; Daniel Diaz; Nomelí P. Núñez

2008-01-01

364

Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Importance for Maternal and Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gestational weight gain is a strong predictor of short- and long-term health outcomes for both childbearing women and their offspring. Epidemiologic studies have found that higher maternal gestational weight gains are associated with abnormalities in maternal prenatal glycemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and delivery complications, along with an increased risk of postpartum weight retention, incident obesity and adverse cardiometabolic sequelae

Sharon J. Herring; Emily Oken

2010-01-01

365

A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.

Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.

1989-01-01

366

Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.  

PubMed

Climate warming predicts changes to the frequency and height of cloud-immersion events in mountain communities. Threatened southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests have been suggested to persist because of frequent periods of cloud immersion. These relic forests exist on only seven mountaintop areas, grow only above ca. 1,500 m elevation (maximum 2,037 m), and harbor the endemic Abies fraseri. To predict future distribution, we examined the ecophysiological effects of cloud immersion on saplings of A. fraseri and Picea rubens at their upper and lower elevational limits. Leaf photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration, xylem water potentials, and general abiotic variables were measured simultaneously on individuals at the top (1,960 m) and bottom (1,510 m) of their elevation limits on numerous clear and cloud-immersed days throughout the growing season. The high elevation sites had 1.5 as many cloud-immersed days (75 % of days) as the low elevation sites (56 % of days). Cloud immersion resulted in higher photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and xylem water potentials, particularly during afternoon measurements. Leaf conductance remained higher throughout the day with corresponding increases in photosynthesis and transpiration, despite low photon flux density levels, leading to an increase in water potentials from morning to afternoon. The endemic A. fraseri had a greater response in carbon gain and water balance in response to cloud immersion. Climate models predict warmer temperatures with a decrease in the frequency of cloud immersion for this region, leading to an environment on these peaks similar to elevations where spruce-fir communities currently do not exist. Because spruce-fir communities may rely on cloud immersion for improved carbon gain and water conservation, an upslope shift is likely if cloud ceilings rise. Their ultimate survival will likely depend on the magnitude of changes in cloud regimes. PMID:23576108

Berry, Z Carter; Smith, William K

2013-11-01

367

Clinically Significant Weight Gain One Year After Occupational Back Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the incidence of clinically significant weight gain one year after occupational back injury, and risk factors for that gain. Methods A cohort of Washington State workers with wage-replacement benefits for back injuries completed baseline and 1-year follow-up telephone interviews. We obtained additional measures from claims and medical records. Results Among 1,263 workers, 174 (13.8%) reported clinically significant weight gain (?7%) 1 year after occupational back injury. Women and workers who had >180 days on wage replacement at 1 year were twice as likely (adjusted OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.54–3.07; adjusted OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.63–3.53, respectively; both P<0.001) to have clinically significant weight gain. Conclusions Women and workers on wage replacement >180 days may be susceptible to clinically significant weight gain following occupational back injury. PMID:23247606

Keeney, Benjamin J.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Turner, Judith A.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

2014-01-01

368

Adaptive gain and filtering circuit for a sound reproduction system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive compressive gain and level dependent spectral shaping circuitry for a hearing aid include a microphone to produce an input signal and a plurality of channels connected to a common circuit output. Each channel has a preset frequency response. Each channel includes a filter with a preset frequency response to receive the input signal and to produce a filtered signal, a channel amplifier to amplify the filtered signal to produce a channel output signal, a threshold register to establish a channel threshold level, and a gain circuit. The gain circuit increases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal falls below the channel threshold level and decreases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal rises above the channel threshold level. A transducer produces sound in response to the signal passed by the common circuit output.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

369

Raman gain in modified tellurite glasses and thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the tailoring of Raman spectra of the tellurite glass by varying molar concentrations of phosphates, fluorides in phosphate modified tellurite glasses to analyze the Raman gain. From the measured Raman spectrum, the Raman gain and gain bandwidth in these glasses were calculated and compared. The structural features that give rise to the observed spectra and its dependence on glass composition are identified and reported. Raman gain as high as 170 × 10- 13 m/W is obtained for glass modified by zinc oxide. Glass thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition show a Raman gain of 5.0 × 10- 13 m/W suggesting their importance in short waveguide Raman amplifier fabrication.

Irannejad, M.; Jose, G.; Jha, A.; Steenson, P.

2012-05-01

370

Elevated CO2 and O3 Alter Productivity and Carbon Storage in Northern Temperate Forests: Results from Aspen FACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years, advancing from open-grown seedlings <0.25 m in height at the beginning to the experiment to closed-canopy stands that were >8 m tall. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment. In addition, we estimated cumulative net primary productivity (NPP) during the experiment and used these data to gain further insight into forest C cycling in two ways. First, we tested several canopy productivity models to understand variation in cumulative NPP. Second, we compared cumulative NPP to ecosystem C storage. Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem carbon (C) storage by 11%, but elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C storage by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C storage across communities and no significant interactions between CO2 and O3 for any major C pools. Tree C storage increased 44% under elevated CO2 and decreased 15% under elevated O3. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected the total amount of C in the top 1 m of mineral soil. However, soil C content within the top 0.1 m of mineral soil was lower under elevated O3, whereas soil C at 0.1 to 0.2 m and 0.4 to 0.5 m in depth were lower under elevated CO2. Cumulative NPP was 42% greater under elevated CO2, 11% lower under elevated O3, and was a strong predictor of variation in C storage in plants and organic soil (n = 36, r2 = 0.96). Tree productivity comprised 95% of cumulative NPP. Stands with more cumulative canopy N (g foliar N m-2 of ground area) had greater cumulative tree productivity, but N productivity (tree productivity per canopy N) decreased as canopy N accrued. Thus, elevated CO2 increased cumulative NPP because of a 28% increase in canopy N and a 28% increase in N productivity, while elevated O3 did not impact N productivity and lowered tree productivity only through a 21% decrease in canopy N. Because N productivity decreased as canopy N accrued, the difference in canopy N between ambient and elevated O3 had a gradually smaller influence on NPP through time as the stands became more developed, eventually eliminating the O3 effect. In comparison, variation in mineral soil C content was not positively related to cumulative NPP and the effects of CO2 and O3 on this important ecosystem C pool remain poorly understood..

Talhelm, A. F.; Pregitzer, K.; Kubiske, M.; Zak, D.; Campany, C.; Burton, A.

2013-12-01

371

Relationship Between Optimal Gain and Coherence Zone in Flight Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In motion simulation the inertial information generated by the motion platform is most of the times different from the visual information in the simulator displays. This occurs due to the physical limits of the motion platform. However, for small motions that are within the physical limits of the motion platform, one-to-one motion, i.e. visual information equal to inertial information, is possible. It has been shown in previous studies that one-to-one motion is often judged as too strong, causing researchers to lower the inertial amplitude. When trying to measure the optimal inertial gain for a visual amplitude, we found a zone of optimal gains instead of a single value. Such result seems related with the coherence zones that have been measured in flight simulation studies. However, the optimal gain results were never directly related with the coherence zones. In this study we investigated whether the optimal gain measurements are the same as the coherence zone measurements. We also try to infer if the results obtained from the two measurements can be used to differentiate between simulators with different configurations. An experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center which used both the Cockpit Motion Facility and the Visual Motion Simulator. The results show that the inertial gains obtained with the optimal gain are different than the ones obtained with the coherence zone measurements. The optimal gain is within the coherence zone.The point of mean optimal gain was lower and further away from the one-to-one line than the point of mean coherence. The zone width obtained for the coherence zone measurements was dependent on the visual amplitude and frequency. For the optimal gain, the zone width remained constant when the visual amplitude and frequency were varied. We found no effect of the simulator configuration in both the coherence zone and optimal gain measurements.

Gracio, Bruno Jorge Correia; Pais, Ana Rita Valente; vanPaassen, M. M.; Mulder, Max; Kely, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

2011-01-01

372

Carbon dynamics of eucalypt seedlings exposed to progressive drought in elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature.  

PubMed

Elevated [CO2] and temperature may alter the drought responses of tree seedling growth, photosynthesis, respiration and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) status depending on drought intensity and duration. Few studies have addressed these important climatic interactions or their consequences. We grew Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings in two [CO2] concentrations (400 and 640 ?l l(-1)) and two temperatures (28/17 and 32/21 °C) (day/night) in a sun-lit glasshouse, and grew them in well-watered conditions or exposed them to two drought treatments having undergone different previous water conditions (i.e., rewatered drought and sustained drought). Progressive drought in both drought treatments led to similar limitations in growth, photosynthesis and respiration, but reductions in TNC concentration were not observed. Elevated [CO2] ameliorated the impact of the drought during the moderate drought phase (i.e., Day 63 to Day 79) by increasing photosynthesis and enhancing leaf and whole-plant TNC content. In contrast, elevated temperature exacerbated the impact of the drought during the moderate drought phase by reducing photosynthesis, increasing leaf respiration and decreasing whole-plant TNC content. Extreme drought (i.e., Day 79 to Day 103) eliminated [CO2] and temperature effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and respiration. The combined effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on moderate drought stressed seedlings were reduced with progressive drought, with no sustained effects on growth despite greater whole-plant TNC content. PMID:23963410

Duan, Honglang; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Duursma, Remko A; O'Grady, Anthony P; Choat, Brendan; Tissue, David T

2013-08-01

373

Elevated Wintertime Ozone in Utah's Uinta Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seemingly anomalous elevated wintertime ozone (O3) levels were first observed in Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in 2005 and have been recorded most in subsequent winters. While research continues, it has been hypothesized that the unacceptable levels are a unique combination of stagnant meteorology, enhanced insolation due to relatively high elevations and snow increased albedo, and abundant precursor sources owing to the region's recent rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration and production. The UGRB area has over 4,700 recorded gas/oil wells and sits mostly in rural Sublette County which has an estimated population of 7,925, an area of 12,644 km2, and a basin floor elevation around 2200 m asl, surrounded on three sides with mountains up to 4,200 km asl. Similarly, the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah is a rural area prone to frequent low-level wintertime inversion episodes and persistent snow cover, with an expanding economy significantly based on gas and oil development and production (approximately 11,500 wells, with an estimated 17,000 more planned in the future years). The Basin lies primarily in Duchesne and Uintah Counties which have a combined population of approximately 51,200 and an area of about 19,982 km2. The floor of the Basin has a typical elevation around 1,560 m asl and is surrounded by mountains up to 4,120 m asl. Ambient measurements at four sites in the winter of 2009-2010 found many instances of ozone concentrations well above the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS; 75 ppb, 8-hr average, 4th highest value). To more fully characterize the behavior and geographical extent of the Uinta Basin's wintertime O3 issue, the Uintah Impact Mitigation Special Service District (UIMSSD) funded a study which included deploying 10 portable O3 monitors (2B Technologies, Inc., Model 205, Dual Beam) throughout the Basin. Furthermore, cooperative partners including the USEPA, BLM, UDAQ, NPS, and Golder Associates provided access to an additional six monitoring locations within the Basin. The sites were operated from late December 2010 through mid-March 2011. Several stagnant, inversion episodes and associated periods of Basin-wide elevated ozone were captured. The highest 1-hr O3 concentration observed was 149.0 ppb, with 12 of the total 16 sites recording 1-hr values greater than 100 ppb. Of the 16 sites, only four were found not to exceed the current NAAQS regulation. The highest 8-hr averaged concentration recorded was 139.1 ppb. However, the U.S. standards specify that an area is regulated at the 4th highest values and the maximum value under this criterion during the observed winter period was 121.6 ppb. Two sites exceeded the NAAQS 25 days over the three month observation period, while five other locations exceed the NAAQS between 18 and 22 times. The sites with the highest O3 concentrations and the greatest number of daily exceedances were generally associated with the highest density of known oil and/or gas well locations. The sites with the fewest number of exceedances were at higher elevations or geographically peripheral locations.

Martin, R. S.; Moore, K. D.; Hill, S.; Harper, K.

2011-12-01

374

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining  

E-print Network

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining real sports marketing and communications experience. A marketing or business background and weekends (Schedule will vary, approx 3-10 hours per week) Passion for sports Cheerful, outgoing

Barthelat, Francois

375

Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable end; note change in grade and banked quality of north and east elevations. - Roulette Farm, Springhouse-Kitchen, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

376

2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

377

47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205...Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized...

2014-10-01

378

47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205...Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized...

2013-10-01

379

47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205...Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized...

2011-10-01

380

2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

381

11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

382

31. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW ALONG WEST ELEVATION OF THE UMBRA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW ALONG WEST ELEVATION OF THE UMBRA TO A FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ON THE SOUTH ELEVATION - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

383

15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

384

14. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION WITH PARTIAL VIEW OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION WITH PARTIAL VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

385

14 CFR 171.319 - Approach elevation monitor system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approach elevation monitor system requirements. 171.319 Section...FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) § 171.319 Approach elevation monitor system requirements. (a) The...

2010-01-01

386

Impact of Storm Water Recharge Practices on Boston Groundwater Elevations  

E-print Network

Impact of Storm Water Recharge Practices on Boston Groundwater Elevations Brian F. Thomas, S periodically experienced a decline in groundwater elevations and the associated deterioration of untreated wood piles, which support building foundations. To combat declining water tables, Boston enacted

Vogel, Richard M.

387

49 CFR 213.57 - Curves; elevation and speed limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.57 Curves; elevation and speed limitations. (a) The maximum elevation of the outside rail of a...

2014-10-01

388

49 CFR 213.57 - Curves; elevation and speed limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.57 Curves; elevation and speed limitations. (a) The maximum elevation of the outside rail of a...

2013-10-01

389

15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

390

5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt house with Russell-Miller flour mill to right (now Eonacara and idle). - American Elevator, 87 Childs Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

391

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

2011-10-01

392

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

2012-10-01

393

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

2010-10-01

394

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

2014-10-01

395

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

2013-10-01

396

Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for reconstructing intron evolution. The findings of this comprehensive study slightly challenge the current view on the evolutionary stasis in intron dynamics during the last 100 - 200 My. Domesticated genes could constitute an excellent system on which to analyse the mechanisms of intron gain in placental mammals. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Dan Graur, Eugene V. Koonin and Jürgen Brosius. PMID:22112745

2011-01-01

397

Serotonylated fibronectin is elevated in pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) and fibronectin (FN) have been associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We previously reported that FN is posttranslationally modified by tissue transglutaminase (TGase) to form serotonylated FN (s-FN) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and that serotonylation stimulates their proliferation and migration, hallmarks of PH. We hypothesized that s-FN and its binding to TGase are elevated in human and experimental PH. To assess this hypothesis, FN isolation and electrophoretic, immunoblotting, and densitometric techniques were used. Mean ratio of serum s-FN to total FN level (s-FN/FN) was elevated in 19 consecutive pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients compared with 25 controls (0.3 ± 0.18 vs. 0.05 ± 0.07, P < 0.001). s-FN/FN also was increased in lungs of mice and rats with hypoxia-induced PH and in rats with monocrotaline-induced PH. In mice, the increase was detected at 1 wk of hypoxia, preceding the development of PH. Hypoxic rats had elevated serum s-FN/FN. Enhanced binding of TGase to its substrate FN occurred in serum from patients with PAH (mean 0.50 ± 0.51 vs. 0.063 ± 0.11, P = 0.002) and s-FN/FN and TGase-bound FN were highly correlated (R2 = 0.77). TGase-bound FN also was increased in experimental PH. We conclude that increased serotonylation of FN occurs in human and experimental PH and may provide a biomarker for the disease. PMID:22523280

Wei, Lin; Warburton, Rod R.; Preston, Ioana R.; Roberts, Kari E.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hill, Nicholas S.

2012-01-01

398

Elevated serum neopterin levels in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Plasma levels of neopterin were determined in patients with different clinical stages of atherosclerosis. Non-hospitalized patients with atherosclerosis had serum and plasma neopterin levels within the normal range of the assay (6 +/- 2 nM). These values were not significantly different from those reported for healthy blood donors (5 +/- 2 nM). In contrast, about 50% (29 out of 61) of hospitalized patients undergoing conservative or surgical therapy had neopterin plasma levels, which exceeded the normal range (greater than 10 nM) up to 10-fold. The two groups differ on a significance level of P less than 0.01. For further evaluation hospitalized patients were subgrouped according to neopterin levels. In the subgroup with elevated neopterin levels patients with higher Frederickson types of atherosclerosis were overrepresented compared to patients with normal neopterin levels. Type 4 differed significantly from patients without pathological changes of lipoprotein (P less than 0.05). Only 3 patients suffered from minimal skin necrosis, two of them had elevated neopterin levels. Significantly more patients with peripheral artery occlusions had elevated neopterin levels than patients with occlusions of central arteries (P less than 0.05). All other criteria used for comparison (sex, age, smoking, antioxidant status, diabetes, hypertension, adipositas, hyperuricemia) did not vary significantly in both subgroups. These data indicate that neopterin plasma levels might be a valuable parameter in activity staging and therapeutic follow up of atherosclerotic patients. Additionally, an involvement of the nonspecific immune system in atherogenesis is suggested by the increased plasma neopterin concentrations. PMID:1793448

Tatzber, F; Rabl, H; Koriska, K; Erhart, U; Puhl, H; Waeg, G; Krebs, A; Esterbauer, H

1991-08-01

399

Sustained elevation of norepinephrine depresses hepatocellular function.  

PubMed

The sympathetic-adrenal system is rapidly activated in response to sepsis or hemorrhagic shock, resulting in an increase in circulating levels of catecholamines. Although it has been shown that the occurrence of hepatocellular dysfunction under such conditions is associated with an early and sustained increase in plasma norepinephrine (NE), it remains unknown whether the increased NE per se plays any role in producing hepatocellular dysfunction. To study this, exogenous NE was administered, by implantation of a peritoneal mini-osmotic pump (consistently releasing NE), to produce a plasma level of NE similar to that observed after sepsis or hemorrhage. At 24 h after the pump implantation, cardiac output was determined by dye dilution technique and hepatocellular function [i.e., the maximal velocity (V(max)) and the efficiency of the transport (K(m)) of in vivo indocyanine green clearance) was assessed without blood sampling. In addition, tissue perfusion in various organs was determined using laser Doppler flowmetry. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 were measured by bioassay and liver enzymes were assayed enzymatically. The results indicate that sustained (24 h) elevation of plasma levels of NE caused a decrease in cardiac output and microvascular blood flow in the liver, spleen, and small intestine. In addition, the increase in plasma NE produced significant depression in hepatocellular function as evidenced by reduced V(max) and K(m). This was associated with elevated plasma levels of liver enzymes, indicating hepatocyte injury. In addition, plasma levels of interleukin-6 increased significantly. These findings suggest that sustained elevated levels of NE, observed after sepsis or hemorrhagic shock, may play an important role in producing hepatocellular dysfunction and altered hepatocyte integrity. PMID:11113629

Wang, P; Tait, S M; Chaudry, I H

2000-12-15

400

Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail  

PubMed Central

As CO2 levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO2 in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO2 on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO2 levels—those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years—on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO2 levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A. Richard; Harley, Christopher D. G.

2010-01-01

401

Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail.  

PubMed

As CO(2) levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO(2) in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO(2) on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO(2) levels--those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years--on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO(2) levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A Richard; Harley, Christopher D G

2010-08-22

402

Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

2012-12-01

403

Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 deg. C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms for growth and shrinkage is proposed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The activation energies of evaporation and condensation processes are determined to be 477.31 and 611.49 kJ/mol, respectively.

Chen, Y. H.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Kuo Feng Chou [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2011-08-15

404

Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user inputs of vehicle characteristics (e.g., thrust and aerodynamic data), nor does it require reams of turn data after the traditional fashion of the Air Force ranges. The program requires a nominal trajectory table (time, altitude, range, velocity, and flight elevation) and makes heavy use of it to initialize and model a failure turn.

Lanzi, Raymond J

2014-01-01

405

Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake  

SciTech Connect

Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

1982-04-30

406

Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

2008-01-01

407

Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Harrison, James

408

Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.  

PubMed

Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply. PMID:17735740

Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

1982-04-30

409

Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

410

Effect of Intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care on Weight Gain of Low Birth Weight Neonates With Delayed Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132

Samra, Nashwa M.; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

2013-01-01

411

Evaluation of Experimental Data from the GAINS Balloon GPS Surface Reflection Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GPS Surface Reflection Instrument was integrated as an experiment on the GAINS (Global Airocean IN-situ System) 48-hour balloon mission flown in September 2001. The data collected by similar instruments in the past has been used to measure sea state from which ocean surface winds can be accurately estimated. The GPS signal has also been shown to be reflected from wetland areas and even from subsurface moisture. The current version of the instrument has been redesigned to be more compact, use less power, and withstand a greater variation in environmental conditions than previous versions. This instrument has also incorporated a new data collection mode to track 5 direct satellites (providing a continuous navigation solution) and multiplex the remaining 7 channels to track the reflected signal of the satellite tracked in channel 0. The new software mode has been shown to increase the signal to noise ratio of the collected data and enhance the science return of the instrument. During the 48-hour flight over the Northwest US, the instrument will measure surface reflections that can be detected over the balloon's ground track. Since ground surface elevations in this area vary widely from the WGS-84 ellipsoid altitude, the instrument software has been modified to incorporate a surface altitude correction based on USGS 30-minute Digital Elevation Models. Information presented will include facts about instrument design goals, data collection methodologies and algorithms, and results of the science data analyses for the 48-hour mission.

Gance, George G.; Johnson, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

412

Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

2011-01-01

413

Characterization of transient gain x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

We have performed numerical simulations of the transient collisional excitation Ni-like Pd 4d {r_arrow} 4p J = 0 {r_arrow} 1 147 {angstrom} laser transition recently observed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The high gain {approximately}35 cm results from the experiment are compared with detailed modeling simulations from the 1-D RADEX code in order to better understand the main physics issues affecting the measured gain and x-ray laser propagation along the plasma column. Simulations indicate that the transient gain lifetime associated with the short pulse pumping and refraction of the x-ray laser beam out of the gain region are the main detrimental effects. Gain lifetimes of {approximately}7 ps(1/e decay) are inferred from the smoothly changing gain experimental observations and are in good agreement with the simulations. Furthermore, the modeling results indicate the presence of a longer-lived but lower gain later in time associated with the transition from transient to quasi-steady state excitation.

Dunn, J; Osterheld, A; Shlyaptsev, V

1999-02-07

414

Sticky prospects: loss frames are cognitively stickier than gain frames.  

PubMed

Research across numerous domains has highlighted the current--and presumably temporary--effects of frames on preference and behavior. Yet people often encounter information that has been framed in different ways across contexts, and there are reasons to predict that certain frames, once encountered, might tend to stick in the mind and resist subsequent reframing. We propose that loss frames are stickier than gain frames in their ability to shape people's thinking. Specifically, we suggest that the effect of a loss frame may linger longer than that of a gain frame in the face of reframing and that this asymmetry may arise because it is more difficult to convert a loss-framed concept into a gain-framed concept than vice versa. Supporting this notion, loss-to-gain (vs. gain-to-loss) reframing had a muted impact on both risk preferences (Study 1) and evaluation (Study 2). Moreover, participants took longer to solve a math problem that required reconceptualizing losses as gains than vice versa (Studies 3-5), and reframing changed gain-based conceptualizations but not loss-based ones (Study 6). We discuss implications for understanding a key process underlying negativity bias, as well as how sequential frames might impact political behavior and economic recovery. PMID:23527949

Ledgerwood, Alison; Boydstun, Amber E

2014-02-01

415

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

416

3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 in background right, showing relation to associated Washburn Crosby Milling complex in foreground (left to right: utility building, A mill (with scaffolding), wheat house, Humboldt mill; elevator no. 1 in rear with gold medal flour sign), facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

417

Does Postoperative Hand Elevation Reduce Swelling? a Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of limb elevation on hand swelling after surgery. We prospectively randomized 113 patients undergoing fasciectomy or a trapeziectomy into one of two groups. The first group had the hand elevated postoperatively and the hands of the second group were not elevated. Hand swelling was assessed using a volumetric method. Although

R. P. Baker; J. Field; C. Gozzard; M. C. Wyatt; Y. Robertson

2010-01-01

418

Ropeless Elevator With Linear Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Actuation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) drives are investigated and proved in this study as an alternative actuator for vertical linear transportation applications such as a linear elevator. A one-tenth-scaled prototype elevator that is focused on a home elevator with LSRMs is designed, and extensive experimental correlation is presented for the first time in this paper. The proposed LSRM has twin

Hong Sun Lim; Ramu Krishnan

2007-01-01

419

Elevation of serum acid phosphatase in cancers with bone metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with nonprostatic cancer, serum acid phosphatase activity is usually elevated when bone metastasis is present but not when bone metastasis is absent. The fraction responsible for serum enzyme elevation is a normal component of serum; it appears in gel electrophoresis as band 5; and is tartrate-resistant. It is suggested that the origin of acid phosphatase elevation is bone

Mehdi Tavassoli; Mercedes Rizo; Lung T. Yam

1980-01-01

420

72. View of elevated Mainline structure looking North ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. View of elevated Mainline structure - looking North - along Washington Street at juncture of Section F-5 and Section F-6 (the concrete enclosed portion of structure). Remaining stub of the former incline that led down to the Arborway storage yards is at the right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

421

Elevator Group Control System Based on Information Fusion Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elevator group control system based on information fusion is presented in this paper. The control system is consisting of data processing unit and elevator dispatching unit mainly. A fuzzy ANN based on data fusion technology is proposed in the data processing unit to process state signals, and the fusion result is used as the input of elevator dispatching unit.

Liting Cao; Jingwen Tian; Zhaoli Zhang

2008-01-01

422

Design and implementation of a fuzzy elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control systems (EGCSs) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport passengers. Most EGCSs have used the hall call assignment method to assign elevators in response to passengers' calls. This paper proposes a control strategy generation method, a hall call assignment method based on the fuzzy theory, and then the

Changbum Kim; Kyoung A. Seong; Hyung Lee-kwang; Jeong O. Kim

1998-01-01

423

Numerical Study of Elevator and Stairwell Pressurization Systems Using Detailed  

E-print Network

Numerical Study of Elevator and Stairwell Pressurization Systems Using Detailed Building Models D;Numerical Study of Elevator and Stairwell Pressurization Systems Using Detailed Building Models D.C. Bowers@clemson.edu Abstract Numerical simulations are conducted for stairwell and elevator shaft pressurization smoke control

Miller, Richard S.

424

Devising a Formal Specification for an Elevator Controller  

E-print Network

the requirements for the controlling mechanism for a system of N separate elevators, each of which can visit anyDevising a Formal Specification for an Elevator Controller Technical Report UMCIS­1994­10 H. Conrad for an Elevator Controller H. Conrad Cunningham, Viren R. Shah, and Shu Shen Department of Computer

Cunningham, Conrad

425

Design and implementation of FEGCS: fuzzy elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elevator group control systems (EGCS) are the control systems that manage systematically three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers. Most of the EGCS's have used the hall call assignment method to assign elevators in response to passenger's calls. This paper proposes a control strategy generation method, a hall call assignment method based on fuzzy theory

Chang Bum Kim; Kyoung A Seong; Hyung Lee-Kwang; Jeong O Kim

1996-01-01

426

Low Gestational Weight Gain Skews Human Sex Ratios towards Females  

PubMed Central

Background Human males are more vulnerable to adverse conditions than females starting early in gestation and continuing throughout life, and previous studies show that severe food restriction can influence the sex ratios of human births. It remains unclear, however, whether subtle differences in caloric intake during gestation alter survival of fetuses in a sex-specific way. I hypothesized that the ratio of male to female babies born should vary with the amount of weight gained during gestation. I predicted that women who gain low amounts of weight during gestation should produce significantly more females, and that, if gestational weight gain directly influences sex ratios, fetal losses would be more likely to be male when women gain inadequate amounts of weight during pregnancy. Methods I analyzed data collected from over 68 million births over 23 years to test for a relationship between gestational weight gain and natal sex ratios, as well as between gestational weight gain and sex ratios of fetal deaths at five gestational ages. Results Gestational weight gain and the proportion of male births were positively correlated; a lower proportion of males was produced by women who gained less weight and this strong pattern was exhibited in four human races. Further, sex ratios of fetal losses at 6 months of gestation were significantly male-biased when mothers had gained low amounts of weight during pregnancy, suggesting that low caloric intake during early fetal development can stimulate the loss of male fetuses. Conclusion My data indicate that human sex ratios change in response to resource availability via sex-specific fetal loss, and that a pivotal time for influences on male survival is early in fetal development, at 6 months of gestation. PMID:25493647

Navara, Kristen J.

2014-01-01

427

LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

2002-01-01

428

Memristive devices as parameter setting elements in programmable gain amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the AC performance of a variable gain amplifier that utilizes an in-house manufactured memristor as a gain setting element. Analysis includes frequency and phase responses as the memristor is programmed at different resistive states. A TiO2-based solid-state memristor was employed in the feedback branch of an inverting voltage amplifier and was programmed externally. We have also observed indications of memcapacitive effects and a correlation with resistive states is presented. We demonstrate that our TiO2 memristive devices, although possessing relatively low ROFF/RON switching ratios (˜10), are versatile and can be used reliably in programmable gain amplifiers.

Berdan, R.; Prodromakis, T.; Salaoru, I.; Khiat, A.; Toumazou, C.

2012-12-01

429

Ribbon Fiber with Multiple Antiguided Phase-Locked Gain Cores  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first experimental demonstration of a scalable fiber laser approach based on phase-locking multiple gain cores in an antiguided structure. A novel fabrication technology is used with soft glass components to construct the multiple core fiber used in our experiments. The waveguide region is rectangular in shape and comprised of a periodic sequence of gain and no-gain segments having nearly uniform refractive index. The rectangular waveguide is itself embedded in a lower refractive index cladding region. Experimental results confirm that our five-core Nd doped glass prototype structure runs predominantly in two spatial antiguided modes as predicted by our modeling.

Beach, R J; Feit, M D; Mitchell, S C; Cutter, K P; Dawson, J W; Payne, S A

2002-11-20

430

Proton and gamma ray induced gain degradation in bipolar transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of the effect of 24 MeV proton and (CO)-C-60 gamma-irradiation on the collector characteristic., and forward current gain of commercial bipolar transistor (npn 2N2219A). The transistor has been exposed to these radiations in the biased condition and the collector characteristics and forward current gain have been measured as a function of proton fluence and gamma-dose. The observation is that both the proton and gamma-irradiation induce significant gain degradation in the transistor. The results are discussed in terms of displacement damage produced by energetic protons and gamma-radiation in the bulk of the semiconductor.

Kulkarni, S. R.; Sarma, A.; Joshi, G. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

2003-09-01

431

Quantification of Survival Gain From Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The goal of this study was to examine the impact of calculation-window duration on lifespan gain (as observed in trials) and on who gains most. Background The landmark trials of biventricular pacing (cardiac resynchronization therapy [CRT]) typically ran for <1 device battery life, and they may therefore underestimate lifespan benefit over longer durations. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of biventricular pacing trials to calculate lifespan gained: first, within the duration of randomized controlled trial data up to 2 years; second, over a 5-year typical battery life; and third, over >1 battery life. Importantly, we applied the Gompertz method for age-related increase in mortality from non–CRT-preventable causes. Results Five landmark trials (COMPANION [Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure], CARE-HF (CArdiac REsynchronization–Heart Failure), MADIT-CRT [Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy], REVERSE [Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction], RAFT (Resynchronization–Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure)) provided data for 2 years (6,561 patients), with an average hazard ratio of 0.71. Lifespan gained across all trials increased nonlinearly with time from 0.1 month at 1 year, to 0.5 month at 2 years, and a projected 6.5 months at 5 years (65 times more than at 1 year). After multiple devices, it reached 14 months, involving on average 1.6 devices (i.e., 8.8 months per device implanted). Moreover, while over a short window (e.g., 2 years), lower-mortality patients may gain less than higher-mortality patients (1.4 vs. 2.3 months), their positions reverse by 15 years (16.0 vs. 13.7 months). Conclusions Lifespan gain from biventricular pacing rises nonlinearly with time. Early on, higher-risk patients exhibit more gain, but later, lower-risk patients exhibit more gain. Quantifying gain over less than a patient’s lifetime underestimates lifespan gain. Over the first 1 or 2 years, lower-risk patients may seem to gain less, although they may ultimately be the ones who gain the most. PMID:23988700

Finegold, Judith A.; Raphael, Claire E.; Levy, Wayne C.; Whinnett, Zachary; Francis, Darrel P.

2013-01-01

432

Macroscopic magnetic structures with balanced gain and loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate magnetic nanostructures with balanced gain and loss and show that such configurations can result in a new type of dynamics for magnetization. Using the simplest possible setup consisting of two coupled ferromagnetic films, one with loss and another one with a balanced amount of gain, we demonstrate the existence of an exceptional point where both the eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors become degenerate. This point corresponds to a particular value of the gain and loss parameter ? =?c . For ? ?c it is complex, signaling unstable dynamics which is, however, stabilized by nonlinearity.

Lee, J. M.; Kottos, T.; Shapiro, B.

2015-03-01

433

Measuring gain-sharing dividends in acute care hospitals.  

PubMed

Hospitals have responded to industry consolidation by increasing productivity with nonmanagement, group-incentive compensation, known as gain sharing. A nationwide study conducted to obtain quantitative performance data for gain-sharing programs revealed that they are most successful during the initial stages of the program. Many variables affect the size of employee bonuses and the duration of employee support. Employers must identify how to appropriately install their gain-sharing program so that employee motivation, participation, and trust in management are maximized. PMID:8206759

Barbusca, A; Cleek, M

1994-01-01

434

Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-04-01

435

Gain enhancement of microstrip antennas with overlaying parasitic directors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of gain enhancement in microstrip antennas using identical parasitic patch directors is reported. The results indicate that, with two overlying parasitic directors, the gain of a rectangular microstrip antenna is enhanced from 4.7 dB to 10.6 dB, while the 3 dB beamwidth is reduced from 103 deg to 30 deg for the E-plane and from 70 deg to 35 deg for the H-plane. The three-layer electromagnetically coupled patch antenna exhibits similar antenna characteristics to those of the Yagi array, with over 120 dB gain and with about 1 percent bandwidth.

Lee, R. Q.; Lee, K. F.

1988-01-01

436

Does percutaneous nephrolithotomy cause elevated cardiac troponins?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the treatment of choice in large and staghorn renal stones, and myocardial infarction is one the possible complications during and after the surgery. We investigated if renal and skeletal muscle injury, caused by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, can cause elevation in cardiac troponins (cTn). METHODS This study was conducted on otherwise healthy patients with renal stone undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and cTn assessment confirmed no cardiac pathology in any patients. Cardiac troponins T (cTnT) and I (cTnI), and also creatine kinase (CK) were assessed before and after surgery. RESULTS A total of 55 patients (69.1% males, mean age: 40.5 ± 13.8 year) were included. Serum creatinine level ranged from 0.7 to 1.3 mg/dl (mean = 1.03 ± 0.17). The level of CK was significantly increased by 469.5 ± 201.4 U/l (P < 0.001), and no positive cTnT or cTnI was observed after surgery. CONCLUSION The results of the present study showed that renal cell injury, caused by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, is not associated with elevated cardiac troponins. These findings show that increasing troponins in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy indicate a cardiovascular pathology. PMID:24963313

Shemirani, Hassan; Khanjani, Reza; Mohammadi-Sichani, Mehrdad; Mozafarpour, Sarah; Rabbani, Majid; Shahabi, Javad

2014-01-01

437

Engineering Clostridia Neurotoxins with elevated catalytic activity.  

PubMed

BoNT/B and TeNT cleave substrate VAMP2 at the same scissile bond, yet these two toxins showed different efficiency on substrate hydrolysis and had different requirements for the recognition of P2' site of VAMP2, E(78). These differences may be due to their different composition of their substrate recognition pockets in the active site. Swapping of LC/T S1' pocket residue, L(230), with the corresponding isoleucine in LC/B increased LC/T activity by ?25 fold, while swapping of LC/B S1' pocket residue, S(201), with the corresponding proline in LC/T increased LC/B activity by ?10 fold. Optimization of both S1 and S1' pocket residues of LC/T, LC/T (K(168)E, L(230)I) elevated LC/T activity by more than 100-fold. The highly active LC/T derivative engineered in this study has the potential to be used as a more effective tool to study mechanisms of exocytosis in central neuron. The LC/B derivative with elevated activity has the potential to be developed into novel therapy to minimize the impact of immunoresistance during BoNT/B therapy. PMID:23994593

Guo, Jiubiao; Pan, Xuehua; Zhao, Yanxiang; Chen, Sheng

2013-11-01

438

Elevated T cell subpopulations in dental students  

SciTech Connect

The absolute numbers of circulating white cells and lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 25 final-year dental students and compared with a control group of 28 medical students. The total lymphocyte count, total T cell numbers (CD3), T helper/inducer (CD4), and T suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the T helper/inducer to T suppressor/cytotoxic cell ratios or the circulating B cell (CD21) and natural killer cell (CD16) numbers between the study and control groups. Patch testing to mercury and mercuric compounds in both the study and control groups showed no evidence of cutaneous hypersensitivity to mercury. The reason for the observed elevations in T cell subpopulations in dental students is not clear. However, one possible explanation is the dental student's occupational exposure to mercury. Further work is underway to examine this possible relationship and it is suggested that dental personnel take adequate measures to reduce their exposure to mercury until the results of these studies are available.

Eedy, D.J.; Burrows, D.; Clifford, T.; Fay, A. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (Ireland))

1990-05-01

439

Bergmann's Rule rules body size in an ectotherm: heat conservation in a lizard along a 2200-metre elevational gradient.  

PubMed

Bergmann's Rule predicts larger body sizes in colder habitats, increasing organisms' ability to conserve heat. Originally formulated for endotherms, it is controversial whether Bergmann's Rule may be applicable to ectotherms, given that larger ectotherms show diminished capacity for heating up. We predict that Bergmann's Rule will be applicable to ectotherms when the benefits of a higher conservation of heat due to a larger body size overcompensate for decreased capacity to heating up. We test this hypothesis in the lizard Psammodromus algirus, which shows increased body size with elevation in Sierra Nevada (SE Spain). We measured heating and cooling rates of lizards from different elevations (from 300 to 2500 m above sea level) under controlled conditions. We found no significant differences in the heating rate along an elevational gradient. However, the cooling rate diminished with elevation and body size: highland lizards, with larger masses, have a higher thermal inertia for cooling, which allows them to maintain heat for more time and keep a high body temperature despite the lower thermal availability. Consequently, the net gaining of heat increased with elevation and body size. This study highlights that the heat conservation mechanism for explaining Bergmann's Rule works and is applicable to ectotherms, depending on the thermal benefits and costs associated with larger body sizes. PMID:25387908

Zamora-Camacho, F J; Reguera, S; Moreno-Rueda, G

2014-12-01

440

Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use  

PubMed Central

Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

2013-01-01

441

Compartment-specific transcriptomics in a reef-building coral exposed to elevated temperatures.  

PubMed

Although rising ocean temperatures threaten scleractinian corals and the reefs they construct, certain reef corals can acclimate to elevated temperatures to which they are rarely exposed in situ. Specimens of the model Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from upwelling reefs of Southern Taiwan were previously found to have survived a 36-week exposure to 30°C, a temperature they encounter infrequently and one that can elicit the breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis in many corals of the Pacific Ocean. To gain insight into the subcellular pathways utilized by both the coral hosts and their mutualistic Symbiodinium populations to acclimate to this temperature, mRNAs from both control (27°C) and high (30°C)-temperature samples were sequenced on an Illumina platform and assembled into a 236 435-contig transcriptome. These P. damicornis specimens were found to be ~60% anthozoan and 40% microbe (Symbiodinium, other eukaryotic microbes, and bacteria), from an mRNA-perspective. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of genes from the Symbiodinium compartment were differentially expressed after two weeks of exposure. Specifically, at elevated temperatures, Symbiodinium populations residing within the coral gastrodermal tissues were more likely to up-regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism than their coral hosts. Collectively, these transcriptome-scale data suggest that the two members of this endosymbiosis have distinct strategies for acclimating to elevated temperatures that are expected to characterize many of Earth's coral reefs in the coming decades. PMID:25354956

Mayfield, Anderson B; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shu-Hwa

2014-12-01

442

Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity, with combined effects that, at least in some settings, are simple, additive combinations of single-factor effects. PMID:12810960

Zavaleta, Erika S.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Chiariello, Nona R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.

2003-01-01

443

Nitrogen saturation and soil N availability in a high-elevation spruce and fir forest  

SciTech Connect

A field study was conducted during the summer of 1995 to gain abetter understanding of the causes of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) leaching and ongoing changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in high-elevation (1524-2000 m) spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Indicators of soil N availability (total soil N concentrations, extractable NH{sub 4}-N, extractable NO{sub 3}-N, and C/N ratios) were measured in Oa and A horizons at 33 study plots. Dynamic measures included potential net soil N mineralization determined in 12-week aerobic laboratory incubations at 22 C. Potential net nitrification in the A horizon was correlated (r = + 0.83, P < 0.001) with total soil n concentrations. mostmeasures of soil n availability did not exhibit significanttrends with elevation, but there were topographic differences. Potential net soil N mineralization and net nitrification in the A horizon were higher in coves than on ridges. Relative amounts of particulate and organomineral soil organic matter influenced potential net N mineralization and nitrification in the A horizon. Calculations indicate that soil N availability and NO{sub 3}-N leaching in high-elevation spruce and fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park will increase in response to regional warming.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2000-06-01

444

Compartment-specific transcriptomics in a reef-building coral exposed to elevated temperatures  

PubMed Central

Although rising ocean temperatures threaten scleractinian corals and the reefs they construct, certain reef corals can acclimate to elevated temperatures to which they are rarely exposed in situ. Specimens of the model Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from upwelling reefs of Southern Taiwan were previously found to have survived a 36-week exposure to 30°C, a temperature they encounter infrequently and one that can elicit the breakdown of the coral–dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis in many corals of the Pacific Ocean. To gain insight into the subcellular pathways utilized by both the coral hosts and their mutualistic Symbiodinium populations to acclimate to this temperature, mRNAs from both control (27°C) and high (30°C)-temperature samples were sequenced on an Illumina platform and assembled into a 236 435-contig transcriptome. These P. damicornis specimens were found to be ?60% anthozoan and 40% microbe (Symbiodinium, other eukaryotic microbes, and bacteria), from an mRNA-perspective. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of genes from the Symbiodinium compartment were differentially expressed after two weeks of exposure. Specifically, at elevated temperatures, Symbiodinium populations residing within the coral gastrodermal tissues were more likely to up-regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism than their coral hosts. Collectively, these transcriptome-scale data suggest that the two members of this endosymbiosis have distinct strategies for acclimating to elevated temperatures that are expected to characterize many of Earth's coral reefs in the coming decades. PMID:25354956

Mayfield, Anderson B; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shu-Hwa

2014-01-01

445

Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.  

PubMed

Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (?(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress. PMID:25462972

Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

2015-02-01

446

Endogenous Melanocortin System Activity Contributes to the Elevated Arterial Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that activation of the CNS melanocortin system reduces appetite while increasing sympathetic activity and arterial pressure. The present study tested whether endogenous activity of the CNS melanocortin 3/4 receptors (MC3/4-R) contributes to elevated arterial pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of hypertension with increased sympathetic activity. A cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle of male SHR and Wistar (WKY) rats for chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions (0.5 ?L/h). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded 24 hour/d using telemetry. After 5-day control period, rats were infused with MC3/4-R antagonist (SHU-9119, 1 nmol/h-ICV) for 12 days, followed by 5-day posttreatment period. MC3/4-R antagonism increased food intake in SHR by 90% and in WKY by 125%, resulting in marked weight gain, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinemia in SHR and WKY. Despite weight gain, MC3/4-R antagonism reduced HR in SHR and WKY (?40 bpm), while lowering MAP to a greater extent in SHR (?22±4 mm Hg) than WKY (?4±3 mm Hg). SHU9119 treatment failed to cause further reductions in MAP during chronic adrenergic blockade with propranolol and terazosin. These results suggest that endogenous activity of the CNS melanocortin system contributes to the maintenance of adrenergic tone and elevated arterial pressure in SHR even though mRNA levels for POMC and MC4R in the mediobasal hypothalamus were not increased compared to WKY. These results also support the hypothesis that weight gain does not raise arterial pressure in the absence of a functional MC3/4-R. PMID:18285617

da Silva, Alexandre A.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Kanyicska, Bela; Dubinion, John; Brandon, Elizabeth; Hall, John E.

2009-01-01

447

Increased gain of channel intensifier tubes by pulsed biasing  

SciTech Connect

Although the most common use of proximity-focused channel intensifier tubes (CITs) is as optical image amplifiers, electrical gating allows them to be used as fast shutters. Except for gating, however, the effects of imposing transient or pulsed changes on CIT biases have received little attention in the literature. It would be desirable in many applications to attain the maximum possible gain, but not at the expense of reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the experiments described here, we used pulsed biasing to increase gain; our measurements show a marked increase in gain over the dc gain without the increase in electronic noise and risk of damage that higher dc potentials create. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Noel, B.W.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1987-09-01

448

A method of evaluation of gas gain in proportional counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of evaluation of gas amplification in proportional counters, independently of gas gain measurements, is presented. The approach, particularly useful for high regions of the reduced electric field, (S=E/P), involves the fit of an analytic expression to all the S regions of the Townsend first ionization coefficient, (?/P), experimental data. This approach is also useful for the estimation of gas gain for established gas mixtures but of nonstandard proportions such as Ar/Xe/CO2. The constants obtained in the process were used to evaluate the fundamental gas gain equation. An appropriate formula was then found to fit the resulting data. A component of the method is the generation of (?/P) data for gas mixtures. Comparison of this work with various gas amplification models in the literature was effected. Physical phenomena which may be responsible for differences between calculated and experimental gas gain are discussed.

Akande, Wole

1992-10-01

449

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2013-04-01

450

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2014-04-01

451

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2012-04-01

452

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2011-04-01

453

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2010-04-01

454

Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawson's test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

2013-01-01

455

Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift  

SciTech Connect

A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-11-15

456

Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ  

SciTech Connect

The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

Fisk, William J.

2000-08-01

457

Extended Reach GPON Using High Gain Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1300 nm semiconductor optical amplifier has been developed for extended reach GPON applications. The high gain of 29 dB has and enabled a commercial GPON system to operate over 60 km and with 128-way split.

Derek Nesset; Shamil Appathurai; Russell Davey; T. Kelly

2008-01-01

458

Gain scheduling for geometrically nonlinear flexible space structures  

E-print Network

A gain-scheduling approach for the control of geometrically nonlinear structures is developed. The objective is to improve performance over current linear design techniques that are applied to the same control problem. The ...

Yung, Jeremy Hoyt, 1971-

2002-01-01

459

26 CFR 1.1202-1 - Deduction for capital gains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1202-1 Deduction for capital gains. (a) In computing gross...

2010-04-01

460

Fluerics 42: Some commonly used laminar fluidic gain blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents data and operating experience information on many commonly used laminar gain blocks from two to eight stages. In addition, as an aid to design, a short computer program is presented, suitable for use with a pocket programmable calculator. Outputs from this program are individual stage data including nominal supply pressures and flows and staged gain. Also available is the net gain and the bandwidth at 90 deg of phase shift. Several examples of this program are given to cover multiple-stage gain blocks. As an example of the utility of the program, a step-by-step tradeoff study is presented for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology fluidic servovalve, for which an attempt is made to maximize bandwidth and minimize leakage flow.

Drzewiecki, T. M.

1982-09-01

461

Reliability Gain of Network Coding in Lossy Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

Science University of Calgary mghaderi@cs.ucalgary.ca Don Towsley and Jim Kurose Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts Amherst {towsley,kurose}@cs.umass.edu Abstract--The capacity gain

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

462

20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

2014-04-01

463

20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

2010-04-01

464

20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

2011-04-01

465

20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

2013-04-01

466

20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

2012-04-01

467

Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.

2002-01-01

468

On the kriging of water table elevations using collateral information from a digital elevation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In unconfined aquifers flowing under topographic gradients, the water table is a subdued replica of the ground surface above. This principle is the basis for using detailed collateral or secondary information from digital elevation models to supplement sparse observations from water wells in the mapping of phreatic surfaces. Data from DEM-derived secondary variables are incorporated into the estimation of water

A. J. Desbarats; C. E. Logan; M. J. Hinton; D. R. Sharpe

2002-01-01

469

The significance of persistent ST elevation versus early resolution of ST segment elevation after primary PTCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo determine the prevalence and clinical significance of early ST segment elevation resolution after primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDDespite angiographically successful restoration of coronary flow early during AMI, adequate myocardial reperfusion might not occur in a substantial portion of the jeopardized myocardium due to microvascular damage. This phenomenon comprises the potentially beneficial effect of

Shlomi Matetzky; Maxim Novikov; Luis Gruberg; Dov Freimark; Micha Feinberg; Dan Elian; Ilya Novikov; Elio Di Segni; Oren Agranat; Yedael Har-Zahav; Babeth Rabinowitz; Elieser Kaplinsky; Hanoch Hod

1999-01-01

470

CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation  

E-print Network

.72' Exercise 1: For the leveling data above, calculate the final elevation of BM2 Exercise 2: For the leveling readings. However, CANNOT determine which one. BM1/BM2 = 15.34' Exercise 3: For the leveling data above, determine if the loop is closed and Exercise 4: For the leveling data above, determine the correct final

Ahmad, Sajjad

471

CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation  

E-print Network

data above, calculate the final elevation of BM2 Exercise 2: For the leveling data above, calculate.54 Inst 4 7.98 Inst 4 13.65 BM1 7.53 BM 658.99' Exercise 3: For the leveling data above, determine if the loop is closed and Exercise 4: For the leveling data above, determine the correct final forward perform

Ahmad, Sajjad

472

Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Altimetry and Digital Elevation Models in the Polar Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global set of Ground Control Points (GCPs) from altimetry measurements from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) has been produced with the support of the NASA's Earth Surface and Interior Program. The highest quality altimetry measurements that can be used for ground control have been selected by applying rigorous editing criteria. This database represents a key means to establishing a much-needed global topography reference frame to aid solid Earth application studies, particularly useful at high latitudes, where other topographic control is scarce. ICESat GCPs were used to characterize and quantify spatially varying elevation biases in Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in the polar regions, assessing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of valuable topographic datasets produced by sensors like ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) missions, and datasets like GMTED2010 (Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data), developed by the USGS (United States Geological Survey) and NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency), a large improvement over the global GTOPO30 dataset. We have analyzed error statistics globally and per continent, in conjunction with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) and MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) land cover products, relief, topography and other DEM and altimetry specific parameters, and will present the results of these evaluations.

Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.

2012-12-01

473

Speech waveform encoding using contour gain vector quantization  

E-print Network

SPEECH WAVEFORM ENCODING USING CONTOUR GAIN VECTOR QUANTIZATION A Thesis by KEVIN THOMAS MALONE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A k M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1985 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering SPEECH WAVEFORM ENCODING USING CONTOUR GAIN VECTOR QUANTIZATION A Thesis by KEVIN THOMAS MALONE Approved as to style and content by: Thomas R. Fischer (Chairman of Committee) Noel R. Strader (Member...

Malone, Kevin Thomas

1985-01-01

474

Recent Progress in High-Gain FEL Theory  

SciTech Connect

High-gain free electron lasers (FEL) are being developed as extremely bright x-ray sources of a next-generation radiation facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory and the recent progress in understanding the startup, the exponential growth and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). We will also discuss how the FEL performance may be affected by various errors and wakefield effects in the undulator.

Huang, Z.; /SLAC

2005-09-30

475

The gain-bandwidth of hybrid optical transistors  

SciTech Connect

A small-signal analysis is presented for the optical gain of hybrid optical transistors. The adjustment of the operating conditions of the nonlinear optical transmission element are compared for both the Fabry-Perot resonator and the mirrorless electrooptic modulator. The optical gain-bandwidth product is obtained for both first-order and second-order feedback electronic circuits. This product is proportional to the circuit bandwidth. The effect of quadratic electronic nonlinearity on the operation is given.

Ibrahim, M.M. (Ain-Shams Univ., Abassia, Cairo (EG))

1988-11-01

476

Superradiance in the high-gain free-electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the effects of slippage on the single-pass high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier. We use a one-dimensional computational code to show the existence of two new dynamical regimes characterized by a dimensionless parameter K, which is a measure of the slippage in one gain length. We define the long-pulse limit to be when K<<1 or the

R. Bonifacio; B. W. J. McNeil; P. Pierini

1989-01-01

477

Soft-switching interleaved boost converter with high voltage gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a soft-switching interleaved boost converter with high voltage gain is presented. The high voltage gain converter is far suitable for applications where a high step-up voltage is required, as in some renewable energy systems, which use, for example, photovoltaic panels and\\/or fuel cells. Besides, in order to guarantee small switching losses and, consequently, a high efficiency, a

R. N. A. L. Silva; G. A. L. Henn; P. P. Praca; L. H. S. C. Barreto; D. S. Oliveira Jr; F. L. M. Antunes

2008-01-01

478

Novel method for double phase conjugation in gain media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for double phase conjugation in gain media is studied theoretically in the steady-state regime. A full numerical model predicts that due to the potential for large nonlinearity in gain media, very high phase-conjugate reflectivity can be achieved. The greater-than-unity reflectivity allows the input beams to be replaced by low-reflectivity output couplers resulting in a novel type of self-starting holographic laser.

Green, R. P. M.; Crofts, G. J.; Damzen, M. J.

1996-02-01

479

WFC3 Thermal Vac Testing: UVIS Gain Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated WFC3 instrument recently underwent testing under thermal vacuum (TV) conditions in the GSFC SES (Goddard Space Flight Center Space Environment Simulator). One of the tests was procedure UVIS03: relative gain as a function of temperature. Analysis of the UVIS03 data show that the gain ratios, relative to the nominal 1.5, are 1.01-1.04, 2.09-2.15, and 4.28-4.39 at a detector

S. Baggett

2005-01-01

480

Psychosocial working conditions and weight gain among employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To study the associations between psychosocial working conditions and weight gain.DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS:Data from postal questionnaires (response rate 67%) sent to 40- to 60-y-old women (n=7093) and men (n=1799) employed by the City of Helsinki in 2000–2002 were analysed. Weight gain during the previous 12 months was the outcome variable in logistic regression analyses. Independent variables included Karasek's job

T Lallukka; M Laaksonen; P Martikainen; S Sarlio-Lähteenkorva; E Lahelma

2005-01-01

481

PiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost  

E-print Network

PiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost by the ConstruCtion of Keystone XL a rePort by CorneLL university GLobaL Labor institute PiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost by the ConstruCtion of Keystone XL 1 over the next decade--if the US government would open public lands, beaches, oceans, to unlimited oil

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

482

The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions are derived for the probabilityP_{n,m}that a pulse initiated bynelectrons (or holes) in a uniformly multiplying semiconductor diode will result in a total number of electrons (or holes)m, to give a gainm\\/n, and for the probabilityQ_{n,m}that the gain will bem\\/nor greater. It is shown that the distributions are far from Gaussian. The gain distributionP_{1,m}for a single photoelectron, for example, is

R. J. McIntyre

1972-01-01

483

A SiGe MMIC variable gain cascode amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silicon-germanium variable gain cascode amplifier has been developed to combine the functionality of an amplifier and an attenuator into one monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). The cascode amplifier, which was designed for a 7-11 GHz frequency range, achieved a gain of 12.5 dB, an input return loss of 7.5 dB, and an output return loss of 12.5 dB. The

Qasim Chaudhry; Raul Alidio; Glenn Sakamoto; Terry Cisco

2002-01-01

484

Computer simulation of space station computer steered high gain antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical modeling and programming of a complete simulation program for a space station computer-steered high gain antenna are described. The program provides for reading input data cards, numerically integrating up to 50 first order differential equations, and monitoring up to 48 variables on printed output and on plots. The program system consists of a high gain antenna, an antenna gimbal control system, an on board computer, and the environment in which all are to operate.

Beach, S. W.

1973-01-01

485

High gain amplifiers: Power oscillations and harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the power oscillations in saturated high gain free electron laser amplifiers and show that the relevant period can be written in terms of the gain length. We use simple arguments following from the solution of the pendulum equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Nontrivial effects due to nonlinear harmonic generation and inhomogeneous broadening are discussed too, as well as the saturated dynamics of short pulses.

Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S. [ENEA, Dipartimento Tecnologie Fisiche e Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

2007-08-01

486

Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space  

DOEpatents

Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

Hakala, Harri (Hyvinkaa, FI); Mustalahti, Jorma (Hyvinkaa, FI); Aulanko, Esko (Kerava, FI)

2000-01-01

487

Field Dependent Dopant Deactivation in Bipolar Devices at Elevated irradiation Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Metal-oxide-silicon capacitors fabricated in a bi-polar process were examined for densities of oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated substrate acceptors following high-dose-rate irradiation at 100 C. Acceptor neutralization near the Si surface occurs most efficiently for small irradiation biases in depletion. The bias dependence is consistent with compensation and passivation mechanisms involving the drift of H{sup +} ions in the oxide and Si layers and the availability of holes in the Si depletion region. Capacitor data from unbiased irradiations were used to simulate the impact of acceptor neutralization on the current gain of an npn bipolar transistor. Neutralized acceptors near the base surface enhance current gain degradation associated with radiation-induced oxide trapped charge and interface traps by increasing base recombination. The additional recombination results from the convergence of carrier concentrations in the base and increased sensitivity of the base to oxide trapped charge. The enhanced gain degradation is moderated by increased electron injection from the emitter. These results suggest that acceptor neutralization may enhance radiation-induced degradation of linear circuits at elevated temperatures.

WITCZAK,STEVEN C.; LACOE,RONALD C.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; MAYER,DONALD C.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

2000-08-15

488

Relationship Between Infant Weight Gain and Later Asthma  

PubMed Central

Like obesity, the prevalence of asthma has increased over the past several decades. Accelerated patters of infant growth have been associated with obesity and its co-morbidities. We aimed to determine if infant weight gain pattern is associated with asthma development later in childhood. Birth weight, growth, pulmonary function, and symptom data were collected in a trial of 2–3 year old children at-risk for asthma randomized to a two-year treatment with inhaled corticosteroids or placebo followed by a one year observation period off study medication. Patterns of infant weight gain between birth and study enrollment were categorized as accelerated, average, or decelerated. Regression analyses were used to test the effects of infant weight gain pattern prior to study enrolment on outcomes during the observation year and at study conclusion while adjusting for demographics, baseline symptom severity, study treatment, and atopic indicators. Among the 197 study participants, early life weight gain pattern was not associated with daily asthma symptoms or lung function at the study’s conclusion. However, both prednisone courses (P=.01) and urgent physician visits (P<.001) were significantly associated with weight gain pattern with fewer exacerbations occurring amongst those with a decelerated weight gain pattern. We conclude that early life patterns of weight change were associated with subsequent asthma exacerbations, but were not associated with asthma symptoms or pulmonary function during the preschool years for these children at-risk for asthma. PMID:19725894

Paul, Ian M.; Camera, Lindsay; Zeiger, Robert S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Taussig, Lynn M.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Covar, Ronina A.; Krawiec, Marzena; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Mauger, David T.

2010-01-01

489

New recommended heat gains for commercial cooking equipment  

SciTech Connect

Radiant heat gain from cooking equipment can significantly impact the air-conditioning load and/or human comfort in a commercial kitchen. This paper presents and discusses updated heat gain data for several types of commercial cooking equipment based on recent testing by gas and electric utility research organizations. The cooking equipment was tested under exhaust-only, wall-canopy hoods. The fundamentals of appliance heat gain are reviewed and the new data are compared with data published in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 26, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. These updated data are now incorporated in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, chapter 28, nonresidential cooling and heating load calculations. The paper also discusses appliance heat gain with respect to sizing air-conditioning systems for commercial kitchens and presents representative radiant factors that may be used to estimate heat gain from other sizes or types of gas and electric cooking equipment when appliance specific heat gain data are not avoidable.

Fisher, D.R. [Fisher Consultants, Danville, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

490

Dieting: proxy or cause of future weight gain?  

PubMed

The relationship between dieting and body mass has a long and controversial history. This paper aims to help resolve this issue by making two key distinctions. The first is between dieting as a cause of weight gain/regain and as a proxy risk factor for identifying non-obese individuals prone to weight gain for reasons other than dieting. The second is between the body mass that is attained following one or more weight loss/regain cycles and the body mass that might have been reached had dieting never been undertaken. Evidence is reviewed on the relation between recent diet-induced weight loss and sustained weight loss (weight suppression), on the one hand, and weight regain, on the other hand. Furthermore, the reason that a history of dieting in non-obese individuals reflects a susceptibility to future weight gain is explained. It is concluded that (i) diet-induced weight loss hastens weight regain but a history of weight loss diets does not cause weight gain beyond that which would occur in the absence of dieting, and (ii) weight loss dieting in non-obese individuals does not cause future weight gain but is simply a proxy risk factor reflecting a personal vulnerability to weight gain and living in an obesogenic environment. PMID:25614200

Lowe, M R

2015-02-01