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1

Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

2009-01-01

2

Elevated dissolved phosphorus in riparian groundwater along gaining urban streams.  

PubMed

Findings of low concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in groundwater in large surveys [e.g., United States Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program ( Dubrovsky, N. M.; et al. The Quality of Our Nation's Water: Nutrients in the Nation's Streams and Groundwater, 1992-2004 . U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1350; USGS : Reston, VA , 2010 . ); >5000 wells] support the common perception that groundwater is generally of little importance for transporting phosphorus. Here, we address whether this applies to urban riparian settings, where discharging groundwater may potentially contribute to urban stream syndrome and downstream eutrophication problems. This survey study includes 665 samples of groundwater collected along gaining stream reaches at six urban sites. Considering the combined sample set, 27% had soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations >0.1 mg L(-1), which is more than double that determined in the NAWQA Program (12%), while for individual sites the range was 12-52%, excluding one site with consistently low SRP (0%). None of the sites showed significant correlation between SRP and the artificial sweetener acesulfame, a promising wastewater indicator, including two with known wastewater contamination (but the lowest SRP). Rather, high SRP concentrations were associated with geochemically reducing conditions. This could mean that natural aquifer or stream sediment materials were a primary contributor of the elevated SRP observed in this study. PMID:24422427

Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg

2014-02-01

3

The impact of early morning elevated CO sub 2 on foliar carbon gain  

SciTech Connect

Predawn concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the boundary layer above vegetated landscapes can be as much as 200 {mu}L{sup {minus}1} higher than typical midday concentrations (330-360 {mu}l L{sup {minus}1}). This period of elevated CO{sub 2} lasts up to 3 hours after sunrise. Estimates of daily carbon gain from models of photosynthesis have often assumed constant CO{sub 2} concentrations. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models were coupled and used to assess the importance of a diurnal variation in CO{sub 2} concentration. Daily carbon gain estimates based on a constant CO{sub 2} concentration equal to the afternoon average (1,200 to 1,600 h), were as much as 13% less than estimates based on the more realistic diurnal pattern including elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations in the morning. The largest discrepancies in calculated carbon gain (6-13%) occurred for simulated sunny days, and for foliage having a low carboxylation efficiency.

Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

1990-05-01

4

Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

Brooks, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

5

Olanzapine-induced triglyceride and aminotransferase elevations without weight gain or hyperglycemia normalized after switching to aripiprazole.  

PubMed

Olanzapine induced a marked elevation in triglyceride and cholesterol levels and in liver transaminase enzymes after 12 weeks of treatment in a patient with schizophrenia. These changes were not seen in an earlier 10-week course of treatment with risperidone, and improved substantially 1 week after the patient stopped olanzapine and began treatment with aripiprazole. The patient did not exhibit weight gain or hyperglycemia with any of the medications. This case and a review of the literature suggest that olanzapine may have unique properties that affect hepatic enzyme pathways, independent of any effects on weight and glucose, that may lead to hyperlipidemia and transaminitis in some patients. PMID:25036587

Pawelczyk, Tomasz; Pawelczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jablonska, Jolanta

2014-07-01

6

Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.  

PubMed

Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

2008-11-01

7

Attentional Bias to Food Images Associated With Elevated Weight and Future Weight Gain: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine attentional

Sonja Yokum; Janet Ng; Eric Stice

2011-01-01

8

Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.  

PubMed

The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors. PMID:22559496

Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

2012-04-28

9

Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA in the salmon fillet. The effect on fish consumers of such a replacement remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the effect of excessive dietary LA from soyabean oil (SO) on endocannabinoid levels in Atlantic salmon and mice, and study the metabolic effects in mice when SO replaces FO in feed for Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were fed FO and SO for 6 months, and the salmon fillet was used to produce feed for mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed diets of 35% of energy as fat based on FO- and SO-enriched salmon for 16 weeks. We found that replacing FO with SO in feed for Atlantic salmon increased LA, arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated 2-AG and AEA associated with increased feed efficiency, weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation compared with mice fed the FO salmon diet. In conclusion, excessive dietary LA elevates endocannabinoids in the liver of salmon and mice, and increases weight gain and counteracts the anti-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice. PMID:22883314

Alvheim, Anita R; Torstensen, Bente E; Lin, Yu Hong; Lillefosse, Haldis H; Lock, Erik-Jan; Madsen, Lise; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Malde, Marian K

2013-04-28

10

A contractile and counterbalancing adhesion system controls the 3D shape of crawling cells  

PubMed Central

How adherent and contractile systems coordinate to promote cell shape changes is unclear. Here, we define a counterbalanced adhesion/contraction model for cell shape control. Live-cell microscopy data showed a crucial role for a contractile meshwork at the top of the cell, which is composed of actin arcs and myosin IIA filaments. The contractile actin meshwork is organized like muscle sarcomeres, with repeating myosin II filaments separated by the actin bundling protein ?-actinin, and is mechanically coupled to noncontractile dorsal actin fibers that run from top to bottom in the cell. When the meshwork contracts, it pulls the dorsal fibers away from the substrate. This pulling force is counterbalanced by the dorsal fibers’ attachment to focal adhesions, causing the fibers to bend downward and flattening the cell. This model is likely to be relevant for understanding how cells configure themselves to complex surfaces, protrude into tight spaces, and generate three-dimensional forces on the growth substrate under both healthy and diseased conditions. PMID:24711500

Burnette, Dylan T.; Shao, Lin; Ott, Carolyn; Pasapera, Ana M.; Fischer, Robert S.; Baird, Michelle A.; Der Loughian, Christelle; Delanoe-Ayari, Helene; Paszek, Matthew J.; Davidson, Michael W.; Betzig, Eric

2014-01-01

11

Une porte optique intensificatrice picoseconde a gain eleve: Caracterisation et application potentielle en imagerie de petits objets places dans des milieux diffusants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dans cette etude, nous avons developpe un amplificateur a colorant possedant ces deux caracteristiques. Le colorant choisi, l'iodure de 3,3'-dimethyloxatricarbocyanine (methyl-DOTCI), possede un epaulement dans la bande d'absorption a 620 nm ce qui convient bien a notre pompe femtoseconde. De plus, son maximum de fluorescence est a 720 nm ce qui est particulierement interessant dans le cas des etudes avec des tissus biologiques humains. En effet, la fenetre dite "therapeutique" se situe dans les longueurs d'onde rouge et proche infrarouge. Le phenomene d'amplification, qui se produit dans des conditions experimentales precises, est en fait une emission stimulee du colorant qui est largement favorisee par rapport a sa fluorescence naturelle (emission spontanee). L'arrivee du signal incident, dont la longueur d'onde correspond au saut energetique entre l'etat fondamental et l'etat excite ou se trouvent les molecules, provoque une avalanche coherente de celles-ci vers l'etat fondamental generant ainsi l'emission stimulee. Une des conditions necessaires pour l'obtention d'un gain eleve est que la duree de l'impulsion de pompe soit inferieure au temps de relaxation des molecules ainsi qu'inferieure au temps requis pour effectuer un trajet dans la cellule de colorant. Ceci nous a permis d'amplifier un signal incident par un facteur entre 103 et 104. De plus, ce gain eleve n'est observe qu'a l'interieur d'une fenetre temporelle d'environ 10 picosecondes. Nous avons integre cet amplificateur a notre montage de transillumination afin d'acquerir des images d'un patron de lignes opaques immerge dans un milieu diffusant liquide. Des images de lignes ayant une resolution spatiale de 200 mum ont ete obtenues. La cible etait placee au centre d'un melange contenant des proportions variables de lait et d'eau. Deux longueurs de trajet optique dans la solution ont ete utilisees: 30 et 50 mm. Pour determiner les proprietes optiques de notre milieu diffusant, nous avons mis au point une technique de caracterisation basee sur la distribution radiale des photons transmis a travers le milieu. Deux parametres de transport, les coefficients de diffusion effectif (mus') et d'absorption (mu a), caracterisent la forme et l'amplitude du profil radial. Le fit des courbes experimentales a des courbes simulees nous a permis d'extraire ces coefficients. Les courbes simulees ont ete realisees grace a une simulation Monte Carlo qui incorpore les conditions experimentales de notre montage de caracterisation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Marengo, Stephanie

12

Walking kinetics of the stick insect using a low-inertia counter-balanced, pair of independent treadwheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treadwheel system consisting of two light foam wheels rotating independently on a counterbalanced gimbal is described. A stick insect rigidly fixed by the meso- and metathorax walks readily on the two wheels and can make turning movements in which the wheels rotate with different velocity. The dynamics and coordination of the animal on this device are compared with free

D. Graham; Fachbereich Biologic

1981-01-01

13

Moderating the interaction between procedural justice and decision frame: the counterbalancing effect of personality traits.  

PubMed

This study examined the framing effect of decision making in contexts in which the issue of social justice matters as well as the moderating effects of personality traits on the relationship between justice and framing effects. The authors manipulated procedural justice and outcome valence of the decision frame within two vignettes and measured two personality traits (self-efficacy and anxiety) of participants. The results from 363 participants showed that the moderating effects of personality traits counterbalanced the interaction between justice and framing, such that for individuals with high self-efficacy/low trait anxiety, justice effects were larger in negative framing than in positive framing; those with the opposite disposition exhibited the opposite pattern. These effects were interpreted in terms of an attribution process as the information processing strategy. The aforementioned findings suggest that the justice and decision theories can be developed to account for the moderating effects of personality traits. Some limitations of this study and the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:23469475

Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

2013-01-01

14

Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds.

Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

2011-11-01

15

Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy  

PubMed Central

High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds. PMID:22128989

Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

2011-01-01

16

Multiphase Tertiary erosion history and elevation gain of the High Plains of New Mexico and Texas: A signal of widespread mid-Tertiary lithospheric modification?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The undeformed High Plains of North America are located over 1,000 km east of the nearest plate boundary but reach elevations of >2 km at their boundary with the southern Rocky Mountains. East of the mountain front elevations decrease gradually, but remain as high as 1 km in northern Texas. Despite the accumulation of extensive geological and geophysical datasets, there is no consensus on the mechanisms that caused high elevations in the region or on how these mechanisms may be linked to the history of deformation and volcanism in the neighboring Rocky Mountains. The timing of unroofing and uplift is key to differentiating between these mechanisms, but this too remains debated. A 350 km-long integrated apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) east-west transect from the southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico across the High Plains into northern Texas provides insight into the spatial and temporal variability of unroofing across this region during Cenozoic time. The southern Sangre de Cristo Range separates the High Plains of northern New Mexico from the Rio Grande Rift. At the western edge of the southern Sangre de Cristo Range, AFT and AHe data from Precambrian basement samples show an age-elevation relationship and indicate cooling and rapid unroofing through the shallow crust during the early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. At the eastern edge of the range, both AFT and AHe data record a late Tertiary cooling episode as young as mid-Miocene. Samples from Triassic sandstones on the High Plains 50 km east of the mountain front yield mid-Tertiary AFT and late Tertiary AHe dates. These data require post-depositional heating of samples to above ~110 °C, followed by at least 1.5 km of relatively rapid unroofing on the western High Plains between 17 Ma and the initiation of Ogallala Group deposition at ~12 Ma. This interval of unroofing predates the <10 Ma volcanism along the nearby Jemez lineament. The easternmost samples in the Texas Panhandle suggest that a smaller degree of post-depositional heating caused minimal annealing of fission tracks and partial resetting of the AHe system prior to cooling and unroofing during the mid-Tertiary. Together these results indicate that multiphase Tertiary cooling and unroofing on the High Plains took place over a wide region that stretches as far as 300 km east of the rugged Cordilleran front. This implies Tertiary lithospheric modification over the same spatial extent as the cause, due either to volcanism associated with the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup or to the initiation of the Rio Grande Rift system. The results may therefore constrain the development of the low-velocity mantle that contributes to high elevations throughout the Rocky Mountain-High Plains region.

Landman, R.; Flowers, R. M.; Kelley, S.

2013-12-01

17

Development of an indirect counterbalanced pendulum optical-lever thrust balance for micro- to millinewton thrust measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and testing of an indirect hanging pendulum thrust balance using a laser-optical-lever principle to provide micro- to millinewton thrust measurement for the development of electric propulsion systems. The design philosophy allows the selection of the total thrust range in order to maximize resolution through a counterbalanced pendulum principle, as well as passive magnetic damping in order to allow relatively rapid transient thrust measurement. The balance was designed for the purpose of hollow cathode microthruster characterization, but could be applied to other electric propulsion devices in the thrust range of micro- to millinewtons. An initial thrust characterization of the T5 hollow cathode is presented.

Grubiši?, A. N.; Gabriel, S. B.

2010-10-01

18

Implementation and integration of a counterbalanced CRT-based stereoscopic display for interactive viewpoint control in virtual environment applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA-Ames Counterbalanced CRT-based Stereoscopic Viewer (CCSV), which is being used as a viewing device for biomechanical CAD environments, is uniquely suited for applications in which the user frequently moves between desk work and virtual environment viewing, or in which high resolution views of the virtual environment are required, or in which the viewing device must be shared among collaborators in a group setting. The CCSV hardware encompasses a dual-CRT-based stereoscopic viewer with wide-angle optics, a video electronics box, a dedicated microprocessor system monitoring joint angles in the linkage, and a host computer interpreting sensor values and running the application which renders the right and left views for reader CRTs.

Mcdowall, I. E.; Bolas, M.; Pieper, S.; Fisher, S. S.; Humphries, J.

1990-01-01

19

Elevated expression of p53 gain-of-function mutation R175H in endometrial cancer cells can increase the invasive phenotypes by activation of the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway  

PubMed Central

Background p53 is the most commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancers. In addition to the loss of tumor suppression function and exertion of dominant-negative effects over the remaining wild-type protein, several p53 mutants can gain novel oncogenic functions (gain-of-function, GOF) that actively regulate cancer development and progression. In human endometrial cancer, p53 mutation is more often associated with aggressive nonendometrioid cancer. However, it was unknown if p53 mutants contributed to endometrial cancer progression through the GOF properties. Methods To clarify the relationship between expression of p53 GOF mutation (p53-R175H) and invasive potential of human endometrial cancer KLE cells, we tested the consequences of up-regulation and down-regulation of p53-R175H in KLE cells by inducing p53-R175H expression vector or suppressing the p53 gene with short hairpin RNA. Results We found that forced over-expression of p53-R175H significantly promoted cell migration and invasion, and induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Conversely, suppression of p53-R175H with short hairpin RNA significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion, and resulted in attenuation of EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway. Conclusion These findings show for the first time that elevated expression of p53-R175H mutant may exert gain-of-function activity to activate the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway and thus may contribute to the invasive phenotype in endometrial cancer. PMID:19917135

2009-01-01

20

Dual roles for CoAA and its counterbalancing isoform CoAM in human kidney cell tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Co-Activator Activator (CoAA) has been reported to be a coactivator that regulates steroid receptor-mediated transcription and alternative RNA splicing. Herein we show that CoAA is a dual-function coregulator that inhibits G1/S transition in human kidney cells and suppresses anchorage independent growth and xenograft tumor formation. Suppression occurs in part by downregulating c-myc and its downstream effectors ccnd1 and skp2, and causing accumulation of p27/Kip1 protein. In this cellular setting, CoAA directly represses the proto-oncogene, c-myc by recruiting HDAC3 protein and decreasing both the acetylation of histone H3 and the presence of RNA polymerase II on the c-myc promoter. Interestingly, a splicing isoform of CoAA, Coactivator Modulator (CoAM), antagonizes CoAA-induced G1/S transition and growth inhibition by negatively regulating the mRNA levels of the endogenous CoAA isoform. In addition, we found that expression of CoAA protein is significantly decreased in human renal cell carcinoma as compared to normal kidney. Our study presents evidence that CoAA is a potential tumor suppressor in renal carcinoma and that CoAM is a counterbalancing splice-isoform. This is so far the only example of a nuclear receptor coregulator involved in suppression of kidney cancer, and suggests potentially significant new roles for coregulators in renal cancer biology. PMID:18829545

Kang, Yun Kyoung; Schiff, Rachel; Ko, Lan; Wang, Tao; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; W. O'Malley, Bert

2008-01-01

21

No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population  

PubMed Central

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

2014-01-01

22

No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-01-01

23

Gain weighted eigenspace assignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1994-01-01

24

Invention and Gain Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

1989-01-01

25

Metamaterials with Gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

Hess, Ortwin

2012-02-01

26

1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS (AS OPPOSED) TO THE SIMILAR STEEL ELEVATOR IN BUFFALO NEW YORK WITH ROUND ELEVATOR BINS. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

27

Vaccination against weight gain  

PubMed Central

Obesity endangers the lives of millions of people worldwide, through comorbidities such as heart disease, cancers, type 2 diabetes, stroke, arthritis, and major depression. New approaches to control body weight remain a high priority. Vaccines traditionally have been used to protect against infectious diseases and, more recently, for unconventional targets such as drug addiction. Methodologies that could specifically modulate the bioavailability of an endogenous molecule that regulates energy balance might provide a new foundation for treating obesity. Here we show that active vaccination of mature rats with ghrelin immunoconjugates decreases feed efficiency, relative adiposity, and body weight gain in relation to the immune response elicited against ghrelin in its active, acylated form. Three active vaccines based on the 28-aa residue sequence of ghrelin, a gastric endocrine hormone, were used to immunize adult male Wistar rats (n = 17). Synthetic ghrelin analogs were prepared that spanned residues 1–10 [ghrelin (1–10) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr1], 13–28 [ghrelin (13–28) hapten, Ghr2], and 1–28 [ghrelin(1–28) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr3], and included n-butanoyl esters at Ser-3. Groups immunized with Ghr1 or Ghr3 showed greater and more selective plasma binding capacity for the active, Ser-3-(n-octanoyl) form of ghrelin as compared with Ghr2 or keyhole limpet hemocyanin vaccinated controls. Accordingly, they gained less body weight, with sparing of lean mass and preferential reduction of body fat, consistent with reduced circulating leptin levels. The ratio of brain/serum ghrelin levels was lower in rats with strong anti-ghrelin immune responses. Effects were not attributable to nonspecific inflammatory responses. Vaccination against the endogenous hormone ghrelin can slow weight gain in rats by decreasing feed efficiency. PMID:16891413

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Moss, Jason A.; Chang, Jason; Otsuji, Jonathan; Inoue, Koki; Meijler, Michael M.; Janda, Kim D.

2006-01-01

28

Helicopter high gain control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

1979-01-01

29

High gain solar photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skyline Solar Inc. has developed a novel silicon-based PV system to simultaneously reduce energy cost and improve scalability of solar energy. The system achieves high gain through a combination of high capacity factor and optical concentration. The design approach drives innovation not only into the details of the system hardware, but also into manufacturing and deployment-related costs and bottlenecks. The result of this philosophy is a modular PV system whose manufacturing strategy relies only on currently existing silicon solar cell, module, reflector and aluminum parts supply chains, as well as turnkey PV module production lines and metal fabrication industries that already exist at enormous scale. Furthermore, with a high gain system design, the generating capacity of all components is multiplied, leading to a rapidly scalable system. The product design and commercialization strategy cooperate synergistically to promise dramatically lower LCOE with substantially lower risk relative to materials-intensive innovations. In this paper, we will present the key design aspects of Skyline's system, including aspects of the optical, mechanical and thermal components, revealing the ease of scalability, low cost and high performance. Additionally, we will present performance and reliability results on modules and the system, using ASTM and UL/IEC methodologies.

MacDonald, B.; Finot, M.; Heiken, B.; Trowbridge, T.; Ackler, H.; Leonard, L.; Johnson, E.; Chang, B.; Keating, T.

2009-08-01

30

Weight Gain Prevention among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention.Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N

Michele D. Levine; Mary Lou Klem; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Rena R. Wing; Lisa Weissfeld; Li Qin; Marsha D. Marcus

2007-01-01

31

Managing price, gaining profit.  

PubMed

The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

1992-01-01

32

Acting to gain information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

1993-01-01

33

DAMPING OF VEHICLE ROLL DYNAMICS BY GAIN SCHEDULED ACTIVE STEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active steering is applied to robustly reduce the rollover risk of vehicles with an elevated center of gravity. An actu- ator sets an auxiliary steering angle which is mechanically added to the steering angle commanded by the driver. The control law presented, is based on feedback of the roll rate and the roll acceleration. The controller gains are scheduled with

Dirk Odenthal

1999-01-01

34

NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET  

EPA Science Inventory

The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed by merging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital ...

35

NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET HILLSHADE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed bymerging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital E...

36

Airflow models gaining clout  

SciTech Connect

Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

Post, N.M.

1994-10-10

37

Mars elevation distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

1991-01-01

38

Predicting Gains in Dementia Caregiving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Caregiver gain is an important yet less-explored phenomenon. Being conceptually distinct from burden, factors associated with burden and gain can differ. This study aims to explore factors associated with the experience of gains in dementia caregiving. Method: Cross-sectional study involving caregivers recruited from a tertiary hospital dementia clinic and the local Alzheimer’s Association. Caregivers completed a questionnaire containing the

Tau Ming Liew; Nan Luo; Wai Yee Ng; Hui Ling Chionh; Jenny Goh; Philip Yap

2010-01-01

39

A Nanotube Space Elevator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, find out about the discovery of a new building material, the carbon nanotube, whose physical properties could theoretically enable the creation of a 22,000-mile elevator to space.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-09-08

40

3. WEST ELEVATION; ELEVATIONS OF ROOM 'C' (DRAWING ROOM); EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. WEST ELEVATION; ELEVATIONS OF ROOM 'C' (DRAWING ROOM); EXTERIOR ELEVATION DOORS A & B; REFLECTED PLAN PANELLED SOFFIT, DOORS A & B - Wakefield, State Route 204, Wakefield Corner, Westmoreland County, VA

41

Sinus floor elevation utilizing the transalveolar approach.  

PubMed

A transalveolar approach for sinus floor elevation with subsequent placement of dental implants was first suggested by Tatum in 1986. In 1994, Summers described a different transalveolar approach using a set of tapered osteotomes with increasing diameters. The transalveolar approach of sinus floor elevation, also referred to as 'osteotome sinus floor elevation', the 'Summers technique' or the 'Crestal approach', may be considered as being more conservative and less invasive than the conventional lateral window approach. This is reflected by the fact that more than nine out of 10 patients who experienced the surgical procedure would be willing to undergo it again. The main indication for transalveolar sinus floor elevation is reduced residual bone height, which does not allow standard implant placement. Contraindications for transalveolar sinus floor elevation may be intra-oral, local or medical. The surgical approach utilized over the last two decades is the technique described by Summers, with or without minor modifications. The surgical care after implant placement using the osteotome technique is similar to the surgical care after standard implant placement. The patients are usually advised to take antibiotic prophylaxis and to utilize antiseptic rinses. The main complications reported after performing a transalveolar sinus floor elevation were perforation of the Schneiderian membrane in 3.8% of patients and postoperative infections in 0.8% of patients. Other complications reported were postoperative hemorrhage, nasal bleeding, blocked nose, hematomas and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Whether it is necessary to use grafting material to maintain space for new bone formation after elevating the sinus membrane utilizing the osteotome technique is still controversial. Positive outcomes have been reported with and without using grafting material. A prospective study, evaluating both approaches, concluded that significantly more bone gain was seen when grafting material was used (4.1 mm mean bone gain compared with 1.7 mm when no grafting material was utilized). In a systematic review, including 19 studies reporting on 4388 implants inserted using the transalveolar sinus floor elevation technique, the 3-year implant survival rate was 92.8% (95% confidence interval: 87.4-96.0%). Furthermore, a subject-based analysis of the same material revealed an annual failure rate of 3.7%. Hence, one in 10 subjects experienced implant loss over 3 years. Several of the included studies demonstrated that transalveolar sinus floor elevation was most predictable when the residual alveolar bone height was ? 5 mm and the sinus floor anatomy was relatively flat. PMID:25123761

Pjetursson, Bjarni E; Lang, Niklaus P

2014-10-01

42

The Efficiency Gains from Deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the efficiency gains from deregulating monopolies using an equilibrium rent seeking model. McCormick, Shughart and Tollison (1984) argue that the initial effort to establish regulation dissipates the monopoly profit, limiting the gain from deregulation to the efficiency cost of monopoly. We establish conditions under which this proposition holds; in particular, the initial rent seekers must fail to anticipate

Marc Poitras; Daniel Sutter

1997-01-01

43

Storms as agents of wetland elevation change: their impact on surface and subsurface sediment processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct measures of the impact of major storms on wetland sediment elevation are rare. Recently developed techniques have enabled simultaneous, quantitative observations of surface and subsurface processes affecting sediment elevation. An analysis of ten wetland sites revealed the following patterns of sediment elevation change after storm passage: (1) elevation change equivalent to sediment accretion or erosion, (2) elevation loss in spite of sediment deposition, or in excess of erosion, and (3) elevation gain greater than the amount of sediment accretion. These observations suggest that storms influence sediment elevation not only by sediment deposition and erosion but also through subsurface processes of sediment compaction, root growth and decomposition, and water flux. Wetlands receiving a substantial deposit of sediment did not always realize an equivalent elevation gain. Some realized a net loss in elevation as a result of sediment compaction apparently caused by the weight of the sediment deposit or the tidal surge waters, or both. Sediment elevation collapsed in two mangrove forests with highly organic substrate when the storm killed the forest. In two marshes, elevation gain exceeded deposition apparently through increased sediment water storage or plant root growth via nutrient enrichment from storm sediment deposits. The elevation responses were either temporary or permanent on an ecological time scale (> 8 years). In one organic marsh substrate, compaction was followed by expansion, only to be compacted again by another storm. Thus the elevation response of coastal wetlands to major storms varied depending on local substrate conditions and degree of storm impact.

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

44

Mechanisms of the Rosetta high gain antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the antenna pointing mechanism (APM) and the hold down and release mechanism (HRM) used in the high gain antenna of the ROSETTA mission. The hold down and release mechanism consists of three units which compensate the tolerance mismatch between antenna and spacecraft through incorporation of potting rings. Given that the activation mode is pyrotechnic, release shock is a major concern and is minimised through integration of shock absorbers which allow stroking of the separation nuts. The antenna pointing mechanism is a dual drive (azimuth over elevation) unit which allows controlled rotation of the antenna. The drive units incorporate spring loaded end stops to prevent the antenna from hitting the spacecraft, and optical encoders which register the absolute position of the antenna. The pointing and the hold down mechanisms of the ROSETTA antenna are fully qualified and will withstand the high launch loads of the Ariane-5 and the environmental demands of deep space operation.

Pereira, Carlos

2001-09-01

45

Severe obesity, gestational weight gain, and adverse birth outcomes123  

PubMed Central

Background: The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines by obesity severity. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5–9 kg at term, for all obese women. Objective: We explored associations between gestational weight gain and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs), and medically indicated preterm births (iPTBs) among obese women who were stratified by severity of obesity. Design: We studied a cohort of singleton, live-born infants without congenital anomalies born to obesity class 1 (prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)]: 30–34.9; n = 3254), class 2 (BMI: 35–39.9; n = 1451), and class 3 (BMI: ?40; n = 845) mothers. We defined the adequacy of gestational weight gain as the ratio of observed weight gain to IOM-recommended gestational weight gain. Results: The prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain declined, and weight loss increased, as obesity became more severe. Generally, weight loss was associated with an elevated risk of SGA, iPTB, and sPTB, and a high weight gain tended to increase the risk of LGA and iPTB. Weight gains associated with probabilities of SGA and LGA of ?10% and a minimal risk of iPTB and sPTB were as follows: 9.1–13.5 kg (obesity class 1), 5.0–9 kg (obesity class 2), 2.2 to <5.0 kg (obesity class 3 white women), and <2.2 kg (obesity class 3 black women). Conclusion: These data suggest that the range of gestational weight gain to balance risks of SGA, LGA, sPTB, and iPTB may vary by severity of obesity. PMID:20357043

Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Himes, Katherine P; Abrams, Barbara

2010-01-01

46

Adaptive allocation of attentional gain  

PubMed Central

Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

2009-01-01

47

The Lloyd L. Gaines Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Born in 1911, Lloyd Lionel Gaines was one of eleven children. Gaines excelled in his studies and applied to the University of Missouri School of Law in 1936. He was denied admission solely on the grounds that Missouri's state constitution called for "separate education of the races." Gaines did not back down from this injustice, and he sought legal assistance from the NAACP. In 1938, Gaines won his case before the United States Supreme Court, but tragically Gaines disappeared at age 28 in Chicago and was never seen or heard from again. This engaging collection from the University of Missouri Law Library brings together documents related to Gaines's life, including photographs, family correspondence, materials related to his Supreme Court case, and related secondary materials. Visitors to the site can perform a simple search across all the materials, or dig in deeper by perform a citation search. Legal scholars will find the Case Materials area particularly engaging, as it includes links to the trial briefs, respondents' statements, and so on.

48

ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY  

E-print Network

-domain effect (MDE), source­sink dy- namics, species­area relationships, heterogeneity, and history. I changes in climate, plant communities, and faunal assemblages with increasing elevation have led of plants and animals was higher in the low- lands than at the mountaintops. Willdenow, von Hum- boldt

McCain, Christy M.

49

Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.  

PubMed

Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d?=?2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d?=?1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d?=?1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

2013-01-01

50

Gain restoration after Doppler filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic gain control in a pulse Doppler radar receiver is provided after Doppler filtering by a gain restoration system which embodies dynamic correction based on variable returns from clutter and targets. The radar uses a digital fast automatic gain control (FAGC) with a technique known as block adaptive signal regulation (BASR). This technique evaluates all the time samples in a range gate before they enter the fast Fourier transform (FFT) circuit. The invention of this disclosure feeds the information regarding the number of BASR shifts, N, forward to the output of the FFT as a function of range gate. In this way the gain-corrected amplitudes are available for target centroiding. The concept of dynamic FAGC correction based upon the amplitude of clutter and target returns avoids the problems encountered when the system is used in an urban area or with a narrow clutter notch filter. In the past, such operation has resulted in a loss of detectability on small targets in the presence of large targets. However, the gain restoration system described herein feeds the information regarding the number of BASR shifts, N, forward to the output of the FFT as a function of range gate.

Bryant, S. M.

1984-10-01

51

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

1985-01-01

52

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Program is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to hot section components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Progress during the past year included linear-elastic fracture mechanics data reduction on nonlinear crack growth rate data on Alloy 718. The bulk of the analytical work centered on thermal gradient problems and proposed fracture mechanics parameters. Good correlation of thermal gradient experimental displacement data and finite element prediction was obtained.

Malik, S. N.; Vanstone, R. H.; Kim, K. S.; Laflen, J. H.

1987-01-01

53

LOW-ELEVATION NESTING BY CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRDS IN THE WESTERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calliope Hummingbird breeds uncommonly to fairly commonly in the Sierra Nevada and other high mountain ranges in California. In the Sierra it typically nests above 4000 feet elevation (Grinnell and Miller 1944, Gaines 1992, pers. obs.), usually near moist meadows or other relatively level and wet sites with a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees, shrubs, and flowering plants

2001-01-01

54

43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

55

49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION OF BODY BUILDING, 1980 (MMI) - Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company Plant, Between Joseph Campau & Conant Avenues, Hamtramck, Wayne County, MI

56

2. EAST ELEVATION. IT IS CURRENTLY THE ENTRANCE ELEVATION. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAST ELEVATION. IT IS CURRENTLY THE ENTRANCE ELEVATION. THE STREET TO THE LEFT IS RANSTEAD STREET, AND THE STREET TO THE RIGHT IS LUDLOW STREET - Philadelphia Bourse, 11-21 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

57

Elevations and Floor Plan of Shed No. 1, Elevations and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevations and Floor Plan of Shed No. 1, Elevations and Floor Plan of Work Shed, Elevations and Floor Plan of Garage - Roberts-Dolezal Farmstead, 75 miles northeast of the intersection of CR27 and FM 1722, Garrett, Ellis County, TX

58

Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

59

Digital Elevation Models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

1993-01-01

60

Elevated temperature crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alloy 718 crack growth experiments were conducted to assess the ability of the selected path-independent (P-I) integrals to describe the elevated temperature crack growth behavior. These tests were performed on single edge notch (SEN) specimens under displacement control with multiple extensometers to monitor the specimen and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The displacements in these tests were sufficiently high to induce bulk cyclic inelastic deformation of the specimen. Under these conditions, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter K does not correlate the crack growth data. The experimentally measured displacement gradients at the end of specimen gage length were used as the boundary conditions in elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) analyses. These analyses were performed with a node release approach using CYANIDE, a GEAE FEM code, which included a gap element which is capable of efficiently simulating crack closure. Excellent correlation was obtained between the experimentally measured and predicted variation of stress and CMOD with crack length and the stress-CMOD loops for Alloy 718 tests conducted at 538 C. This confirmed the accuracy of the FEM crack growth simulation approach. The experimentally measured crack growth rate data correlated well the selected P-I integrals. These investigations have produced significant progress in developing P-I integrals as non-linear fracture mechanics parameters. The results suggest that this methodology has the potential of accurately describing elevated temperature crack growth behavior under the combined influence of thermal cycling and bulk elastic-inelastic deformation states.

Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

1989-01-01

61

Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy  

E-print Network

the first Elevate America offering--a partnership with state governments to provide computer skills train the Elevate America veterans initiative, a two-year program to help U.S. military veterans and their spouses transition to civilian employment. In February 2011, we launched the Elevate America community initiative

Bernstein, Phil

62

Weight gain following smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Smoking generally suppresses body weight below "normal," and smoking cessation allows weight to return to normal. This weight gain following cessation appears to be due to a transient increase in eating coupled with the removal of acute metabolic effects of each cigarette, with no change in physical activity. Nevertheless, tobacco smoke (and specifically nicotine) does not appear to be simply either an anorectic or a thermogenic agent. Although there may be no easy explanation for the effects of smoking on energy balance, the most parsimonious explanation may be that smoking lowers body weight "set point" and cessation raises set point. The transient changes in eating are therefore secondary to the changes in body weight set point. This notion is supported by animal research with nicotine as well as with other drugs, and it is also supported less directly by the pattern of changes observed with changes in smoking status among humans. A set-point explanation for weight gain after smoking cessation may also help explain the lack of success of interventions designed to prevent this weight gain. PMID:8245274

Perkins, K A

1993-10-01

63

Dam Rain and Cumulative Gain  

E-print Network

We consider a financial contract that delivers a single cash flow given by the terminal value of a cumulative gains process. The problem of modelling and pricing such an asset and associated derivatives is important, for example, in the determination of optimal insurance claims reserve policies, and in the pricing of reinsurance contracts. In the insurance setting, the aggregate claims play the role of the cumulative gains, and the terminal cash flow represents the totality of the claims payable for the given accounting period. A similar example arises when we consider the accumulation of losses in a credit portfolio, and value a contract that pays an amount equal to the totality of the losses over a given time interval. An explicit expression for the value process is obtained. The price of an Arrow-Debreu security on the cumulative gains process is determined, and is used to obtain a closed-form expression for the price of a European-style option on the value of the asset. The results obtained make use of va...

Brody, Dorje C; Macrina, Andrea

2007-01-01

64

Clinical Gains from Including Both Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate in Stimulant Trials  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical gains from including both dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in stimulant trials. Method Thirty-six medication-naïve children ages 9–14 years diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were enrolled for 6 weeks in a crossover trial, with 2 weeks of methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and placebo, in a randomly assigned, counterbalanced sequence. Outcome measures constituted a computer-based continuous performance test combined with a motion tracking system (Qb Test) and an ADHD questionnaire rated by parents and teachers. Results Group analyses found significant treatment effects of similar size for the two stimulants on both outcome measures. Single-subject analyses revealed that each stimulant produced a favourable response in 26 children; however, an individual child frequently responded qualitatively or quantitatively differently to the two stimulants. By including both stimulants in the trial, the number of favorable responders increased from 26 (72%) to 33 (92%). In children with favorable responses of unequal strength to the two stimulants, a shift from inferior drug to best drug was associated with a 64% mean increase in the overall response strength score, as measured by the ADHD questionnaire. Conclusions The likelihood of a favorable response and optimal response strength is increased by including both stimulants in the stimulant trial. The study was first registered in clinical trials 28 September 2010. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01220440. PMID:23659360

R?inas, Elisabeth; Aabech, Henning S.; Sundet, Kjetil S.

2013-01-01

65

Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

Jordan, E. H.

1984-01-01

66

Severely elevated transaminases in an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder that is associated with numerous medical complications and affects both females and males. Severely elevated transaminases have been reported in adult and younger females. We report the first case of elevated transaminases in an adolescent male with AN. The pathophysiologic mechanism of severely elevated serum transaminases observed in malnourished adolescent males with AN is complex and appears to be multifactorial. We present the first case of an adolescent male with AN who developed severely elevated serum transaminases that normalized with improved nutrition and weight gain. Liver injury in patients with AN is a complex medical complication that appears to be multifactorial in origin. In this case, starvation-induced autophagy in the human liver was considered one of the most likely mechanisms to explain hepatocytic injury in this patient. PMID:23881604

Smith, Ryan W; Korenblum, Chana; Thacker, Kunal; Bonifacio, Herbert Joey; Gonska, Tanja; Katzman, Debra K

2013-11-01

67

Commutated automatic gain control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

Yost, S. R.

1982-01-01

68

Redundancy gains in retinotopic cortex  

PubMed Central

It is widely claimed that interactions among simultaneously presented visual stimuli are suppressive and that these interactions primarily occur when stimuli fall within the same receptive field (Desimone and Duncan 1995). Here, we show evidence for a novel form of interaction between simultaneously presented but distant stimuli that does not fit either pattern. To examine interactions between simultaneously presented stimuli, we measure the response to a single stimulus as a function of whether or not other stimuli are also presented simultaneously, and we further ask how the response to a given stimulus is affected by whether the simultaneously present stimuli are identical or different from each other. Our method reveals a new phenomenon of “redundancy gain:” the visual response to a stimulus is higher when accompanied by identical stimuli than when that stimulus is presented alone, even though the stimuli are displayed in separate visual quadrants. This pattern is observed throughout the visual hierarchy, including V1 and V2, and we show that it is distinct from the well-known simultaneous suppression effect (Kastner et al. 1998). We propose that the redundancy gain in early retinotopic cortex results from feedback from higher visual areas and may underlie perceptual averaging and other ensemble coding phenomena observed behaviorally. PMID:23904496

Jiang, Yuhong V.; Kanwisher, Nancy

2013-01-01

69

Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients.  

PubMed

Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations. PMID:16670982

Altshuler, Douglas L

2006-02-01

70

Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

Jordan, E. H.

1985-01-01

71

Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression.  

PubMed

Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation. PMID:25049140

Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean

2014-09-01

72

38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. Addition to Bacteriology Laboratory at Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. January 1916. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

73

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

74

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

75

Unidirectional high gain brake stop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

Lang, David J. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

76

Investigation of the gain regimes and gain parameters of the free electron laser dispersion equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small signal gain curve and various gain parameters have been computed by solving numerically the generalized gain-dispersion equation of free electron lasers (FEL), which characterizes the conventional magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL, as well as a large number of other FEL devices. The method includes high gain, collective, and axial velocity spread effects, and some waveguide effects. The FEL gain regimes

E. Jerby; A. Gover

1985-01-01

77

Science on a space elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by

B. E. Laubscher; A. M. Jorgensen

2004-01-01

78

Investigation of the gain regimes and gain parameters of the free electron laser dispersion equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small signal gain curve and various gain parameters have been computed by solving numerically the generalized gain-dispersion equation of free electron lasers (FEL), which characterizes the conventional magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL, as well as a large number of other FEL devices. The method includes high gain, collective, and axial velocity spread effects, and some waveguide effects. The FEL gain regimes are investigated and presented in terms of only three universal FEL characteristic parameters. The approximative analytic gain expressions are compared to the numerical computation results, and the approximation error is computed and displayed. In the intermediate regimes (high-low gain, tenuous-collective beam, cold-warm beam), the gain parameters are given in terms of useful curves, and a heuristic approximative formula is suggested for estimating the axial velocity spread gain reduction factor in all gain regimes. Gain bandwidth and beam quality acceptance parameters are defined and computed in all gain regimes.

Jerby, E.; Gover, A.

1985-07-01

79

Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted weight gain recommendations. PMID:18926129

Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

2008-01-01

80

Factors affecting feedlot gains of Hereford bulls  

E-print Network

initial condition and average daily gain was the only significant relationship reported. They con- cluded, from this correlation, that thinner animals at the beginning of the test gained faster than the ones of higher condition. These findings were... initial condition and average daily gain was the only significant relationship reported. They con- cluded, from this correlation, that thinner animals at the beginning of the test gained faster than the ones of higher condition. These findings were...

Thomas, Richard Carroll

2012-06-07

81

Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.

Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.

1993-08-01

82

Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the

David J. Nagel

2011-01-01

83

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-10-01

84

26 CFR 1.1233-1 - Gains and losses from short sales.  

...provisions of section 1233 and this section shall not apply to any bona fide hedging transaction in commodity futures entered into by flour millers, producers of cloth, operators of grain elevators, etc., for the purpose of their business. Gain or loss...

2014-04-01

85

26 CFR 1.1233-1 - Gains and losses from short sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by flour millers, producers of cloth, operators of grain elevators, etc., for the purpose of their business. Gain or loss...transactions in any commodity on or subject to the rules of a board of trade or commodity exchange, a commodity future...

2010-04-01

86

Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2014-01-01

87

Path loss and antenna gain considerations for unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unatttended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems are adversely affected by the physics of RF propagation at low elevations. Units are often located at or below ground level in an effort to reduce the visual signature. Two key elements of the link budget work are compromised by the ground level antenna height: path loss and antenna gain. A two-ray reflected path model

Thomas Bruns

2004-01-01

88

1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

89

Early and late weight gain and the timing of puberty.  

PubMed

Nutrition is an important regulator of the tempo of growth and obesity is usually associated with tall childhood stature and earlier pubertal development. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that timing of puberty is most closely linked to infancy weight gain: suggesting an early window for programming of growth and development. Earlier puberty in the UK MRC 1946 birth cohort was related to smaller size at birth and rapid growth between 0 and 2 years. Rapid early weight gain leads to taller childhood stature and higher insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, possibly through early induction of growth hormone (GH) receptor numbers, and such children are also at risk of childhood obesity. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, rapid infancy weight gain was associated with increased risk of obesity at 5 and 8 years, with evidence of insulin resistance, exaggerated adrenarche and reduced levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Potentially the elevated IGF-I and adrenal androgen levels, increased aromatase activity and increased 'free' sex steroid levels consequent to lower SHBG levels could all promote activity of the GnRH pulse generator. In addition obese children have higher leptin levels, a proven permissive factor in initiating LH pulsatility. Obesity could also affect the rate of progression through puberty as nutrition and SHBG may act respectively as an accelerator and brake on peripheral sex steroid action. Early weight gain and early pubertal development might also be associated with loss of the pubertal growth spurt perhaps through obesity-related suppression of GH secretion. Trans-generational recurrence of low birth weight, early catch-up weight gain, earlier menarche, and shorter adult stature have been observed in women, and could contribute to the strong heritability in age at menarche. PMID:16824679

Dunger, David B; Ahmed, M Lynn; Ong, Ken K

2006-07-25

90

Elevation Derivatives for National Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2005-01-01

91

Space Elevator: Path to Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Elevator is the most promising Space Transportation system on the drawing boards today, combining scalability, qualify of ride, and safety to deliver truly commercial-grade space access-practically comparable to a train ride to space.

Kaushal, A. K.

2012-05-01

92

Special Issue: High Elevation Forests  

E-print Network

of these ecosystems are approximate, as ranges vary from location to location.) Elevation(feet) Alpine Tundra Forest-Alpine Ecotone Sub-Alpine Forest Upper Montane Lower Montane Lower Ecotone Shrubland Shortgrass Steppe Bill

93

Gain and loss mechanisms in fluorocarbon plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding dominant reaction channels for important gas-phase species in fluorocarbon plasmas is crucial to the ability to control surface evolution and morphology. In order to accomplish this goal a modified GEC reference ICP reactor is used in tandem with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the densities of stable species. Integrated absorption cross-sections are presented for all fundamental bands in the 650 cm-1 to 2000 cm-1 region for C3F6, C4F 8, C3F8, C2F6, C2F 4, and CF4. The results show that although the absorption profile changes significantly, the integrated absorption cross-sections, with the exception of CF4, do not change significantly as gas temperature increases from 25°C to 200°C. However, the internal temperature of the absorbing species can be estimated from the rotational band maximum in most cases. Species densities obtained with the aforementioned cross-sections are used with a novel analysis technique to quantify gain and loss rates as functions of residence time, pressure, and deposited power. CF4, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F 10, share related production channels, which increase in magnitude as the plasma pressure, deposited power, or surface temperature are raised. CF 2 is primarily produced through a combination of surface production (the magnitude also increases with temperature) and electron impact dissociation of C2F4, while it is predominantly lost in the large reactor to gas-phase addition to form C2F4. Time-resolved FTIR results are used to measure a cross-section of 1.8x10-14 cm3/s for the reaction between CF2 radicals creating C2F4. Finally, C2F4 originates through the electron impact dissociation of c- C4F8. The loss process for C2F4 is undetermined, but the results indicate that it could occur on reactor surfaces. Neither the density of fluorine nor the ion flux to the chuck surface changes substantially with wall temperature. We show that increases in the deposition rate in a heated chamber are due to an increase in the fluxes of depositing neutral species. Furthermore, the sticking coefficient for these species does not change significantly as a function of surface temperature. Instead, surface temperature elevates the yield of etchant species, which terminate broken bonds to increase the desorption rates of stable species.

Nelson, Caleb Timothy

94

Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Cherry, J. A.; McKee, K. L.; Grace, J. B.

2009-01-01

95

Ka-band monolithic gain control amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band has been developed based on 0.25 micron-gate-length dual-gate FETs fabricated on ion-implanted material. A single-stage monolithic amplifier gives a gain of 6 dB at 31 GHz including fixture losses with a gain control range of over 20 dB. The device and IC design and fabrication are described.

Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Contolatis, T.

1986-01-01

96

2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

97

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food...Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended...

2011-04-01

98

[Incidental finding: elevated TSH level].  

PubMed

The use of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) testing in routine laboratory screening and testing of TSH before administration of contrast medium, resulted in an increased number of incidentally detected elevated TSH levels. In the case of slightly increased values in asymptomatic patients, repeated measurement of TSH is recommended for confirmation. Confirmed elevated TSH levels should lead to additional measurements of the peripheral thyroid hormones, determination of thyroid autoantibodies and performance of thyroid gland ultrasound examination. The most common reasons for acquired subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland and in many cases substitution therapy with levothyroxine is then necessary. In subclinical hypothyroidism it remains unclear at which TSH levels the initiation of substitution therapy makes sense. In the case of simultaneously elevated peripheral thyroid hormones rare diseases, such as secondary hyperthyroidism and thyroid hormone resistance should be considered. PMID:25204533

Faust, M; Krone, W

2014-10-01

99

ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch  

E-print Network

on the effect of mobile marketing on the advertising industry." You may also want to learn more about the field on the effect of mobile marketing on the advertising industry. Review your full elevator pitch. Would you like a student in the College of Business at Colorado State University with a concentration in Marketing. (fill

Barnes, Elizabeth A.

100

Can Free Trade Guarantee Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic gains from trade are the reasons why countries embark on the path of free trade, expecting this to promote industrialization and development. There is nothing, however, in the conventional theory of international trade that guarantees that these gains will materialize and even if they do, they may not accelerate industrialization and growth. This is because there are

Moritz Cruz

2008-01-01

101

Gain Curves for Inertial Fusion Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain curve for an inertial fusion target of a given class -- that is, fusion energy gain as a function of driver energy -- is a common central design need. However, the formal process of obtaining such data is a complex undertaking. In particular, as driver energy changes, target characteristics must change to optimize performance subject to constraints such

L. John Perkins

2005-01-01

102

Meaningful Reading Gains by Adult Literacy Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To obtain a fuller picture of the efficacy of reading instruction programs for adult literacy learners, gains by individual students were examined in a sample (n = 148) in which weak to moderate gains at the group level had been obtained in response to tutoring interventions that focused on strengthening basic decoding and fluency skills of low…

Scarborough, Hollis S.; Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Cutting, Laurie E.; Pugh, Kenneth; Katz, Leonard

2013-01-01

103

Contrast Gain Control in Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary The auditory system must represent sounds with a wide range of statistical properties. One important property is the spectrotemporal contrast in the acoustic environment: the variation in sound pressure in each frequency band, relative to the mean pressure. We show that neurons in ferret auditory cortex rescale their gain to partially compensate for the spectrotemporal contrast of recent stimulation. When contrast is low, neurons increase their gain, becoming more sensitive to small changes in the stimulus, although the effectiveness of contrast gain control is reduced at low mean levels. Gain is primarily determined by contrast near each neuron's preferred frequency, but there is also a contribution from contrast in more distant frequency bands. Neural responses are modulated by contrast over timescales of ?100 ms. By using contrast gain control to expand or compress the representation of its inputs, the auditory system may be seeking an efficient coding of natural sounds. PMID:21689603

Rabinowitz, Neil C.; Willmore, Ben D.B.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.; King, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

104

ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.  

PubMed

The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

2014-10-26

105

ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies  

PubMed Central

The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes.

Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

2014-01-01

106

Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive “wires”. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the “passive” view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g., putting in a contact lens) to highly forceful (emergency reactions). Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation. PMID:25120435

Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, Charles J.

2014-01-01

107

Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.  

PubMed

Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney. PMID:842643

Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

1977-02-01

108

Elevated interleukin-6 in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been shown to be increased in a number of autoimmune disorders and have recently been shown to be elevated in the serum of schizophrenic patients. Given the involvement of the CNS in schizophrenia, levels of interleukin-6 in the CSF are also of interest. Thus, we examined levels of both CSF and serum IL-6 concomitantly to

Daniel P van Kammen; Cathy G McAllister-Sistilli; Mary E Kelley; John A Gurklis; Jeffrey K Yao

1999-01-01

109

Special Issue: High Elevation Forests  

E-print Network

) and Colorado State Forest Service Colorado State Demography Office Colorado Tourism Office Nancy FisheringSpecial Issue: High Elevation Forests 2008 The Health of Colorado's Forests Report #12;David A. Leatherman, Forest Entomologist, Colorado State Forest Service (retired), is the primary author of the 2008

110

Controlling gain one photon at a time  

PubMed Central

Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

2013-01-01

111

Provider advice about pregnancy weight gain and adequacy of weight gain.  

PubMed

To explore the association between health care provider advice about weight gain and gestational weight gain. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we explored the association between provider advice about weight gain in pregnancy with weight gain adequacy among 1,454 pregnant women. Provider advice was measured by maternal self-report at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Linear and Poisson regression were used to explore associations. Seventy-eight percent of the women gained outside current recommendations. Fifty-one percent reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider. Adjusted Generalized Linear Model (GLM) estimates showed weak effect of provider advice on inadequate or excessive gain (Relative Risk (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.74, 1.26 for inadequate gain and RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.06 for excessive gain). There is a need for more women to hear about their targeted weight gains during pregnancy and the present advice that exists does little to influence actual gains. Further studies are warranted to find better strategies for providers to motivate their patients to gain weight within the appropriate ranges. PMID:22362261

Ferrari, Renée M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

2013-02-01

112

Early Weight Gain Predicting Later Weight Gain Among Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Users  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine if early weight gain in depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users predicts continued excessive weight gain and to identify risk factors of early weight gain in DMPA users. Methods DMPA users (N=240) were assessed prior to initiating contraception and every 3 months for 36 months. Early weight gain was defined as over 5% baseline weight gain within 6 months of DMPA use. Mean weight gain at 6-month intervals was estimated based on early weight gain status (at or below 5% gain vs. above 5% gain). Multiple logistic and mixed-model regression analyses were used. Results About one-fourth of DMPA users had early weight gain. The mean weight gain of the at or below 5% group and above 5% group was 0.63 kg and 8.04 kg, 1.48 kg and 10.86 kg, and 2.49 kg and 11.08 kg after 12, 24, and 36 months (P < 0.001 at all observations), respectively. Early weight gainers also had a much steeper slope of weight gain over time than the regular weight gainers (0.35 kg/month vs. 0.08 kg/month, P < 0.001). Risk factors for early weight gain were: BMI less than 30 (OR 4.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.513 – 10.455), parity (OR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.040 – 4.761), and self-reported increased appetite after 6 months of DMPA use (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.505 – 6.214). Conclusion Most DMPA users who gain excessive weight experience more than a 5% weight increase within 6 months. These data help physicians predict who is at risk of excessive gain and counsel them appropriately. PMID:19622988

LE, Yen-Chi L.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur; BERENSON, Abbey B.

2009-01-01

113

Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a successful application of sheet metal forming technologies at elevated temperatures. Among data needed to settle a numerical model of the process, information about material formability may help in better designing and optimizing hot stamping operations. In the first part of the work, a new experimental apparatus based on Nakazima concept is presented; process parameters are optimized in order to accurately replicate the thermo-mechanical conditions typical of the industrial process, paying particular attention to the thermal and microstructural evolution. On the other hand, as commercial FE codes require the implementation of Forming Limit Diagrams at constant temperature, numerical investigations have been performed in order to determine the proper testing conditions to obtain FLD at nearly constant temperature.

Turetta, A.; Ghiotti, A. [DIMEG, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131, Padova (Italy); Bruschi, S. [DIMS, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38050, Trento (Italy)

2007-04-07

114

Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

2014-07-01

115

Recovery Gains Traction But Manufacturing Hemorrhages  

E-print Network

occurred in the U.S. economy in November 2001--fully 20 months ago--and that this trough marks the end in 2002. Much of this gain was in the educational and health services areas. Other growth industries

116

High-Gain Magnetized Inertial Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.3333505] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA.

Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.

2012-01-01

117

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION  

E-print Network

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION EDUCATION SPECIALIST Charges for Living On Campus $9,025 DEBT AT PROGRAM COMPLETION · Number of Completers with Loan Debt, 2011-12 · Median Cumulative Debt: FEDERAL

Cinabro, David

118

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK  

E-print Network

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM INSOCIAL WORK parenthood, remarriage and stepfamilies. 3. Learn about models of social work intervention with families.00 Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists 251113.00 Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary

Cinabro, David

119

High-gain magnetized inertial fusion.  

PubMed

Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA. PMID:22324693

Slutz, Stephen A; Vesey, Roger A

2012-01-13

120

Gain characteristics of quantum dot injection lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain characteristics of injection lasers based on self-organized quantum dots (QDs) were studied experimentally for two systems: InGaAs QDs in an AlGaAs matrix on a GaAs substrate and InAs QDs in an InGaAs matrix on an InP substrate. A ground-to-excited state transition was observed with increasing threshold gain. An empirical equation is proposed to fit the current density dependence of

A. E. Zhukov; A. R. Kovsh; V. M. Ustinov; A. Yu Egorov; N. N. Ledentsov; A. F. Tsatsul'nikov; M. V. Maximov; Yu M. Shernyakov; V. I. Kopchatov; A. V. Lunev; P. S. Kop'ev; D. Bimberg; Zh I. Alferov

1999-01-01

121

Gendered Ways to Motivation Gains in Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated motivation gains of low performing group members even beyond the level of an individual work\\u000a baseline (e.g., Weber and Hertel, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93:973–993, 2007). We expected that the underlying mechanisms of these motivation gains, i.e., social indispensability and social competition,\\u000a are moderated by individuals’ gender. Moreover, these gender effects were assumed to

Bernhard Weber; Marion Wittchen; Guido Hertel

2009-01-01

122

Gain stabilization for radioactivity well logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A new and improved gain stabilization system for radioactivity well logging apparatus is of the type having a scintillation crystal and optically coupled photomultiplier in a sonde to detect radiation in the borehole and formation elements in response to neutron bombardment. The gain stabilization system includes a light emitting diode driven by a pulser and furnishing scintillations to the photomultiplier, resulting in a stabilization pulse which is furnished to electronic circuitry at the surface for stabilization purposes.

Whatley, H.A.

1980-09-02

123

Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

PubMed Central

Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

2014-01-01

124

Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to "burn," very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed "heat after death" will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear "burning."

Nagel, David J.

2011-03-01

125

Ion implantation at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

1985-11-01

126

Estimating the rate and elevation dependence of net accretion in a freshwater tidal marsh using DEM-registered surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater marshes contribute to estuary health by filtering excess sediment and nutrients delivered from the watershed, but their extent and persistence is threatened by rising sea level. To maintain a semi-emergent position, the marsh surface must gain elevation by accreting mineral and/or organic material at a rate comparable to sea level rise. Historic records of sea level rise (SLR) are available from tide gages, but records of historic elevation change at the necessary precision are rare. Additionally, sedimentation, compaction, erosion, and the resultant net elevation gain are spatially heterogeneous across a marsh, varying with elevation, among other factors. We solve this issue at our study site by taking advantage of a 1992 total station survey of the marsh and RTK GPS surveys from 2005 and 2012, and registering them all against an airborne LiDAR derived DEM. Thus, although no points are directly reoccupied, survey vs. DEM trends can be found for each survey, and an average rate of elevation change can be calculated as a function of DEM elevation. We found rates of net elevation gain ranging spatially from 3-5 mm/yr between the years 1992-2012, similar to the historic rate of SLR at a nearby Washington, DC tide gage of 4 mm/yr over the past 28 years. Net elevation change varied as DEM elevation increased, with several local minima and maxima potentially related to variations and transitions in vegetation community. Assuming IPCC predicted sea level rise and a fixed relationship between elevation and net accretion, we then forecast marsh elevation relative to sea level and associated vegetative community changes through the 21st century using an inundation model that considers net accretion and a constant relationship between vegetation community type and elevation.

Cadol, D. D.; Elmore, A. J.; Engelhardt, K.; Sanders, G.

2012-12-01

127

Microbes on mountainsides: Contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity  

PubMed Central

The study of elevational diversity gradients dates back to the foundation of biogeography. Although elevational patterns of plant and animal diversity have been studied for centuries, such patterns have not been reported for microorganisms and remain poorly understood. Here, in an effort to assess the generality of elevational diversity patterns, we examined soil bacterial and plant diversity along an elevation gradient. To gain insight into the forces that structure these patterns, we adopted a multifaceted approach to incorporate information about the structure, diversity, and spatial turnover of montane communities in a phylogenetic context. We found that observed patterns of plant and bacterial diversity were fundamentally different. While bacterial taxon richness and phylogenetic diversity decreased monotonically from the lowest to highest elevations, plants followed a unimodal pattern, with a peak in richness and phylogenetic diversity at mid-elevations. At all elevations bacterial communities had a tendency to be phylogenetically clustered, containing closely related taxa. In contrast, plant communities did not exhibit a uniform phylogenetic structure across the gradient: they became more overdispersed with increasing elevation, containing distantly related taxa. Finally, a metric of phylogenetic beta-diversity showed that bacterial lineages were not randomly distributed, but rather exhibited significant spatial structure across the gradient, whereas plant lineages did not exhibit a significant phylogenetic signal. Quantifying the influence of sample scale in intertaxonomic comparisons remains a challenge. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the forces structuring microorganism and macroorganism communities along elevational gradients differ. PMID:18695215

Bryant, Jessica A.; Lamanna, Christine; Morlon, Helene; Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Enquist, Brian J.; Green, Jessica L.

2008-01-01

128

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

129

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting

M. C. MacCracken

2005-01-01

130

Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding  

PubMed Central

Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

2012-01-01

131

Ecosystem response to elevated CO2 levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). The extent to which the biosphere can act as a buffer against rising atmospheric CO2 concentration in global climate change projections remains uncertain at the present stage. Biogeochemical theory predicts that soil nitrogen (N) scarcity may limit natural ecosystem response to elevated CO2

J. Adam Langley; J. Patrick Megonigal

2010-01-01

132

Tapered InAs/InGaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier design for enhanced gain and beam quality.  

PubMed

In this Letter, a design for a tapered InAs/InGaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier is proposed and experimentally evaluated. The amplifier's geometry was optimized in order to reduce gain saturation effects and improve gain efficiency and beam quality. The experimental measurements confirm that the proposed amplifier allows for an elevated optical gain in the saturation regime, whereas a five-fold increase in the coupling efficiency to a standard single mode optical fiber is observed, due to the improvement in the beam quality factor M² of the emitted beam. PMID:23939062

Mesaritakis, Charis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Simos, Hercules; Simos, Christos; Krakowski, Michel; Krestnikov, Igor; Syvridis, Dimitris

2013-07-15

133

Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

1991-01-01

134

Life Gain in Italian Smokers Who Quit  

PubMed Central

This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10–19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1–9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt. PMID:24577282

Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

2014-01-01

135

Relating weight gain and feed:gain of male and female broilers to rearing temperature.  

PubMed

The effects of environmental temperature on growth and feed:gain were studied in three trials each for male and female broilers. Chicks were reared in a common environment to 21 d of age. At 21 d, they were randomly allocated to 10 environmental chambers. Each chamber was maintained at a constant temperature; the chambers ranged from 12 to 30 C in two-degree increments. The dewpoint was maintained at 18 C, except that relative humidity was not permitted to exceed 82.9%. Body weight was determined at 21 d. Weight gain and feed:gain were determined at 28, 35, 42, and 49 d. The data were analyzed statistically, and regression equations were obtained for weight gain and feed:gain for each sex. Equations were based on body weight and temperature, and the body weight equations were plotted as grams gained per bird per day. Feed:gain increased with increasing weight. The temperature that resulted in the most favorable feed:gain decreased with increasing weight. These results support lower rearing temperatures for optimum growth and feed:gain by large broilers than those of other reports in the literature. PMID:11372706

May, J D; Lott, B D

2001-05-01

136

Gain Expansion and Compression of SIS Mixers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a well known fact that SIS mixers exhibit gain compression when the output IF voltage swing becomes non-negligible compared to the width of the photon step. In this paper, we show that under certain circumstances, SIS mixers can also exhibit the inverse phenomenon-gain expansion. This non-linear behavior has been observed experimentally when the output power-voltage curve of an SIS mixer has a double peak feature over the photon step. In this case, if the device is biased at the valley position between the two peaks, the conversion gain of the mixer will increase with input signal power. Consequently, the noise temperature of the mixer deduced from a Y-factor measurement will be artificially reduced. Two different experimental methods have been used to characterize the linearity of SIS mixers. The accuracies of both methods are analysed.

Tong, Cheuk-Yu Edward; Hedden, Abigail; Blundell, Raymond

2009-06-01

137

76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approximately 100 feet downstream of the Lusk Branch...Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. [caret] Mean...for inspection at 5301 Country Club Drive, Granbury, TX 76049...Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in...

2011-09-21

138

Graphene as Gain Medium for Broadband Lasers  

E-print Network

In contrast to conventional structures, efficient non-radiative carrier recombination counteracts the appearance of optical gain in graphene. Based on a microscopic and fully quantum-mechanical study of the coupled carrier, phonon, and photon dynamics in graphene, we present a strategy to obtain a long-lived gain: Integrating graphene into a photonic crystal nanocavity and applying a high-dielectric substrate gives rise to pronounced coherent light emission suggesting the design of graphene-based laser devices covering a broad spectral range.

Jago, Roland; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin

2014-01-01

139

Gain of twin antiguiding active slabs  

SciTech Connect

We show that two antiguiding active slabs with appropriate spacing provide higher gain than a single homogeneous active slab for the same pumping rate. Using a reactive-surface approximation, many results are written in analytical form. This discussion is applicable to gain-guided semiconductor lasers in the junction plane and also in the plane perpendicular to the junction in the (rare) cases when a reduction in band gap involves a refractive-index decrease (e.g., active InAs on GaSb substrate).

Fesquet, J.

1986-03-01

140

Beam elevation positioning in geodesic lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of circularly symmetric geodesic lens antennas are considered in which each lens can be designed for any single beam elevation position. This paper investigates a method for controlling beam elevation in a single lens. The beam is positioned in elevation by radial feed movement and the theory for off-focus behavior of geodesic lenses is given. Since the beam

R. Rudduck; C. Walter

1964-01-01

141

Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

McKee, K. L.; Cherry, J. A.

2009-01-01

142

Attentional effects on contrast discrimination in humans: evidence for both contrast gain and response gain  

E-print Network

Attentional effects on contrast discrimination in humans: evidence for both contrast gain the degree to which attention effects can be accounted for by increases in the contrast gain of the contrast response function, CRF (represented by an increase in effective con- trast) vs. increases in the response

Dobkins, Karen R.

143

RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority  

E-print Network

49 LHP: HULME RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE AUTHORITY 2 How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority Mike Hulme Introduction Numerical climate models have become central to the unfolding story of climate change. Climate models underpin the knowledge claims and risk assessments

Hulme, Mike

144

Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

2006-01-01

145

Trans fatty acids and weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing rates of obesity have stimulated research into possible contributing factors, including specific dietary components such as trans fatty acids (TFAs). This review considers the evidence for an association between TFA intake and weight gain. It concludes that there is limited but consistent evidence from epidemiological studies, and from a primate model, that increased TFA consumption may result in a

A K Thompson; A-M Minihane; C M Williams

2011-01-01

146

Brain drain or brain gain: A revisit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature has turned to the brain gain effect, instead of the brain drain effect, that emigration may bring to a source country. This paper, however, suggests brain drain remains a likely outcome. Suppose that foreign language skill affects an individual productivity when working abroad. A brain drain may occur when the (exogenously or endogenously determined) probability of immigration is

Donald Lien; Yan Wang

2005-01-01

147

A brain gain with a brain drain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home

Oded Stark; Christian Helmenstein; Alexia Prskawetz

1997-01-01

148

Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrahigh intensity lasers can potentially be used in conjunction with conventional fusion lasers to ignite inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules with a total energy of a few tens of kilojoules of laser light, and can possibly lead to high gain with as little as 100 kJ. A scheme is proposed with three phases. First, a capsule is imploded as in

Max Tabak; James Hammer; Michael E. Glinsky; William L. Kruer; Scott C. Wilks; John Woodworth; E. Michael Campbell; Michael D. Perry; Rodney J. Mason

1994-01-01

149

Gain International Work Experience in China  

E-print Network

Gain International Work Experience in China www.StudyCLI.org "The CLI internship gave me a huge (CLI) is a China-based center for language and cultural studies that hosts hundreds of students from opportunities, and a variety of China study tour experiences. The organization was founded by two American

Virginia Tech

150

Observational Astronomy Gain of a CCD  

E-print Network

Observational Astronomy ASTR 310 Fall 2010 Project 1 Gain of a CCD 1 Introduction The electronics associated with a CCD typically include clocking circuits to move the charge in each pixel over to a shift (both the shift register and the analog amplifier are usually part of the CCD chip itself

Harrington, J. Patrick

151

Observational Astronomy Gain of a CCD  

E-print Network

Observational Astronomy ASTR 310 Fall 2005 Project 1 Gain of a CCD 1 Introduction The electronics associated with a CCD typically include clocking circuits to move the charge in each pixel over to a shift (both the shift register and the analog amplifier are usually part of the CCD chip itself

Veilleux, Sylvain

152

Observational Astronomy Gain of a CCD  

E-print Network

Observational Astronomy ASTR 310 Fall 2006 Project 1 Gain of a CCD 1 Introduction The electronics associated with a CCD typically include clocking circuits to move the charge in each pixel over to a shift (both the shift register and the analog amplifier are usually part of the CCD chip itself

Veilleux, Sylvain

153

Net Photorefractive Gain In Gallium Arsenide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prerequisite includes applied electric field. Electric field applied to GaAs crystal in which two infrared beams interfere. Depending on quality of sample and experimental conditions, net photorefractive gain obtained. Results offer possibility of new developments in real-time optical processing of signals by use of near-infrared lasers of low power.

Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

1990-01-01

154

Managing your weight gain during pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... basis for a healthy pregnancy. For most pregnant women, the right amount of calories is: 1,800 calories per ... are already overweight when they get pregnant. Other women gain ... on eating the right foods and staying active. If you do not ...

155

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN SCIENTIFIC and Board Charges for Living On Campus $4,513 DEBT AT PROGRAM COMPLETION Number of Completers with Loan Debt, 2011-12 Median Cumulative Debt: FEDERAL Median Cumulative Debt: PRIVATE #12; Median Cumulative

VandeVord, Pamela

156

Experience Matters: Information Acquisition Optimizes Probability Gain  

E-print Network

diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information--information gain and treatment. Carefully designed experiments can facilitate choosing between competing scientific theories amounts, and different kinds of mistakes have different costs, people should use those cost constraints

Cottrell, Garrison W.

157

Gaining Musical Insights: Visualizing Multiple Listening Histories  

E-print Network

Gaining Musical Insights: Visualizing Multiple Listening Histories Ya-Xi Chen Media Informatics.baur@ifi.lmu.de Andreas Butz Media Informatics University of Munich andreas.butz@ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT Listening histories University of Munich yaxi.chen@ifi.lmu.de Dominikus Baur Media Informatics University of Munich dominikus

158

Bayesian inference for the information gain model.  

PubMed

One of the most popular paradigms to use for studying human reasoning involves the Wason card selection task. In this task, the participant is presented with four cards and a conditional rule (e.g., "If there is an A on one side of the card, there is always a 2 on the other side"). Participants are asked which cards should be turned to verify whether or not the rule holds. In this simple task, participants consistently provide answers that are incorrect according to formal logic. To account for these errors, several models have been proposed, one of the most prominent being the information gain model (Oaksford & Chater, Psychological Review, 101, 608-631, 1994). This model is based on the assumption that people independently select cards based on the expected information gain of turning a particular card. In this article, we present two estimation methods to fit the information gain model: a maximum likelihood procedure (programmed in R) and a bayesian procedure (programmed in WinBUGS). We compare the two procedures and illustrate the flexibility of the bayesian hierarchical procedure by applying it to data from a meta-analysis of the Wason task (Oaksford & Chater, Psychological Review, 101, 608-631, 1994). We also show that the goodness of fit of the information gain model can be assessed by inspecting the posterior predictives of the model. These bayesian procedures make it easy to apply the information gain model to empirical data. Supplemental materials may be downloaded along with this article from www.springerlink.com. PMID:21302022

Stringer, Sven; Borsboom, Denny; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

2011-06-01

159

CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation BM1 595.32' ams BM1 1298 appropriate math checks. Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation BM1 745.32' ams BM1 643.65 ams

Ahmad, Sajjad

160

Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

1981-01-01

161

A 3.8 GHz programmable gain amplifier with a 0.1 dB gain step  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broadband programmable gain amplifier (PGA) with a small gain step and low gain error has been designed in 0.13 ?m CMOS technology. The PGA was implemented with open-loop architecture to provide wide bandwidth. A two-stage gain control method, which consists of a resistor ladder attenuator and an active fine gain control stage, provides the small gain step. A look-up table based gain control method is introduced in the fine gain control stage to lower the gain error. The proposed PGA shows a decibel-linear variable gain from -4 to 20 dB with a gain step of 0.1 dB and a gain error less than ±0.05 dB. The 3-dB bandwidth and maximum IIP3 are 3.8 GHz and 17 dBm, respectively.

Nan, Lin; Fei, Fang; Zhiliang, Hong; Hao, Fang

2014-03-01

162

Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

1976-01-01

163

Open quantum systems with loss and gain  

E-print Network

We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system. Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.

Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter

2014-09-09

164

Renewable resources and the gains from trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brander-Taylor small, open-economy model of trade in a renewable resource and other goods is modified to allow for diminishing returns in the other goods sector. It is shown that opening up for trade may result in steady-state gains from trade, even when there is open access to the resource and the country does not specialize fully in resource extraction.

Rögnvaldur Hannesson

2000-01-01

165

High gain feedback and telerobotic tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymptotically stable linear time invariant systems are capable of tracking arbitrary reference signals with a bounded error proportional to the magnitude of the reference signal (and its derivatives). It is shown that a similar property holds for a general class of nonlinear dynamical systems which includes all robots. As in the linear case, the error bound may be made arbitrarily small by increasing the magnitude of the feedback gains which stabilize the system.

Koditschek, D. E.

1987-01-01

166

The space station tethered elevator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

Anderson, Loren A.

1989-01-01

167

Optical gain medium for plasmonic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic nanostructures upon resonant excitation can enhance the local electric field, which could be increased, if these nanostructures are embedded in a gain medium. In this sense, we propose a gain medium as a candidate for the development of nanowaveguide amplifier based on Er3+-doped tellurite glass with embedded silver nanoparticles (NPs). Those glasses are characteristic for their amplifying response in the telecommunication window, and when we embedded metallic NPs modified the crystalline potential surrounding to the Er3+ ions, due to an electric coupling between NP (received/emitter) and Er3+ ion (emitter) enhancement luminescence intensity from the 4I13/2?4I15/2 transition radiative of the Er3+ ions. Besides, the presence these NPs changes the refraction index these glass modifying the complex parameter ?(neff) increasing the polarizability of the samples f(?d). Therefore, a gain medium - Er3+ ions (amplification function in the telecommunication band) with silver NPs (luminescence enhancement) - can increment the propagation length of light into nanowaveguide.

Rivera, V. A. G.; Ledemi, Y.; Osorio, S. P. A.; Ferri, F. A.; Messaddeq, Y.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Marega, E.

2013-03-01

168

Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.  

PubMed

The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests. PMID:23795916

Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

2013-10-01

169

VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain  

E-print Network

Curvature Gain for Redirected Walking Christian T. Neth, Jan L. Souman, David Engel, Uwe Kloos, Heinrich H and orientation. This leads to a redirection of · Christian Neth, Jan Souman, David Engel, Heinrich B

170

VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain  

E-print Network

Curvature Gain for Redirected Walking Christian T. Neth, Jan L. Souman, David Engel, Uwe Kloos, Heinrich H's tracked real movements, hereby decoupling the · Christian Neth, Jan Souman, David Engel, Heinrich B

171

Phase-preserved optical elevator  

PubMed Central

The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

2013-01-01

172

A transformation method for equivalent infinite-gain op amp to unity-gain CCII networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to obtain equivalent networks is proposed. This permits one to synthesize filters with unity-gain CCII± from well-known single infinite-gain op amp configurations. Current transmittance filters with high output impedance and voltage transmittance filters with high input impedance are obtained. These circuits have the same passive sensitivities as their op amp counterparts. So, many particular cases proposed in the

S. Celma; P. A. Martinez; J. Sabadell

1996-01-01

173

A Space Elevator Based Exploration Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances and recent studies have laid the groundwork for eventual construction of a space elevator. Within 15 years an operational space elevator could be running from Earth to beyond geosynchronous. The basic mechanical operation allows for low operational cost ($250\\/kg), high capacity (>13tons, >5tons\\/day\\/elevator), a range of destinations (LEO, GEO, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, and Venus), and minimal launch forces.

Bradley C. Edwards

2004-01-01

174

IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

2012-01-01

175

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair...

2012-04-01

176

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

2014-04-01

177

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

2013-04-01

178

The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.  

PubMed

The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

Schoeller, Dale A

2014-07-01

179

Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic  

E-print Network

human interference in animal and plant dispersal, biological invasions are wreaking havoc in environments and economies around the globe [1]. The phenomenal success of invasive plant and animal species variants within species, like crossing between species, can broadly be considered hybridization. Invaders

Hufbauer, Ruth A.

180

Gravity aided inertial navigation system (GAINS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a new autonomous covert INS uniquely suited to underwater applications. Unlike the conventional INS, schuler and siderial errors are bounded without external navigation aids or active instrumentation of ground speed. As a result, the system exhibits excellent long-term navigation performance while maintaining the inherent covertness of the INS system. A conventional INS is integrated with a gravity gradiometer capable of measuring gravity field components independently of platform accelerations. This new integration scheme takes advantage of navigation system velocity error observability. Parametric performance results are presented for GAINS, varying gyro, gravimeter, gradiometer, depth sensor quality, and gravity field activity.

Jircitano, Albert; Dosch, Daniel E.

181

Gain sideband splitting in dispersion oscillating fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the modulation instability spectrum in a varying dispersion optical fiber as a function of the dispersion oscillation amplitude. For large dispersion oscillations, we predict a novel sideband splitting into different sub-sidebands. The emergence of the new sidebands is observed whenever the classical perturbation analysis for parametric resonances predicts vanishing sideband amplitudes. The numerical results are in good quantitative agreement with Floquet or Bloch stability analysis of four-wave mixing in the periodic dispersion fiber. We have also shown that linear gain or loss may have a dramatic influence in reshaping the new sidebands.

Finot, Christophe; Feng, Fang; Chembo, Yanne; Wabnitz, Stefan

2014-10-01

182

Theoretical comparisons of average normalized gain calculations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its introduction, the normalized gain or the g-factor has been widely used in assessing students' performance in pre- and post-tests. The average g-factor can be calculated using either the average scores of the class or individual student's scores. In general, these two calculations produce different results. The nature of these two results is explored for several idealized situations. The results suggest that we may be able to utilize the difference between the two results to extract information on how the population may have changed as a result of instruction

Bao, Lei

2009-04-13

183

Compression gain aspects of JPEG image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of still image compression algorithms developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is becoming an international standard. Here we apply a methodology to study the compression obtained by each step of the three-step baseline sequential algorithm. We present results, observations, and analysis on simulating the JPEG sequential baseline system. The primary compression gain comes from run-length coding of zero coefficients. Based on our simulator, a comparison of Huffman coding, WNC arithmetic coding, and the LZW algorithm is also included.

Chang, Manyun; Langdon, Glen G., Jr.; Murphy, James L.

1992-05-01

184

National requirements for improved elevation data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or submerged topography, built features, vegetation structure, and other landscape detail. Additional information about NEEA and its later use in the development of a 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) can be found at http://nationalmap.gov/3DEP/index.html.

Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

2014-01-01

185

Sudden Gains during Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Sudden gains in psychotherapy are characterized by large and relatively stable decreases in psychiatric symptoms and have been associated with cognitive shifts in clients and shown to predict superior treatment outcomes in studies of depression and, to a lesser extent, anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and impact of sudden gains during a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for anxiety disorders, as well as the temporal relationship between sudden gains and cognitive changes. Data were used from two trials of transdiagnostic CBGT for anxiety disorders (n = 130). Criteria for determining sudden gains in anxiety symptoms were based upon previous research on sudden gains from trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for major depressive disorder. A total of 17 out of 98 (17.3%) clients experienced at least one sudden gain, with three clients showing two sudden gains during treatment. Three patients showing a sudden gain experienced a reversal of these gains, although one of these three had a subsequent second sudden gain. Clients experiencing sudden gains showed greater overall improvement following treatment than did clients who did not experience a sudden gain, with 65% of the sudden gainers' overall improvement accounted for by the sudden gain. Greater cognitive change in the pregain sessions was observed for clients with a sudden gain than those not showing a sudden gain. This finding lends support to the theory of cognitive mediation through CBGT in which substantial cognitive changes in pregain sessions lead to greater improvement overall. PMID:20621441

Norton, Peter J.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Barrera, Terri L.

2010-01-01

186

Fourier theory of linear gain media  

E-print Network

The analysis of wave propagation in linear, passive media is usually done by considering a single real frequency (the monochromatic limit) and also often a single plane wave component (plane wave limit), separately. For gain media, we demonstrate that these two limits generally do not commute; for example, one order may lead to a diverging field, while the other order leads to a finite field. Moreover, the plane wave limit may be dependent on whether it is realized with a rect function excitation or gaussian excitation of infinite widths. We consider wave propagation in gain media by a Fourier--Laplace integral in time and space, and demonstrate how the correct monochromatic limit or plane wave limit can be taken, by deforming the integration surface in complex frequency--complex wavenumber space. We also give the most general criterion for absolute instabilities. The general theory is applied in several cases, and is used to predict media with novel properties. In particular, we show the existence of isotrop...

Hågenvik, Hans Olaf; Skaar, Johannes

2014-01-01

187

Automatic gain control for Raman lidar signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic component improvements allow everyone to use them for performing new features in different applications. Lidar signal control is matter of continuous design and it can be studied in order to increase signal-to-noise ratio. Fortunately, the advent, of programmable gain amplifiers, switching capacitor filters and specific AD converters, is the stimulus of improving lidar signal quality. The main scope of this paper is to design and to realize a hardware simulator capable of reproducing the behavior of lidar signal control. This paper aims at describing the results of an automatic control system for Raman lidar signals. The system is based on the following units: laser source, damper, PMT (Photomultiplier), current - to - voltage converter, switched capacitor filter, programmable gain amplifier, A/D converter and FIR filter. This configuration allows the use of FIR filter that is not strictly necessary but it can help in adapting signal according to the amplitude. One of the main advantage of this system is to obtain a flexible and programmable board.

Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Vendramin, Giuseppe; Trotta, Amerigo

2008-12-01

188

Economic Gains from Trade Liberalization: NAFTA's Impact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The October 1997 Chicago Fed Letter issue, "Economic Gains from Trade Liberalization - NAFTA's impact" by Michael A. Kouparitsas, (available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) evaluates the gains from NAFTA. Recently, the debate over free trade has intensified in light of the failure of President Clinton to obtain fast-track authority from Congress. On September 17, 1997, President Clinton went against the liberals in his own party to request fast-track authority from Congress to negotiate new trade accords. The Senate approved the President's request for fast track on November 5, 1997 but the vote in the House was shelved when it appeared likely that fast-track would be defeated. The opponents of free-trade consist mainly of trade unions who are worried about the loss of jobs to countries with cheap labor, and environmentalists concerned about the effect of free trade on environmental standards. The supporters of free-trade are mainly businesses who see business potential in the larger market that would be created by expanding free trade.

Kouparitsas, Michael A.

1997-01-01

189

Drainage Networks From Grid Digital Elevation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current algorithms that deduce the drainage network from a digital elevation model (DEM) represented by a regular array of surface elevations share a fault: Unless the terrain is rugged, the derived water channels tend to flow in parallel lines along preferred directions engendered by the sampling grid orientation. We present a simple solution to the problem. A second difficulty is

John Fairfield; Pierre Leymarie

1991-01-01

190

Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

2007-01-01

191

Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients. PMID:23050155

Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Siglin, Joshua; Jin, Lianjin; Simone, Nicole L.

2012-01-01

192

Effect of Ca addition on the oxidation resistance of AZ91 magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

AZ91 magnesium alloys containing 0.27–5.22 wt.% Ca, were melted and cast to study the effects of Ca addition on oxidation\\u000a resistance at elevated temperatures. An ignition temperature test showed that the ignition of AZ91 alloy occurred at about\\u000a 350–450 °C below the melting point, whereas that of the Ca-containing AZ91 alloys did so at above 650 °C. Weight gain measurements

Byung-Ho Choi; Bong-Sun You; Won-Wook Park; Yan-Bin Huang; Ik-Min Park

2003-01-01

193

Antipsychotic-Induced Insulin Resistance and Postprandial Hormonal Dysregulation Independent of Weight Gain or Psychiatric Disease  

PubMed Central

Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior. PMID:23835329

Teff, Karen L.; Rickels, Michael R.; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

2013-01-01

194

Antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance and postprandial hormonal dysregulation independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior. PMID:23835329

Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Michael R; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

2013-09-01

195

Biological Determinants Linking Infant Weight Gain and Child Obesity: Current Knowledge and Future Directions12  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence. PMID:22983846

Young, Bridget E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Krebs, Nancy F.

2012-01-01

196

Biological determinants linking infant weight gain and child obesity: current knowledge and future directions.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence. PMID:22983846

Young, Bridget E; Johnson, Susan L; Krebs, Nancy F

2012-01-01

197

High Gain Fast Ignition Point Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion offers the potential for achieving the high target gains required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In FI a D-T fuel capsule is first compressed via a quasi-isochoric implosion to form a high density core, and then ignited with a short-pulse laser-generated relativistic electron beam. This paper reports progress on the development of a point design for an indirect-drive re-entrant cone FI target. The design incorporates 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics modeling of the capsule implosion around a cone, particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling of the short-pulse laser absorption and electron generation at the cone tip, and hybrid-PIC modeling of the electron transport and heating in the compressed fuel. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Patel, P. K.; Amendt, P.; Chen, C. D.; Clark, D.; Cohen, B.; Hey, D. S.; Divol, L.; Higginson, D.; Ho, D.; Homoelle, D.; Kemp, A. J.; Key, M. H.; Larson, D.; Lasinski, B.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; McLean, H.; Meeker, D. J.; Ping, Y.; Shay, H.; Strozzi, D. J.; Tabak, M.; Town, R. P. J.; Westover, B.; Wilks, S. C.

2010-11-01

198

Does the baby gain weight during labour?  

PubMed

The present study was based on 6940 live singleton births without obvious congenital abnormalities delivered at 24-32 weeks. The birthweight of children born by Caesarean section was lower than that of those born vaginally. This applied whether the baby survived or died during the neonatal period; whether or not there was maternal hypertensive disease; and whether the delivery was at 24-28 or 29-32 weeks. Birthweight for gestational age was greater in those born by emergency Caesarean than those born by elective Caesarean section. After consideration of a number of potential confounding factors, these findings accord with the hypothesis that the baby might gain weight during labour. PMID:11157807

Chard, T

2001-02-01

199

TEPC gas gain measurements in propane.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the gas gain is important to optimise the design and the operating characteristics of tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), especially for simulated sites smaller than 1 µm. TEPC area monitors of the order of centimetres must operate at very low gas pressure to simulate micrometric volumes, consequently the Townsend theory cannot be applied: effects related to the presence of an electric-field gradient become important and must be considered. A detailed description of the electron avalanche formation is complex, but in most practical cases an analytical formula can be used. The so-called gradient-field model includes three characteristic constants of the counting gas, which were already experimentally determined for propane-tissue equivalent (TE) and dimethyl ether (DME) gases. The aim of this work is to measure the gas-dependent parameters for propane gas. Preliminary results obtained with a spherical TEPC are presented. PMID:24493783

Moro, D; Chiriotti, S; Colautti, P; Conte, V

2014-10-01

200

Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate  

PubMed Central

Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

2014-01-01

201

26 CFR 1.1247-3 - Treatment of capital gains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Treatment of capital gains...INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital... § 1.1247-3 Treatment of capital gains. (a) Treatment by the company ...1.1247-1 for rules relating...

2010-04-01

202

Elevated blood pressure in offspring of rats exposed to diverse chemicals during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Adverse intrauterine environments have been associated with increased risk of later cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In an animal model using diverse developmental toxicants, we measured blood pressure (BP), renal nephron endowment, renal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression, and serum aldosterone in offspring of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats exposed to dexamethasone (Dex), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), atrazine, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), arsenic, or nicotine. BP was assessed by tail cuff photoplethysmography, nephron endowment by confocal microscopy, and renal GR mRNA by qPCR. BP was also measured by telemetry, and corticosterone (CORT) was measured in resting or restrained Dex and atrazine offspring. Treated dams gained less weight during treatment in all groups except arsenic. There were chemical- and sex-specific effects on birth weight, but offspring body weights were similar by weaning. BP was higher in Dex, PFOS, atrazine, and PFNA male offspring by 7-10 weeks. Female offspring exhibited elevated BP at 10 weeks for PFNA and arsenic, and at 37 weeks for Dex, PFOS, and atrazine. Dex, PFOS, and atrazine offspring still exhibited elevated BP at 52-65 weeks of age; others did not. Elevated BP was associated with lower nephron counts. Dex, PFOS, and atrazine offspring had elevated renal GR gene expression. Elevations in BP were also observed in Dex and atrazine offspring by radiotelemetry. Atrazine offspring exhibited enhanced CORT response to restraint. Elevated offspring BP was induced by maternal exposure to toxicants. Because all treatments affected maternal gestational weight gain, maternal stress may be a common underlying factor in these observations. PMID:24218149

Rogers, John M; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Grey, Brian E; Zucker, Robert M; Norwood, Joel; Grace, Curtis E; Gordon, Christopher J; Lau, Christopher

2014-02-01

203

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy and Obesity in the Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The amount of weight women gain during pregnancy may be a modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity in the next generation.\\u000a Women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy have children that are more likely to be overweight from infancy through\\u000a adolescence. The Institute of Medicine has issued guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy that recommend lower weight\\u000a gain for women

Naomi E. Stotland; Janet C. King

204

75 FR 59181 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ground [caret] Elevation Communities affected in meters...None +1226 City of Sauk Centre, feet downstream of...Rate Map located at the community map repository (see...ADDRESSES City of Sauk Centre Maps are available...

2010-09-27

205

75 FR 50955 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle...Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Cape...

2010-08-18

206

77 FR 57066 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Brier Creek (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Brier Creek (backwater...

2012-09-17

207

76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run Lake...Incorporated Areas,'' addressed the flooding source Licking River (Cave Run...

2011-05-10

208

76 FR 12665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice House...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Hungry Hollow Gulch, Ice...

2011-03-08

209

78 FR 14738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Good Spring Creek, Little...Jurisdictions)'' addressed the following flooding sources: Good Spring Creek,...

2013-03-07

210

76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow...

2011-03-25

211

76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source South Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source South Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

212

76 FR 45215 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Dry Run Creek, Illinois River...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source Illinois River. That table...

2011-07-28

213

78 FR 22221 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Pea Branch and Reedy Branch...Incorporated Areas'' did not address the flooding sources Pea Branch and Reedy...

2013-04-15

214

76 FR 14360 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Factory Creek (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Factory Creek (Backwater...

2011-03-16

215

77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Coal Creek, Coal Creek Overflow...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Coal Creek, Coal Creek...

2012-12-13

216

76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cache Creek, Cache Creek Left...County, California'' addressed the flooding source Cache Creek Settling Basin....

2011-05-10

217

77 FR 51743 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Virginia. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Newmarket Creek, Newmarket Creek...Newport News, Virgina'' addressed the flooding sources Newmarket Creek, Newmarket...

2012-08-27

218

77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Kentucky. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects...of Cadiz, Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater...

2012-03-16

219

77 FR 73398 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Bailey Ditch (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Bailey Ditch (backwater...

2012-12-10

220

76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Chapel Drain, Clear Creek...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Kelly Creek Tributary,...

2011-08-03

221

76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cabin Branch, Franklin Branch...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Cabin Branch, Franklin...

2011-08-03

222

75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Casco...

2010-08-09

223

76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source Shoal Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source Shoal Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

224

77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding source, location of referenced elevations...Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Cane Creek (backwater effects...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Cane Creek (backwater...

2012-12-10

225

Mechanism of gain modulation at single neuron and network levels  

E-print Network

online: 23 January 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Gain modulation, in which a nonlinear additive form of gain modulation through learning-driven adjustment of synaptic weights. We useMechanism of gain modulation at single neuron and network levels M. Brozovi & L. F. Abbott & R. A

Columbia University

226

Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement, (b) gains in…

Flynn, James R.

2010-01-01

227

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL CEC-WS-3R (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Worksheet WS-3R Residential (Page 1 of 2) Site may be used on line 3 of the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) Worksheet (WS-3R) to calculate

228

A very high frequency CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier  

E-print Network

A fully differential CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA) consisting of an analog multiplier, current gain stages, and resistor loads is designed for very high frequency applications. The gain can be programmed from 0dB to 40dB with -3dB bandwidth...

Tan, Siang Tong

2012-06-07

229

Intercomparison of Standard Gain Horn Antennas at $W$ Band  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intercomparison of two W -band (75-110 GHz) standard gain horn antennas of nominal gains 24 and 27 dB has been performed at the Korea Research Institute of Stan- dards and Science (KRISS), National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The measurement parameters for this comparison are the power gain and complex reflection coefficient of

Jin-Seob Kang; No-Weon Kang; David G. Gentle; Katherine MacReynolds; Michael H. Francis

2011-01-01

230

HYDRO 1K Elevation Derivative Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Resources Observation Systems' Data Center at the US Geological Survey developed this database from the 30 arc-second digital elevation model of the world. The database contains six raster data sets in tar file format: elevation data, shaded relief, slope, aspect, flow direction, and flow accumulation; and two vector data sets in tar or gzipped ARC/INFO Export file formats: drainage basins and streams.

1998-01-01

231

Energy considerations in the partial space elevator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

2014-06-01

232

GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

2013-01-01

233

GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

2013-01-01

234

Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers  

SciTech Connect

Ultrahigh intensity lasers can potentially be used in conjunction with conventional fusion lasers to ignite inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules with a total energy of a few tens of kilojoules of laser light, and can possibly lead to high gain with as little as 100 kJ. A scheme is proposed with three phases. First, a capsule is imploded as in the conventional approach to inertial fusion to assemble a high-density fuel configuration. Second, a hole is bored through the capsule corona composed of ablated material, as the critical density is pushed close to the high-density core of the capsule by the ponderomotive force associated with high-intensity laser light. Finally, the fuel is ignited by suprathermal electrons, produced in the high-intensity laser--plasma interactions, which then propagate from critical density to this high-density core. This new scheme also drastically reduces the difficulty of the implosion, and thereby allows lower quality fabrication and less stringent beam quality and symmetry requirements from the implosion driver. The difficulty of the fusion scheme is transferred to the technological difficulty of producing the ultrahigh-intensity laser and of transporting this energy to the fuel.

Tabak, M.; Hammer, J.; Glinsky, M.E.; Kruer, W.L.; Wilks, S.C.; Woodworth, J.; Campbell, E.M.; Perry, M.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)); Mason, R.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

1994-05-01

235

Progress toward high-gain laser fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1985 to 1986 Review of the U.S. inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (approximately 1 to 10 percent of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (approximately 10 percent, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an approximately 100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (approximately 1 percent), and can control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that DOE is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade.

Storm, Erik

1988-09-01

236

Albedo and gain threshold of a diffusive Raman random laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse reflectance (albedo) and transmittance of a Raman random gain medium are derived from a diffusion equation with power dependent gain. The results show good agreement with the experimental data for barium nitrate powder. Both the Raman albedo A R and Raman transmittance T R diverge at a critical gain ? c, interpreted as the threshold for diffusive Raman laser generation. The parametric dependence of the albedo and threshold gain on the scattering characteristics of the random medium is analysed and the feedback effect of Fresnel reflection at the gain boundaries evaluated. The addition of external mirrors, particularly at the pumped surface, significantly reduces the generation threshold.

Selden, A. C.

2011-09-01

237

Information gain versus coupling strength in quantum measurements  

E-print Network

We investigate the relationship between the information gain and the interaction strength between the quantum system and the measuring device. A strategy is proposed to calculate the information gain of the measuring device as the coupling strength is a variable. For qubit systems, we prove that the information gain increases monotonically with the coupling strength. It is obtained that the information gain of the projective measurement along the x-direction reduces with the increasing of the measurement strength along the z-direction, and a complementarity of information gain in the measurements along those two directions is presented.

Xuanmin Zhu; Yuxiang Zhang; Quanhui Liu; Shengjun Wu

2012-03-10

238

Gain-phase grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain in cold atoms  

SciTech Connect

In order to obtain an atomic grating which can diffract light into the high-order directions more efficiently, a gain-phase grating (GPG) based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain is theoretically presented. This grating is induced by a pump field and a standing wave in ultracold atoms, and it not only diffracts a weak probe field propagating along a direction normal to the standing wave into the high-order directions, but also amplifies the amplitude of the zero-order diffraction. In contrast with electromagnetically induced grating or electromagnetically induced phase grating, the GPG has larger diffraction efficiencies in the high-order directions. Hence it is more suitable to be utilized as an all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

Kuang Shangqi; Jin Chunshui; Li Chun [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

2011-09-15

239

Laser-gain scanning microscopy: a new characterization technique for dopant engineered gain media.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an optical technique, called laser-gain scanning microscopy (LGSM), to map dopant concentration profiles in engineered laser gain-media. The performance and application range of this technique are exampled on a Nd(3+) concentration profile embedded in a YAG transparent ceramic sample. Concentration profiles measured by both LGSM and SIMS techniques are compared and agree to within 5% over three-orders of magnitude in Nd(3+) doping level, from 0.001 at.% to 0.9 at.%. One of the unique advantages of LGSM over common physical methods such as SIMS, XPS and EMPA, is the ability to correlate optical defects with the final doping profile. PMID:20940785

Wisdom, Jeff A; Gaume, Romain M; Byer, Robert L

2010-08-30

240

Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

2008-01-01

241

The Gain-of-Function Arabidopsis acd6 Mutant Reveals Novel Regulation and Function of the Salicylic Acid Signaling Pathway in Controlling Cell Death, Defenses, and Cell Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated a dominant gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, accelerated cell death 6 ( acd6 ), with elevated defenses, patches of dead and enlarged cells, reduced stature, and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringae . The acd6 - conferred phenotypes are suppressed by removing a key signaling molecule, salicylic acid (SA), by using the nahG transgene, which encodes SA hydroxylase. This suppression includes

Debra N. Rate; James V. Cuenca; Grant R. Bowman; David S. Guttman; Jean T. Greenberg

1999-01-01

242

Direct measurements of fluorine atom concentration, gain length and small signal gain in an hydrogen fluoride overtone laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental techniques have been developed to directly measure the concentration of fluorine atoms, the gain length and the small signal gain in a hydrogen fluoride 5 cm slit nozzle laser. A gas phase titration technique was utilized to measure the fluorine atom concentration using HCl as the titrant. The gain length was measured using a pitot probe to locate the

Charles F Wisniewski; Kevin B Hewett; Gerald C Manke II; C Randall Truman; Gordon D Hager

2003-01-01

243

Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material.  

PubMed

We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split-ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive. PMID:25402101

Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

2014-11-17

244

Are videogame training gains specific or general?  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

Patterson, Michael D.

2014-01-01

245

30 CFR 75.1403-4 - Criteria-Automatic elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Automatic elevators. 75.1403-4 Section 75...and Mantrips § 75.1403-4 Criteria—Automatic elevators. (a) The doors of automatic elevators should be equipped with...

2010-07-01

246

7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 Section 800.25 Agriculture ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser...

2013-01-01

247

7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 Section 800.25 Agriculture ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser...

2014-01-01

248

29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section...LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be...

2014-07-01

249

7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping....

2011-01-01

250

28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404 Section...Alterations § 36.404 Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility...

2011-07-01

251

46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel carrying more than...requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter....

2011-10-01

252

14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155...Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the...

2011-01-01

253

29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87...Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

2011-07-01

254

Amplified Warming Rates in High Elevation Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ground-based and satellite-retrieved observations in conjunction with output from global climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine whether warming rates in high elevation regions are significantly different than in their lower elevation surroundings. In addition, for regions where there is enhanced warming at higher elevations, we investigate several of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to this enhancement. For the mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, the multi-model ensemble indicates that warming rates during the 21st century will be enhanced at high elevations relative to their lower elevation counterparts at the same latitude. This effect is most pronounced for daily minimum temperatures during the cold season in the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayan region. A neural network analysis is used to identify and quantify some of the potential mechanisms responsible for enhanced warming rates, including the effects of variables such as atmospheric water vapor, clouds, snow cover, and aerosols on the radiation and surface heat budgets. We also demonstrate that satellite retrievals can be used to expand the often sparse ground-based observations in such regions and that they provide the correct relationships between variables. Please fill in your abstract text.

Miller, James; Naud, Catherine; Chen, Yonghua; Ghatak, Debjani; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Sinsky, Eric

2014-05-01

255

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED...elevation determination. The Federal Insurance Administrator shall propose flood elevation determinations in...

2011-10-01

256

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED...elevation determination. The Federal Insurance Administrator shall propose flood elevation determinations in...

2010-10-01

257

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED...elevation determination. The Federal Insurance Administrator shall propose flood elevation determinations in...

2012-10-01

258

44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED...elevation determination. The Federal Insurance Administrator shall propose flood elevation determinations in...

2013-10-01

259

Elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitivity of the elevated temperature (above 0.5 Tm) deformation of TD-nickel to grain size and shape was examined in both tension and creep. Elevated temperature strength increased with increasing grain diameter and increasing L/D ratio. Temperature sensitivity of the yield stress, as well as high (compared to self diffusion) apparent tensile activation enthalpies were the result of the internal stress not being proportional to the shear modulus. Creep activation enthalpies increased with increasing L/D ratio and, to a lesser extent, increasing grain diameter, reaching high values which may be apparent values. The thoria particle dispersion may have been altered by elevated temperature tensile and creep deformation.

Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

1973-01-01

260

Training children in pedestrian safety: distinguishing gains in knowledge from gains in safe behavior.  

PubMed

Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children's street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7-8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that should be considered independently for research and training purposes. PMID:24573688

Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A

2014-06-01

261

Forest succession at elevated CO2  

SciTech Connect

We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

2002-02-01

262

Application of spring tabs to elevator controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

Phillips, William H

1944-01-01

263

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

2005-01-01

264

Passive smoking elevates neurotrophin levels in tears.  

PubMed

The effect of passive smoking on levels of neurotrophin in tears was studied in normal subjects or patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Basal levels of neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NT-4, in tears were significantly higher in AKC patients than those in normal subjects. Passive smoking had no effect on levels of neurotrophin in tears of normal subjects, while it elevated levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 in tears of AKC patients. These results indicate that passive smoking elevates levels of neurotrophin in tears, which in turn may aggravate AKC. PMID:15222398

Kimata, Hajime

2004-05-01

265

Smoke Control – Discussion of Switching Elevator to Evacuation Elevator in High-rise Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

When fire disaster happens in high-rise building, stairwell is to be the unique way for evacuation, and the effect is not ideal. The elevator has a huge potential to be the one of those evacuation manners as it is the fastest and the most convenient Vertical Transportation Equipment. To solve the problems of using elevator transportation as a evacuation manner,

CHEN Zu-ming; ZHANG Jin; LI De-pin

2011-01-01

266

Serotonin affects movement gain control in the spinal cord.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input-output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production. PMID:25232107

Wei, Kunlin; Glaser, Joshua I; Deng, Linna; Thompson, Christopher K; Stevenson, Ian H; Wang, Qining; Hornby, Thomas George; Heckman, Charles J; Kording, Konrad P

2014-09-17

267

Effect of Body Image on Pregnancy Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related\\u000a to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines.\\u000a The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image

Ushma J. Mehta; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Amy H. Herring

2011-01-01

268

Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control  

DOEpatents

An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-07-18

269

Gain-scheduled filtering for time-varying discrete systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of gain-scheduled filters, whose state-space realization depends on real-time parameters of plants. Similar to well-recognized advantages of gain-scheduled controllers in control theory, gain-scheduled filters are expected to provide enhanced performance in comparison with customary nonadjustable filters. Our construction technique is based on nonlinear fractional transformation (NFT) representations of systems that are a generalization of

Nguyen Thien Hoang; Hoang Duong Tuan; Pierre Apkarian; Shigeyuki Hosoe

2004-01-01

270

Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding  

PubMed Central

Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and ?5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

2013-01-01

271

A Family-Based Approach to Preventing Excessive Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Preventing weight gain in adults and excessive weight gain in children is a high priority. We evaluated the ability of a family-based program aimed at increasing steps and cereal consumption (for breakfast and snacks) to reduce weight gain in children and adults.Research Methods and Procedures: Families (n = 105) with at least one 8- to 12-year-old child who was

Susan J. Rodearmel; Holly R. Wyatt; Mary J. Barry; Fang Dong; Dongmei Pan; Richard G. Israel; Susan S. Cho; Michael I. McBurney; James O. Hill

2006-01-01

272

Resonator modes in high gain free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

When the gain in a free electron laser is high enough to produce optical guiding, the resonator mode distorts and loses its forward-backward symmetry. We show that the resonator mode in a high gain FEL can be easily constructed using the mode expansion technique taken separately in the interaction and the free-space regions. We propose design strategies to achieve maximal gain and optimal mode quality, and discuss the stability of the optimized mode. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Xie, Ming (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Deacon, D.A.G. (Deacon Research, Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Madey, J.M.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-10-01

273

Optical resonator design studies for high gain free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

Optical resonator design studies have been performed for free electron laser oscillator configurations driven by an rf linac. The resonator designs were for an FEL configuration with large saturated gain (50 to 100%) through the electron beam-wiggler region. For the case of large saturated gain, the power loading on the mirrors is reduced, however, the resonator design must compensate for the optical gain and refractive properties of the electron beam.

McVey, B.D.; Tokar, R.L.; Bender, S.C.

1987-01-01

274

Qualitative analysis on gain compression in power MOS transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a qualitative analysis on gain compression phenomenon of integrated power MOS transistor. In the large-signal operation of power device, the gain compression plays an essential role for characterizing non-linear behavior. The proposed approach combines both the RF waveform and load line characteristics in different quiescent points. Experimental results demonstrate the approach is feasible. The analysis of gain compression corresponds to different quiescent biases is useful during the implementation of power device for RFIC application.

Hsu, Heng-Ming

2007-06-01

275

Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m?2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

Whelan, K. R. T.; Smith, III, T. J.; Anderson, G. H.; Ouellette, M. L.

2009-01-01

276

Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon college entry in women.  

PubMed

The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18-20?yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass. PMID:25049133

Bauer, Lance O

2014-11-01

277

Climatic change at high elevation sites  

SciTech Connect

A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

Dr. Henry F. Diaz

1998-07-23

278

Premenarchal Ovarian Torsion and Elevated CA-125  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian tumors are the most common gynecologic malignancy occurring in childhood, with germ cell tumors being most frequent. This contrasts with adults where epithelial tumors account for most ovarian neoplasms. Tumor markers are an integral part of the work up and may guide management. Case A 6 year old girl with a persistent adnexal mass was found to have a highly elevated CA-125. Other tumor markers were normal. Laparoscopy revealed an enlarged, adherent ovary. A minilaparotomy revealed an ovary filled with necrotic material. This necrotic material was excised and the ovary was spared. The pathology was consistent with necrosis. Follow up ultrasound and CA-125 were normal. Summary and Conclusions This case demonstrates for the first time the association of an elevated CA-125 and ovarian torsion in a pediatric patient. This benign finding allowed attempting a conservative ovarian-sparing approach during the surgery even in the presence of a highly elevated CA-125. However, in general, for children CA-125 is of limited utility, as it will not affect the indication for surgical exploration of persistent masses and elevations in CA-125 may discourage ovarian conservation. PMID:19589703

McCarthy, Jenifer D.; Erickson, Kimberly M; Smith, Yolanda R.; Quint, Elisabeth H.

2009-01-01

279

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

280

Quenching Furnace for Elevated Temperature Tensile Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of quenching a specimen subjected to a tensile stress at elevated temperatures has been developed. Tensile tests with stress, time, and temperature as variables are possible. The cooling rate of specimens in the 600°C range can be controlled from ¼ to 25°C?sec.

William G. Holley; Thomas F. Talbot

1966-01-01

281

Footwear effects on walking balance at elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the effects of shoe style on workers' instability during walking at elevation. Twenty-four construction workers performed walking tasks on roof planks in a surround-screen virtual reality system, which simulated a residential roof environment. Three common athletic and three work shoe styles were tested on wide, narrow and tilted planks on a simulated roof and on an unrestricted

Peter Simeonov; Hongwei Hsiao; John Powers; Douglas Ammons; Alfred Amendola; Tsui-Ying Kau; Douglas Cantis

2008-01-01

282

UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS  

E-print Network

& DINING FACILITIES BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS ELEANOR ROOSEVELT COLLEGE AFRICA 1 ASIA 1 CAFÃ? VENTANAS 1 OCEANVIEW FREIGHT 1 P BUILDING 1 R BUILDINGOCEANVIEW DINING 1 U BUILDING 1 MUIR COLLEGE MUIR APARTMENTS 1 BUILDING 2 #12;MUSIC BUILDING (WARREN COLLEGE) 1 NATURAL SCIENCES BUILDING 4 NIERENBERG HALL 2 OAR

Tsien, Roger Y.

283

DIVISION 14 -CONVEYING SYSTEMS 14200 ELEVATORS  

E-print Network

of five (5) years. Elevator assembled by companies will include major components from the following list of acceptable manufacturers: 1. Machines: Hollister Whitney Titan Otis Schindler Dover 2. Controllers: MCE Swift with a listing of at least five (5) comparable installations completed within the last eighteen (18) months. 4. A

284

ELEVATION DATA FOR OREGON AND WASHINGTON  

EPA Science Inventory

The WA 1:24,000 scale data have an elevation at approx. every 30 meters. The 1:250,000 scale data are gathered at intervals of approx. every 85 meters along the ground. These data may be used in the generation of graphics such as isometric projections displaying slope, directio...

285

Angiotensin AT(2) receptor contributes towards gender bias in weight gain.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major disease condition, in turn leading to pathological changes collectively recognized as metabolic syndrome. Recently angiotensin receptor AT(2)R has been associated negatively with body weight (BW) gain in male mice. However, the gender differences in AT(2)R and BW changes have not been studied. To understand the gender based role of AT(2)R involving BW changes, we fed male and female wild type (WT) and AT(2)R knock out (AT(2)KO) mice with C57BL6 background with high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. The male AT(2)KO had higher HFD calorie intake (WT: 1280±80; AT(2)KO:1680±80 kcal) but gained less BW compared with the WT (WT: 13; AT(2)KO: 6 g). Contrary to the male animals, the female AT(2)KO mice with equivalent caloric intake (WT: 1424±48; AT(2)KO:1456±80 kcal) gained significantly more BW than the WT mice (WT: 9 g; AT(2)KO: 15 g). The male AT(2)KO on HFD displayed lower plasma insulin level, less impaired glucose tolerance (GT), and higher plasma T3 compared with WT males on HFD; whereas the female AT(2)KO mice on HFD showed elevated levels of plasma insulin, more impaired GT, lower plasma T3 and higher free fatty acid and hepatic triglycerides compared with WT females on HFD. Interestingly, compared with WT, AT(2)KO female mice had significantly lower estrogen, which was further reduced by HFD. These results suggest that AT(2)R in female mice via potentially regulating estrogen may have protective role against BW gain and impaired glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism. PMID:23341867

Samuel, Preethi; Khan, Mohammad Azhar; Nag, Sourashish; Inagami, Tadashi; Hussain, Tahir

2013-01-01

286

Quantifying the mechanisms of domain gain in animal proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Protein domains are protein regions that are shared among different proteins and are frequently functionally and structurally independent from the rest of the protein. Novel domain combinations have a major role in evolutionary innovation. However, the relative contributions of the different molecular mechanisms that underlie domain gains in animals are still unknown. By using animal gene phylogenies we were able to identify a set of high confidence domain gain events and by looking at their coding DNA investigate the causative mechanisms. Results Here we show that the major mechanism for gains of new domains in metazoan proteins is likely to be gene fusion through joining of exons from adjacent genes, possibly mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination. Retroposition and insertion of exons into ancestral introns through intronic recombination are, in contrast to previous expectations, only minor contributors to domain gains and have accounted for less than 1% and 10% of high confidence domain gain events, respectively. Additionally, exonization of previously non-coding regions appears to be an important mechanism for addition of disordered segments to proteins. We observe that gene duplication has preceded domain gain in at least 80% of the gain events. Conclusions The interplay of gene duplication and domain gain demonstrates an important mechanism for fast neofunctionalization of genes. PMID:20633280

2010-01-01

287

Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations.  

PubMed

Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, regardless of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not only increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array. PMID:22649250

Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T

2012-05-30

288

The Causes of and Gains from Intertemporal Trade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors show how the causes of and the gains from current account imbalances can be integrated into undergraduate economics courses using the same pedagogical tools that are used to explain comparative advantage and the gains from trade. A nonzero current account provides a mechanism for intertemporal trade, and a country has a comparative…

Craighead, William D.; Miller, Norman C.

2010-01-01

289

Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking  

E-print Network

Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking Andrew B. Watson NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035-1000 Joshua A. Solomon Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street March 20, 1997 We have implemented a model of contrast gain control in human vision that incorporates

Watson, Andrew B.

290

Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures  

E-print Network

and links 1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S to compensate the propagation loss of surface plasmons by using multiple quantum wells as a gain medium. We

Mojahedi, Mohammad

291

Intellect, Perceptual Characteristics, and Weight Gain in Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied weight-gain 127 primary anorexics by examining the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Rorschach for indices that may predict improvement. Results showed that cognitive-focusing skills, measured by the Wechsler, account for roughly half of the variance and were good predictors of weight gain. (WAS)

Small, Arnold; And Others

1983-01-01

292

Finding Optimal Gains In Linear-Quadratic Control Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical method based on Volterra factorization leads to new approximations for optimal control gains in finite-time linear-quadratic control problem of system having infinite number of dimensions. Circumvents need to analyze and solve Riccati equations and provides more transparent connection between dynamics of system and optimal gain.

Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

293

High-gain high-pressure highly efficient COIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of development a COIL with high potential recovered pressure, high gain and efficiency is described. Two nozzle banks with conical supersonic nozzles for the driver nitrogen but with different nozzle arrangements have been developed for generation of the gain flow of chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The nozzle banks were supplied by oxygen flow from the cross-flow singlet oxygen generator

Marsel V. Zagidullin; Valery D. Nikolaev; Michael I. Svistun; Nikolai A. Khvatov; Gordon D. Hager

2004-01-01

294

A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.

Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.

1989-01-01

295

Gain measurements of vertically polarized antennas over imperfect ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described for measuring the absolute gain of vertically polarized HF antennas. A horizontal half-wave dipole, located near the antenna being measured (test antenna), is used as a reference in a comparison type of gain measurement. A rotatable, linearly polarized, transmitting antenna is mounted on an airplane and used to illuminate the test-reference antenna location. With the airborne

R. Fitzgerrell

1967-01-01

296

Psychosocial Determinants of Adequacy of Gestational Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy is a critical time window for evaluating weight gain on subsequent risk for obesity among women of childbearing age. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and fetal health locus of control (FHLC) beliefs were significant risk factors for adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG) when maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health

Jennifer B. Webb; Anna M. Siega-Riz; Nancy Dole

2009-01-01

297

Stimulated Raman gain scattering in planar dielectric waveguides.  

PubMed

We have measured the vibrational Raman spectrum of a 1.2-microm-thick polystyrene film by using this film as an optical waveguide in a waveguide-stimulated Raman gain experiment. A gain factor of 1.3% was measured for the strong benzene mode at 1002 cm(-1). This value is in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:19876120

Kanger, J S; Tukker, T W; Otto, C; Greve, J

1996-05-01

298

What do Students Gain by Engaging in Socioscientific Inquiry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of what students gain by engaging in socioscientific inquiry is addressed in two ways. First, relevant literature is surveyed to build the case that socioscientific issues (SSI) can serve as useful contexts for teaching and learning science content. Studies are reviewed which document student gains in discipline specific content…

Sadler, Troy D.; Barab, Sasha A.; Scott, Brianna

2007-01-01

299

Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of optical gain in chemically synthesized semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystal quantum dots) has been intensely studied as the first step toward nanocrystal quantum dot lasers. We examined the competing dynamical processes involved in optical amplification and lasing in nanocrystal quantum dots and found that, despite a highly efficient intrinsic nonradiative Auger recombination, large optical gain can be developed at

V. I. Klimov; A. A. Mikhailovsky; Su Xu; A. Malko; J. A. Hollingsworth; C. A. Leatherdale; H.-J. Eisler; M. G. Bawendi

2000-01-01

300

Root-mean-square gains of switched linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, we compute the root-mean-square (RMS) gain of a switched linear system when the interval between consecutive switchings is large. The algorithm proposed is based on the fact that a given constant ? provides an upper bound on the RMS gain whenever there is a separation between the stabilizing and the antistabilizing solutions to a set of ?-dependent

Joao P. Hespanha

2003-01-01

301

TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade

Tullos, Desiree

302

GAIN Appraisal Program II. Second Report, November 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program provides job services, as well as training, education, and support services to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to help them attain unsubsidized employment. The GAIN program includes an initial appraisal of participants' basic reading, mathematics, and functional…

Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System, San Diego, CA.

303

Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experimentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers.

Ek, Sara; Lunnemann, Per; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

2014-09-01

304

Adaptive gain and filtering circuit for a sound reproduction system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive compressive gain and level dependent spectral shaping circuitry for a hearing aid include a microphone to produce an input signal and a plurality of channels connected to a common circuit output. Each channel has a preset frequency response. Each channel includes a filter with a preset frequency response to receive the input signal and to produce a filtered signal, a channel amplifier to amplify the filtered signal to produce a channel output signal, a threshold register to establish a channel threshold level, and a gain circuit. The gain circuit increases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal falls below the channel threshold level and decreases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal rises above the channel threshold level. A transducer produces sound in response to the signal passed by the common circuit output.

Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

305

Gaussian pulse dynamics in gain media with Kerr nonlinearity  

E-print Network

Using the Kantorovitch method in combination with a Gaussian ansatz, we derive the equations of motion for spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal optical propagation in a dispersive Kerr medium with a general transverse and spectral gain profile. By rewriting the variational equations as differential equations for the temporal and spatial Gaussian q parameters, optical ABCD matrices for the Kerr effect, a general transverse gain profile and nonparabolic spectral gain filtering are obtained. Further effects can easily be taken into account by adding the corresponding ABCD matrices. Applications include the temporal pulse dynamics in gain fibers and the beam propagation or spatiotemporal pulse evolution in bulk gain media. As an example, the steady-state spatiotemporal Gaussian pulse dynamics in a Kerr-lens mode-locked laser resonator is studied.

Jirauschek, Christian; 10.1364/JOSAB.23.001776

2011-01-01

306

A Brief Motivational Intervention for Preventing Medication-Associated Weight Gain Among Youth with Bipolar Disorder: Treatment Development and Case Report  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bipolar disorder (BP) in youth is an impairing psychiatric disorder associated with high rates of relapse and recurrence. High rates of psychiatric and medical co-morbidities account for additional illness burden in pediatric BP. The elevated risk of overweight and obesity in this population is of particular concern. One of the likely etiologies for weight gain in youth with BP is use of mood-stabilizing medications. Although these medications can be effective for mood stabilization, excessive weight gain is a common side effect. Obesity is associated with a host of medical problems and is also correlated with worse psychiatric outcomes in BP, rendering the prevention of weight gain in this population particularly clinically relevant. In this article, we describe the rationale and development of a brief motivational intervention for preventing weight gain among youth with BP initiating mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment and then present a case example illustrating the principles of the intervention. PMID:21663430

Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Mantz, Michael B.; Bailey, Bridget; Douaihy, Antoine

2011-01-01

307

Relationship Between Optimal Gain and Coherence Zone in Flight Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In motion simulation the inertial information generated by the motion platform is most of the times different from the visual information in the simulator displays. This occurs due to the physical limits of the motion platform. However, for small motions that are within the physical limits of the motion platform, one-to-one motion, i.e. visual information equal to inertial information, is possible. It has been shown in previous studies that one-to-one motion is often judged as too strong, causing researchers to lower the inertial amplitude. When trying to measure the optimal inertial gain for a visual amplitude, we found a zone of optimal gains instead of a single value. Such result seems related with the coherence zones that have been measured in flight simulation studies. However, the optimal gain results were never directly related with the coherence zones. In this study we investigated whether the optimal gain measurements are the same as the coherence zone measurements. We also try to infer if the results obtained from the two measurements can be used to differentiate between simulators with different configurations. An experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center which used both the Cockpit Motion Facility and the Visual Motion Simulator. The results show that the inertial gains obtained with the optimal gain are different than the ones obtained with the coherence zone measurements. The optimal gain is within the coherence zone.The point of mean optimal gain was lower and further away from the one-to-one line than the point of mean coherence. The zone width obtained for the coherence zone measurements was dependent on the visual amplitude and frequency. For the optimal gain, the zone width remained constant when the visual amplitude and frequency were varied. We found no effect of the simulator configuration in both the coherence zone and optimal gain measurements.

Gracio, Bruno Jorge Correia; Pais, Ana Rita Valente; vanPaassen, M. M.; Mulder, Max; Kely, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

2011-01-01

308

Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating  

PubMed Central

Elevated heating by the Tibetan Plateau was long thought to drive the South Asian summer monsoon, but recent work showed this monsoon was largely unaffected by removal of the plateau in a climate model, provided the narrow orography of adjacent mountain ranges was preserved. There is debate about whether those mountain ranges generate a strong monsoon by insulating the thermal maximum from cold and dry extratropical air or by providing a source of elevated heating. Here we show that the strength of the monsoon in a climate model is more sensitive to changes in surface heat fluxes from non-elevated parts of India than it is to changes in heat fluxes from adjacent elevated terrain. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that orography creates a strong monsoon by serving as a thermal insulator, and suggests that monsoons respond most strongly to heat sources coincident with the thermal maximum. PMID:23378923

Boos, William R.; Kuang, Zhiming

2013-01-01

309

ASTER Stereoscopic Data and Digital Elevation Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital elevation models (DEMs) provide a digital representation of the Earth's relief, and are used in a variety of applications in geo-spatial analysis. Elevation data as DEMs are required to produce geocoded, orthorectified raster images, which often are incorporated in a geographic information system. The atmospheric, geometric, and radiometric correction of satellite data from optical and microwave instruments also require topographic information. Satellite data-derived DEMs form a vibrant research and development (R&D) topic for the last 30 years since the launch of the first civilian remote sensing satellite (Toutin 2000). Various methods exist to extract DEMs from both active and passive sensor-based satellite data-derived images ­(clinometry, stereoscopy, interferometry, polarimetry, and altimetry).

Toutin, Thierry

310

Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

Bigelow, C. A.

1983-01-01

311

Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

1986-01-01

312

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining  

E-print Network

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining real sports marketing and communications experience. A marketing or business background athletic events. You will be the foot soldiers of the organization, and will get the word out through

Barthelat, Francois

313

Elevated blood pressure in subjects with lipodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Case?control study. Participants: Forty-two patients with abnormal body fat (100%) and serum lipids (86%) (HIV-positive cohort) were matched by age and sex to 42 HIV-positive controls without previously diagnosed lipodystrophy and to 13 HIV-negative controls. Setting: Tertiary care, university-based, fully dedicated HIV clinic. Main outcome measures:

Fred R. Sattler; Dajun Qian; Stan Louie; Debra Johnson

314

Elevated blood pressure in subjects with lipodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Case-control study. Participants: Forty-two patients with abnormal body fat (100%) and serum lipids (86%) (HIV-positive cohort) were matched by age and sex to 42 HIV-positive controls without previously diagnosed lipodystrophy and to 13 HIV-negative controls. Setting: Tertiary care, university-based, fully dedicated HIV clinic. Main outcome measures:

Fred R. Sattler; Dajun Qiana; Stan Louieb; Debra Johnson; William Briggs; Vincent DeQuattroc; Michael P. Dube

315

Digital Elevation Model Mosaic of Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At CEPS (Center for Earth and Planetary Studies) work has been underway since 2000 to semi-automatically stereo match all Mariner 10 stereo pairs. The resulting matched image coordinates are converted into longitude, latitude, and height points and then combined to form a map projected Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic of the planet's surface. Stereo images from Mariner 10 cover one quarter of the planet's surface, mostly in the southern hemisphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Cook, A. C.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.

2001-01-01

316

Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the biological basis of schizophrenia is not known, possible causes include genetic defects, viruses1, amines2, brain structure and metabolism3-5, neuroreceptors6-8, and G proteins9. The hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is based on the fact that neuroleptics block dopamine D2 receptors in direct relation to their clinical antipsychotic potencies10-11. Moreover, dopamine D2 or D2-like receptors are elevated in postmortem

Philip Seeman; Hong-Chang Guan; Hubert H. M. van Tol

1993-01-01

317

Effect of Intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care on Weight Gain of Low Birth Weight Neonates With Delayed Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132

Samra, Nashwa M.; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

2013-01-01

318

Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2010-01-01

319

Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

2011-01-01

320

Recommended practices in elevated temperature design: A compendium of breeder reactor experiences (1970-1986): An overview  

SciTech Connect

Significant experiences have been accumulated in the establishment of design methods and criteria applicable to the design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) components. The Subcommittee of the Elevated Temperature Design under the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) has undertaken to collect, on an international basis, design experience gained, and the lessons learned, to provide guidelines for next generation advanced reactor designs. This paper shall present an overview and describe the highlights of the work.

Wei, B.C.; Cooper, W.L. Jr.; Dhalla, A.K.

1987-09-01

321

Gain recovery in an electric oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations of an electric oxygen-iodine laser system have shown that computational modeling overpredicts the experimentally measured power output for similar gain conditions. This discrepancy is potentially due to an unknown reaction that competes with the forward pumping of I(P21/2) by O2(a ?1). Measurements of gain recovery downstream of an operating laser cavity were performed. Modeling of this experiment shows that reducing the forward pumping rate by an effective factor of approximately 4 to simulate a competing mechanism results in the computational modeling matching the experimental gain recovery measurements, and in improved agreement between the measured and modeled laser power extraction.

Zimmerman, J. W.; Benavides, G. F.; Palla, A. D.; Woodard, B. S.; Carroll, D. L.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Solomon, W. C.

2009-01-01

322

Absolute Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Gain Measurement  

SciTech Connect

We present the first direct measurement of the time evolution of the gain of a soft x-ray laser amplifier. The measurement is based on the injection of a seed pulse, obtained by high-order harmonic generation, into an x-ray laser medium. Strong amplification occurs when the seed pulse is synchronized with the gain period. By precisely varying the delay between the x-ray laser plasma creation and the seed pulse injection, the actual temporal evolution of the soft x-ray amplifier gain is obtained with a subpicosecond resolution.

Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Faivre, G.; Hallou, A.; Rousseau, J.P. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee (LOA), ENSTA-Ecole polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Maynard, G.; Cros, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay (France); Fajardo, M. [Centro de Fisica dos Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Kazamias, S.; Dubau, J. [Laboratoire d'Interaction du Rayonnement X avec la Matiere, Batiment 350, Universite Paris-sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Aubert, D.; Lacheze-Murel, G. de [CEA/DIF, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

2005-10-21

323

LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

2002-01-01

324

1/8" = 1'-0" EAST ELEVATION  

E-print Network

' from Bldg. Average Grade Reference East E-1 5785.5' 42'-6" (Elev. 5828') 1/A3.10 E-2 5783.75' 24'-7" (Elev. 5808.33') 1/A3.10 South S-1 5786' 42'-0" (Elev. 5828') 2/A3.10 West W-1 5786' 42'-0" (Elev. 5828') 1/A3.11 W-2 5786.5' 21'-10" (Elev. 5808.33') 1/A3.11 North N-1 5785.25' 23'-1" (Elev. 5808.33') 2/A3

325

DSS 43 antenna gain analysis for Voyager Uranus encounter: 8.45-GHz radio science data correction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A malfunction of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Australia forced the antenna to operate with a mispositioned subreflector during the Voyager Uranus encounter period (January 24, 1986). Because of changing main reflector shape and quadripod position as a function of elevation angle, the antenna gain and pointing were not as expected, and the 8.45 GHz received signal level changed during the pass. The study described here used the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) analysis to determine actual antenna gain and pointing during that period in an attempt to reconstruct the radio science data. It is found that the 1.4 dB of signal variation can be accounted for by antenna geometry changes and pointing error. Suggested modifications to the values measured during the pass are presented. Additionally, an extremely useful tool for the analysis of gravity deformed reflectors was developed for use in future antenna design and analysis projects.

Slobin, S. D.; Imbriale, W. A.

1987-01-01

326

Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring's body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n = 23) were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child's lifestyle factors). PMID:25371815

Lau, Erica Y.; Liu, Junxiu; McDonald, Samantha M.

2014-01-01

327

Pathology of benzalkonium chloride toxicity and its effect on body weight gain in broiler birds.  

PubMed

Four groups comprising 16 broiler birds each were given benzalkonium chloride (BC) at 100, 300, 500 and 700 ppm in drinking water for 40 days and one group of 16 birds (control) was kept on plain water. Clinical signs in higher dose groups were respiratory distress, drooling of saliva, difficulty in deglutition, inappetence, apathy, lethargy and loss of body weight. Better body weight gain was recorded in 100 ppm dose rate. At 300 ppm, no significant body weight variation was recorded, whereas, at 500 and 700 ppm dose rates, significantly poor body weight gain was recorded. Major pathological changes were seen in 500 and 700 ppm groups, which exhibited formation of yellow diphtheritic plaques in the buccal cavity, swollen and pale commissures of beak and shortening of tongue. Minute necrotic and ulcerative foci were seen in oesophagus and crop. Hyperplastic and hypertrophic alterations were seen in mucosa of the upper digestive tract. Crop of 300 ppm group revealed formation of well developed epithelial nest with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia at the margin of the lesion. Serum alanine transaminase, urea and uric acid in 500 and 700 ppm groups were elevated whereas no significant variations were observed in the 100 and 300 ppm groups. BC could enhance performance of broiler birds at 100 ppm dose rate. It should not be used beyond 300 ppm. PMID:15587118

Mandal, P K; Gupta, M K; Singh, K K

2004-11-01

328

Preschoolers with Special Needs May Gain from 'Inclusion' Classrooms  

MedlinePLUS

... With Special Needs May Gain From 'Inclusion' Classrooms Peers with stronger language abilities have positive effect, study ... school year when considering those with less-skilled peers and highly skilled peers," said the study's lead ...

329

Small Weight Gain Can Raise Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... org Learn More Small weight gain can raise blood pressure in healthy adults American Heart Association Meeting ... Minnesota. Copyright Mayo Clinic. Download (572.7 kB) Blood Pressure Check (2) copyright American Heart Association Download ( ...

330

[Smoking cessation and weight gain. From one addiction to another?].  

PubMed

TWeight gain is a common side effect of smoking cessation. Psychological support and physical activity are essential. Medication-based methods can help the withdrawal less difficult. However, research must continue into the mechanisms involved. PMID:24796075

Lecerf, Jean-Michel

2014-03-01

331

Gain scheduling for geometrically nonlinear flexible space structures  

E-print Network

A gain-scheduling approach for the control of geometrically nonlinear structures is developed. The objective is to improve performance over current linear design techniques that are applied to the same control problem. The ...

Yung, Jeremy Hoyt, 1971-

2002-01-01

332

Gain and Loss Learning Differentially Contribute to Life Financial Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt). In a community sample of healthy adults (n?=?75), rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences) and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education) confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes. PMID:21915320

Knutson, Brian; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.

2011-01-01

333

Light propagation in composite materials with gain layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light propagation through a single gain layer and a multilayer system with gain layers is studied. Results obtained using the Fresnel formulas, Airy's series summation, and the numerical solution of the nonlinear Maxwell-Bloch equations by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method are analyzed and compared. Normal and oblique propagation of a wave through a gain layer and a slab of a photonic crystal are examined. For the latter problem, the gain line may be situated in either the pass or stop band of the photonic crystal. It is shown that the monochromatic plane-wave approximation is generally inapplicable for active media, because it leads to results that violate causality. But the problem becomes physically meaningful and correct results can be obtained for all three approaches once the structure of the wavefront and the finite aperture of the beam are taken into account.

Dorofeenko, Aleksandr V.; Zyablovsky, A. A.; Pukhov, Aleksandr A.; Lisyansky, A. A.; Vinogradov, Aleksei P.

2012-11-01

334

Gain and loss learning differentially contribute to life financial outcomes.  

PubMed

Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt). In a community sample of healthy adults (n?=?75), rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences) and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education) confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes. PMID:21915320

Knutson, Brian; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Kuhnen, Camelia M

2011-01-01

335

Mechanisms of intron gain and loss in Cryptococcus  

E-print Network

Background: Genome comparisons across deep phylogenetic divergences have revealed that spliceosomal intron gain and loss are common evolutionary events. However, because of the deep divergences involved in these comparisons, ...

Neafsey, Daniel E.

336

Predicting FCI gain with a nonverbal intelligence test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have administered both a commercial, nonverbal intelligence test (the GAMA) and Lawsonâs Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning to students in two introductory physics classes to determine if either test can successfully predict normalized gains on the Force Concept Inventory. Since gain on the FCI is known to be related to gender, we adopted a linear model with gain on the FCI as the dependent variable and gender and a test score as the independent variables. We found that the GAMA score did not predict a significant amount of variation beyond gender. Lawsonâs test, however, did predict a small but significant variation beyond gender. When simple linear regressions were run separately for males and females with the Lawson score as a predictor, we found that the Lawson score did not significantly predict gains for females but was a marginally significant predictor for males.

Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.

2014-02-01

337

Gain-assisted hybrid-superlens hyperlens for nano imaging.  

PubMed

We propose an innovative active imaging device named gain-assisted hybrid-superlens hyperlens and examine its resolving power theoretically. This semi-cylindrical device consists of a core of semi-cylindrical super-lens and a half cylindrical outer shell of hyperlens. Both the superlens and hyperlens parts of the device are appropriately designed multi-layered metal-dielectric structures having indefinite eigenvalues of dielectric tensors. The dielectric layers of the hyperlens are doped with Coumarin, which play the role of gain medium. The gain medium is analyzed thoroughly using a generic four-level system model, and the permittivity of the gain medium is extracted from this analysis for simulating the imaging characteristics of the device. According to our simulation at wavelength of 365 nm, an excellent resolution power much better than the diffraction limit value can be achieved. PMID:23037445

Wang, Yao Ting; Cheng, Bo Han; Ho, You Zhe; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Luan, Pi-Gang; Tsai, Din Ping

2012-09-24

338

Effect of surfactants on weight gain in mice.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine if four surfactants can induce increased weight gain in the mouse. Basic-H, Triton X-100, Amway All Purpose Adjuvant and X-77 were put in water and fed to various groups of ICR 21 day old female mice for a period of 43 days. All the mice were clinically normal throughout the study period. Pathological examination of a random sample of the mice revealed no gross pathological changes. Similarly, histopathological examination of the lungs, livers and intestines did not reveal any visible lesions. Basic-H and Amway surfactants induced weight gain, though not significantly, better at 0.1% (V/V) concentration while X-77 and Triton X-100 induced weight gain better at 0.4% (V/V) concentration. Overall results show that none of the surfactants tested induced significant weight gain. PMID:3962176

Kaneene, J B; Ross, R W

1986-03-01

339

Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ  

SciTech Connect

The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

Fisk, William J.

2000-08-01

340

Avalanche Multiplication as a Gain Mechanism in Photodiodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a fast, high-gain photodetector based on the phenomenon of avalanche multiplication in semiconductors has been investigated. Such a detector would be a definite requirement for communication systems using light as a carrier, as well as ...

H. W. Ruegg

1966-01-01

341

Recent Progress with Tapered-Gain-Region Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semiconductor laser devices with tapered gain regions have recently generated much interest because they promise high output power with near diffraction limited spatial beam quality and good electrical to optical conversion efficiency. In this paper we re...

J. C. Livas, S. R. Chinn, E. S. Kintzer, J. N. Walpole, C. A. Wang

1994-01-01

342

Losing it: The Influence of Losses on Individuals' Normalized Gains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers and practitioners routinely use the normalized gain (Hake, 1998) to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Normalized gain (g) has been useful in distinguishing active engagement from traditional instruction. Recently, concerns were raised about normalized gain because it implicitly neglects retention (or, equivalently, "losses"). That is to say, g assumes no right answers become wrong after instruction. We analyze individual standardized gain (G) and loss (L) in data collected at Harvard University during the first five years that Peer Instruction was developed. We find that losses are non-zero, and that losses are larger among students with lower pre-test performances. These preliminary results warrant further research, particularly with different student populations, to establish whether the failure to address loss changes the conclusions drawn from g.

Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Reshef, Orad; Dowd, Jason E.; Araujo, Ives; Mazur, Eric

2010-12-31

343

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2010-04-01

344

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2011-04-01

345

24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain...walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

2013-04-01

346

24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.  

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain...walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

2014-04-01

347

Losing it: The Influence of Losses on Individuals' Normalized Gains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers and practitioners routinely use the normalized gain (Hake, 1998) to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Normalized gain (g) has been useful in distinguishing active engagement from traditional instruction. Recently, concerns were raised about normalized gain because it implicitly neglects retention (or, equivalently, "losses"). That is to say, g assumes no right answers become wrong after instruction. We analyze individual standardized gain (G) and loss (L) in data collected at Harvard University during the first five years that Peer Instruction was developed. We find that losses are non-zero, and that losses are larger among students with lower pre-test performances. These preliminary results warrant further research, particularly with different student populations, to establish whether the failure to address loss changes the conclusions drawn from g.

Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Reshef, Orad; Dowd, Jason; Araujo, Ives; Mazur, Eric

2010-10-01

348

Poor Weight Gain in Infants and Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... feeding disorders in children with developmental disorders (eg, autism); swallowing dysfunction POOR WEIGHT GAIN DIAGNOSIS If an ... distractions, such as television, phone calls, and loud music, should be minimized. ? Make meal time routines consistent, ...

349

Minimizing gain transient dynamics by optimizing the erbium concentration and cavity length of a gain clamped EDFA.  

PubMed

Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain transient dynamics are studied in the context of their application in optically reconfigurable networks. We address the question of how to design the EDFA in order to minimize the gain transients present in the output signals of the EDFA when the system is optically reconfigured such that the total average input power levels and wavelengths are changed. Both experimental measurements and theoretical simulations show that the amplitude transients depend on the length of the erbium doped fiber (EDF) and the erbium concentration. We show how it may be possible to reduce the gain transients by appropriate design of the EDFA. PMID:19498777

Chan, P; Tsang, H

2005-09-19

350

Spatial gain measurements in a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of small signal gain has been investigated on the RADICL device, a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). A frequency-stabilized, narrow linewidth diode laser system operating on the F=3?F=4 hyperfine levels of the (2 P1\\/2) to (2P3\\/2) spin-orbit transition in atomic iodine was used as a small signal probe. A peak gain of 1.2%\\/cm was measured along the

R. F. Tate; B. S. Hunt; C. A. Helms; K. A. Kruesdell; G. D. Hager

1995-01-01

351

Thermodynamic properties of uranium in Ga-In based alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activity of uranium was determined in gallium, indium and gallium-indium eutectic (21.8 wt.% In) based alloys between 573 and 1073 K employing the electromotive force method. In two-phase U-Ga-In alloys, uranium forms the intermetallic compound UGa3. Activity coefficients and solubility of uranium in Ga-In eutectic were also determined in the same temperature range. Partial thermodynamic functions of ?-U in saturated alloys with gallium, indium and Ga-In eutectic were calculated.

Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Melchakov, S. Yu; Shchetinskiy, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2013-07-01

352

Superradiance in the high-gain free-electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the effects of slippage on the single-pass high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier. We use a one-dimensional computational code to show the existence of two new dynamical regimes characterized by a dimensionless parameter K, which is a measure of the slippage in one gain length. We define the long-pulse limit to be when K<<1 or the

R. Bonifacio; B. W. J. McNeil; P. Pierini

1989-01-01

353

Recent Progress in High-Gain FEL Theory  

SciTech Connect

High-gain free electron lasers (FEL) are being developed as extremely bright x-ray sources of a next-generation radiation facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory and the recent progress in understanding the startup, the exponential growth and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). We will also discuss how the FEL performance may be affected by various errors and wakefield effects in the undulator.

Huang, Z.; /SLAC

2005-09-30

354

High-gain volume ignition for inertial confinement fusion (ICF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976, volume ignition calculations of pellet-fueled inertial confinement fusion have shown very high fusion gains due to the strong temperature increases caused by self-heating. This phenomenon was first reported in 1978 (Hora & Ray) and subsequently named the ‘‘Wheeler modes.’’ The very low optimum initial temperatures (≊1 keV) and the fuel burn of up to 80% permit gains of

H. Hora; S. Eliezer; J. M. Martinez-Val; G. H. Miley

1994-01-01

355

What Do Students Gain by Engaging in Socioscientific Inquiry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of what students gain by engaging in socioscientific inquiry is addressed in two ways. First, relevant literature\\u000a is surveyed to build the case that socioscientific issues (SSI) can serve as useful contexts for teaching and learning science\\u000a content. Studies are reviewed which document student gains in discipline specific content knowledge as well as understandings\\u000a of the nature of

Troy D. Sadler; Sasha A. Barab; Brianna Scott

2007-01-01

356

Synthesis and LFT Gain Scheduling with Mixed Uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the solution to the mixed ?? synthesis problem, andhow to design gain scheduling controllers with linear fractional transformations(LFTs). The system is assumed to have a parameter dependencesdescribed by LFTs The goal of the controller is, with real-time knowledgeof the parameters, to provide disturbance and error attenuation. Thepaper treats both complex and real parametric dependencies.Keywords: Gain sceduling, linear

A. Helmersson

1995-01-01

357

Comparative Study of Gain Mechanisms in GaN Epilayers and GaN/AlGaN Separate Confinement Heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of an experimental study on near-threshold gain mechanisms in optically pumped GaN epilayers and GaN/AlGaN separate confinement heterostructures (SCHs) in the temperature range of 10 to 300 K and identify critical issues necessary for the development of near- and deep-UV laser diodes. We show that the near-threshold gain mechanism in GaN epilayers is inelastic exciton-exciton scattering for temperatures below ~150 K, whereas at elevated temperatures an electron-hole plasma is the dominant gain mechanism. The Mott density in GaN (density at which excitons dissociate) was estimated to be 1.1× 10^18 cm-3. By improving carrier and optical confinement we were able to extend the exciton-exciton scattering gain mechanism up to room temperature in GaN/AlGaN SCHs. A remarkably low lasing threshold (carrier density substantially below the Mott density) was achieved in SCH heterostructures over the temperature range of 10 to 300 K. The implications of this study on the development of UV laser diodes will be discussed. This work was supported by AFOSR and BMDO.

Bidnyk, Sergiy; Biu Lam, Jack; Little, Brian; Gainer, Gordon; Song, Jin Joo

2000-03-01

358

The associations of viral and mycoplasmal antibody titers with respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves.  

PubMed

Blood samples from 32 groups of calves (n = 700) were taken on arrival and after 28-35 days at the feedlot. Eleven groups were housed in feedlots in Ontario, and 21 groups in feedlots in Alberta. Serum antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), Mycoplasma dispar and M. bovis, plus data on bovine corona virus (BCV) from a previous study were investigated for their association with the risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and with 28-day weight change, both before and after controlling for titers to Pasteurella haemolytica and Haemophilus somnus. Exposure to IBRV and M. bovis was infrequent, and although exposure to PIV-3 was more common, none of these agents had important associations with BRD. Higher titers to BVDV, BRSV, and BCV on arrival were associated with reduced risks of BRD and increased weight gains. However, there was some variation in these relationships and higher arrival titers to BVDV and BRSV in a subset of the calves were associated with increased risks of BRD. Titer increases to BVDV were associated with a higher risk of BRD and lower weight gains. Titer increases to BRSV were not usually associated with the occurrence of BRD, but titer increases to BRSV in a subset of calves that were vaccinated against BRSV, on arrival, were associated with an elevated risk of BRD. Of all the agents studied, BVDV had the most consistent associations with elevated risk of BRD and lower weight gains. Higher BRSV arrival titers were related to lower risk of BRD and higher weight gains; in some instances titer increases to BRSV were associated with higher BRD risk. Higher titers to BCV on arrival were related to reduced risks of BRD. Practical ways of adequately preventing the negative effects of these agents are still needed. PMID:12001336

Martin, S W; Nagy, E; Armstrong, D; Rosendal, S

1999-08-01

359

What controls gain in gain control? Mismatch negativity (MMN), priors and system biases.  

PubMed

Repetitious patterns enable the auditory system to form prediction models specifying the most likely characteristics of subsequent sounds. Pattern deviations elicit mismatch negativity (MMN), the amplitude of which is modulated by the size of the deviation and confidence in the model. Todd et al. (Neuropsychologia 49:3399-3405, 2011; J Neurophysiol 109:99-105, 2013) demonstrated that a multi-timescale sequence reveals a bias that profoundly distorts the impact of local sound statistics on the MMN amplitude. Two sounds alternate roles as repetitious "standard" and rare "deviant" rapidly (every 0.8 min) or slowly (every 2.4 min). The bias manifests as larger MMN to the sound first encountered as deviant in slow compared to fast changing sequences, but no difference for the sound first encountered as a standard. We propose that the bias is due to how Bayesian priors shape filters of sound relevance. By examining the time-course of change in MMN amplitude we show that the bias manifests immediately after roles change but rapidly disappears thereafter. The bias was reflected in the response to deviant sounds only (not in response to standards), consistent with precision estimates extracted from second order patterns modulating gain differentially for the two sounds. Evoked responses to deviants suggest that pattern extraction and reactivation of priors can operate over tens of minutes or longer. Both MMN and deviant responses establish that: (1) priors are defined by the most proximally encountered probability distribution when one exists but; (2) when no prior exists, one is instantiated by sequence onset characteristics; and (3) priors require context interruption to be updated. PMID:24343248

Todd, Juanita; Heathcote, Andrew; Mullens, Daniel; Whitson, Lisa R; Provost, Alexander; Winkler, István

2014-07-01

360

Hearing in noisy environments: noise invariance and contrast gain control.  

PubMed

Contrast gain control has recently been identified as a fundamental property of the auditory system. Electrophysiological recordings in ferrets have shown that neurons continuously adjust their gain (their sensitivity to change in sound level) in response to the contrast of sounds that are heard. At the level of the auditory cortex, these gain changes partly compensate for changes in sound contrast. This means that sounds which are structurally similar, but have different contrasts, have similar neuronal representations in the auditory cortex. As a result, the cortical representation is relatively invariant to stimulus contrast and robust to the presence of noise in the stimulus. In the inferior colliculus (an important subcortical auditory structure), gain changes are less reliably compensatory, suggesting that contrast- and noise-invariant representations are constructed gradually as one ascends the auditory pathway. In addition to noise invariance, contrast gain control provides a variety of computational advantages over static neuronal representations; it makes efficient use of neuronal dynamic range, may contribute to redundancy-reducing, sparse codes for sound and allows for simpler decoding of population responses. The circuits underlying auditory contrast gain control are still under investigation. As in the visual system, these circuits may be modulated by factors other than stimulus contrast, forming a potential neural substrate for mediating the effects of attention as well as interactions between the senses. PMID:24907308

Willmore, Ben D B; Cooke, James E; King, Andrew J

2014-08-15

361

A neurochemical approach to valuation sensitivity over gains and losses.  

PubMed

Prospect theory proposes the hypothesis that people have diminishing sensitivity in valuing increases in the size of monetary outcomes, for both gains and losses. For decision-making under risk, this implies a tendency to be risk-tolerant over losses while being generally risk averse over gains. We offer a neurochemistry-based model of the diminishing valuation sensitivity hypothesis. Specifically, we propose that dopamine tone modulates the sensitivity towards valuation of gains while serotonin tone modulates the sensitivity towards valuation of losses. Consequently, higher dopamine tone would yield a more concave valuation function over gains while higher serotonin tone would yield a more convex valuation function over losses. Using a neurogenetics strategy to test our neurochemical model, we find that subjects with the 9-repeat allele of DAT1 (lower DA tone) are more risk-tolerant over gains than subjects with the 10-repeat allele, and that subjects with the 10-repeat allele of STin2 (higher 5HT tone) are more risk-tolerant over losses than subjects with the 12-repeat allele. Overall, our results support the implications of our model and provide the first neurogenetics evidence that risk attitudes are partially hard-wired in differentiating between gain- and loss-oriented risks. PMID:19726478

Zhong, Songfa; Israel, Salomon; Xue, Hong; Sham, Pak C; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong

2009-12-01

362

Elevation puts moral values into action  

E-print Network

and colleagues (2009) did not explicitly interpret their findings in this way, their work can be viewed as applying the general principle of self-affirmation when facing threat (McQueen & Klein, 2006; Steele, 1988) to the moral domain. Indeed, a central... in proscocial behavior (Aquino, McFerran, & Laven, 2011). All these find- ings suggest that moral elevation can have highly beneficial consequences because it inspires people to do good things. However, in the light of the findings reviewed above con- cerning...

Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean

2011-01-01

363

Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user inputs of vehicle characteristics (e.g., thrust and aerodynamic data), nor does it require reams of turn data after the traditional fashion of the Air Force ranges. The program requires a nominal trajectory table (time, altitude, range, velocity, and flight elevation) and makes heavy use of it to initialize and model a failure turn.

Lanzi, Raymond J

2014-01-01

364

Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.  

PubMed

Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply. PMID:17735740

Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

1982-04-30

365

Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 °C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms for growth and shrinkage is proposed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The activation energies of evaporation and condensation processes are determined to be 477.31 and 611.49 kJ/mol, respectively.

Chen, Y. H.; Feng Chou, Kuo; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh

2011-08-01

366

Elevated temperature static and fatigue testing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft of the future, such as an aerospace vehicle or an advanced fighter, will have expanded operating envelopes and therefore, will be subject to extreme environmental conditions. They will experience high temperatures combined with high external loads. Due to the complexity of full scale testing with combined thermal and mechanical loads, subcomponent and coupon testing play an extremely important role in the verification of structural integrity. This paper describes testing facilities designed for elevated temperature testing of coupon specimens. These facilities are capable of simultaneously applying spectrum loads and a detailed thermal profile. A method is also outlined for developing realistic thermal and mechanical load profiles for advanced aircraft.

Harmon, D. M.; Coffey, F. J.; Antolovich, S. D.; Brown, R. C.

367

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the Geological Survey from students, teachers, writers, editors, publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs and other reference books, and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. Some of this information, compiled from older maps, will be revised as new surveys are completed. For further information, write to the U. S. Geological Survey, 507 National Center.Reston,Virginia 22092.

1980-01-01

368

Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

2012-12-01

369

Diel Shifts in Carboxylation Pathway and Metabolite Dynamics in the CAM Bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' in Response to Elevated CO2  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The deployment of temporally separated carboxylation pathways for net CO2 uptake in CAM plants provides plasticity and thus uncertainty on how species with this photosynthetic pathway will respond to life in a higher-CO2 world. The present study examined how long-term exposure to elevated CO2 influences the relative contributions that C3 and C4 carboxylation make to net carbon gain and to establish how this impacts on the availability of carbohydrates for export and growth and on water use efficiency over the day/night cycle. Methods Integrated measurements of leaf gas exchange and diel metabolite dynamics (e.g. malate, soluble sugars, starch) were made in leaves of the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’ after exposure to 700 µmol mol?1 CO2 for 5 months. Key Results There was a 60 % increase in 24-h carbon gain under elevated CO2 due to a stimulation of daytime C3 and C4 carboxylation in phases II and IV where water use efficiency was comparable with that measured at night. The extra CO2 taken up under elevated CO2 was largely accumulated as hexose sugars during phase IV and net daytime export of carbohydrate was abolished. Under elevated CO2 there was no stimulation of dark carboxylation and nocturnal export and respiration appeared to be the stronger sinks for carbohydrate. Conclusions Despite the increased size of the soluble sugar storage pool under elevated CO2, there was no change in the net allocation of carbohydrates between provision of substrates for CAM and export/respiration in A. ‘Maya’. The data imply the existence of discrete pools of carbohydrate that provide substrate for CAM or sugars for export/respiration. The 2-fold increase in water-use efficiency could be a major physiological advantage to growth under elevated CO2 in this CAM bromeliad. PMID:18593689

Ceusters, J.; Borland, A. M.; Londers, E.; Verdoodt, V.; Godts, C.; De Proft, M. P.

2008-01-01

370

Elevated CO2 and O3 Alter Productivity and Carbon Storage in Northern Temperate Forests: Results from Aspen FACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years, advancing from open-grown seedlings <0.25 m in height at the beginning to the experiment to closed-canopy stands that were >8 m tall. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment. In addition, we estimated cumulative net primary productivity (NPP) during the experiment and used these data to gain further insight into forest C cycling in two ways. First, we tested several canopy productivity models to understand variation in cumulative NPP. Second, we compared cumulative NPP to ecosystem C storage. Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem carbon (C) storage by 11%, but elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C storage by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C storage across communities and no significant interactions between CO2 and O3 for any major C pools. Tree C storage increased 44% under elevated CO2 and decreased 15% under elevated O3. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected the total amount of C in the top 1 m of mineral soil. However, soil C content within the top 0.1 m of mineral soil was lower under elevated O3, whereas soil C at 0.1 to 0.2 m and 0.4 to 0.5 m in depth were lower under elevated CO2. Cumulative NPP was 42% greater under elevated CO2, 11% lower under elevated O3, and was a strong predictor of variation in C storage in plants and organic soil (n = 36, r2 = 0.96). Tree productivity comprised 95% of cumulative NPP. Stands with more cumulative canopy N (g foliar N m-2 of ground area) had greater cumulative tree productivity, but N productivity (tree productivity per canopy N) decreased as canopy N accrued. Thus, elevated CO2 increased cumulative NPP because of a 28% increase in canopy N and a 28% increase in N productivity, while elevated O3 did not impact N productivity and lowered tree productivity only through a 21% decrease in canopy N. Because N productivity decreased as canopy N accrued, the difference in canopy N between ambient and elevated O3 had a gradually smaller influence on NPP through time as the stands became more developed, eventually eliminating the O3 effect. In comparison, variation in mineral soil C content was not positively related to cumulative NPP and the effects of CO2 and O3 on this important ecosystem C pool remain poorly understood..

Talhelm, A. F.; Pregitzer, K.; Kubiske, M.; Zak, D.; Campany, C.; Burton, A.

2013-12-01

371

7. GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION AND SIDE (SOUTH) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION AND SIDE (SOUTH) ELEVATION. CAPT. JAMES ABERCROMBIE HOUSE (PERELMAN ANTIQUE TOY MUSEUM) IS AT RIGHT - Samuel Neave House & Store, 272-274 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

372

8. INTERIOR, GLOBE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE); GARNER FLOORTIMBER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, GLOBE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE); GARNER FLOOR-TIMBER FRAMING ON BACK OF GARNERS, VIEW FROM WEST SIDE. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

373

28. Conveyor gallery between elevators no. 2 and 3: conveyor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Conveyor gallery between elevators no. 2 and 3: conveyor belt rollers and sampling apparatus, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

374

2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

375

12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET AT LEFT THAT HOUSES OPERATING VALVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

376

5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt house with Russell-Miller flour mill to right (now Eonacara and idle). - American Elevator, 87 Childs Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

377

4. VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. THE SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF THE OFFICE BUILDING IS ON THE RIGHT. - Savage Tire Factory, Factory Building, 2301 Main Street, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

378

Building B detail, elevator serving all three floor. View from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building B detail, elevator serving all three floor. View from first floor looking north. Elevator shaft located in northeast corner of building - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building B, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

379

East Elevation of Storeroom, General Kitchen and Bakery & West ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East Elevation of Storeroom, General Kitchen and Bakery & West Elevation of Bakery and General Kitchen - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Storeroom, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, Birch Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

380

North Elevation of Storeroom, General Kitchen and Bakery & North ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North Elevation of Storeroom, General Kitchen and Bakery & North Elevation of Storeroom - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Storeroom, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, Birch Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

381

29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.  

...vicinity of the escalator or be available at the terminal. (f) Elevator landing openings shall be provided with doors, gates or equivalent protection which shall be in place when the elevator is not at that landing, to prevent employees from...

2014-07-01

382

2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

383

49 CFR 213.329 - Curves, elevation and speed limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Curves, elevation and speed limitations. 213.329 Section 213... § 213.329 Curves, elevation and speed limitations. (a) The maximum crosslevel...1) The maximum allowable operating speed for each curve is determined by the...

2011-10-01

384

49 CFR 213.329 - Curves, elevation and speed limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Curves, elevation and speed limitations. 213.329 Section 213... § 213.329 Curves, elevation and speed limitations. (a) The maximum crosslevel...1) The maximum allowable operating speed for each curve is determined by the...

2010-10-01

385

Elevation and elevation change of Greenland and Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the present-day surface elevation of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Based on 3 years of CryoSat-2 data acquisition we derived new elevation models (DEMs) as well as elevation change maps and volume change estimates for both ice sheets. Here we present the new DEMs and their corresponding error maps. The accuracy of the derived DEMs for Greenland and Antarctica is similar to those of previous DEMs obtained by satellite-based laser and radar altimeters. Comparisons with ICESat data show that 80% of the CryoSat-2 DEMs have an uncertainty of less than 3 m ± 15 m. The surface elevation change rates between January 2011 and January 2014 are presented for both ice sheets. We compared our results to elevation change rates obtained from ICESat data covering the time period from 2003 to 2009. The comparison reveals that in West Antarctica the volume loss has increased by a factor of 3. It also shows an anomalous thickening in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica which represents a known large-scale accumulation event. This anomaly partly compensates for the observed increased volume loss of the Antarctic Peninsula and West Antarctica. For Greenland we find a volume loss increased by a factor of 2.5 compared to the ICESat period with large negative elevation changes concentrated at the west and southeast coasts. The combined volume change of Greenland and Antarctica for the observation period is estimated to be -503 ± 107 km3 yr-1. Greenland contributes nearly 75% to the total volume change with -375 ± 24 km3 yr-1.

Helm, V.; Humbert, A.; Miller, H.

2014-08-01

386

Elevations and distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the U.S. Geological Survey from students; teachers; writers; editors; publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs, and other reference books; and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. In most cases, the elevations were determined from surveys and from 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In Alaska, information was taken from 1:63,360-scale, 15-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In a few cases, data were obtained from older, 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute maps; these maps are being replaced with larger-scale 7.5-minute coverage. Further information about U.S. Geological Survey products can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 22092 or phone 703-860-6045.

1991-01-01

387

Digital Elevation Map of Spirit's Trek  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This digital elevation map, produced from satellite data overlain on an image taken by the Mars Orbital Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, shows changes in elevation along the trek of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 328th martian day, or sol (Dec. 4, 2004). To that point, Spirit had driven a total of 3.89 kilometers (2.42 miles).

The blue area represents the basaltic plains on the floor of Gusev Crater, about 20 meters (66 feet) below the rover's present location. Spirit crossed those plains for several months after landing to the west, off the left edge of this image. The greenish-blue area is the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills,' which Spirit reached on sol 156 (June 11, 2004). Since then, Spirit has been gradually ascending the slopes of the 'West Spur' in an east-northeasterly direction. Southeast of the rover's current position is a brighter green area that represents an abrupt increase in slope where the 'West Spur' meets the steeper flanks of the 'Columbia Hills.' The yellow and red areas represent the highest slopes and peaks. A steep valley east of the rover's location appears, from orbiter images, to have layered outcrops. Scientists are directing the rover to a ridge overlooking the valley to get a better look at what lies ahead.

2004-01-01

388

Elevated T cell subpopulations in dental students  

SciTech Connect

The absolute numbers of circulating white cells and lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 25 final-year dental students and compared with a control group of 28 medical students. The total lymphocyte count, total T cell numbers (CD3), T helper/inducer (CD4), and T suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the T helper/inducer to T suppressor/cytotoxic cell ratios or the circulating B cell (CD21) and natural killer cell (CD16) numbers between the study and control groups. Patch testing to mercury and mercuric compounds in both the study and control groups showed no evidence of cutaneous hypersensitivity to mercury. The reason for the observed elevations in T cell subpopulations in dental students is not clear. However, one possible explanation is the dental student's occupational exposure to mercury. Further work is underway to examine this possible relationship and it is suggested that dental personnel take adequate measures to reduce their exposure to mercury until the results of these studies are available.

Eedy, D.J.; Burrows, D.; Clifford, T.; Fay, A. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (Ireland))

1990-05-01

389

Elevations and distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the U.S. Geological Survey from students, teachers, writers, editors, publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs, and other reference books, and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. In most cases, the elevations were determined from surveys and from 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In Alaska, information was taken from 1:63,360-scale, 15-minute topographic quadrangle maps. In a few cases, data were obtained from older, 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute maps; these maps have been replaced with larger scale 7.5-minute coverage. Further information about U.S. Geological Survey products can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 or phone 1-888-ASK-USGS, E-mail: ask@usgs.gov, TTY: 703-648-4119.

2001-01-01

390

Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption  

SciTech Connect

Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

1986-03-01

391

THE CAFETERIA DIET INCREASES FAT MASS AND CHRONICALLY ELEVATES LUMBAR SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY IN RATS  

PubMed Central

Obesity causes sympathetic activation that promotes atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and hypertension. Because high-fat induced weight gain in rats elevates plasma leptin at 1–3 days following onset of calorie dense diets, we hypothesized that diet-induced overfeeding will increase sympathetic activity within one week following onset of the regimen. To test this, we continuously measured sympathetic activity and blood pressure before and during the onset of diet-induced obesity using a high calorie cafeteria-style diet. Female Wistar rats, in which radiotelemeters had been implanted for continuous monitoring of lumbar sympathetic activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, were randomly assigned to groups that received regular chow (control) or a cafeteria diet for a period of 15 days. This short-term cafeteria-feeding regimen caused modest but non-significant increases in body weight (P = 0.07) and a doubling of brown and white adipose tissue (P < 0.01). The increases in fat mass were accompanied by elevations in plasma leptin (P < 0.001) but no change in glucose. Overall heart rates and blood pressure were higher in cafeteria rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). Cafeteria diet-induced weight gain caused increases in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that became significant by the 12th day of the diet (p < 0.001). These data show, for the first time, that the high-fat cafeteria-style diet stimulates sustained increases in lumbar sympathetic neural drive in rats. PMID:23090774

Muntzel, Martin S.; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S.; Barclay, Alicia; Ajasin, David

2012-01-01

392

Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail.  

PubMed

As CO(2) levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO(2) in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO(2) on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO(2) levels--those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years--on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO(2) levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A Richard; Harley, Christopher D G

2010-08-22

393

Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail  

PubMed Central

As CO2 levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO2 in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO2 on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO2 levels—those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years—on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO2 levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A. Richard; Harley, Christopher D. G.

2010-01-01

394

3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 in background right, showing relation to associated Washburn Crosby Milling complex in foreground (left to right: utility building, A mill (with scaffolding), wheat house, Humboldt mill; elevator no. 1 in rear with gold medal flour sign), facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

395

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

396

New Residence Hall Siena College East and West Elevation  

E-print Network

: Siena College, Office of Development, 518-783-2432, development@siena.edu New Residence Hall SienaNew Residence Hall Siena College #12;East and West Elevation West Elevation East Elevation New Residence Hall Siena College #12;New Residence Hall Siena College #12;Naming Opportunities Partial View

397

Real-Time Combinatorial Optimization for Elevator Group Dispatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm Minimize Vexation, version 10 (MV10) for managing the elevators of a group is presented. Cars are dispatched in a way that maximizes efficiency for all the individuals who use an elevator in the group of elevators. Much information about the individuals in the group is inferred or estimated, greatly aiding the decision making process. A variety of

Paul E. Utgoff; Margaret E. Connell

2012-01-01

398

Ascending elevator accidents: give the miner a brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a five-year period in the USA, there were at least 18 documented cases of ascending elevators striking the overhead structure. In some cases, the accidents resulted in serious injuries or fatalities. These accidents occurred on counter-weighted elevators as a result of electrical, mechanical, and structural failures. Elevator cars are fitted with safeties that grip the guide rails and stop

Thomas D. Barkand

1992-01-01

399

30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral... § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430...this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their...

2011-07-01

400

Global Patterns of Protein Domain Gain and Loss in Superkingdoms  

PubMed Central

Domains are modules within proteins that can fold and function independently and are evolutionarily conserved. Here we compared the usage and distribution of protein domain families in the free-living proteomes of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya and reconstructed species phylogenies while tracing the history of domain emergence and loss in proteomes. We show that both gains and losses of domains occurred frequently during proteome evolution. The rate of domain discovery increased approximately linearly in evolutionary time. Remarkably, gains generally outnumbered losses and the gain-to-loss ratios were much higher in akaryotes compared to eukaryotes. Functional annotations of domain families revealed that both Archaea and Bacteria gained and lost metabolic capabilities during the course of evolution while Eukarya acquired a number of diverse molecular functions including those involved in extracellular processes, immunological mechanisms, and cell regulation. Results also highlighted significant contemporary sharing of informational enzymes between Archaea and Eukarya and metabolic enzymes between Bacteria and Eukarya. Finally, the analysis provided useful insights into the evolution of species. The archaeal superkingdom appeared first in evolution by gradual loss of ancestral domains, bacterial lineages were the first to gain superkingdom-specific domains, and eukaryotes (likely) originated when an expanding proto-eukaryotic stem lineage gained organelles through endosymbiosis of already diversified bacterial lineages. The evolutionary dynamics of domain families in proteomes and the increasing number of domain gains is predicted to redefine the persistence strategies of organisms in superkingdoms, influence the make up of molecular functions, and enhance organismal complexity by the generation of new domain architectures. This dynamics highlights ongoing secondary evolutionary adaptations in akaryotic microbes, especially Archaea. PMID:24499935

Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo

2014-01-01

401

Exploring Potential Health Disparities in Excessive Gestational Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction Although previous public health efforts have focused on redressing health disparities associated with insufficient gestational weight gain, examination of the impact of excessive gestational weight gain is warranted currently given the 2009 revision of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines for obese women coupled with rising rates of obesity, particularly among African American women. Materials and Methods In the years 2004–2008, 4619 African American and Caucasian women gave birth to a single, live, and full-term infant, completed Arkansas Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System questions about gestational weight gain and prepregnancy weight status, and gained within or in excess of the guidelines. Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and health variables associated with the odds of exceeding the 2009 IOM guidelines overall and by race. Results Regardless of race, overweight (odds ratio [OR]=3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.64–3.91) and obese (OR=4.37; 95% CI: 3.50–5.46) women had significantly higher odds of gaining excessively, as compared with normal weight women. In the multivariate model, women who were overweight or obese prepregnancy and who were married had higher odds of exceeding the IOM guidelines, while lower odds of exceeding the guidelines were seen among African American women, those who had Medicaid at any point in their pregnancy, who were multiparous, and those of Hispanic ethnicity. Discussion These findings can inform efforts to promote appropriate gestational weight gain among those at highest risk (i.e., overweight/obese women) and facilitate targeting to produce greatest improvement in the health of mothers and children. PMID:23751164

Bursac, Zoran; McGehee, Mary A.; West, Delia

2013-01-01

402

Gain characterization and passive modelocking of electrically pumped VECSELs.  

PubMed

Linear and nonlinear gain characterization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (EP-VECSELs) is presented with spectrally resolved measurements of the gain and with gain saturation measurements of two EP-VECSEL samples with different field enhancement in the quantum-well gain layers. The spectral bandwidth, small-signal gain and saturation fluence of the devices are compared. Using the sample with the larger bandwidth, we have demonstrated the shortest pulses generated from a passively modelocked EP-VECSEL to date. With a low-saturation-fluence SESAM for passive modelocking we have achieved 9.5-ps pulses with 7.6 mW average output power at a repetition rate of 1.4 GHz. With a higher output coupler transmission the pulse duration was increased to 31 ps with an average output power of 13.6 mW. The pulses were chirped mainly due to the group delay dispersion (GDD) introduced by the intermediate DBR, which compensates the optical loss in the structure. PMID:23187244

Pallmann, W P; Zaugg, C A; Mangold, M; Wittwer, V J; Moench, H; Gronenborn, S; Miller, M; Tilma, B W; Südmeyer, T; Keller, U

2012-10-22

403

Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain  

PubMed Central

Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate. PMID:24032024

Lowe, Michael R.; Doshi, Sapna D.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Feig, Emily H.

2013-01-01

404

MET gain in diffuse astrocytomas is associated with poorer outcome.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma may develop rapidly without evidence for precursor lesions (primary glioblastomas), or progress from diffuse or anaplastic astrocytomas (secondary glioblastomas). Despite having distinct genetic profiles, these glioblastoma subtypes have similar histological features. We hypothesized that the highly malignant phenotype of glioblastoma may be attributable to genetic alterations that are common to both glioblastoma subtypes. In the present study, we first searched for commonly (>35%) amplified genes in glioblastomas with IDH1 mutation (a hallmark of secondary glioblastoma) and those without IDH1 mutation (typical for primary glioblastoma) in data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). A total of 25 genes were identified, of which 21 were located at 7q31-34. We then screened 264 gliomas (70 glioblastomas, 112 diffuse astrocytomas, 82 oligodendrogliomas) for gain of the MET at 7q31.2 with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MET gain was detected in primary glioblastomas (47%) and secondary glioblastomas (44%), suggesting that this genetic alteration plays a role in the pathogenesis of both glioblastoma subtypes. MET gain was also common in diffuse astrocytomas (38%), but less frequent in oligodendrogliomas (16%). MET gain in diffuse astrocytomas was associated with shorter survival (median, 43.0 vs. 70.7 months; P?=?0.004), suggesting that MET gain is a useful prognostic marker for diffuse astrocytomas. PMID:22672415

Pierscianek, Daniela; Kim, Young-Ho; Motomura, Kazuya; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Mariani, Luigi; Vital, Anne; Sure, Ulrich; Ohgaki, Hiroko

2013-01-01

405

Patterns of Intron Gain and Loss in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the patterns of intron gain and loss or the relative contributions of these two processes to gene evolution. To investigate the dynamics of intron evolution, we analyzed orthologous genes from four filamentous fungal genomes and determined the pattern of intron conservation. We developed a probabilistic model to estimate the most likely rates of intron gain and loss giving rise to these observed conservation patterns. Our data reveal the surprising importance of intron gain. Between about 150 and 250 gains and between 150 and 350 losses were inferred in each lineage. We discuss one gene in particular (encoding 1-phosphoribosyl-5-pyrophosphate synthetase) that displays an unusually high rate of intron gain in multiple lineages. It has been recognized that introns are biased towards the 5? ends of genes in intron-poor genomes but are evenly distributed in intron-rich genomes. Current models attribute this bias to 3? intron loss through a poly-adenosine-primed reverse transcription mechanism. Contrary to standard models, we find no increased frequency of intron loss toward the 3? ends of genes. Thus, recent intron dynamics do not support a model whereby 5? intron positional bias is generated solely by 3?-biased intron loss. PMID:15562318

2004-01-01

406

Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity, with combined effects that, at least in some settings, are simple, additive combinations of single-factor effects. PMID:12810960

Zavaleta, Erika S.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Chiariello, Nona R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.

2003-01-01

407

Elevated temperature fatigue testing of metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major technology areas needed to perform a life prediction of an aircraft turbine engine hot section component are discussed and the steps required for life prediction are outlined. These include the determination of the operating environment, the calculation of the thermal and mechanical loading of the component, the cyclic stress-strain and creep behavior of the material required for structural analysis, and the structural analysis to determine the local stress-strain-temperature-time response of the material at the critical location in the components. From a knowledge of the fatigue, creep, and failure resistance of the material, a prediction of the life of the component is made. Material characterization and evaluation conducted for the purpose of calculating fatigue crack initiation lives of components operating at elevated temperatures are emphasized.

Hirschberg, M. H.

1981-01-01

408

Elevated temperature fatigue testing of metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material characterization and evaluation conducted for the purpose of calculating fatigue crack initiation lives of components operating at elevated temperatures are discussed. The major technology areas needed to perform a life prediction of an aircraft turbine engine hot section component and the steps required for life prediction are outlined. These include: the determination of the operating environment, the calculation of the thermal and mechanical loading of the component, the cyclic stress strain and creep behavior of the material required for structural analysis, the structural analysis to determine the local stress strain temperature time response of the material at the critical location in the component, and from a knowledge of the fatigue, creep, and failure resistance of the material, a prediction of the life of the component.

Hirschberg, M. H.

1981-01-01

409

Elevated suicide levels associated with legalized gambling.  

PubMed

There has been no systematic, large-scale statistical investigation of the link between gambling and suicide, despite the suggestion of such a link from small-scale case studies. This article examines whether gamblers or those associated with them are prone to suicide and whether gaming communities experience atypically high suicide rates. Las Vegas, the premier U.S. gambling setting, displays the highest levels of suicide in the nation, both for residents of Las Vegas and for visitors to that setting. In general, visitors to and residents of major gaming communities experience significantly elevated suicide levels. In Atlantic City, abnormally high suicide levels for visitors and residents appeared only after gambling casinos were opened. The findings do not seem to result merely because gaming settings attract suicidal individuals. PMID:9444732

Phillips, D P; Welty, W R; Smith, M M

1997-01-01

410

Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

2013-06-11

411

Minimizing Uncertainty in Coastal Digital Elevation Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital elevation models (DEMs) have inherent uncertainties in their values that impact the accuracies of coastal inundation studies that utilize them. Sources of DEM uncertainty include: uncertainty of source data, gridding interpolation to fill data gaps, and morphologic change after data collection. These uncertainties are propagated into modeling results such that the modeling of coastal inundation cannot be more accurate than the source DEMs they rely upon. We describe some of the major challenges in building coastal DEMs--those that integrate bathymetry and topography at the coast--and how to recognize errors and minimize model uncertainties. We also discuss procedures for building DEMs, and the efforts of NOAA and USGS to develop high-resolution DEMs of coastal areas impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.

Eakins, B.; Danielson, J.; McLean, S. J.

2013-12-01

412

Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents  

SciTech Connect

Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

2013-06-01

413

Note: Non-gain microchannel plate gated framing camera  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray framing camera using a non-gain microchannel plate (MCP) is reported in this article. The advantage of the non-gain MCP is the less transit time spread. The non-gain MCP gated framing camera has four microstrip line cathodes with 6 mm in width. The time domain reflectometry curves of the four microstrip lines are measured, which show that the characteristic impedance of each microstrip line is about 17 {Omega}. While the photocathode is driven by the gating electrical pulse with width of 125 ps and amplitude of -1.48 kV with -400 V bias, the measured exposure time of this camera is about 72 ps.

Cai Houzhi; Peng Xiang [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu Jinyuan; Niu Lihong; Peng Wenda; Niu Hanben [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Long Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

2011-05-15

414

OPTIMISING HEAT GAIN BY BUILDING MATERIALS THROUGH LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS  

E-print Network

Urban areas present distinctive micro climates. In the study of causes of the special climate in cities, it is reported that ?The total transformation of natural landscape into houses, streets, squares, big public buildings, skyscrapers, and industrial installations has brought about changes in climate of large cities?. Temperature is one of the most important characteristics of urban areas. It is known urban temperatures differ from those of sub-urban and rural areas and the phenomenon commonly known as the ? Urban Heat Islands?. Mitigation and control of this Urban Heat Island effect is so important for the environmental sustainability of urban areas. The materials used in the urban matrix play key role in causing this distinctive heat gain. The aim of this paper is to relate the thermal conductivity of building materials to the urban heat gain and to find solutions to optimize the heat gain by materials through landscape elements.

D. Kannamma B. Arch; M. Arch (l; Scape Architecture

415

Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l.) during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J.; Laube, W.

2014-08-01

416

Gain spectrum in gated x-ray MCPs  

SciTech Connect

The gain spectrum in a gated multichannel intensifier output depends on the gain and spatial averaging. The spectrum affects the minimum signal that can be detected as well as the signal to noise in the detected images. We will present data on the gain-spectrum for the GXD detector, a gated x-ray detector to be used at the National Ignition Facility. The data was recorded on a cooled CCD detector, with an x-ray gating time of approximately 75 ps, selected from a range of 0.2 and 1 ns electrical pulse width determined by pulse forming modules were also used. The detector was characterized at the TRIDENT laser facility, using a 2.4 ns long x-ray at 4.75 keV. The x-rays were generated by the interaction of the focused Trident laser beam with a Titanium target.

Kyrala, George A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holder, Joe [LLNL

2009-01-01

417

Additional solar/load ratio correlations for direct gain buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar/load ratio (SLR) correlations were developed for two new reference direct gain designs. The new reference designs are identical to the originals except that the glazing air gap has been increased from 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. and a vector average of the local hourly windspeed was used in the thermal network calculations rather than an assumed average value of 15 mph. Both of these modifications are realistic and enhance the predicted performance of direct gain buildings. A comprehensive set of mass sensitivity calculations was performed in order to provide information needed to select an appropriate set of parameters for new lightweight direct gain designs for which additional SLR correlations will be developed.

Wray, W. O.

1980-02-01

418

High gain proportional rf control stability at TESLA cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast proportional rf control is used as the basis for rf field regulation in actual linear accelerator projects like the international linear collider (ILC) and the European x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) based on TESLA technology. Additional control loops improve the field regulation by treating repetitive effects and compensating the beam loading. Nevertheless, the ability for high gain operation of the fast loops is desirable for the strong suppression of nonpredictive and nonrepetitive disturbances. TESLA cavities host nine fundamental modes (FMs) where only one is used for beam acceleration. The unwanted FMs have a significant influence on the proportional rf control loop stability at high gains. Within this paper, the stability of proportional rf control loops taking the FMs and digitalization effects into account will be discussed in detail together with measures enabling a significant increase of the gain values.

Vogel, Elmar

2007-05-01

419

Optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain.  

PubMed

We achieve optofluidic lasers with a single molecular layer of gain, in which green fluorescent protein, dye-labeled bovine serum albumin, and dye-labeled DNA, are used as the gain medium and attached to the surface of a ring resonator via surface immobilization biochemical methods. It is estimated that the surface density of the gain molecules is on the order of 10(12) cm(-2), sufficient for lasing under pulsed optical excitation. It is further shown that the optofluidic laser can be tuned by energy transfer mechanisms through biomolecular interactions. This work not only opens a door to novel photonic devices that can be controlled at the level of a single molecular layer but also provides a promising sensing platform to analyze biochemical processes at the solid-liquid interface. PMID:25312306

Chen, Qiushu; Ritt, Michael; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

2014-12-21

420

Stable ring resonator with bidirectional passes through the gain medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring resonators have unique properties that are sometimes desirable. Spatial hole burning is eliminated. Beam transformation, such as image rotation which may reduce the magnitude of certain aberrations, can be implemented in a traveling-wave region. There is a drawback, however. As usually constructed, a ring resonator has half as many passes through the gain medium as can be achieved with a standing-wave resonator. This may have a detrimental effect on laser efficiency. We have constructed a type of ring resonator that allows counterpropagating collinear passes through the gain medium, while there is also a section with a unidirectional beam. The resonator includes a polarizing beam splitter. The linear polarization is transformed to the orthogonal state by optical elements at the two ends of the region with counter-propagating beams. The beams passing through the gain medium in opposite directions are linearly polarized with orthogonal states.

Paxton, Alan H.; Miller, Harold C.

2014-03-01

421

Dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave assisted by incoherent gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-level system with pumped electric-dipole allowed transition for incoherent-gain negative permittivity is suggested in order to realize dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave. The present surface wave modes occurring at an interface between an incoherent-gain negative-permittivity “plasmonic” medium (e.g., a semiconductor-quantum-dot material) and an ordinary dielectric can be amplified due to population transfer in the three-level system of the negative-permittivity medium. The issues of complex phase constant and the attenuation coefficients in the adjacent media are considered for addressing the problem of loss compensation of surface plasmon wave. The effect of incoherent-gain amplification exhibited by the dispersion-sensitive surface plasmon wave can be utilized for designing new quantum optical and photonic devices, e.g., photonic transistors and logic gates.

Shen, Jian Qi

2014-10-01

422

Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space  

DOEpatents

Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

Hakala, Harri (Hyvinkaa, FI); Mustalahti, Jorma (Hyvinkaa, FI); Aulanko, Esko (Kerava, FI)

2000-01-01

423

Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hour prevention program, which promotes gradual lasting healthy improvements to dietary intake and physical activity, or an educational brochure control condition. Results Compared to controls, intervention participants showed significantly greater reductions in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms, and greater increases in physical activity, at posttest and significantly greater reductions in body mass index (BMI) and self-reported dieting at 6-mo follow-up. Moderator analyses revealed significantly greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms for those with initially elevated symptoms and pressure to be thin and significantly greater reductions in BMI for those with initially elevated eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions Results indicate that this intervention reduced both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain, but suggest it should be improved to produce stronger and more persistent effects, and that it may be useful to target young women with both body image and eating disturbances. PMID:22122289

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

2011-01-01

424

[Acute coronary syndromes without ST segment elevation].  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease accounts for most deaths in Western communities. Especially acute coronary syndromes--with or without ST segment elevation in the ECG--are potentially life-threatening events. The tremendous number of more than 400,000 acute coronary syndromes per year in Germany demonstrates the necessity of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment approaches. During the diagnostic process the patients' individual risk is repeatedly assessed. The ultimate treatment regimen is based on this risk stratification and includes five major therapeutic tools: anti-ischemic agents, anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, coronary revascularization, and long-term patient management. Several anticoagulants, which act at different levels of the coagulation cascade, have been investigated in the NSTE-ACS (non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome). Most anticoagulants have been shown to be capable of reducing the risk of death and myocardial infarction, however, at the cost of bleeding complications. Antiplatelet agents are necessary for both, the acute event and the subsequent maintenance therapy. The recommended treatment regimen includes aspirin in combination with a thienopyridine. During the acute phase of the acute coronary syndrome, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events. Revascularization for NSTE-ACS is performed to relieve angina and ongoing myocardial ischemia, and to prevent the progression to myocardial infarction or death. The indications for myocardial revascularization and the preferred approach (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) depend on the extent and severity of the lesions as identified by coronary angiography, the patient's condition and comorbidity. The long-term management after an acute coronary syndrome implies lifestyle measures and drug treatment in order to control risk factors impacting on the patients' outcome. PMID:19214407

Möllmann, Helge; Nef, Holger; Hamm, Christian W

2009-02-01

425

Luminescence in crosslinked polyethylene at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical treeing is often responsible for the breakdown of insulating materials used in power apparatus such as high-voltage transformers, cables, and capacitors. Insulation, such as crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), used in underground high-voltage cables usually operates at temperatures above ambient. This paper describes the characteristics of luminescence, emitted prior to electrical tree inception, at a crosslinked polyethylene-semiconducting material (XLPE-semicon) interface held above room temperature. Use of a sensitive light detection system showed that XLPE subjected to elevated temperatures emits luminescence even without voltage application. This light was attributed to thermoluminescence which decreased with the decrease in the concentration of the crosslinking by-products present in the polymer. The spectra of thermoluminescence were only in the visible range. On the other hand, electroluminescence occurred when the XLPE-semicon interface was held above room temperature and subjected to high electric stress. This light did not depend on the concentration of the crosslinking by-products and the spectra of electroluminescence were in the visible and the ultraviolet ranges. It is proposed that XLPE-semicon interface held at elevated temperature and subjected to long-term voltage application initially emits both thermoluminescence and electroluminescence. As the crosslinking by-products exude out of the polymer, thermoluminescence decreases with time and ultimately ceases, but electroluminescence occurs as long as the voltage is applied to the polymer. Although the intensity of electroluminescence emitted at high temperature was lower than that emitted at ambient, sufficient ultraviolet radiation was emitted. The ultraviolet radiation could photodegrade the polymer and lead to electrical tree inception.

Bamji, S. S.; Bulinski, A. T.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuki, M.; Iwata, Z.

1993-10-01

426

Gain Control Network Conditions in Early Sensory Coding  

PubMed Central

Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models. PMID:23874176

Serrano, Eduardo; Nowotny, Thomas; Levi, Rafael; Smith, Brian H.; Huerta, Ramon

2013-01-01

427

Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

428

Caustic Singularities Of High-Gain, Dual-Shaped Reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents study of some sources of error in analysis, by geometric theory of diffraction (GTD), of performance of high-gain, dual-shaped antenna reflector. Study probes into underlying analytic causes of singularity, with view toward devising and testing practical methods to avoid problems caused by singularity. Hybrid physical optics (PO) approach used to study near-field spillover or noise-temperature characteristics of high-gain relector antenna efficiently and accurately. Report illustrates this approach and underlying principles by presenting numerical results, for both offset and symmetrical reflector systems, computed by GTD, PO, and PO/GO methods.

Galindo, Victor; Veruttipong, Thavath W.; Imbriale, William A.; Rengarajan, Sambiam

1991-01-01

429

Self-reflection, Epistemological Beliefs, and Conceptual Gains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, researchers discuss how they studied weekly journals written by students to begin answering three questions related to epistemological beliefs and self-reflection: (1) How articulate are students in describing how they learn? (2) How consistently do students report particular ways of learning? (3) Are there correlations between these patterns (if they exist) and standard measures of conceptual understanding? Students' weekly written journals were analyzed for the quality of reflection on what and how they learn. The authors found that the high-gain students tended to write more than the low-gain students and showed reflection that was more epistemologically sound.

Etkina, Eugenia; May, David B.

2010-05-07

430

Closed form solution of Lindblad master equations without gain  

E-print Network

We present a closed form solution to the eigenvalue problem of a class of master equations that describe open quantum system with loss and dephasing but without gain. The method relies on the existence of a conserved number of excitation in the Hamiltonian part and that none of the Lindblad operators describe an excitation of the system. In the absence of dephasing Lindblad operators, the eigensystem of the Liouville operator can be constructed from the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian used in the quantum jump approach. Open versions of spin chains, the Tavis-Cummings model and coupled Harmonic oscillators without gain can be solved using this technique.

Juan Mauricio Torres

2014-03-14

431

Beef Cattle Performance II. Selection Based on Gaining Ability.  

E-print Network

evaluations of Hereford and first-cross Hereford x Brahman steers; weight for age at weaning; regularity of breeding ; use of heat tolerance tests ; and hybrid vlgor. Permanent improvement in beef cattle results through selecting superior animals... their gain test average. She has been proved by the perfomanc~ offspring. Right-Mr. BF 909, a 3-year-old son of the cow at the left, was 40 percent above average in gain. It i practical to rate an animal's ability by its own performance while it is still...

Hill, H. O.; Warwick, Bruce L.; Cartwright, T. C.

1955-01-01

432

Effective gain measurements in chromium-doped forsterite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective gain cross section in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite laser crystal was measured over the 1180-1330 nm spectral range. The experiment was performed using two collinear laser beams in a pump-and-probe arrangement. The peak-gain cross section from this measurement is estimated to be 1.9 x 10 to the -19th sq cm at 1215 nm, which is comparable to the value of about 2 x 10 to the -19th sq cm predicted by fluorescence linewidth and lifetime measurements. These results indicate that excited-state absorption is not a major loss mechanism in tetravalent chromium-doped forsterite.

Petricevic, V.; Seas, A.; Alfano, R. R.

1991-01-01

433

Precise gain measurement of the LHCb muon chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The muon detector of the LHCb experiment, which will operate at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, consists of five muon tracking stations placed along the beam axis and equipped mainly with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC). In the present paper we report the results of a precise measurement of the gain of the MWPC's as a function of the anode voltage. A precise evaluation of the primary ionization current (of about 5 pA) was performed. The absolute gain of the chambers was deduced as a function of the anode voltage and compared with the prediction of the Diethorn formula.

Dané, E.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.

2007-10-01

434

Effects of fully open-air [CO2] elevation on leaf photosynthesis and ultrastructure of Isatis indigotica fort.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine relies heavily on herbs, yet there is no information on how these herb plants would respond to climate change. In order to gain insight into such response, we studied the effect of elevated [CO2] on Isatis indigotica Fort, one of the most popular Chinese herb plants. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure and biomass yield in response to elevated [CO2] (550±19 µmol mol(-1)) were determined at the Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Photosynthetic ability of I. indigotica was improved under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (P N), water use efficiency (WUE) and maximum rate of electron transport (J max) of upper most fully-expended leaves, but not stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration ratio (Tr) and maximum velocity of carboxylation (V c,max). Elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf intrinsic efficiency of PSII (Fv'/Fm') and quantum yield of PSII(?PS II ), but decreased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and did not affect leaf proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP) and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). The structural chloroplast membrane, grana layer and stroma thylakoid membranes were intact under elevated [CO2], though more starch grains were accumulated within the chloroplasts than that of under ambient [CO2]. While the yield of I. indigotica was higher due to the improved photosynthesis under elevated [CO2], the content of adenosine, one of the functional ingredients in indigowoad root was not affected. PMID:24058596

Hao, Xingyu; Li, Ping; Feng, Yongxiang; Han, Xue; Gao, Ji; Lin, Erda; Han, Yuanhuai

2013-01-01

435

Peer Effects, Fast Food Consumption and Adolescent Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We first propose a social interaction model of fast food consumption using a

Bernard Fortin; Myra Yazbeck

2011-01-01

436

Searching for fair joint gains in agent-based negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multi-issue negotiations, autonomous agents can act co- operatively to benefit from mutually preferred agreements. However, empirical evidence suggests that they often fail to search for joint gains and end up with inefficient results. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel mediated negotiation procedure to support the negotiation agents in reaching an efficient and fair agreement in bilateral

Minyi Li; Quoc Bao Vo; Ryszard Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

437

Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

2005-01-01

438

High-Resolution Stimulated Raman Gain Spectroscopy of Parahydrogen Crystals  

E-print Network

High-Resolution Stimulated Raman Gain Spectroscopy of Parahydrogen Crystals Takamasa Momose1-H2 crystals with varying ortho-H2 concentrations is reported. A crys- tal containing 0.06% of ortho in a para-H2 crystal.5 The sharpness of infrared transition stems from the weak intermolecular interaction

Oka, Takeshi

439

Whose children gain from starting school later? – evidence from Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all Grade 4 and Grade 8 students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school 1 year later, and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming from low-educated families.

Szilvia Altwicker-Hámori; János Köll?

2012-01-01

440

Rehabilitation Gain: Relationship with Client Characteristics and Counselor Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 20-item scale to measure the rehabilitation gain of vocational rehabilitation clients was constructed to produce a criterion of rehabilitation outcome capable of reflecting the degree of client change. Handicap type, age, marital status, employment record, tenure of disabling condition, and intellectual ability were significant correlates of…

Reagles, Kenneth W.; And Others

1971-01-01

441

Including communication success in the estimation of information gain  

E-print Network

Including communication success in the estimation of information gain for multi-robot exploration a hypothetical disaster site with a small team of robots. The challenge faced by the robot team is to coordinate can only be optimal when the robots share the same map. With a limited communication range the map

Visser, Arnoud

442

Balancing the information gain against the movement cost  

E-print Network

of the robot team are evaluated on the amount of covered area, the quality of the produced map and most1 Balancing the information gain against the movement cost for multi-robot frontier exploration://www.science.uva.nl/research/isla Summary. This article investigates the scenario where a small team of robots needs to explore

Visser, Arnoud

443

Characterization of Newly Gained Introns in Daphnia Populations  

PubMed Central

As one of the few known species in an active phase of intron proliferation, the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is an especially attractive system for interrogating the gain and loss of introns in natural populations. In this study, we used a comparative population-genomic approach to identify and characterize 90 recently gained introns in this species. Molecular clock analyses indicate that these introns arose between 3.9 × 105 and 1.45 × 104 years ago, with a spike in intron proliferation approximately 5.2 × 104 to 1.22 × 105 years ago. Parallel gains at homologous positions contribute to 47.8% (43/90) of discovered new introns. A disproportionally large number of new introns were found in historically isolated populations in Oregon. Nonetheless, derived, intron-bearing alleles were also identified in a wide range of geographic locations, suggesting intron gain and, to a lesser degree, intron loss are important sources of genetic variation in natural populations of Daphnia. A majority (55/90 or 61.1%) of the identified neointrons have associated internal direct repeats with lengths and compositions that are unlikely to occur by chance, suggesting repeated bouts of staggered double-strand breaks (DSBs) during their evolution. Accordingly, internal, staggered DSBs may contribute to a passive trend toward increased length and sequence diversity in nascent introns. PMID:25123113

Li, Wenli; Kuzoff, Robert; Wong, Chen Khuan; Tucker, Abraham; Lynch, Michael

2014-01-01

444

Gain-switching of laser diodes coupled to optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflections from a fiber positioned at a very short distance from the output facet of a DFB laser diode are shown to induce variations of both mean turn-on time and time jitter under gain switching. Their measured values strongly depend on the phase of the reinjected field even for very small feedback levels. A simple model based on the coupled

Jaume Dellunde; Adalberto Sapia

1995-01-01

445

Assessing gains in efficient production among China's industrial enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central objective of economic reform is to reduce the productive inefficiency that arose under regimes in which markets and material incentives played a limited role. Applying an approach for measuring gains in productive efficiency, the authors evaluate the progress between 1980 and 1989 among China's large and medium-size state-owned enterprises in equalizing factor productivity across enterprises. In the early

Gary H. Jefferson; Wenyi Xu

1992-01-01

446

Imaging genetics for utility of risks over gains and losses.  

PubMed

One tenet of behavioral economics is the asymmetry in how decision makers evaluate risks involving gains versus risks involving losses. Correspondingly, an increasingly important question is what neuroanatomical and neurochemical correlates underpin valuation over gains and losses. By employing an imaging genetics strategy, this paper aims at identifying the specific neurotransmitter pathways underlying these decision making processes. We find enhanced striatal activation responding to increases in the magnitude of utility for risks over gains and to increases in the magnitude of disutility for risks over losses, while increased amygdala activation correlates only with the disutility for risks over losses. Stratifying brain activation by genotype, we find that a well-characterized polymorphism in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) contributes to individual differences in striatal response for gain-oriented risks, whereas a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (STin2) partially accounts for individual differences in amygdala responses for loss-oriented risks. Together, our results suggest the role of the amygdala and corresponding serotonergic pathway in evaluating losses. This further corroborates the hypothesis of serotonin being linked to dopamine in an "opponent partnership". PMID:21801841

Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong

2012-01-01

447

Children's Environmental Health: New Gains in Science and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the interconnectedness of the environment and human health stimulated the sanitary reform movement of the nineteenth century, a massive effort to bring clean water, decent housing, and effective waste removal to cities in Europe and the United States. The movement achieved great gains in public health and resulted in substantial enhancement of the quality and length of human

Anjali Garg; Philip J. Landrigan

2002-01-01

448

Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

2007-01-01

449

Gained knowledge exchange and analysis for meta-learning  

E-print Network

Gained knowledge exchange and analysis for meta-learning Norbert Jankowski and Krzysztof Gr necessary in most real life problems). Typical ensembles are often unsatisfactory. Meta-learning techniques meta-learning is possible only within a versatile and flexible data mining framework providing uniform

Jankowski, Norbert

450

Reducing the convergence ratio of high gain ICF targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ways of reducing the convergence ratio of high gain inertially confined fusion (ICF) targets have been studied using computer simulations. The convergence ratio decreases faster than predicted by the simple geometrical scaling law when the initial gaseous D-T density of the target is increased. Reducing the convergence ratio by changing the driver pulse shape is not energy efficient because

Yuli Pan

1988-01-01

451

Heat gains in buildings ? Limit conditions for calculating energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of analysis presented in the paper are related to the certification of energy performance in buildings using calculation methods, when the real energy consumption of the building is not analyzed. Energy consumption for cooling is not examined. Heat transmission losses could be less than the sum of the heat gains of a building if building thermal insulation is

Edmundas Monstvilas; Karolis Banionis; Vytautas Stankevi?ius; J?rate Karbauskaite; Raimondas Bli?džius

2010-01-01

452

Test results: textiles selected for direct gain passive buildings  

SciTech Connect

Upholstery textiles that are commercially available to residents of passive solar homes were tested to determine the sunlight resistance and thermal conductivity properties. Those textiles with the highest rating for sunlight resistance can then be recommended for use in direct gain passive solar buildings.

Guerin, D.A.; Butler, S.L.

1981-01-01

453

Weight Cycling, Weight Gain, and Risk of Hypertension in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess prospectively the relation between body mass index, weight gain, repeated intentional weight losses, and the risk of self-reported hypertension, the authors studied 46,224 women who were participants in the Nurses Health Study II, who were free of hypertension in 1993, and who completed questions on intentional weight losses between 1989 and 1993. Women who reported they had intentionally

Alison E. Field; Tim Byers; David J. Hunter; Nan M. Laird; JoAnn E. Manson; David F. Williamson; Walter C. Willett; Graham A. Colditz

454

Tapered fiber amplifier with high gain and output power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a high-power ytterbium fiber amplifier based on active tapered double-clad fiber (T-DCF) and capable of high single-pass gain. The T-DCF power amplifier seeded with a 320 mW narrow-band signal generates up to 110 W of average output power corresponding to more than 25 dB gain. The amplifier exhibits near-diffraction-limited beam quality ( M 2 = 1.06) at the highest output power, which was limited by the available pump power. With a broadband seed source, the amplifier produced a gain of nearly 40 dB obtained for low-signal limit of the seed. The high output power combined with high gain is achieved owing to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) filtering and increased stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold inherent to the axially non-uniform geometry. The amplifier operates efficiently with a wide range of input seed powers thus providing the basis for one-stage tapered amplifier which combines the functions of preamplifier and power amplifier and can be a competitive alternative to multi-stage design.

Kerttula, J.; Filippov, V.; Chamorovskii, Y.; Ustimchik, V.; Golant, K.; Okhotnikov, O. G.

2012-11-01

455

Radiation Response of Emerging High Gain, Low Noise Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data illustrating the radiation response of emerging high gain, low noise detectors are presented. Ionizing dose testing of silicon internal discrete avalanche photodiodes, and 51-MeV proton testing of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode are discussed.

Becker, Heidi N.; Farr, William H; Zhu, David Q.

2007-01-01

456

PiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost  

E-print Network

Petroleum Institute that, if constructed, TransCanada's proposed Keystone XL (KXL) pipeline will generatePiPe dreams? Jobs Gained, Jobs Lost by the ConstruCtion of Keystone XL a rePort by Corne, and Induced) Jobs from Keystone XL 26 KXL Will Have Minor Impact on Unemployment Levels 27 Four Ways Keystone

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

457

Informant Agreement in Treatment Gains for Child Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined multiple informant agreement in reports of treatment gains in a sample of children (M age = 10.27) treated for social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Mothers and fathers agreed on their child's improvement, and parents and children also generally agreed on the child's improvement.…

Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

2011-01-01

458

Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

2014-01-01

459

Efficiency Gains from Accounting Conservatism: Benefits to Lenders and Borrowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I examine the efficiency gains from accounting conservatism in the debt contracting process. Specifically, I analyze the ex post and ex ante benefits of conservatism to lenders and borrowers. First, I argue that conservatism benefits lenders ex post through a timely signal of default risk in the form of accelerated covenant violations by more conservative borrowers. I

Jieying Zhang

460

Perceptions of Science Graduating Students on Their Learning Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the Science Student Skills Inventory was used to gain understanding of student perceptions about their science skills set developed throughout their programme (scientific content knowledge, communication, scientific writing, teamwork, quantitative skills, and ethical thinking). The study involved 400 responses from undergraduate…

Varsavsky, Cristina; Matthews, Kelly E.; Hodgson, Yvonne

2014-01-01

461

Gulf Coast refiners gain access to more California crudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refiners east of the Rockies, particularly Gulf Coast refiners, have gained access to easter and central California crudes with the opening of Celeron Corp.'s All American Pipeline (AAPL). Currently, AAPL is carrying a blend of California crudes with properties similar to Alaskan North Slope (ANS). Although the blend is moderate gravity and sulfur content, it is comprised of crudes from

J. H. Vautrain; W. J. Sanderson

1988-01-01

462

Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For their capability to localize and redirect electromagnetic field, metal nanoparticles have been recently viewed as efficient nanoantenna operating in the optical regime. In this article, we experimentally investigated the optical responses of coupled gold antenna pairs and measured the critical parameters defining antenna characteristics: resonant frequencies and bandwidths, detuning and gains, and radiation patterns.

Huang, C.; Bouhelier, A.; Colas Des Francs, G.; Bruyant, A.; Guenot, A.; Finot, E.; Weeber, J.-C.; Dereux, A.

2008-10-01

463

Phonon-assisted transitions and optical gain in indirect semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic semiconductor theory is applied to an indirect Si-type semiconductor quantum well system. We discuss the absorption and stimulated emission of light accompanied by the creation or annihilation of phonons. We find strong differences to the optical properties of conventional direct semiconductors, including an asymmetric behavior where the maximum gain strongly exceeds the low-density absorption.

Imhof, Sebastian; Thränhardt, Angela

2010-08-01

464

The Cinderella Effect: Does Athletic Success Translate into Advancement Gains?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores how athletic success translates into advancement gains. He shares the Cinderella story of the Butler University's Butler Bulldogs which became the prototypical college sports Cinderella during its star turn in the 2010 tournament. Many institutions say that their athletic accomplishments have brought them…

DiConsiglio, John

2012-01-01

465

Gains to Producers from the Cartelization of Exhaustible Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cartels are examined to determine the potential gains to producers of forming cartels to market exhaustible resources by calculating both monopolistic and competitive price trajectories. Included in the study are the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), International Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), and the International Bauxite Association (IBA). An optimal pricing model is described and applied to

Robert S Pindyck

1978-01-01

466

Diet and Gender Moderate Clozapine-Related Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined patients with schizophrenia in two state hospitals treated with clozapine, with particular attention to factors that may affect weight gain. A retrospective chart review was performed for 40 subjects, all of whom had been treated for at least 6 months. Patients included 26 males and 14 females, 34 caucasians and 6 blacks, with an average age of

Carolyn Heimberg; Fiona Gallacher; Ruben Gur; Raquel Gur

1994-01-01

467

Perceived Stress and Weight Gain in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although perceived stress has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological studies relating stress to weight gain have shown mixed results. We examined prospective associations between perceived stress and changes in waist circumference and BMI in a large study of adolescents. As part of the Health and Behaviour in Teenagers Study (HABITS), height, weight, and waist circumference

Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld; Jennifer A. Fidler; Andrew Steptoe; David Boniface; Jane Wardle

2009-01-01

468

Gain-scheduled control of a solar power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of gain-scheduled control to a pilot-scale solar power plant is described. A field of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto a tube where oil is pumped through in order to collect the solar power. The control problem is to keep the temperature of the oil leaving the field at its desired value by manipulating the oil pump

Tor A. Johansen; Kenneth J. Hunt; Idar Petersen

2000-01-01

469

High gain proportional rf control stability at TESLA cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast proportional rf control is used as the basis for rf field regulation in actual linear accelerator projects like the international linear collider (ILC) and the European x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) based on TESLA technology. Additional control loops improve the field regulation by treating repetitive effects and compensating the beam loading. Nevertheless, the ability for high gain operation of

Elmar Vogel

2007-01-01

470

Gain effect waveguide optical amplifiers for Si microphotonics  

E-print Network

(cont.) Er-based gain. We reported the first infrared photoluminescence PL study of Er?O? and found a 7 ms lifetime at 4 K, attributed to a metastable FCC or HCP phase. We showed the thermodynamically stable BCC crystal ...

Saini, Sajan, 1973-

2004-01-01

471

Self-Tuned Quantum Dot Gain in Photonic Crystal Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that very few (2 4) quantum dots as a gain medium are sufficient to realize a photonic-crystal laser based on a high-quality nanocavity. Photon correlation measurements show a transition from a thermal to a coherent light state proving that lasing action occurs at ultralow thresholds. Observation of lasing is unexpected since the cavity mode is in general not

S. Strauf; K. Hennessy; M. T. Rakher; Y.-S. Choi; A. Badolato; L. C. Andreani; E. L. Hu; P. M. Petroff; D. Bouwmeester

2006-01-01

472

Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs  

SciTech Connect

We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

2010-08-23

473

Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

2012-01-01

474

Spectral Efficiency and User Diversity Gains Through Cooperative Fixed Relays  

E-print Network

Spectral Efficiency and User Diversity Gains Through Cooperative Fixed Relays A. Adinoyi and H others), and huge capital investment (as ter- minals have to be modified to make them ready-on to network facility have significant impact on the costs, security and end-to-end (E2E) performance of two

Yanikomeroglu, Halim

475

Palm Beach County nonprofits get creative, gain By EMILY ROACH  

E-print Network

Palm Beach County nonprofits get creative, gain stability By EMILY ROACH Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 5:47 a.m. Tuesday, Aug. 30, 2011 Posted: 10:26 p.m. Monday, Aug. 29, 2011 Palm Beach. The center had committed six years earlier to moving to West Palm Beach's city hall complex on Clematis

Belogay, Eugene A.

476

Whose Children Gain from Starting School Later? Evidence from Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at the effect of school starting age on standardized test scores using data covering all grade four and grade eight students in Hungary. Instrumental variables estimates of the local average treatment effect suggest that children generally gain from starting school one year later and the effects are much stronger in the case of students coming from low-educated families.

Szilvia Hámori; Janos Kollo

2011-01-01

477

High Gain Microstrip Antenna Using Planar Circularly Symmetric EBG Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a design of high gain microstrip antenna using planar circularly symmetric electromagnetic band gap structures (PCS-EBG) is presented. The EBG rings round the antenna reduce surface waves propagating along the substrate and support the radiation of electromagnetic (EM) energy in plane perpendicular to the antenna. Because of the circularly symmetry the surface waves are supressed in all

Peter KOVACS

2007-01-01

478

Promoting minority student learning gains in a prescription practice course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minorities are under-represented in pharmacy and other health care professions in the United States. To increase the representation of traditionally underserved minorities, interventions focused on improving learning outcomes in higher education are needed. Keller's Personalized System of Instruction (the Keller method) is an instructional intervention that has produced positive learning gains, particularly for students who are less academically prepared. To

David S. Fike; Kenneth L. McCall; Flora G. Estes; Uche Anadu Ndefo; Cynthia L. Raehl; Paul R. Lockman

2011-01-01

479

Social stability and daily body mass gain in great tits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experiment on the influence of changes in flock composition and social rank on the pattern of daily mass gain in captive wintering great tits. We created flocks of three male great tits and scored dominance when ranks had stabilized after a few days. We then moved the dominant bird from each flock into

Henrik Lange; Olof Leimar

2004-01-01

480

A Response to "Item Desirability in Compliance-Gaining Research."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replies to an article in "Human Communication Research" (v14, n4), "Item Desirability Effects in Compliance-Gaining Research: Seven Studies Documenting Artifacts" by Brant R. Burleson, Steven R. Wilson, Michael S. Waltman, Elizabeth M. Goering, Teresa K. Ely, and Bryan B. Whaley. (MS)

Seibold, David R.

1988-01-01

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