Sample records for elevation gain counterbalancing

  1. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr?1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  2. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  3. The impact of early morning elevated CO sub 2 on foliar carbon gain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Predawn concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the boundary layer above vegetated landscapes can be as much as 200 {mu}L{sup {minus}1} higher than typical midday concentrations (330-360 {mu}l L{sup {minus}1}). This period of elevated CO{sub 2} lasts up to 3 hours after sunrise. Estimates of daily carbon gain from models of photosynthesis have often assumed constant CO{sub 2} concentrations. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models were coupled and used to assess the importance of a diurnal variation in CO{sub 2} concentration. Daily carbon gain estimates based on a constant CO{sub 2} concentration equal to the afternoon average (1,200 to 1,600 h), were as much as 13% less than estimates based on the more realistic diurnal pattern including elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations in the morning. The largest discrepancies in calculated carbon gain (6-13%) occurred for simulated sunny days, and for foliage having a low carboxylation efficiency.

  4. Gaining business from information technology: The case of Otis elevator, France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tawfik Jelassi

    1993-01-01

    Otis Elevator, France, a leader in the sale and service of elevators and related products in the French market, started reviewing the managerial and operational procedures surrounding the processing of a customer order in 1986. The resulting 'Master Plan' project aimed at simplifying these procedures, from the initial contact with the customer through the installation of the elevator, with decentralization

  5. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  6. Elevated body weight gain during the juvenile period alters neuropeptide Y-gonadotropin-releasing hormone circuitry in prepubertal heifers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Bruna R C; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Prezotto, Ligia D; Thorson, Jennifer F; Bedenbaugh, Michelle; Sharpton, Sarah M; Caraty, Alain; Keisler, Duane H; Tedeschi, Luis O; Williams, Gary L; Amstalden, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    Increased body weight (BW) gain during the juvenile period leads to early maturation of the reproductive neuroendocrine system. We investigated whether a nutritional regimen that advances the onset of puberty leads to alterations in the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) circuitry that are permissive for enhanced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. It was hypothesized that NPY mRNA and NPY projections to GnRH and kisspeptin neurons are reduced in heifers that gain BW at an accelerated rate, compared with a lower one, during the juvenile period. Heifers were weaned at approximately 4 mo of age and fed diets to promote relatively low (0.5 kg/day; low gain [LG]) or high (1.0 kg/day; high gain [HG]) rates of BW gain until 8.5 mo of age. Heifers that gained BW at a higher rate exhibited greater circulating concentrations of leptin and reduced overall NPY expression in the arcuate nucleus. The proportion of GnRH neurons in close apposition to NPY fibers and the magnitude of NPY projections to GnRH neurons located in the mediobasal hypothalamus were reduced in HG heifers. However, no differences in NPY projections to kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected between HG and LG heifers. Results indicate that a reduction in NPY innervation of GnRH neurons, particularly at the level of the mediobasal hypothalamus, occurs in response to elevated BW gain during the juvenile period. This functional plasticity may facilitate early onset of puberty in heifers. PMID:25505201

  7. Olanzapine-induced triglyceride and aminotransferase elevations without weight gain or hyperglycemia normalized after switching to aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Pawelczyk, Tomasz; Pawelczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jablonska, Jolanta

    2014-07-01

    Olanzapine induced a marked elevation in triglyceride and cholesterol levels and in liver transaminase enzymes after 12 weeks of treatment in a patient with schizophrenia. These changes were not seen in an earlier 10-week course of treatment with risperidone, and improved substantially 1 week after the patient stopped olanzapine and began treatment with aripiprazole. The patient did not exhibit weight gain or hyperglycemia with any of the medications. This case and a review of the literature suggest that olanzapine may have unique properties that affect hepatic enzyme pathways, independent of any effects on weight and glucose, that may lead to hyperlipidemia and transaminitis in some patients. PMID:25036587

  8. Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

    2008-11-01

    Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

  9. Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny in American toads

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny. The negative effect in the embryonic stage and positive effect in the larval stage counterbalanced one another exposure. Our findings demonstrate that maternal effects on survival manifesting at different stages

  10. Optimizing Leaf Stomatal Conductance for Maximum Carbon Gain Under Salt Stressed and Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding how plants adapt to different stresses such as droughts, hypoxic or hyper-saline conditions is necessary to progress on the broader problem of how carbon and water exchange rates between the biosphere and atmosphere react to a changing climate. In this work, the effects of increased salinity on photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll conductances under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions are explored. A model based on stomatal optimization principles, according to which plants maximize carbon gain at a given water loss at the leaf scale, is generalized to include mesophyll conductance and its dependence on water salinity. The optimization problem is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function and both approaches are consistent with reported gas-exchange measurements in fresh water and in salt stressed conditions. It is shown here that an increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water (and reduced stomatal conductance) for the plant as it does under water stress conditions. However, these reductions in photosynthetic rates observed under increased salt stress conditions cannot be attributed to limitation of CO2 diffusion alone since salt stress did reduce the photosynthetic capacity of plants by 30-40%.

  11. Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHANNA RIIKONEN; KATRE KETS; JOSEPH DARBAH; ELINA OKSANEN; ANU SOBER; ELINA VAPAAVUORI; MARK E. KUBISKE; NEIL NELSON; DAVID F. KARNOSKY

    Summary Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and three trembling aspen clones (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were studied to determine if alterations in carbon gain in response to an elevated concentration of CO2 ((CO2)) or O3 ((O3)) or a com- bination of both affected bud size and carbohydrate composi- tion in autumn, and early leaf development in the following spring. The trees

  12. Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kets, Katre; Darbah, Joseph; Oksanen, Elina; Sober, Anu; Vapaavuori, Elina; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil; Karnosky, David F

    2008-02-01

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and three trembling aspen clones (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were studied to determine if alterations in carbon gain in response to an elevated concentration of CO(2) ([CO(2)]) or O(3) ([O(3)]) or a combination of both affected bud size and carbohydrate composition in autumn, and early leaf development in the following spring. The trees were measured for gas exchange, leaf size, date of leaf abscission, size and biochemical characteristics of the overwintering buds and early leaf development during the 8th-9th year of free-air CO(2) and O(3) exposure at the Aspen FACE site located near Rhinelander, WI. Net photosynthesis was enhanced 49-73% by elevated [CO(2)], and decreased 13-30% by elevated [O(3)]. Elevated [CO(2)] delayed, and elevated [O(3)] tended to accelerate, leaf abscission in autumn. Elevated [CO(2)] increased the ratio of monosaccharides to di- and oligosaccharides in aspen buds, which may indicate a lag in cold acclimation. The total carbon concentration in overwintering buds was unaffected by the treatments, although elevated [O(3)] decreased the amount of starch by 16% in birch buds, and reduced the size of aspen buds, which may be related to the delayed leaf development in aspen during the spring. Elevated [CO(2)] generally ameliorated the effects of elevated [O(3)]. Our results show that both elevated [CO(2)] and elevated [O(3)] have the potential to alter carbon metabolism of overwintering buds. These changes may cause carry-over effects during the next growing season. PMID:18055435

  13. Design of an adjustable arm-supported table that is counterbalanced against gravity

    E-print Network

    Olle, Chase R

    2013-01-01

    A prototype system was designed and constructed that used a wall-mounted, counterbalanced mechanical arm to support a workspace that can be adjusted for position. Possible applications of the system include use as a writing ...

  14. Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic

    E-print Network

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    Dispatches Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive human interference in animal and plant dispersal, biological invasions are wreaking havoc that can become economically and ecologically threatening. Recent studies of biological invasions, however

  15. Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemelä, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings. PMID:24101972

  16. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. PMID:25609845

  17. Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Matthew

    Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Visitor Elevator Pharmacy Café/Food Court Sidewalk to Comer Children's Hospital Gift ShopStaff Elevator Accessible Entrance Medical Campus Map Garage) Elevator to Parking Garage Surgery Waiting (Level 2) ELEVATOR ELEVATOR ELEVATOR Mitchell Adult Hospital

  18. A contractile and counterbalancing adhesion system controls the 3D shape of crawling cells

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, Dylan T.; Shao, Lin; Ott, Carolyn; Pasapera, Ana M.; Fischer, Robert S.; Baird, Michelle A.; Der Loughian, Christelle; Delanoe-Ayari, Helene; Paszek, Matthew J.; Davidson, Michael W.; Betzig, Eric

    2014-01-01

    How adherent and contractile systems coordinate to promote cell shape changes is unclear. Here, we define a counterbalanced adhesion/contraction model for cell shape control. Live-cell microscopy data showed a crucial role for a contractile meshwork at the top of the cell, which is composed of actin arcs and myosin IIA filaments. The contractile actin meshwork is organized like muscle sarcomeres, with repeating myosin II filaments separated by the actin bundling protein ?-actinin, and is mechanically coupled to noncontractile dorsal actin fibers that run from top to bottom in the cell. When the meshwork contracts, it pulls the dorsal fibers away from the substrate. This pulling force is counterbalanced by the dorsal fibers’ attachment to focal adhesions, causing the fibers to bend downward and flattening the cell. This model is likely to be relevant for understanding how cells configure themselves to complex surfaces, protrude into tight spaces, and generate three-dimensional forces on the growth substrate under both healthy and diseased conditions. PMID:24711500

  19. Dynamic Counterbalancing of a Pneumatically Driven Expander of a Split Stirling Linear Cryogenic Cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A. M.; Riabzev, S. V.; Pundak, N.

    2004-06-01

    Low vibration export from the pneumatically driven displacer of a split Stirling cryogenic cooler is achieved by placing an auxiliary movable mass inside the hot side of the cold finger and flexibly connecting it to a displacer and to a stationary part of the cold finger housing using auxiliary mechanical springs. A theoretical analysis yields a simple condition of dynamic counterbalancing relating driving frequency, the masses of the displacer and counterbalancer and the rates of the above two auxiliary springs. This condition appears to be absolutely independent of the thermodynamics of the cryogenic cooler and mechanical imperfections in the cold finger and, therefore, holds true for the entire range of the cooler working conditions (cold finger and reject temperatures, heat loading, charge pressure, etc). The authors successfully attempted to redesign the existing expander of the Stirling Ricor model K535 cryocooler, where the vibration export at the driving frequency was reduced 150-fold under typical thermal loading and at the same power consumption in the entire working range.

  20. Moderating the interaction between procedural justice and decision frame: the counterbalancing effect of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the framing effect of decision making in contexts in which the issue of social justice matters as well as the moderating effects of personality traits on the relationship between justice and framing effects. The authors manipulated procedural justice and outcome valence of the decision frame within two vignettes and measured two personality traits (self-efficacy and anxiety) of participants. The results from 363 participants showed that the moderating effects of personality traits counterbalanced the interaction between justice and framing, such that for individuals with high self-efficacy/low trait anxiety, justice effects were larger in negative framing than in positive framing; those with the opposite disposition exhibited the opposite pattern. These effects were interpreted in terms of an attribution process as the information processing strategy. The aforementioned findings suggest that the justice and decision theories can be developed to account for the moderating effects of personality traits. Some limitations of this study and the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:23469475

  1. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds. PMID:22128989

  2. Elevated Leptin Levels Are Associated with Excess Gains in Fat Mass in Girls, But Not Boys, with Type 1 Diabetes: Longitudinal Study during Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Ahmed; K. K. L. ONG; A. P. WATTS; D. J. MORRELL; M. A. PREECE; D. B. DUNGER

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, in particular girls, with type 1 diabetes may gain excessive weight during puberty. We present the results of a longi- tudinal study aimed to determine the roles of leptin and insulin in changes in body composition in subjects with type 1 diabetes and controls. Forty-six children (23 boys) with type 1 diabetes and 40 controls (20 boys) were followed

  3. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  4. Counterbalanced refueling arm assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, P.J.E.; Reinker, J.F., Jr.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes a counter balanced refueling arm. It comprises: a supporting platform, wheels supporting the platform, an outer caster assembly. The wheel, a first swivel joint mounted on the outboard caster assembly having a substantially vertical axis of rotation, an inlet and an outlet defined on the joint, a fuel supply conduit communicating with the joint inlet, a second swivel joint mounted on the platform having a substantially horizontal axis of rotation, an inlet and an outlet, a rigid conduit interconnecting the first joint outlet with the second joint inlet establishing communication between the first and second joint, a substantially rigid arm conduit having an axis, an inner end affixed to and communicating with the second joint outlet and an outer end. The arm conduit being pivoted about the second joint axis within a substantially vertical plane, a first elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the arm conduit outer end, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to the arm conduit axis, a second elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the first coupling outlet, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to aid first coupling axis, a third elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the second coupling outlet, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to the coupling axis, and a nozzle connected to the third coupling outlet.

  5. RADARSAT elevation antenna pattern determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Lukowski; R. K. Hawkins; C. Cloutier; J. Wolfe; L. D. Teany; S. K. Srivastava; B. Banik; R. Jha; M. Adamovic

    1997-01-01

    The operations plan for RADARSAT is based on implicit calibration of the imagery products from this sensor system. The determination of the antenna gain patterns in elevation for RADARSAT is a critical step in the radiometric calibration of this imagery. The shapes of the antenna patterns in elevation were derived from imagery collected over the South American rain forests of

  6. A hoist to the heavens [space elevators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using space elevators as an alternative to rocket boosters for space exploration. With the advent of carbon nanotube composites, the space elevator concept has fast been gaining mainstream acceptance. With a space elevator providing cheap, easy, low-risk access to space, people's lives on Earth could be immeasurably enhanced as the wealth of the solar

  7. Elevated CO2 Does Not Stimulate C4 Photosynthesis Directly, but Impacts Water Relations and Indirectly Enhances Carbon Gain during Drought Stress in Maize (Zea Mays) grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of [CO2] effects upon C4 plants has received considerable research interest but remains poorly understood. In 2002 and 2004, a rainfed-field experiment utilizing FACE technology was undertaken, in the U.S. Corn Belt, to determine the effects of elevated [CO2] on Zea mays. FACE allows ...

  8. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Infirmary, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  9. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  10. Hormonal treatment increases the response of the reward system at the menopause transition: a counterbalanced randomized placebo-controlled fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julie; Météreau, Elise; Déchaud, Henri; Pugeat, Michel; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-12-01

    Preclinical research using rodent models demonstrated that estrogens play neuroprotective effects if they are administered during a critical period near the time of cessation of ovarian function. In women, a number of controversial epidemiological studies reported that a neuroprotective effect of estradiol may be obtained on cognition and mood-related disorders if hormone therapy (HT) begins early at the beginning of menopause. Yet, little is known about the modulatory effects of early HT administration on brain activation near menopause. Here, we investigated whether HT, initiated early during the menopause transition, increases the response of the reward system, a key brain circuit involved in motivation and hedonic behavior. We used fMRI and a counterbalanced, double-blind, randomized and crossover placebo-controlled design to investigate whether sequential 17?-estradiol plus oral progesterone modulate reward-related brain activity. Each woman was scanned twice while presented with images of slot machines, once after receiving HT and once under placebo. The fMRI results demonstrate that HT, relative to placebo, increased the response of the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, two areas that have been shown to be respectively involved during reward anticipation and at the time of reward delivery. Our neuroimaging results bridge the gap between animal studies and human epidemiological studies of HT on cognition. These findings establish a neurobiological foundation for understanding the neurofunctional impact of early HT initiation on reward processing at the menopause transition. PMID:25222702

  11. IR gain monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain. This continues the strategy of last cycle's gain monitor, in proposal 13080.

  12. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Toshiyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Ichino, Motohide; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Minami, Mutsuhiko; Yokota, Shumpei

    2005-11-16

    Adjuvants in vaccines are immune stimulants that play an important role in the induction of effective and appropriate immune responses to vaccine component(s). Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT) vaccine contains not only aluminum hydrate (alum) to enhance the immune response to the vaccine ingredients, but also, both for that purpose and as a principal ingredient, pertussis toxin (PT). However, both adjuvants strongly promote T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses. Th1 and Th2 type immune responses are counterbalanced in vivo, and a Th2-prone immune response is not effective against intracellular infections but promotes IgE production, which is related to allergic disease. In this study, we used the CpG motif contained in oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), which has an adjuvant effect and also induces the Th1 response, as an adjuvant to this vaccine, and we investigated its adjuvanticity and its potential to modulate immune responses to DPT vaccine. Administration of DPT vaccine with CpG-ODN (DPT-alum/ODN) to mice significantly reduced the total IgE levels and increased the anti-PT specific IgG2a titer in serum, in comparison with ordinary DPT vaccine (DPT-alum). Moreover, we investigated the antibody response to orally administrated ovalbumin (OVA) after vaccine administration. In the DPT-alum/ODN-administered group, the OVA specific IgE production in serum greatly decreased in comparison with that in the DPT-alum-administered group. These data indicate that CpG-ODN was not useful only as an efficient vaccine adjuvant but also shifted the immune responses substantially toward Th1 and modulated the Th1/Th2 immune response in DPT vaccine. These data suggested new applications of CpG-ODN as adjuvants in DPT vaccine. PMID:16006019

  13. 1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS (AS OPPOSED) TO THE SIMILAR STEEL ELEVATOR IN BUFFALO NEW YORK WITH ROUND ELEVATOR BINS. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  14. Elev. Elev. 1st Floor, Building 51

    E-print Network

    Kaji, Hajime

    Elev. Elev. To the West Gate Main Gate 1st Floor, Building 51 Office of the Schools of Science, Public Relations and Admissions Sections Automatic Certificate- Issuing Machines Location and Hours year undergrad, 2nd year master's and 3rd year doctoral students Automatic Certificate-Issuing Macine

  15. Nutrition During Weight Gain

    E-print Network

    , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

  16. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  17. USGS Elevation Monument

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

  18. ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    McCain, Christy M.

    ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY John-Arvid Grytnesn and Christy M. McCainw n University of Bergen and w University of California I. Introduction II. History of Elevational Studies III. Observed that are net exporters of individuals and pop- ulations that are net importers of individuals. ELEVATIONAL

  19. PURDUE EXTENSION Elevator Pitches

    E-print Network

    PURDUE EXTENSION EC-762-W Elevator Pitches: Showcasing Your Business Joan Fulton Department in developing and delivering an elevator pitch and presents specific examples for small businesses. Outcome elevator pitch. Introduction When was the last time you needed to be able to quickly and succinctly

  20. In Elevator Destination

    E-print Network

    Koopman, Philip

    Hallway Wait Board In Elevator Destination Injured Gives Up GM People Helping Systems: Workarounds Wait Board Lanterns do not activate & Doors open Lanterns activate & Doors open Board In Elevator state before failure Hallway Wait Board In Elevator Destination On Stairs MS MS2 1 Under moderate

  1. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NED is designed to provide national elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, permit edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data.

  2. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression Some drugs used to treat diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive ...

  3. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ... Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: ( ...

  4. Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and indicating incorporation of railroad retaining wall as the elevator's basement wall - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by modulating the receiver gain using an external signal. Without the RGMC, samples of calibrated references from radiometers form an ensemble data set of the natural occurring fluctuations within a receiver. By driving the gain of an otherwise stable receiver with an external signal, the conceptual framework and generalization of the mathematics of EDA can be tested. A series of measurements was conducted to evaluate and characterize the performance of the RGMC. Test signals stepped the RGMC across its dynamic range of performance using a radiometer that sampled four noise references; analysis indicates that the RGMC successfully modulated the receiver gain with an external signal. Calibration algorithms applied to four noise references demonstrate the RGMC produced ensemble data sets of the external signal.

  6. Automatic pipe elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Haney; C. A. Willis

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means

  7. Space Elevator: Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubos Perek

    2008-01-01

    Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the “centrifugal force” but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of

  8. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  9. Loaded sectioned space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadov, Yu. A.; Nuralieva, A. B.

    2015-05-01

    New super strong materials discovered at the end of the 20th century have caused a surge of activity in work devoted to the space elevator (SE). A rather complete concept of the SE has been formulated. This concept, having many advantages, possesses, nevertheless, limited capabilities and insufficient reliability. In this paper we present a modified space elevator concept [1] that has higher reliability and extended capabilities. Such a construction is more complicated and its design is more expensive, so it can be realized only as a part of a large-scale space program. Inclusion of a space elevator in such a program will facilitate development of new technologies.

  10. Introduction to Grain Elevators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

  11. DAMPING OF VEHICLE ROLL DYNAMICS BY GAIN SCHEDULED ACTIVE STEERING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Odenthal

    1999-01-01

    Active steering is applied to robustly reduce the rollover risk of vehicles with an elevated center of gravity. An actu- ator sets an auxiliary steering angle which is mechanically added to the steering angle commanded by the driver. The control law presented, is based on feedback of the roll rate and the roll acceleration. The controller gains are scheduled with

  12. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  13. 2. VIEW OF ELEVATOR AT SECOND FLOOR BEDROOM, SHOWING ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ELEVATOR AT SECOND FLOOR BEDROOM, SHOWING ELEVATOR CAR IN THE 'STUCK' POSITION, WHERE IT REMAINED FROM 1942 UNTIL REMOVAL IN 1985, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. A Nanotube Space Elevator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-08-26

    In this video adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, find out about the discovery of a new building material, the carbon nanotube, whose physical properties could theoretically enable the creation of a 22,000-mile elevator to space.

  15. Gain function and hydrocarbon indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-hua Han; Michael Batzle

    1999-01-01

    Summary We have derived the gain function for porous rock based on the Gassmann's equation. We study property of the gain function for consolidated sandstone and poor consolidated sands from deep-water, Gulf of Mexico. We apply the gain function to derive pore fluid modulus as a hydrocarbon indicator from log data.

  16. ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    ELEVATOR PITCH WORKSHEET Important Notes About Your Elevator Pitch: · Just as you customize your resume and cover letter to individual companies, your elevator pitch can also be customized to highlight your most relevant skills and experience for a situation. · Your elevator pitch should have the ability

  17. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  18. ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE)

    E-print Network

    ADVISORY BASE FLOOD ELEVATIONS (ABFE) DURING REBUILDING What are the Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFE)? Answer: This is the NEW Base Flood Elevation for rebuilding. It has the same definition of the Base Flood Elevation based on recent storm events. In other words, it is updating the Base Flood

  19. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  20. LOW-ELEVATION NESTING BY CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRDS IN THE WESTERN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    The Calliope Hummingbird breeds uncommonly to fairly commonly in the Sierra Nevada and other high mountain ranges in California. In the Sierra it typically nests above 4000 feet elevation (Grinnell and Miller 1944, Gaines 1992, pers. obs.), usually near moist meadows or other relatively level and wet sites with a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees, shrubs, and flowering plants

  1. Reconsidering idiopathic CK-elevation.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Neuhuber, Werner; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the frequency of persisting, idiopathic creatine-kinase (CK)-elevation, how often the cause of idiopathic CK-elevation could be clarified, and the most frequent causes of idiopathic CK-elevation. Among 28 patients with previously idiopathic CK-elevation, CK remained elevated in 32%. The cause of idiopathic CK-elevation could be determined in 46%. Causes were mitochondriopathy (n = 5), seizure (n = 2), stroke (n = 2), myositis (n = 1), intramuscular-injection (n = 1), alcohol myopathy (n = 1), and pravastátin myopathy (n = 1). In 10 of these patients CK was normal at follow-up. CK-elevation remained idiopathic in 54%. Idiopathic CK-elevation should be comprehensively re-evaluated, even if CK is only slightly elevated or normal at follow-up. PMID:15370190

  2. Hearing Aid Evaluation: Predicting Speech Gain from Insertion Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    This study, involving 11 older males with mild or moderate sensorineural loss, tested whether speech gain that results from a hearing aid fitting is predictable on the basis of unaided performance intensity curve, unaided narrow-band sound field thresholds, hearing aid insertion gain as a function of frequency, ambient noise, and internal hearing…

  3. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  4. Mechanisms of the Rosetta high gain antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Carlos

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes the antenna pointing mechanism (APM) and the hold down and release mechanism (HRM) used in the high gain antenna of the ROSETTA mission. The hold down and release mechanism consists of three units which compensate the tolerance mismatch between antenna and spacecraft through incorporation of potting rings. Given that the activation mode is pyrotechnic, release shock is a major concern and is minimised through integration of shock absorbers which allow stroking of the separation nuts. The antenna pointing mechanism is a dual drive (azimuth over elevation) unit which allows controlled rotation of the antenna. The drive units incorporate spring loaded end stops to prevent the antenna from hitting the spacecraft, and optical encoders which register the absolute position of the antenna. The pointing and the hold down mechanisms of the ROSETTA antenna are fully qualified and will withstand the high launch loads of the Ariane-5 and the environmental demands of deep space operation.

  5. Contour Lines and Elevation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen J Reynolds

    This animation features a static image of a contour surface on the left and an oblique 3-D view of the same area. Upon starting the animation, by clicking adjacent arrows, a surface of water begins to rise. By examining the views in both windows, a simulated flood shows how contour lines trace out equal elevations and how concave/convex undulations in the contour lines would be represented in 3-D. The animation can be paused and rewound to stress important points.

  6. location plan, floor plan, section, north elevation, west elevation and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, section, north elevation, west elevation and window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Administration, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  7. location map, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, door and window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Central Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  8. north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  9. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  10. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  11. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR NEAR WEST WALL OF MST STATION 111 ANTEROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  14. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  15. 2. COURTYARD ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURTYARD ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN BUILDING AND SHED ENTRANCES (NEGATIVE SIZE 4'x5') - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Hudson Place, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  16. Gain degradation and amplitude scintillation due to tropospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobold, D. M.; Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that a simple physical model is adequate for the prediction of the long term statistics of both the reduced signal levels and increased peak-to-peak fluctuations. The model is based on conventional atmospheric turbulence theory and incorporates both amplitude and angle of arrival fluctuations. This model predicts the average variance of signals observed under clear air conditions at low elevation angles on earth-space paths at 2, 7.3, 20 and 30 GHz. Design curves based on this model for gain degradation, realizable gain, amplitude fluctuation as a function of antenna aperture size, frequency, and either terrestrial path length or earth-space path elevation angle are presented.

  17. 9. Elevator no. 3, northeast side , to right; elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Elevator no. 3, northeast side , to right; elevator no. 2, east and north sides and track shed in center; Washburn Crosby Milling complex in background right; facing west - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  19. Reducing elevation roundoff errors in digital elevation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. James Nelson; Norman L. Jones

    1995-01-01

    A smoothing algorithm is presented for the removal of roundoff error, inherent in almost all digital elevation data. Elevation adjustments are kept within the tolerance of roundoff error, so that the resulting terrain model is not over smoothed. After smoothing, the digital elevation model is more suitable for use with algorithms that seek to automatically delineate stream networks and basins

  20. Analytical framework for gain scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilson J. Rugh

    1991-01-01

    The gain scheduling approach to the control of nonlinear systems is explained, and its characteristics are examined. On the basis of this framework questions are raised, and implications are drawn for practical design situations. The relationship between the gain scheduling formulation and the extended-linearization approach for nonlinear control design is considered

  1. floor Broida; Left from Elevator

    E-print Network

    Ahlers, Guenter

    New Roundabout Rm 3410 3rd floor Broida; Left from Elevator BROIDA PHYSICS Directions to Institute in Broida; Left from elevator, Rm 3410 -Kate Materials (MRL) 2048 Harold Frank Hall FEL Lab Phys. Sci. South

  2. Elevational Gradients in Species Richness

    E-print Network

    McCain, Christy M.

    Elevational Gradients in Species Richness Christy M McCain, University of Colorado, Boulder and fauna respond to these changes and how elevational species richness patterns have been stud- ied to uncover drivers of biodiversity. There are four main trends in elevational species richness: decreasing

  3. Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Phil

    Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Lessons Learned April 2011 #12 ...............................................................................................................................15 Additional information about Elevate America is available at: http://microsoft.com/elevateamerica #12;2 Elevate America's State Voucher Strategy to Promote Employability Preface On February 22, 2009

  4. The NIAC Space Elevator Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley Carl Edwards

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) has been supporting a space elevator development program to investigate the initial design, deployment and operations scenario. The work has produced a plan for the construction and operation of a small (20 ton capacity) space elevator within the next couple decades. The elevator cable is composed of a carbon nanotube composite extending 100,000

  5. Automatic pipe elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  6. Lot sizing with inventory gains

    E-print Network

    2006-11-23

    end of period t is a strictly positive rational multiplier or gain, µt > 0. If one ...... LISCOS: Large Scale Integrated Supply Chain Optimization Software Based on ... Prentice Hall. ... nuclear power plant refueling with mixed-integer programming.

  7. Eating Out and Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Eating Out and Weight Gain URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Eating_Out_070615.html Eating Out and Weight ...

  8. Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2006-02-01

    Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations. PMID:16670982

  9. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  10. Fingerprinting digital elevation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Hongmei; Wu, Min

    2006-02-01

    Digital elevation maps (DEMs) provide a digital representation of 3-D terrain information. In civilian applications, high-precision DEMs carry a high commercial value owing to the large amount of effort in acquiring them; and in military applications, DEMs are often used to represent critical geospatial information in sensitive operations. These call for new technologies to prevent unauthorized distribution and to trace traitors in the event of information leak related to DEMs. In this paper, we propose a new digital fingerprinting technique to protect DEM data from illegal re-distribution. The proposed method enables reliable detection of fingerprints from both 3-D DEM data set and its 2-D rendering, whichever format that is available to a detector. Our method starts with extracting from a DEM a set of critical contours either corresponding to important topographic features of the terrain or having application-dependent importance. Fingerprints are then embedded into these critical contours by employing parametric curve modeling and spread spectrum embedding. Finally, a fingerprinted DEM is constructed to incorporate the marked 2-D contours. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against a number of challenging attacks applied to either DEMs or their contour representations.

  11. COS FUV Detector Gain Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnow, David

    2013-10-01

    This program uses the deuterium lamp to illuminate the entire region of the detector currently being used to collect spectra. The data obtained will be used to create gain maps of the detector. Because of the strongly varying intensity of the lamp as a function of wavelength, G130M/1309 data will be obtained for Segment A, and G160M/1600 will be used for Segment B.Gain map data will be obtained both before and after any change is made to the nominal high voltage value on either segment.

  12. Clinical Gains from Including Both Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate in Stimulant Trials

    PubMed Central

    Røinås, Elisabeth; Aabech, Henning S.; Sundet, Kjetil S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical gains from including both dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in stimulant trials. Method Thirty-six medication-naïve children ages 9–14 years diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were enrolled for 6 weeks in a crossover trial, with 2 weeks of methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and placebo, in a randomly assigned, counterbalanced sequence. Outcome measures constituted a computer-based continuous performance test combined with a motion tracking system (Qb Test) and an ADHD questionnaire rated by parents and teachers. Results Group analyses found significant treatment effects of similar size for the two stimulants on both outcome measures. Single-subject analyses revealed that each stimulant produced a favourable response in 26 children; however, an individual child frequently responded qualitatively or quantitatively differently to the two stimulants. By including both stimulants in the trial, the number of favorable responders increased from 26 (72%) to 33 (92%). In children with favorable responses of unequal strength to the two stimulants, a shift from inferior drug to best drug was associated with a 64% mean increase in the overall response strength score, as measured by the ADHD questionnaire. Conclusions The likelihood of a favorable response and optimal response strength is increased by including both stimulants in the stimulant trial. The study was first registered in clinical trials 28 September 2010. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01220440. PMID:23659360

  13. Solar elevation angle probability distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Larson; C. R. Acquista

    1980-01-01

    The probability distribution of solar elevation angles is determined, and the importance of this distribution on concentrator design is discussed. It is concluded that the time probability function for the solar elevation angle is important when considering alternative low-concentration systems for year-round or seasonal applications.

  14. Science on a space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Laubscher; A. M. Jorgensen

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by

  15. The Space Elevator Feasibility Condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Shelef

    Abstract This paper ties together parameters pertaining to tetherspecific strength and to power system mass density to arrive at an inequality that determines whether a Space Elevator system is viable. The principle for the feasibility condition (FC) is that a Space Elevator must be able to lift its own weight fast enough – fast enough to grow by bootstrapping, fast

  16. Double-link elevators ETAD

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhanov, M.N.; Lemberanskii, F.D.

    1983-07-01

    Double link elevators ETAD-50 and ETAD-80 having an automatic gripping device have been developed by AzINMash for clutching and clamping tubing strings and drill pipes and for holding in suspension a column of pipes during hoisting operations for major oil well repairs. The elevator ETAD consists of chasis, detachable grip, stops, a closing device, and two safety locks. Its advantages include: use of a single elevator, reduction of weight, convenience of handling of pipe, less movement of maintainence personnel, and longer service life. The technical parameters of ETAD are compared to EKhL, EZN, and EB type elevators and it is shown that ETAD increases labor productivity over the bulky EB type elevator.

  17. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  18. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Retirement communities gain higher acceptance.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S A; Adams, R T

    2001-01-01

    Retirement community gains in acceptance could indicate a bright future for the industry, according to the latest Generations research. The first ever on-line international survey of seniors and the first dial group studies of seniors show Boomers, Silent Generation seniors, and GI Generation seniors alike have become more positive in their evaluation of retirement communities as an option for the future. PMID:11372491

  20. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  1. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Analytical passive mixer power gain models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Lont; Dusan M. Milosevic; Peter G. M. Baltus; Arthur H. M. van Roermund; Guido Dolmans

    2010-01-01

    According to the well-known Friis equation the available power gain should be maximized to reduce the overall noise figure. Therefore, in receivers where an LNA is not present or its gain is low, the available power gain of the passive mixer is of interest. However, only the voltage gain is presented in many papers. In this paper an analytical model

  3. DIVISION 14 -CONVEYING SYSTEMS 14200 ELEVATORS

    E-print Network

    ELEVATORS 1. As a minimum, comply with applicable requirements of the "Safety Code for Elevators, and Escalators", ANSI A17.1, hereinafter referred to as the "Code". 2. All elevators shall meet the requirements. The manufacturer/installer of the elevator shall have been in business fabricating elevator equipment for a minimum

  4. Crown carbon gain and elevated (CO 2 ) responses of understorey saplings with differing allometry and architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. NAUMBURG; D. S. ELLSWORTH; R. W. PEARCY

    Summary 1. Attempts at determining the physiological basis of species' differences, such as the ability to grow in deep shade, have been of limited success. However, this basis is fundamental to predicting species' responses to rising atmospheric CO 2 in the forest understorey. We linked a leaf photosynthesis and a tree architecture model to predict the effects of dynamic and

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  6. ConcepTest: Elevated Terraces

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A series of elevated terraces (former wave-cut platforms) along an active plate boundary coast is evidence for ______________. a. Sea level rise b. Uplift of continental crust c. Subsidence (sinking) of crust

  7. Evaluation of temperature-enhanced gain degradation of verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Witczak, S.C.; Lacoe, R.C. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Electronics Technology Center; Galloway, K.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The effect of dose rate on radiation-induced gain degradation is compared for verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors. High dose rate irradiations at elevated temperatures are more effective at simulating low dose rate degradation in the lateral pnp transistors.

  8. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1210] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

  9. 75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Docket No. FEMA-B-1104] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal...the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications...comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by...

  10. 77 FR 66737 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...Base Flood Elevation Changes +6-22 Unincorporated...Base Flood Elevation Changes +10-14...Base Flood Elevation Changes +8-12 Unincorporated...Unincorporated Areas of upstream of the Great Pee Williamsburg County....

  11. Investigation of the gain regimes and gain parameters of the free electron laser dispersion equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Jerby; A. Gover

    1985-01-01

    The small signal gain curve and various gain parameters have been computed by solving numerically the generalized gain-dispersion equation of free electron lasers (FEL), which characterizes the conventional magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL, as well as a large number of other FEL devices. The method includes high gain, collective, and axial velocity spread effects, and some waveguide effects. The FEL gain regimes

  12. Redundancy gains in retinotopic cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    It is widely claimed that interactions among simultaneously presented visual stimuli are suppressive and that these interactions primarily occur when stimuli fall within the same receptive field (Desimone and Duncan 1995). Here, we show evidence for a novel form of interaction between simultaneously presented but distant stimuli that does not fit either pattern. To examine interactions between simultaneously presented stimuli, we measure the response to a single stimulus as a function of whether or not other stimuli are also presented simultaneously, and we further ask how the response to a given stimulus is affected by whether the simultaneously present stimuli are identical or different from each other. Our method reveals a new phenomenon of “redundancy gain:” the visual response to a stimulus is higher when accompanied by identical stimuli than when that stimulus is presented alone, even though the stimuli are displayed in separate visual quadrants. This pattern is observed throughout the visual hierarchy, including V1 and V2, and we show that it is distinct from the well-known simultaneous suppression effect (Kastner et al. 1998). We propose that the redundancy gain in early retinotopic cortex results from feedback from higher visual areas and may underlie perceptual averaging and other ensemble coding phenomena observed behaviorally. PMID:23904496

  13. Elevation Zones Digital elevation data (meters above mean sea level) were

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Elevation Zones Africa Digital elevation data (meters above mean sea level) were obtained as a 1 kilometer resolution elevation\\bathymetry raster product from ISciences, L.L.C. Elevation zones were created by aggregating ranges of land elevation values into 12 thematic elevation classes. The 2004 ISciences data were

  14. Elevator Safety Though elevators are one of the safest forms of transportation, following simple

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Elevator Safety Though elevators are one of the safest forms of transportation, following simple elevators, but also what to do if the elevator becomes stalled. Please reference the guidelines below for more information on both situations. Elevator Safety Tips When waiting for elevators: Know your

  15. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  17. Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control Ethiopia | Rwanda | Senegal | Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar) COUNTRY BRIEFS September 2011 #12;#12;SEpTEMbER 2011 MainTaining ThE gainS in MalaRia conTRol | ExEcuTivE SuMMaRy | 3 Key messages · aggressive campaigns to scale up malaria control have led

  18. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Nagel

    2011-01-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the

  19. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  20. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-10-26

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

  1. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

  2. The Elevator Pitch Audrey Iffert-Saleem

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    The Elevator Pitch Audrey Iffert-Saleem Executive Director, Entrepreneurship & Innovation? #12;what is an elevator pitch? #12;how long is an elevator pitch? #12;what are the elements of an elevator pitch? #12;the hook #12;the problem #12;the solution #12;the impact #12;the competition #12;the

  3. Exponential Tethers for Accelerated Space Elevator Deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blaise Gassendy

    An exponential space elevator is a space elevator with a tether cross-section that varies exponentially with altitude. With such an elevator it is possible to reel in tether material at one end of the elevator while reeling out at the other end, without changing the overall taper prole. I show how to use this property to build up or clone

  4. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

  5. Defense of a space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laubscher

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the

  6. Analysis of a Space Elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Langston

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the engineering principles that govern the design of a Space Elevator. The presentation includes extensive mathematical analysis of several basic approaches, reviews historical approaches and looks at some novel implementations. The technical challenges that must be overcome and the potential application of new technology to meet these challenges are discussed. While the paper focuses on the engineering

  7. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laubscher

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing

  8. Special Issue: High Elevation Forests

    E-print Network

    University Lori Torikai, Division of Water Resources, State of Colorado Tom Troxel, Director, Colorado TimberSpecial Issue: High Elevation Forests 2008 The Health of Colorado's Forests Report #12;David A. Leatherman, Forest Entomologist, Colorado State Forest Service (retired), is the primary author of the 2008

  9. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  10. High-gain aneutronic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, M. J.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    Fusion reactions which release most of their energy in charged particles are desirable for power applications. The proton-boron reaction p+11 B --> 3 ? + 8 . 7 MeV is ideal due to the low incidence of neutron-generating side reactions and the natural abundance of the reactants. However, an optically thin proton-boron plasma radiates a substantial amount of energy via bremsstrahlung. To compensate, we consider ways of increasing the fusion reactivity above the Maxwellian value. Using the fusion alpha particle energy to heat specific parts of the proton velocity distribution is one such approach. In principle, waves could channel the alpha energy to protons near the cross section maximum in energy, resulting in a substantial reactivity gain. By making aggressive assumptions regarding how energy might be channeled, we present upper bounds on the extent to which a proton-boron fusion reaction can be self-sustaining. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DOE NNSA SSAA Grant No. DE274-FG52-08NA28553. M. J. H. was supported in part by the DOE NNSA SSGF under Grant No. DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  11. Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetta, A.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2007-04-01

    Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a successful application of sheet metal forming technologies at elevated temperatures. Among data needed to settle a numerical model of the process, information about material formability may help in better designing and optimizing hot stamping operations. In the first part of the work, a new experimental apparatus based on Nakazima concept is presented; process parameters are optimized in order to accurately replicate the thermo-mechanical conditions typical of the industrial process, paying particular attention to the thermal and microstructural evolution. On the other hand, as commercial FE codes require the implementation of Forming Limit Diagrams at constant temperature, numerical investigations have been performed in order to determine the proper testing conditions to obtain FLD at nearly constant temperature.

  12. THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED [CO2] AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON TREE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Teskey, Robert O.

    THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED [CO2] AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON TREE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY by TIMOTHY investigated the effect of elevated temperature, elevated [CO2] and decreased soil moisture availability the combined effect of elevated temperature and [CO2] on northern red oak seedlings grown near the southern

  13. Mapping Surface Elevation and Elevation Change of the (Greenland) Ice Sheet

    E-print Network

    Berthier, Etienne

    Mapping Surface Elevation and Elevation Change of the (Greenland) Ice Sheet Ian Howat Byrd Polar;Overview · Why do we need ice elevation data? · Greenland Ice sheet Mapping Project (GIMP) DEM · Elevation Change Measurements and Applications · Exciting New Developments #12;Why do we need ice elevation? · Mass

  14. Angle of arrival fluctuations in high and low elevation earth space paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Vilar; G. Weaver; P. Lo; H. Smith

    1985-01-01

    This article is concerned with theoretical and experimental studies of angular scintillations in moderate (30 deg) and low elevation (9 deg) space paths. The experimental technique uses either a single or a dual antenna arrangement in which one of the antennas is depointed so that the antenna gain slope alpha in dB\\/deg transforms angle fluctuations into amplitude fluctuations. The limitations

  15. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

    1985-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

  16. [Crestal core elevation technique--case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Kolerman, R; Barnea, E

    2008-04-01

    Sinus floor augmentation is the most common surgical procedure for gaining bone volume in the posterior maxilla. The purpose of this procedure is to enable implant placement un edentulous ridges. The most common techniques for sinus augmentation are: 1. Bone added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE). 2. Crestal core elevation (CCE). 3. Lateral window technique (LWT). Since the early 80's many articles describing the successful use of different augmentation materials for sinus elevation have been published. Although many articles have been published on the lateral window technique and the osteotome technique as described by Summers, few articles have been published on the crestsal core sinus elevation technique. This technique, first described by Summers, includes the use of wide diameter osteotomes and trephine bur with a diameter of 6 m"m. This technique is implemented in situations when the available bone for implant placement is less than 6 m"m , which impairs the possibility of achieving primary stability of the implant. In those cases crestal core elevation is performed and implant placement is postponed 3-8 months later. Modification of the technique described by Summers was published by Fugazzoto, this technique is implemented concomitant with the extraction of the upper molars. The crestal core elevation technique (CCE), which is based on the BAOSFE (Bone Added Osteotome Sinus Floor Elevation), is based on the principle of hydraulic force acting on fluids and particles which transfer the vector of force to all direction, in this case the sinus membrane. The detached core of interradicular bone prior to osteotome placement and malleting significantly reduces surgical trauma to the patient especially in cases where a significant portion of the pre-disease interradicular bone remains. The concomitant placement of particulate material and a membrane at the time of tooth extraction offers the advantage of minimizing if not eliminating significant 3-dimensional alveolar resorption. In this article 3 cases treated using the crestal core elevation technique are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique and indication for use will be discussed. PMID:18780543

  17. Gaining Confidence in Distributed Systems Gleb Naumovich,

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    flow analysis to verify, automatically and efficiently, user­specified properties of distributed behavior but instead describe important requirements of the system, such as the elevator door can not open while the elevator is moving. Thus, instead of a test case which would exercise one path to show

  18. Gain equalization of EDFA's with Bragg gratings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rochette; M. Guy; S. Larochelle; J. Lauzon; F. Trepanier

    1999-01-01

    Flat-gain amplifiers are needed to ensure proper amplification of every channel in wavelength-division-multiplexed communication systems. Such amplifiers can be realized by combining a precisely tailored filter with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). In this letter, we show that Bragg gratings can lead to accurate EDFA gain equalization. Reflection and transmission gratings have been used to demonstrate gain equalization over 32

  19. Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

  20. SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND

    E-print Network

    SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE SCHEDULES ON NARP IN SOUTHERN YELLOW) have been reported to compare warp lumber were dried in two separate charges according to an elevated

  1. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  2. UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS APPLIED PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS.R.P.S. (ROBINSON BLDG.) ADMIN. 2 I.R.P.S. (LIBRARY BLDG.) 2 ISSACS HALL (NORPAX) 1 LEICHTAG 3 MAIN GYM 2 MANDELL BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS HILLCREST MAIN HOSPITAL 16 HILLCREST AMBULATORY CARE CENTER 2 HILLCREST FACULTY

  3. Research report Elevated depressive symptoms enhance reflexive

    E-print Network

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Research report Elevated depressive symptoms enhance reflexive but not reflective auditory category efficiency of the two learning systems. Previous studies have shown that individuals with elevated depressive are dissociable and competitive. We predicted that elevated depressive symptoms would lead to reflective

  4. CONSTRAINED REGULARIZATION OF DIGITAL TERRAIN ELEVATION DATA

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    CONSTRAINED REGULARIZATION OF DIGITAL TERRAIN ELEVATION DATA By Anish Mohan and Guillermo Sapiro: 612/626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;1 Constrained Regularization of Digital Terrain Elevation in this paper. The framework takes into account errors in the data, which form part of standard elevation maps

  5. Why we need a space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy W. Swan; Peter A. Swan

    2006-01-01

    The goals of and vision for development of a space elevator have been discussed repeatedly. However, why we should develop one has been glossed over. This paper will focus upon the major issue—why build a space elevator infrastructure? It considers why we need a space elevator, what missions it would enable and how far it would reduce costs. There is

  6. Elevated plus maze for mice.

    PubMed

    Komada, Munekazu; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Although the mouse genome is now completely sequenced, the functions of most of the genes expressed in the brain are not known. The influence of a given gene on a specific behavior can be determined by behavioral analysis of mutant mice. If a target gene is expressed in the brain, behavioral phenotype of the mutant mice could elucidate the genetic mechanism of normal behaviors. The elevated plus maze test is one of the most widely used tests for measuring anxiety-like behavior. The test is based on the natural aversion of mice for open and elevated areas, as well as on their natural spontaneous exploratory behavior in novel environments. The apparatus consists of open arms and closed arms, crossed in the middle perpendicularly to each other, and a center area. Mice are given access to all of the arms and are allowed to move freely between them. The number of entries into the open arms and the time spent in the open arms are used as indices of open space-induced anxiety in mice. Unfortunately, the procedural differences that exist between laboratories make it difficult to duplicate and compare results among laboratories. Here, we present a detailed movie demonstrating our protocol for the elevated plus maze test. In our laboratory, we have assessed more than 90 strains of mutant mice using the protocol shown in the movie. These data will be disclosed as a part of a public database that we are now constructing. Visualization of the protocol will promote better understanding of the details of the entire experimental procedure, allowing for standardization of the protocols used in different laboratories and comparisons of the behavioral phenotypes of various strains of mutant mice assessed using this test. PMID:19229173

  7. Dynamic gain estimation in ambient media services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anwar Hossain; Pradeep K. Atrey; Abdulmotaleb El-saddik

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for dynamically estimat- ing the gain in ambient media services. Gain estimation is an attempt to measure the extent to which a certain media service is useful for a user in a particular context. Such a measure may provide invaluable support for personalizing a user's ambient environment through the selection of timely, context-aware and interesting

  8. Gain calibration methods for radio telescope arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert-Jan Boonstra; Alle-Jan van der Veen

    2003-01-01

    In radio telescope arrays, the complex receiver gains and sensor noise powers are initially unknown and have to be calibrated. Gain calibration can enhance the quality of astronomical sky images and, moreover, improve the effectiveness of array signal processing techniques for interference mitigation and spatial filtering. A challenging aspect is that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is usually well below 0

  9. Transponder Power Minimization Utilizing Optimum Channelizer Gains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Knab

    2012-01-01

    Today, the Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) system employs a new concept of adjusting the transponder power gain of individual links. A simple optimum method is derived for selecting these individual channel gains to minimize the amount of transponder power utilized. This new method directly solves a set of simple nonlinear equations and does not utilize any search algorithms or matrix

  10. Current Feedback Loop Gain Analysis and

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    presents a high imped- ance to the input voltage, V+ , so as to not load the driving source. Any voltage voltage to follow the non-inverting input voltage while also providing a low impedance path for an error-couple the signal gain from the loop gain part of the overall transfer function. Commonly available voltage feedback

  11. GaInNAs laser gain

    SciTech Connect

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  12. Transient elevation of corticosterone alters begging behavior and growth of white-crowned sparrow nestlings.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Breuner, Creagh W

    2008-05-01

    Developing animals may face a cost-benefit tradeoff during growth mediated through hormones such as glucocorticoids, as the hormone is essential for development but can have detrimental consequences. To investigate potential tradeoffs caused by brief, moderate elevations of corticosterone in avian young, we artificially elevated the hormone levels in two ways: feeding corticosterone-containing worms and applying corticosterone dermal patches. The former experiment tested the effects of an acute corticosterone elevation (25 min) on begging behavior, whereas the latter explored the effects of artificially elevated corticosterone for 24 to 48 h on growth. Corticosterone altered both begging behavior and growth of white-crowned sparrow nestlings. It increased latency to beg immediately after the treatment and suppressed growth as early as 24 h after the patch application. These experiments also showed that the effects depended on the age or types of development (e.g. gaining mass or growing feathers) that the nestlings were going through. PMID:18456897

  13. Mass Gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Exceed Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Brenner, Anita; Bromwich, David

    2012-01-01

    During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements of elevation change. The net gain (86 Gt/yr) over the West Antarctic (WA) and East Antarctic ice sheets (WA and EA) is essentially unchanged from revised results for 1992 to 2001 from ERS radar altimetry. Imbalances in individual drainage systems (DS) are large (-68% to +103% of input), as are temporal changes (-39% to +44%). The recent 90 Gt/yr loss from three DS (Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd Coast) of WA exceeds the earlier 61 Gt/yr loss, consistent with reports of accelerating ice flow and dynamic thinning. Similarly, the recent 24 Gt/yr loss from three DS in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is consistent with glacier accelerations following breakup of the Larsen B and other ice shelves. In contrast, net increases in the five other DS of WA and AP and three of the 16 DS in East Antarctica (EA) exceed the increased losses. Alternate interpretations of the mass changes driven by accumulation variations are given using results from atmospheric-model re-analysis and a parameterization based on 5% change in accumulation per degree of observed surface temperature change. A slow increase in snowfall with climate waRMing, consistent with model predictions, may be offsetting increased dynamic losses.

  14. CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation BM1 595.32' ams BM1 1298 data above, calculate the final elevation of BM2 Exercise 2: For the leveling data above, calculate the final elevation of BM2 and perform appropriate math checks. and perform appropriate math checks. Station

  15. CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    CHAPTER 3 EXERCISES Station BS HI FS Elevation Station BS HI FS Elevation BM1 595.32' ams BM1 1298.72' Exercise 1: For the leveling data above, calculate the final elevation of BM2 Exercise 2: For the leveling data above, calculate the final elevation of BM2 and perform appropriate math checks. and perform

  16. A study of reducing abnormal elevations in automatic computation of elevations from satellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Nagao; Yukio Mukai; Toshiro Sugimura; Koichi Ayabe; Kohei Arai; Takashi Nakazawa

    1988-01-01

    Elevations of the earth surface can be estimated using a pair of stereo images obtained from satellites. The elevations can be automatically computed by an automatic search of corresponding points between the stereo images. Mismatches in searches in search of the corresponding points cause abnormal elevations. In this study, causes of mismatches were investigated in computing elevations using Landsat TM

  17. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  18. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

  19. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-07-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation - snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales ranging from the complete data sets by km-scale sub-catchments to slope transects. We show that most elevation - snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks.

  20. Autonomic and prefrontal events during moral elevation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Walter T; Saslow, Laura R; Saturn, Sarina R

    2015-05-01

    Moral elevation, or elevation, is a specific emotional state triggered by witnessing displays of profound virtue and moral beauty. This study set out to characterize the physiology underlying elevation with measurements of heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. During elevation, HR and RSA increased. These findings illustrate that elevation involves an uncommon combination of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation, which is present in circumstances where arousal and social engagement are both required. In addition, we show evidence of content-dependent alterations of mPFC activity during elevation peaks. Altogether, this study shows that the induction of moral elevation recruits an uncommon autonomic and neural pattern that is consistent with previous understanding of socioemotional-induced allostasis. PMID:25813121

  1. Practitioner Advice and Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Abrams, Barbara; Darroch, Francine; Schaffner, Andrew; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate receipt of gestational weight gain advice in prenatal care and ideal and expected gestational weight gain outcomes for normal weight and overweight/obese women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of normal weight (n?=?203) and overweight/obese (n?=?198) women in early (<16 weeks) pregnancy. Results Less than half of participants (41.7%) reported receiving weight gain advice from a practitioner. In multivariate models, pregravid weight status was not significantly related to receiving advice. However, women with lower income (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.77, p?=?0.01), younger age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, p?=?0.02), and multiparity (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.87, p?=?0.02) were least likely to report receiving advice. Among those receiving advice, most (85%) received accurate advice; however, overweight/obese women were more likely to be advised to overgain compared with normal weight women (22.2% vs. 2.3%, p?=?0.0001). Overweight/obese women were also more likely than normal weight women to report ideal (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.3-22.7, p?=?0.001) and expected (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6-8.4, p?=?0.0001) pregnancy weight gains above Institute of Medicine guidelines. Further, a consistent relationship was observed between higher ideal and expected weight gains and greater first trimester weight gain (p?gain. Interventions to promote healthy gestational weight gain may benefit from targeting women's beliefs about ideal and expected gestational weight gain. PMID:21413898

  2. Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

    2014-07-01

    It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

  3. Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Shuttle Radar Topgraphy Mission (SRTM) images show the basin of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal: On the left a detail (27 km x 20.5 km) of the X-SAR digital elevation model (shown below), on the right the corresponding radar amplitude image. The amplitude is a measure of the backscattering of the transmitted microwaves. In the amplitude image the 'Bagmati-River' is visible south of the city center and the international Airport in the eastern part. The runway appears as a dark stripe. The airport is infamous for its difficult landing/takeoff conditions due to the close vicinity of the surrounding high mountains. For more information and a image of the region around Kathmandu, visit the German Remote Sensing Data Center SRTM Treasure Vault. Image courtesy German Remote Sensing Data Center

  4. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.

  5. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  6. GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT DISCLOSURE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM INSOCIAL WORK parenthood, remarriage and stepfamilies. 3. Learn about models of social work intervention with families.00 Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists 251113.00 Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary

  7. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains

    E-print Network

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative...

  8. Nonreciprocal gain control for ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dueker, G.; Lee, P.

    1967-01-01

    Nonreciprocal gain control is used in a ring laser where the two contracirculating beams may have differing intensities because of the residual Faraday rotation and other secondary nonreciprocal effects.

  9. Understanding bichromatic emission from scattering gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, R. M.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1996-10-01

    Intense optical pumping of solutions of high-gain laser dyes and TiO 2 nanoscatterers in methanol is found to result in narrow-linewidth bichromatic emission. Experimental studies of the long-wavelength emission peak show that weak pumping of the scattering gain medium by the primary lasing emission results in a random system that lases at longer wavelengths. Measurements with other dyes show that the bichromatic emission effect is very general.

  10. The Galileo high gain antenna deployment anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    On April 11, 1991, the Galileo spacecraft executed a sequence that would open the spacecraft's High Gain Antenna. The Antenna's launch restraint had been released just after deployment sequence, the antenna, which opens like an umbrella, never reached the fully deployed position. The analyses and tests that followed allowed a conclusive determination of the likely failure mechanisms and pointed to some strategies to use for recovery of the high gain antenna.

  11. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  12. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  13. Olanzapine depot exposure in male rats: Dose-dependent lipogenic effects without concomitant weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fernø, J; Ersland, K M; Duus, I H; González-García, I; Fossan, K O; Berge, R K; Steen, V M; Skrede, S

    2015-06-01

    Treatment with second-generation antipsychotic agents such as olanzapine frequently results in metabolic adverse effects, e.g. hyperphagia, weight gain and dyslipidaemia in patients of both genders. The molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic adverse effects are still largely unknown, and studies in rodents represent an important approach in their exploration. However, the validity of the rodent model is hampered by the fact that antipsychotics induce weight gain in female, but not male, rats. When administered orally, the short half-life of olanzapine in rats prevents stable plasma concentrations of the drug. We recently showed that a single intramuscular injection of long-acting olanzapine formulation yields clinically relevant plasma concentrations accompanied by several dysmetabolic features in the female rat. In the current study, we show that depot injections of 100-250mg/kg olanzapine yielded clinically relevant plasma olanzapine concentrations also in male rats. In spite of transient hyperphagia, however, olanzapine resulted in weight loss rather than weight gain. The resultant negative feed efficiency was accompanied by a slight elevation of thermogenesis markers in brown adipose tissue for the highest olanzapine dose, but the olanzapine-related reduction in weight gain remains to be explained. In spite of the absence of weight gain, an olanzapine dose of 200mg/kg or above induced significantly elevated plasma cholesterol levels and pronounced activation of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. These results confirm that olanzapine stimulates lipogenic effects, independent of weight gain, and raise the possibility that endocrine factors may influence gender specificity of metabolic effects of antipsychotics in the rat. PMID:25823694

  14. Vertebrate metacommunity structure along an extensive elevational gradient

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    RESEARCH PAPER Vertebrate metacommunity structure along an extensive elevational gradient of three vertebrate orders (Chiroptera, Rodentia and Passeriformes) along an extensive elevational gradient. Using elevation as a proxy for variation in abiotic characteristics and the known elevational

  15. Ding! Going Up? Elevators and Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students create model elevator carriages and calibrate them, similar to the work of design and quality control engineers. Students use measurements from rotary encoders to recreate the task of calibrating elevators for a high-rise building. They translate the rotations from an encoder to correspond to the heights of different floors in a hypothetical multi-story building. Students also determine the accuracy of their model elevators in getting passengers to their correct destinations.

  16. THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO GEODETIC ELEV.

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO DRAWN GEODETIC ELEV. DWG.FILE No. CHECKED DATE SCALE APPROVED ST.2 65 66 67 ELEV B TA.6 8687 TA.7 TA.8 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 74A 75 76 77 78 80 81 79 TA.11 ST.3 85 DOOR DOOR DOOR DOOR DOOR DOOR #12;THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO DRAWN GEODETIC ELEV. DWG.FILE No

  17. THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO GEODETIC ELEV.

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO DRAWN GEODETIC ELEV. DWG.FILE No. CHECKED DATE SCALE APPROVED 002C 002 003A U P TA.006 ELEV. C 033 T.A. 007 003B 016 015 014 013 012 011 010 003 004 004B T.A. 005 T DRAWN GEODETIC ELEV. DWG.FILE No. CHECKED DATE SCALE APPROVED PHYSICAL PLANT DEPARTMENT SHEET Facilities

  18. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in four northern hardwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Sefcik, Lesley T; Zak, Donald R; Ellsworth, David S

    2006-12-01

    Seedling responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and solar irradiance were measured over two growing seasons in shade-tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh. and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina, a J.F. Ehrh. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Seedlings were exposed to a factorial combination of [CO2] (ambient and elevated (658 micromol mol-1)) and understory shade (deep and moderate) in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. The elevated [CO(2)] treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rate by 63% in the shade-tolerant species and 67% in the shade-intolerant species. However, when measured at the elevated [CO(2)], long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10% lower than the instantaneous enhancement seen in ambient-[CO(2)]-grown plants (P < 0.021). Overall, growth light environment affected long-term photosynthetic enhancement by elevated [CO(2)]: as the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated [CO(2)] decreased from 97% for plants grown in deep shade to 47% for plants grown in moderate shade. Results suggest that in N-limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, because of greater downregulation in the latter environment. If photosynthetic gains by deep-shade-grown plants in response to elevated [CO(2)] translate into improved growth and survival of shade-intolerant species, it could alter the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities. PMID:17169898

  19. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair...

  20. High-flux magnetorheology at elevated temperatures

    E-print Network

    Ocalan, Murat

    Commercial applications of magnetorheological (MR) fluids often require operation at elevated temperatures as a result of surrounding environmental conditions or intense localized viscous heating. Previous experimental ...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A...

  5. Intrinsically-low Brillouin gain optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragic, Peter D.; Ballato, John; Morris, Stephanie; Hawkins, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Numerous methods to increase the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold have been previously implemented. Some are passive, based on acousto-optic fiber designs that incorporate longitudinally- or radially-tailored optical and/or acoustic index profiles, leading to broadened Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) with reduced peak gain. Some are active, relying on an applied temperature or strain distribution, also resulting in broadened BGS. Broadening the laser spectrum still represents the most effective method to-date to obtain large-scale (> 20 dB) decreases in the gain, but the suitability of this method depends largely on the application and system requirements on the laser spectrum. Despite these technologies, some introduced only in the last decade, the vast majority of high-energy, narrow-linewidth fiber laser systems are still limited by SBS rather than the availability of pump power. We present an alternative approach; rather than focusing on `suppressing' SBS in waveguide or other designs, we propose implementing materials with intrinsically low Brillouin gain. We focus on high-density, high-soundvelocity, large acoustic-damping-coefficient, and low-photoelastic-constant materials wherein the correct balancing of physical characteristics gives rise to extremely low Brillouin gain. In general, the approach requires the use of compositions that would be considered to be highly unconventional and unachievable utilizing standard fiber fabrication methods. For example, we describe recent results on sapphire-derived fibers (among other compositions) wherein a Brillouin gain nearly 20 dB lower than those of more conventional fibers has been realized. Other compositions will also be presented, including new results on a novel baria doped fiber, including others predicted to have zero-valued photoelastic constants, and therefore zero Brillouin gain.

  6. CMOS Programmable Gain Distributed Amplifier With 0.5dB Gain Steps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byul Hur; William R. Eisenstadt

    2011-01-01

    A new CMOS programmable gain distributed am- plifier with 0.5-dB gain steps is fabricated in a 130-nm process. The circuit is designed to demonstrate broadband ( 1 decade) programmable gains with excellent matching and high isolation for use in RF integrated-circuit testing. The measured slope of loss is approximately 3 dB\\/decade over frequencies from 0.8 to 9 GHz where input

  7. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  8. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  9. The freshman weight gain phenomenon revisited.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Aaron P; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Dutton, Gareth R; Panton, Lynn B; Abood, Doris A

    2009-02-01

    Earlier studies associated the first year of college with a dramatic increase in body weight, termed the "freshman 15". However, recent studies showed that weight gain might be smaller. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the extent of observed weight/body composition changes, including factors associated with them, among students entering university. Searches were conducted for studies examining weight/body composition changes during freshman semesters. Most studies were not comprehensive in assessing numerous potential causative factors for weight gain. Methods for assessing diet, physical activity, and behavioral factors varied among studies. Weight changes were often not quantified by measures of body composition (lean/fat) to ascertain that changes were limited just to gains in fat mass. Overall, weight changes ranged from 0.7-3.1 kg, but among individuals who gained weight, the range was narrower, 3.1-3.4 kg. There may be specific groups of students with a greater predisposition for weight gain and future research should focus on identifying those groups. PMID:19178649

  10. National requirements for improved elevation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or submerged topography, built features, vegetation structure, and other landscape detail. Additional information about NEEA and its later use in the development of a 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) can be found at http://nationalmap.gov/3DEP/index.html.

  11. Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult blood pressure in 5 low- and middle-income-country cohorts: when does weight gain matter?123

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Hallal, Pedro C; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Wills, Andrew K; Norris, Shane A; Dahly, Darren L; Lee, Nanette R; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    Background: Promoting catch-up growth in malnourished children has health benefits, but recent evidence suggests that accelerated child weight gain increases adult chronic disease risk. Objective: We aimed to determine how birth weight (BW) and weight gain to midchildhood relate to blood pressure (BP) in young adults. Design: We pooled data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We used conditional weight (CW), a residual of current weight regressed on prior weights, to represent deviations from expected weight gain from 0 to 12, 12 to 24, 24 to 48 mo, and 48 mo to adulthood. Adult BP and risk of prehypertension or hypertension (P/HTN) were modeled before and after adjustment for adult body mass index (BMI) and height. Interactions of CWs with small size-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth were tested. Results: Higher CWs were associated with increased BP and odds of P/HTN, with coefficients proportional to the contribution of each CW to adult BMI. Adjusted for adult height and BMI, no child CW was associated with adult BP, but 1 SD of BW was related to a 0.5-mm Hg lower systolic BP and a 9% lower odds of P/HTN. BW and CW associations with systolic BP and P/HTN were not different between adults born SGA and those with normal BW, but higher CW at 48 mo was associated with higher diastolic BP in those born SGA. Conclusions: Greater weight gain at any age relates to elevated adult BP, but faster weight gains in infancy and young childhood do not pose a higher risk than do gains at other ages. PMID:19297457

  12. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  13. Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine max) to Japanese

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine japonica) was greater when plants were grown under elevated CO2, elevated O3 and the combination of elevated CO2 plus elevated O3 than when grown in ambient atmosphere. The effect of herbivory

  14. Gain loss asymmetry for emerging stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpio, Krzysztof; Za?uska–Kotur, Magdalena A.; Or?owski, Arkadiusz

    2007-03-01

    Stock indexes for some European emerging markets are analyzed using an investment-horizon approach. Austrian ATX index and Dow Jones have been studied and compared with several emerging European markets. The optimal investment horizons are plotted as a function of an absolute return value. Gain-loss asymmetry, originally found for American DJIA index, is observed for all analyzed data. It is shown, that this asymmetry has different character for emerging and for established markets. For established markets, gain curve lies typically above loss curve, whereas in the case of emerging markets the situation is just the opposite. We propose a measure quantifying the gain-loss asymmetry that clearly exhibits a difference between emerging and established markets.

  15. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  17. Pitt Innovator LIBRARY ANGELS IN THE ELEVATOR

    E-print Network

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    1 Pitt Innovator LIBRARY ANGELS IN THE ELEVATOR Fund-raising expert Mel Pirchesky on how to attract for the so-called "elevator pitch," has raised more than $60 million in private equity over the years for his products in a given market space; a "great" business model that offers a potential profit margin

  18. Satellite Placement Using a Partial Space Elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Woo

    2009-01-01

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for launching cargo into space. However, the construction of such a structure requires a material much stronger than any currently in existence. Instead, a partial elevator is considered for satellite placement. In the first part of the thesis, the fundamentals of very long tethered systems are studied. From static analysis

  19. Space Elevator Ribbon Mass and Taper Ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Nugent

    Assumptions about tensile strength and density aect the space elevator ribbon taper ratio, and therefore its mass. We examine the technical trade-os between material properties and total mass of a modern space elevator ribbon, and the economic trade-os between ribbon mass, the number of rocket launches required to loft the initial ribbon, and the time required to build the ribbon

  20. DESIGN AND DEPLOYMENT OF A SPACE ELEVATOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley C. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    The space elevator was first proposed in the 1960s as a method of getting into space. The initial studies of a space elevator outlined the basic concept of a cable strung between Earth and space but concluded that no material available at the time had the required properties to feasibly construct such a cable. With the discovery of carbon nanotubes

  1. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  2. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  3. GaNWW-oxide metal base transistor with very large current gain and power gain

    E-print Network

    Asbeck, Peter M.

    and radio frequency rf performance while maintaining the advantages of HBTs. So far, MBTs with high common-emitter is a possible candidate for microwave and millimeterwave amplifiers as well as for high-speed integrated current gain and common-base cur- rent gain have been demonstrated in several material sys- tems: 100

  4. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  5. Band mixing effects on quantum well gain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sel Colak; R. Eppenga; Martin F. H. Schuurmans

    1987-01-01

    The band structure and the optical matrix elements of a quantum well are studied by the kp perturbation method within the envelope function approximation. The quantum well gain spectra calculated by the kp method and the k-selection rules clearly show the effects of band mixing both in shape and in peak magnitude. The results differ considerably from those based on

  6. Glossary of Signed and Gain Graphs

    E-print Network

    Loya, Paul

    ", Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, Dynamic Surveys in Comb* *ina- torics #DS8. Notation. To simplify (and, when indicated by the context, a * *permu- tation gain graph) , and a biased graph = ( , B. additive bias o The bias of an additively biased graph (q.v.). additively biased graph o

  7. Gainful Employment: The Real Issue. Policy Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes a proposed piece of legislation or new rule can catalyze debate about a key issue. That seems to be the case for the "gainful employment" rule currently being proposed by the Department of Education (DOE). The rule addresses a very real problem: The large amounts of debt being taken on by some students, mainly those attending for-profit…

  8. Gain International Work Experience in China

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Gain International Work Experience in China www.StudyCLI.org "The CLI internship gave me a huge boost both personally and professionally. At 21 years old, I've lived in China and can speak basic city of Guilin, China. CLIinternsengageinadynamicrangeofprojects: Y Establishnewrelationshipswith

  9. Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain

    E-print Network

    Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain Relevance In South Texas (Texas Department is a community and worksite wellness program created by the Cardiovascular Health and Wellness Program A model plan will be available for agents in the TExAS system. Agents wishing to implement the Maintain

  10. Management of Weight Gain Associated with Antipsychotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Birt

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in untreated patients with severe mental illness mimicks the trends seen in the general population. Furthermore, weight gain is likely to occur with the addition of pharmacotherapy with an antipsychotic. The literature does indicate that despite fundamental cognitive and psychosocial deficits seen in patients with severe and persistent mental disorders such as schizophrenia and

  11. Project GAIN Evaluation: 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biller, Julian

    Project GAIN was designed to meet the special needs of the academically retarded junior high school student. This federally funded project has been on-going in Broward County (Florida) since January 1966. The project was conceived of as a means to motivate and educate those students whose "dull normal" intellectual ability might otherwise doom…

  12. Net Photorefractive Gain In Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Prerequisite includes applied electric field. Electric field applied to GaAs crystal in which two infrared beams interfere. Depending on quality of sample and experimental conditions, net photorefractive gain obtained. Results offer possibility of new developments in real-time optical processing of signals by use of near-infrared lasers of low power.

  13. Polarization, Gain, and Q for Small Antennas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert L. Thal

    2011-01-01

    The six lowest-order modes that can be excited by a small an- tenna can be combined to produce patterns with a variety of polarization, gain, and Q characteristics. Tables and equations are presented to define bounds on the performance of these antennas for spherical and hemispher- ical volumes, including the effects of both externaland internal energy. The impact of dielectric

  14. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  15. Maximum Gain Round Trips with Cost Constraints

    E-print Network

    Graf, Franz; Schubert, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Searching for optimal ways in a network is an important task in multiple application areas such as social networks, co-citation graphs or road networks. In the majority of applications, each edge in a network is associated with a certain cost and an optimal way minimizes the cost while fulfilling a certain property, e.g connecting a start and a destination node. In this paper, we want to extend pure cost networks to so-called cost-gain networks. In this type of network, each edge is additionally associated with a certain gain. Thus, a way having a certain cost additionally provides a certain gain. In the following, we will discuss the problem of finding ways providing maximal gain while costing less than a certain budget. An application for this type of problem is the round trip problem of a traveler: Given a certain amount of time, which is the best round trip traversing the most scenic landscape or visiting the most important sights? In the following, we distinguish two cases of the problem. The first does ...

  16. 1/8" = 1'-0" EAST ELEVATION

    E-print Network

    1/8" = 1'-0" 1 EAST ELEVATION 1/8" = 1'-0" 2 SOUTH ELEVATION POINT E-1 POINT E-2 149'-0" Grade - Elevation 5784' Grade - Elevation 5787' Average Elevation = 5785.5' 42'-6" 10'-0" 52'-0" Average Elevation = 5786' 42'-0" 10'-0" Mechanical Roof Screen 43'-10" Average Elevation = 5783.75' 24'-7" POINT S-1

  17. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, R.C.; Birchenough, A.G.

    1981-12-01

    A variable gain is considered for a wind turbine pitch angle control. The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The controller gain is structured to be proportional and integral feedback of power. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  18. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) Regulates Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Chadia L; Srivastava, Jyoti; Siddiq, Ayesha; Gredler, Rachel; Emdad, Luni; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Akiel, Maaged; Shen, Xue-Ning; Corwin, Frank; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Zweit, Jamal; Croniger, Colleen; Gao, Xiaoli; Ghosh, Shobha; Hylemon, Philip B; Subler, Mark A; Windle, Jolene J; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-07-17

    Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), also known as MTDH (metadherin) or LYRIC, is an established oncogene. However, the physiological function of AEG-1 is not known. To address this question, we generated an AEG-1 knock-out mouse (AEG-1KO) and characterized it. Although AEG-1KO mice were viable and fertile, they were significantly leaner with prominently less body fat and lived significantly longer compared with wild type (WT). When fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), WT mice rapidly gained weight, whereas AEG-1KO mice did not gain weight at all. This phenotype of AEG-1KO mice is due to decreased fat absorption from the intestines, not because of decreased fat synthesis or increased fat consumption. AEG-1 interacts with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and inhibits RXR function. In enterocytes of AEG-1KO mice, we observed increased activity of RXR heterodimer partners, liver X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, key inhibitors of intestinal fat absorption. Inhibition of fat absorption in AEG-1KO mice was further augmented when fed an HFD providing ligands to liver X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. Our studies reveal a novel role of AEG-1 in regulating nuclear receptors controlling lipid metabolism. AEG-1 may significantly modulate the effects of HFD and thereby function as a unique determinant of obesity. PMID:26070567

  19. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  20. Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests. PMID:23795916

  1. THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO GEODETIC ELEV.

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    THE UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO DRAWN GEODETIC ELEV. DWG.FILE No. CHECKED DATE SCALE APPROVED.89 FT. 21 22 23 24 25 26 ELEV.A TA.5 TA.6 TA.7 ST.3 34 33 32 25X 27A 27B 27C 27D 27E 31 30 29C 29B 29 29A ELEV.C TA.9 28A.1 28A.2 28A.3 28A 28 ST.5 28B 28C 28D 28H 28E FMENUP DN UP UP DN ST.1 ST.2 UP TA.4

  2. Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

  3. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  5. 77 FR 73396 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...elevations, and communities affected for Scott County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas...44 CFR 67.4. The table, entitled ``Scott County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas...Scott County, Kentucky, and Incorporated...

  6. Newton's Laws Problem: Scales and Elevators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    An elevator accelerates upward for one second, travels at constant velocity, and then decelerates one second prior to reaching its destination such that it comes to rest (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

  7. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    E-print Network

    Yuan Luo; Tiancheng Han; Baile Zhang; Cheng-Wei Qiu; George Barbastathis

    2011-09-30

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  8. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men. PMID:24320065

  9. 76 FR 8986 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations are...Administrative practice and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting and recordkeeping...Great Miami River...Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located...

  10. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations...practice and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...upstream of Symmes Road. Great Miami River...confluence with Gregory Creek. Great Miami River...Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'')...

  11. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...elevations, and communities affected for Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas...CFR 67.4. The tables, entitled ``Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas...Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated...

  12. Open Quantum Systems with Loss and Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid

    2014-10-01

    We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system.Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.

  13. Improving Elevator Performance Using Reinforcement Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Crites; Andrew G. Barto

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the application of reinforcement learning (RL)to the difficult real world problem of elevator dispatching. The elevatordomain poses a combination of challenges not seen in mostRL research to date. Elevator systems operate in continuous statespaces and in continuous time as discrete event dynamic systems.Their states are not fully observable and they are nonstationarydue to changing passenger arrival rates.

  14. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  15. ASTER Stereoscopic Data and Digital Elevation Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Toutin

    \\u000a Digital elevation models (DEMs) provide a digital representation of the Earth’s relief, and are used in a variety of applications\\u000a in geo-spatial analysis. Elevation data as DEMs are required to produce geocoded, orthorectified raster images, which often\\u000a are incorporated in a geographic information system. The atmospheric, geometric, and radiometric correction of satellite data\\u000a from optical and microwave instruments also require

  16. HYDRO 1K Elevation Derivative Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems' Data Center at the US Geological Survey developed this database from the 30 arc-second digital elevation model of the world. The database contains six raster data sets in tar file format: elevation data, shaded relief, slope, aspect, flow direction, and flow accumulation; and two vector data sets in tar or gzipped ARC/INFO Export file formats: drainage basins and streams.

  17. The Persistence of Gaining and Losing Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Frye, A.

    2012-12-01

    Streams are commonly classified as "gaining" or "losing", according to their relationships with groundwater. However, the gaining and losing nature of a stream can vary in space and time. Understanding the spatial and temporal persistence of gaining and losing reaches is essential for understanding controls on stream health. This is particularly important during low flow conditions. Hydrologic models are typically designed to simulate high flows, and are challenged by low flow. This problem will become more important as hydrologists are asked to forecast the increasing occurrence of low flows as a consequence of climate change. Low flow discharges have been a focus of research as they are occurring earlier in the summer and have longer durations throughout the fall. A concern is how low flow will affect water resources and its users in the region when demand is at its highest. As low flow discharges continue to persist, debate over these rights will continue as well. This study we used chloride as a chemical tracer to monitor gains and losses of stream discharge of small watershed in Southwestern, Idaho. Six conductivity probes were spaced evenly 200m apart along a control reach 1200m in total length. Tracers were performed at least once a month at this site throughout the winter and spring and even more often during the summer dry down to understand the temporal changes occurring. Spatial variations were observed by performing basin wide tracers over a stream length of ~9km during the spring and late summer. Results show that stream baseflow is dependent on the winter snowpack and spring rains in order to recharge the deep groundwater systems and to create a hydrologic connection between the stream and local hillslopes. As a result, when winter snowpack's and spring rains are mild, this connectivity is cut off much sooner producing low flow conditions much earlier in the summer.

  18. Raman gain suppression with multimode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, R.M.; Winkler, I.C.

    1990-01-01

    We have found the gain of a Raman amplifier to be almost completely suppressed when the amplifier is pumped by a multilongitudinal mode laser and seeded with an initially uncorrelated Stokes beam that is nearly as intense as the pump. This effect is predicted by a plane-wave model of Raman amplification that accounts for multimode pump and Stokes fields. Our experiments have also demonstrated that the beam quality of the pump is maintained to the extent that the amplification is suppressed.

  19. Quantum theory of magnetic bremsstrahlung gain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Deck; Peter Gill

    1982-01-01

    We present a quantum electrodynamic calculation of the gain associated with the stimulated emission and absorption of photons by high-energy electrons in the presence of a spatially periodic, static magnetic field. The calculation is relevant to the description of a high-energy electron laser in the long-interaction-length low-density (single-particle) regime. The different kinematic constraints imposed on the photon-emission and -absorption processes

  20. Capital gains tax treatment and the cattleman 

    E-print Network

    Rister, M. Edward

    1976-01-01

    replacement policies for the 10, 000 AUMs model 4 Optimal replacement policies for the 120 cow mode I Page 38 39 47 52 5 Optimal replacement policies for the 600 cow mode I 6 Optimal replacement policies for the Ft. Worth actual prices (1965... in which capital gains provisions do not exist. 2. Determine the effect of different cattle prices on the optimal replacement policy. 3. Determine the effect of the taxpayer's marginal tax bracket on the optima 1 replacement policy. 4. Determine...

  1. The gamma efficiency of the GAINS spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Deleanu; C. Borcea; Ph. Dessagne; M. Kerveno; A. Negret; A. J. M. Plompen; J. C. Thiry

    2010-01-01

    The GAINS (Germanium Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) setup was recently installed at the GELINA (Geel Linear Accelerator) neutron source of EC-JRC-IRMM. In order to produce reliable neutron inelastic cross-section data the setup requires a precise efficiency calibration for each sample under investigation. These samples represent extended sources in non-standard orientations and with significant self-attenuation of gamma rays. We present

  2. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains 

    E-print Network

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially...

  3. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  4. Development of the Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strömmer, Sofia T.; Ingledew, David K.; Markland, David

    2015-01-01

    There are existing measures of exercise motives (what people want from exercise), but corresponding measures of gains (what people get) are needed, because motives and gains could influence each other and together influence other variables. An exercise motives and gains inventory (EMGI) was developed by creating gains scales to complement existing…

  5. Probability gains expected for renewal process models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imoto, M.

    2004-06-01

    We usually use the Brownian distribution, lognormal distribution, Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution, and exponential distribution to calculate long-term probability for the distribution of time intervals between successive events. The values of two parameters of these distributions are determined by the maximum likelihood method. The difference in log likelihood between the proposed model and the stationary Poisson process model, which scores both the period of no events and instances of each event, is considered as the index for evaluating the effectiveness of the earthquake probability model. First, we show that the expected value of the log-likelihood difference becomes the expected value of the logarithm of the probability gain. Next, by converting the time unit into the expected value of the interval, the hazard is made to represent a probability gain. This conversion reduces the degrees of freedom of model parameters to 1. We then demonstrate that the expected value of the probability gain in observed parameter values ranges between 2 and 5. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term probability calculated before an earthquake may become several times larger than that of the Poisson process model.

  6. Optimal subband filters to maximize coding gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki; Yamada, Akio; Wakatsuki, Norio

    1993-10-01

    The optimal analysis/synthesis filters giving the maximum coding gain are derived in subband schemes. The optimal analysis filters consist of the emphasis of the picture signal and ideal band-splitting. The characteristics of the emphasis is determined by the spectrum of the picture signal. A large improvement of coding gain is achieved by the subband scheme with the optimal subband filters obtained here. Approximated emphasis characteristic determined from a spectrum model of picture signals can be used and the ideal band-splitting filters can be replaced by conventional subband filters since the degradation of coding gain due to these approximations is small. Computer simulation of super HD image coding by the proposed scheme is performed. SN ratio of the reconstructed image is increased and edges are reconstructed very well compared to the conventional subband scheme. The proposed scheme is very suited to super HD image coding since the improvement of SN ratio is large for images with high correlation between the neighboring pixels.

  7. Antenna Gain Enhancement and Beamshaping using a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbitt, Christopher

    Dielectric and metamaterial lenses have been designed for gain enhancement and beam shaping. The motivation for this work came from a commercially available slotted waveguide antenna with a dielectric lens that shapes the beam and enhances the gain only in the azimuth plane. When two of these antennas, each with a dielectric lens, are stacked as an array to form the sum and difference patterns the elevation plane gain is low and the beam width too wide to be acceptable for radar applications. The objective of the present work is to design a diffractive optical element (DOE) lens for gain enhancement gain and beam shaping. As compared to other available lenses it is much thinner, lighter and easily machined. The DOE lens is made from rexolite which has a dielectric constant of 2.53. The DOE lens is composed of a series of zones which focus the light at a certain focal length. The phase is the same everywhere on each zone at the focal point. The phase difference between neighboring zones is 2pi, resulting in a constructive interference at the focus. These zones are able to focus the radiation from an antenna in order to enhance the gain and shape the beam. The design parameters include the lens diameter, number of zones, the center zone thickness for a particular frequency and refractive index of the dielectric material. A comprehensive study has been performed in CST Microwave Studio to illustrate the properties of the DOE lens. The focusing property for image formation is verified by a plane wave excitation. Lenses have been designed and tested at different frequencies and with varying design parameters. Gain enhancement and beam shaping are illustrated by modeling the DOE lens in CST and placing it in front of different antennas. This work presents lenses for 10GHz and 40GHz horn antennas, a 3GHz slotted waveguide antenna array, and a 10GHz microstrip patch arrays. Beam shaping and focusing is clearly illustrated for each type of antenna. It is seen that the size of the lens is directly proportional to gain increase which can be as high 20dB enhancement for a 40-GHz horn antenna. The 3GHz DOE lens illustrates for the slotted waveguide array, a gain enhancement of 7dB in the elevation plane, as well as decrease of the 3dB beamwidth from 20° to 13.5°. It is also proved that the DOE lens allows for the creation of a good difference pattern. Experimental validation for the focusing properties and the gain enhancement has been done using the 10GHz DOE, made from rexolite, and fabricated using CNC milling in the RIT Brinkman Lab. The image formation has been verified using an electric field probing station in the Nanoplasmonic lab at RIT. Two types of excitation have been done with a dipole and with a horn antenna, where another dipole probes the field in the transmission plane. The electric field intensity shows clearly the beam focusing by the DOE lens. The X-band anechoic chamber in the Electromagnetics Theory and Application (ETA) lab has been used to demonstrate the gain enhancement of a horn antenna with the fabricated DOE lens. The distance of the lens from the receive antenna has been varied to obtain a maximum received power. The results show a substantial gain enhancement of 6.6 dB for the horn antenna and of 5.6 dB for the patch array.

  8. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    PubMed Central

    Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Siglin, Joshua; Jin, Lianjin; Simone, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients. PMID:23050155

  9. Characterization of ultrasound elevation beamwidth artifacts for prostate brachytherapy needle insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Peikari, Mohammad; Chen, Thomas Kuriran; Lasso, Anras; Heffter, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Burdette, Everette C. [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery (Perk), School of Computing, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Acoustic MedSystems, 208 Burwash Avenue, Savoy, Illinois 61874 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound elevation beamwidth leads to image artifacts and uncertainties in localizing objects (such as a surgical needle) in ultrasound images. The authors examined the clinical significance of errors caused by elevation beamwidth artifacts and imaging parameters in needle insertion procedures. Methods: Beveled prostate brachytherapy needles were inserted through all holes of a grid template under real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The needle tip position as indicated by the TRUS image was compared to their observed physical location. A new device was developed to measure the ultrasound elevation beamwidth. Results: Imaging parameters of the TRUS scanner have direct impact on the localization error ranging from 0.5 up to 4 mm. The smallest localization error was observed laterally close to the center of the grid template and axially within the beam's focal zone. Largest localization error occurs laterally around both sides of the grid template and axially within the beam's far field. The authors also found that the localization errors vary with both lateral and elevation offsets. Conclusions: The authors found properly adjusting the TRUS imaging settings to lower the ultrasound gain and power effectively minimized the appearance of elevation beamwidth artifacts and in turn reduced the localization errors of the needle tip.

  10. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; York, Robbie Lynn [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

  11. Analysis of emission and gain saturation in gain-switched semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, S.; Haug, H.

    1996-07-01

    We calculate the switch-on dynamics of a single-mode bulk GaAs laser diode including carrier kinetics with Boltzmann collision integrals for carrier-carrier and LO-phonon-carrier scattering. The dependencies of the dynamics on the electrical pump amplitude and on the laser frequency are determined. The shortest light pulse with 12.8 ps (FWHM) is obtained for a laser mode in the gain maximum and a pump rate of 15.5 times the threshold value. The resulting differential gain, transparency density, and gain saturation coefficient are calculated as functions of the pump rate and the mode detuning. The gain saturation during the laser switch-on is enhanced at the trailing edge of the light pulse. This is well described by an extended dynamical gain saturation model that includes correction in terms of the light intensity and its first time derivative. The coefficients of this dynamical gain saturation model are determined by a comparison of the detailed carrier kinetics in a laser with the corresponding rate equations.

  12. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel carrying more than...requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter....

  13. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404 Section...Alterations § 36.404 Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility...

  14. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404 Section...Alterations § 36.404 Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility...

  15. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404 Section...Alterations § 36.404 Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87...Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  17. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping....

  18. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  19. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping....

  20. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel carrying more than...requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter....

  1. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404 Section...Alterations § 36.404 Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87...Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87...Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  4. 2. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS (STEEL) 1900 SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; ANNEX NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS (STEEL) 1900 SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; ANNEX NO. 3 (LEFT) ANNEX NO. 1 (RIGHT) 1920'S; CONVEYOR LINE LEADS TO ELEVATOR X. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  5. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155...Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87...Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  7. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping....

  8. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel carrying more than...requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter....

  9. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping....

  10. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel carrying more than...requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter....

  11. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404 Section...Alterations § 36.404 Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an altered facility...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87...Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  13. Adaptive Hierarchical RBF Interpolation for Creating Smooth Digital Elevation Models

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive Hierarchical RBF Interpolation for Creating Smooth Digital Elevation Models Joachim´eration 33405 Talence, France ABSTRACT This paper presents a fast algorithm for smooth digital elevation model interpolation and approximation from scattered elevation data. The global surface is reconstructed

  14. 29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  15. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155...Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the...

  16. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping...Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel carrying more than...requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter....

  17. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25 ...Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping....

  18. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155...Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the...

  19. 6. Elevator no. 2, east and north sides, with track ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Elevator no. 2, east and north sides, with track shed attached to right; elevator no. 3 to left; facing west - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  20. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155...Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the...

  1. Antipsychotic-Induced Insulin Resistance and Postprandial Hormonal Dysregulation Independent of Weight Gain or Psychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teff, Karen L.; Rickels, Michael R.; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior. PMID:23835329

  2. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

  3. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  4. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    E-print Network

    A. Bolonkin

    2007-05-14

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric line also can be used for delivery electric energy to a Geosynchronous Space Station. At present, the best solution of the climber problem (announced by NASA as one important awarding problem of Space Elevator) is problematic. Author also shows the linear electrostatic engine may be used as realistic power space launcher at the present time. Two projects illustrate these new devices. Key words: Space elevator, Electrostatic climber for space elevator, Electrostatic space launcher, Electrostatic accelerator. This work is presented as paper AIAA-2007-5838 for 43 Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 9-11 July, 2007,

  5. Turbocharger with downstream pressure-gain combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Sherikar, S.V.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a turbocharger. It comprises: an internal combustion engine; a compressor located upstream of the internal combustion engine for increasing the inlet pressure of the internal combustion engine; a turbine located down stream of the internal combustion engine and mechanically coupled to the compressor for driving the compressor; and a pressure-gain combustor located downstream of the turbine for decreasing the outlet pressure of the internal combustion engineer and thus increasing the turbine power output and improving the starting characteristics of the turbocharger.

  6. Factors affecting feedlot gains of Hereford bulls 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Richard Carroll

    1962-01-01

    * gain test. ZP1 3 ZP1-4 ZP1-5 ZP2-5 ZP3-5 ZP4-5 0. 7033 0. 4395 0. 1584 0. 1545 0. 8336 0. 6280 0. 4608 0. 1953 ZP1-2 ZP1-3 0. 8516 0. 7805 0. 8996 ZP1-4 ZP1-5 ZP -5 ZP3-5 0. 9153 0. 7527 0, 6325 0. 4694 0. 8998 0. 8133 0. 8901 0...

  7. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  8. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sirleto, Luigi; Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5 ?m). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

  9. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  10. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Sirleto, Luigi; Antonietta Ferrara, Maria; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5??m). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

  11. Combining earthquake forecasts using differential probability gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, Peter N.; Narteau, Clément; Zechar, Jeremy Douglas; Holschneider, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    We describe an iterative method to combine seismicity forecasts. With this method, we produce the next generation of a starting forecast by incorporating predictive skill from one or more input forecasts. For a single iteration, we use the differential probability gain of an input forecast relative to the starting forecast. At each point in space and time, the rate in the next-generation forecast is the product of the starting rate and the local differential probability gain. The main advantage of this method is that it can produce high forecast rates using all types of numerical forecast models, even those that are not rate-based. Naturally, a limitation of this method is that the input forecast must have some information not already contained in the starting forecast. We illustrate this method using the Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale (EEPAS) and Early Aftershocks Statistics (EAST) models, which are currently being evaluated at the US testing center of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability. During a testing period from July 2009 to December 2011 (with 19 target earthquakes), the combined model we produce has better predictive performance - in terms of Molchan diagrams and likelihood - than the starting model (EEPAS) and the input model (EAST). Many of the target earthquakes occur in regions where the combined model has high forecast rates. Most importantly, the rates in these regions are substantially higher than if we had simply averaged the models.

  12. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation

    PubMed

    Wang; Kuzmich; Dogariu

    2000-07-20

    Einstein's theory of special relativity and the principle of causality imply that the speed of any moving object cannot exceed that of light in a vacuum (c). Nevertheless, there exist various proposals for observing faster-than-c propagation of light pulses, using anomalous dispersion near an absorption line, nonlinear and linear gain lines, or tunnelling barriers. However, in all previous experimental demonstrations, the light pulses experienced either very large absorption or severe reshaping, resulting in controversies over the interpretation. Here we use gain-assisted linear anomalous dispersion to demonstrate superluminal light propagation in atomic caesium gas. The group velocity of a laser pulse in this region exceeds c and can even become negative, while the shape of the pulse is preserved. We measure a group-velocity index of n(g) = -310(+/- 5); in practice, this means that a light pulse propagating through the atomic vapour cell appears at the exit side so much earlier than if it had propagated the same distance in a vacuum that the peak of the pulse appears to leave the cell before entering it. The observed superluminal light pulse propagation is not at odds with causality, being a direct consequence of classical interference between its different frequency components in an anomalous dispersion region. PMID:10917523

  13. Economic Gains from Trade Liberalization: NAFTA's Impact

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kouparitsas, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The October 1997 Chicago Fed Letter issue, "Economic Gains from Trade Liberalization - NAFTA's impact" by Michael A. Kouparitsas, (available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) evaluates the gains from NAFTA. Recently, the debate over free trade has intensified in light of the failure of President Clinton to obtain fast-track authority from Congress. On September 17, 1997, President Clinton went against the liberals in his own party to request fast-track authority from Congress to negotiate new trade accords. The Senate approved the President's request for fast track on November 5, 1997 but the vote in the House was shelved when it appeared likely that fast-track would be defeated. The opponents of free-trade consist mainly of trade unions who are worried about the loss of jobs to countries with cheap labor, and environmentalists concerned about the effect of free trade on environmental standards. The supporters of free-trade are mainly businesses who see business potential in the larger market that would be created by expanding free trade.

  14. Elevation of SIPL1 (SHARPIN) Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    De Melo, Jason; Tang, Damu

    2015-01-01

    SIPL1 (Sharpin) or Sharpin plays a role in tumorigenesis. However, its involvement in breast cancer tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we have systemically analyzed SIPL1 gene amplification and expression data available from Oncomine datasets, which were derived from 17 studies and contained approximately 20,000 genes, 3438 breast cancer cases, and 228 normal individuals. We found a SIPL1 gene amplification in invasive ductal breast cancers compared to normal breast tissues and a significant elevation of SIPL1 mRNA in breast cancers in comparison to non-tumor breast tissues. These results collectively reveal that increases in SIPL1 expression occur during breast cancer tumorigenesis. To further investigate this association, we observed increases in the SIPL1 gene and mRNA in the breast cancer subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER)+, progesterone receptor (PR)+, HER2+, or triple negative. Additionally, a gain of the SIPL1 gene correlated with breast cancer grade and the levels of SIPL1 mRNA associated with both breast cancer stages and grades. Elevation of SIPL1 gene copy and mRNA is linked to a decrease in patient survival, especially for those with PR+, ER+, or HER2- breast cancers. These results are supported by our analysis of SIPL1 protein expression using a tissue microarray containing 224 breast cancer cases, in which higher levels of SIPL1 relate to ER+ and PR+ tumors and AKT activation. Furthermore, we were able to show that progesterone significantly reduced SIPL1 mRNA and protein expression in MCF7 cells. As progesterone enhances breast cancer tumorigenesis in a context dependent manner, inhibition of SIPL1 expression may contribute to progesterone's non-tumorigenic function which might be countered by SIPL1 upregulation. Taken together, we demonstrate a positive correlation of SIPL1 with BC tumorigenesis. PMID:25992689

  15. Application of spring tabs to elevator controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H

    1944-01-01

    Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

  16. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

    2005-01-01

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

  17. Bridge Detection from Elevation Data Using a Classifier Cascade

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    Bridge Detection from Elevation Data Using a Classifier Cascade Anthony Manfredi amanfred1-obstructing features inhibit correct flow routing on high-resolution digital elevation models because their apparent elevation does not reflect the elevation at which water may pass underneath them. Our goal is to identify

  18. Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Network Programming YU, Lu 7 #12;2 Genetic Algorithm GA Genetic Programming GP Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi

  19. Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using and real world problems. GNP was firstly applied to Elevator Group Supervisory Control Syste m (EGSCS such as tile-worlds models. EGSCS is the system, where the elevator group supervisory controller controls

  20. Extreme Elevation on a 2-Manifold Pankaj K. Agarwal

    E-print Network

    Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    Extreme Elevation on a 2-Manifold Pankaj K. Agarwal ¡ , Herbert Edelsbrunner ¢ , John Harer £ and Yusu Wang ¡ Abstract Given a smoothly embedded 2-manifold in ¤¦¥ , we define the elevation of a point but non- smooth elevation. We give an algorithm for finding points of locally maximum elevation, which we

  1. West and south elevations, view to northeast. Proximity of house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south elevations, view to northeast. Proximity of house and trees precluded photography of north and east elevations, but building is symmetrical. Entry is in east elevation; windmill was mounted at third story level on north elevation. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Tank House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Design of a variable gain amplifier for an ultrawideband receiver

    E-print Network

    Krishnanji, Sivasankari

    2005-11-01

    A fully differential CMOS variable gain amplifier (VGA) has been designed for an ultra-wideband receiver. The VGA comprises of two variable gain stages followed by a post amplifier stage. The interface between the digital control block...

  3. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

  4. ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brochure describes NASA's ICESat mission ((Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), which was launched January 12, 2003. ICESat is the benchmark Earth Observing System mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.

  5. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion and results of the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, manufacturing producibility studies, quality assurance development, and production status.

  6. 76 FR 14359 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...Elevation (BFE) location descriptions for Pollard Creek Tributary No. 5 in Palo Pinto County...pertaining to the location descriptions for the Pollard Creek Tributary No. 5 BFEs are to be...Areas'' addressed the flooding source Pollard Creek Tributary No. 5. The...

  7. ELEVATION DATA FOR OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WA 1:24,000 scale data have an elevation at approx. every 30 meters. The 1:250,000 scale data are gathered at intervals of approx. every 85 meters along the ground. These data may be used in the generation of graphics such as isometric projections displaying slope, directio...

  8. Elevation correction and the geoid tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UNAVCO

    The Earth is not a perfect sphere, but is instead more like a slightly squashed sphere called an ellipsoid. Because of this, GPS receivers must use a correction model (called a geoid) to calculate true elevation above sea level. UNAVCO has prepared this explanation for both teachers and students to learn more about accuracy, scientific models, and how GPS receivers work.

  9. Automatic elevator system for maintenance services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Roncolatto; N. W. Romanelli; O. Horikawa; A. Hirakawa; S. M. Amancio; M. Silverio

    2006-01-01

    This work presents an electrically assisted automatic elevator system for maintenance of street lights. The system was installed in a public illumination maintenance truck. It consists of a telescopic column, a base structure, and a platform. The whole operation is monitored and controlled by a PLC. The system aims at reducing efforts in maintenance tasks as well as improving the

  10. Digital elevation model extraction using KOMPSAT imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chul-Soo Ye; Kwae-Hi Lee

    2001-01-01

    Presents a method for automatic digital elevation model (DEM) extraction using Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT) stereo images with the ground sample distance of 6.6 m and the swath width of 17 km by push broom scanning. After a matching procedure including estimation of the orientation and position of KOMPSAT, we calculate heights by using disparity information taken in the previous

  11. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Williams

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator

  12. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kilian A. Engel

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of

  13. The physics of the space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Aravind

    2007-01-01

    A space elevator is a tall tower rising from a point on the Earth's equator to a height well above a geostationary orbit, where it terminates in a counterweight. Although the concept is more than a century old, it was only with the discovery of carbon nanotubes that it began to receive serious scientific attention. NASA commissioned a study of

  14. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism

    PubMed Central

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-01-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of ?4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17?-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  15. Random magnetization dynamics at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayergoyz, I.; Bertotti, G.; Serpico, C.; Liu, Z.; Lee, A.

    2012-04-01

    Generalization of the classical Landau-Lifshitz equation for the case of magnetization dynamics at elevated temperatures is discussed. This generalization is based on the description of thermal bath effects by a jump-noise process, and it results in equations that describe magnetization dynamics when magnetization magnitude is not conserved.

  16. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-03-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of ?4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17?-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  17. Gaining Public Support for RFI Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    Astronomy's access to radio spectrum depends to a great extent on international and national regulatory agencies. Such regulation is inherently a political process, so support for radio astronomy by the general public is vital to success. Educating the public about a subject perceived as so highly technical can be challenging. Success in advancing public understanding of the issue and gaining public support is based on two foundations: publicizing the societal value of astronomy; and explaining the interference problem in non-technical terms that draw upon the well-understood terminology of environmental protection. Effective communication can convince non-scientists that astronomical research is a vital and beneficial activity, and that unpolluted access to the radio spectrum is essential to making the new discoveries that are astronomy's contribution to humanity. Convinced of this, the public will support imposing the expense of engineering measures designed to protect radio astronomy, just as they support spending money to protect air, water and soil from pollution.

  18. The high gain 1310nm Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkiewicz, Jaros?aw Piotr; Czy?ak, Pawe?

    2014-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for transmission capacity, it has become essential to utilize multiple wavelength domains in one transmission system. To take full advantage of parallel 1550/1310 nm transmission, efficient 1310 nm amplification techniques are needed, such as the 1310 nm Raman amplifier. In the paper, we present detailed studies regarding the design of the 1310 nm Raman amplifier. Based on numerical simulations, we propose an efficient 1310 nm Raman amplifier design, utilizing the 1240 nm quantum-dot pumping lasers. The designed Raman amplifier is built and characterized. The achieved gain in a QD-laser pumped 1310 nm Raman amplifier was 19.5 dB. The presented results open the way for enhanced utilization of the 1310 nm Raman amplifier in the opto-telecommunication systems.

  19. Photocurrent relaxations and gain in semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, Stepan; Yesayan, Ashkhen; Nersesyan, Suren

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we study the transient and steady-state photoconductivity of semiconductor nanowires by putting forward the importance of surface recombination in the photocurrent formation. The phenomenological model based on existence of radius and time dependent surface band bending is able to explain both the dark conductivity and dynamics of photoconductivity transients in semiconductor nanowires. The dependence of the variation of surface recombination barrier height on the carrier capture by surface states leads to a non- exponential character of photoconductivity kinetics. Analytic equations are derived to calculate current-voltage and lux-ampere characteristics, photocurrent relaxation and gain under the excitation of light pulses. The analytical results are compared with the experimental data.

  20. The gamma efficiency of the GAINS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleanu, D.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, Ph.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Thiry, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The GAINS (Germanium Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) setup was recently installed at the GELINA (Geel Linear Accelerator) neutron source of EC-JRC-IRMM. In order to produce reliable neutron inelastic cross-section data the setup requires a precise efficiency calibration for each sample under investigation. These samples represent extended sources in non-standard orientations and with significant self-attenuation of gamma rays. We present in detail the efficiency calibration procedure performed with two Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP and GEANT4. A good agreement is found between the two independent approaches. The general features of the simulations are discussed together with an in-depth description of the various factors influencing the efficiency.

  1. Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S.-H. Yam; F.-T. An; E. S.-T. Hu; M. E. Marhic; T. Sakamoto; L. G. Kazovsky; Y. Akasaka

    2002-01-01

    In summary, we have demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, a gain-clamped discrete Raman amplifier in the S-band. The device achieves peak net gain over 22 dB, and a gain variation of only 0.3 dB for signal input power ranging from -20 dBm to 2.7 dBm. Unlike conventional gain-clamping designs, an extinction ratio between signal and lasing wavelength

  2. Management of Antipsychotic-Related Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Maayan, Lawrence; Correll, Christoph U.

    2012-01-01

    Despite variations across individuals and agents, antipsychotics are associated with clearly documented weight gain and adverse metabolic effects. Although increased appetite/caloric intake and various receptors, hormones and peptides have been implicated, biological mechanisms contributing to the increase in weight and glucose and lipid abnormalities with antipsychotics are largely unknown. This has hampered the creation of antipsychotics that are free of cardiometabolic effects, even in antipsychotic-naïve/early-phase patients, as well as the development of strategies that can prevent or drastically diminish the adverse cardiometabolic effects. In general, three strategies can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of antipsychotics: 1) switching to a less orexigenenic/metabolically adverse antipsychotic, 2) adjunctive behavioral treatments and 3) adjunctive pharmacologic interventions. However each of these strategies has only been modestly effective. Among different behavioral interventions (N=14, n=746), group and individual treatment, dietary counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy seem to be similarly effective. Among 15 different pharmacologic strategies (N=35 , n=1,629), only metformin, fenfluramine, sibutramine, topiramate and reboxetine were more effective than placebo, with the most evidence being available for metformin, yet without any head-to-head trials comparing individual pharmacologic interventions. Even in the most successful trials, however, the risk reduction was modest. Weight was not decreased to a pre-treatment level, and despite superiority compared to placebo, weight gain still often occurred, particularly in antipsychotic-naïve patients and when interventions were “preventively” co-initiated with antipsychotics. Future research should focus on combining treatment modalities or agents and on exploring novel mechanism-based interventions. PMID:20586697

  3. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  4. 35. To left of center is freight elevator used to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. To left of center is freight elevator used to move materials to the upper floors of the building. This elevator is also powered via the belts and drive shafts which operate the machine tools. Sign on elevator reads 'For Mr. Edison's Personal Use Only;' according to rumor, Edison was encouraged to use the elevator as he grew older, but refused. The elevator is designed for freight only. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  5. Collective Bargaining and Multiple Control Gains in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisci, Pat E.; Giancola, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a study of the use of "control gains" in collective bargaining contracts of teacher unions in Ohio. Control gains are contract items that give unions control over some aspect of the work environment in lieu of financial gains. They can be offered in contract negotiations when school boards have limited funds. (MD)

  6. Gain transients in copumped and counterpumped Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Wang; B. C. Hwang; L. M. Yang

    2003-01-01

    Gain transients in both copumped and counterpumped distributed Raman amplifiers were investigated as a function of signal launch power, fiber type, and surviving signal wavelength for the first time. We found that gain transients are much more pronounced in a copumping scenario than in a counterpumping scenario for the same operating conditions. We also found that the dependency of gain

  7. IQ Gain Imbalance Measurement for OFDM Based Wireless Communication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Arslan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, IQ gain imbalance for OFDM based multi-carrier modulation techniques is studied. The effect of gain mismatch in IQ modulator will be investigated on the system and receiver performance. Estimation and measurement of IQ gain mismatch at the receiver using baseband digital signal processing techniques will be discussed

  8. ZnO Nanowire UV Photodetectors with High Internal Gain

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    ZnO Nanowire UV Photodetectors with High Internal Gain C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D, California 92093-0407 Received January 15, 2007; Revised Manuscript Received February 26, 2007 ABSTRACT ZnO, the extremely high internal gain of ZnO NW photodetectors results in gain-bandwidth products (GB) higher than 10

  9. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to calculate...specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to calculate...specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this...

  11. Gain dependence of the noise in the single electron transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Starmark; Torsten Henning; T. Claeson; P. Delsing; A. N. Korotkov

    1999-01-01

    An extensive investigation of low frequency noise in single electron transistors as a function of gain is presented. Comparing the output noise with gain for a large number of bias points, it is found that the noise is dominated by external charge noise. For low gains we find an additional noise contribution which is compared to a model including resistance

  12. A very high frequency CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier 

    E-print Network

    Tan, Siang Tong

    2001-01-01

    A fully differential CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA) consisting of an analog multiplier, current gain stages, and resistor loads is designed for very high frequency applications. The gain can be programmed from 0dB to 40dB with -3dB bandwidth...

  13. Original article Selection for high and low, colony weight gain

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    weight loss were not correlated with seasonal colony weight gain and do not appear to be useful aidsOriginal article Selection for high and low, colony weight gain in the honey bee, Apis mellifera; Seasonal colony weight gain (honey production) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, can be modified

  14. Metal Nanoparticles with Gain toward Single-Molecule Detection by

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Metal Nanoparticles with Gain toward Single-Molecule Detection by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering we propose another route toward the goal by introducing gain medium into single metal nanoparticles and a SERS enhancement factor on the order of 1016 -1017 . KEYWORDS Metal nanoparticles, gain, surface

  15. Elevation errors in a LiDAR digital elevation model of West Seattle and their effects on slope stability calculations

    E-print Network

    Haneberg, William C.

    1 Elevation errors in a LiDAR digital elevation model of West Seattle and their effects on slope covering West Seattle shows that DEM elevation errors range from ­4.88 m to +3.32 m. The errors standard deviation of ±0.75 m. Although there are statistically significant correlations between elevation

  16. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2014-11-17

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split-ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive. PMID:25402101

  17. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Erik

    1988-09-01

    A 1985 to 1986 Review of the U.S. inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (approximately 1 to 10 percent of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (approximately 10 percent, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an approximately 100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (approximately 1 percent), and can control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that DOE is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade.

  18. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  19. Tether orientation control for lunar elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexander A.; Guerman, Anna D.; Kosenko, Ivan I.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on spatial motion of the lunar elevator which is studied in the framework of elliptical restricted three-body problem. Analysis of dynamics of a spacecraft anchored to the Moon by a tether is done assuming that the tether's length can be changed according to a prescribed law. The goal is to find the control laws that allow one to compensate for the eccentricity of the orbits, i.e., to maintain the pendulum at a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Moon direction. The results have shown that the fixed orientation of the tether can be kept for several configurations of the system; some of these configurations are found to be stable. The obtained results can be applied to study the properties and possible configurations of the lunar elevator, as well as applications for small planets and asteroids.

  20. Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

  1. Gain-phase grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain in cold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Shangqi; Jin Chunshui; Li Chun [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2011-09-15

    In order to obtain an atomic grating which can diffract light into the high-order directions more efficiently, a gain-phase grating (GPG) based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain is theoretically presented. This grating is induced by a pump field and a standing wave in ultracold atoms, and it not only diffracts a weak probe field propagating along a direction normal to the standing wave into the high-order directions, but also amplifies the amplitude of the zero-order diffraction. In contrast with electromagnetically induced grating or electromagnetically induced phase grating, the GPG has larger diffraction efficiencies in the high-order directions. Hence it is more suitable to be utilized as an all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

  2. The 16p13.3 (PDPK1) Genomic Gain in Prostate Cancer: A Potential Role in Disease Progression1

    PubMed Central

    Choucair, Khalil A; Guérard, Karl-Philippe; Ejdelman, Joshua; Chevalier, Simone; Yoshimoto, Maisa; Scarlata, Eleonora; Fazli, Ladan; Sircar, Kanishka; Squire, Jeremy A; Brimo, Fadi; Cunha, Isabela W; Aprikian, Armen; Gleave, Martin; Lapointe, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer death, and distinguishing aggressive from indolent tumors is a major challenge. Identification and characterization of genomic alterations associated with advanced disease can provide new markers of progression and better therapeutic approaches. METHODS: We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the copy number gain of chromosome 16p13.3 in 75 PCa samples including 10 lymph node (LN) metastases and their matched primary tumors, 9 samples of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and 46 additional primary PCa specimens with clinicopathologic parameters. RESULTS: We detected the gain in 5 of 10 LN metastases and 3 of 5 matched primary tumors, 3 of 9 CRPC samples, and 9 of 46 (20%) primary tumors where the 16p13.3 alteration was associated with high Gleason score and elevated preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels. The level of 16p13.3 gain was higher in LN metastasis and CRPC specimens compared to primary PCa. Chromosome mapping revealed the gain spans PDPK1 encoding the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Knockdown of PDK1 in three PCa cell lines reduced migration without affecting growth and re-expressing PDK1 rescued motility. CONCLUSION: Our findings support a prognostic value of the 16p13.3 gain and a role of PDK1 in PCa progression through migration. PMID:23401739

  3. A digital elevation data collection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Scarano; G. A. Brumm

    1976-01-01

    Whereas some existing systems can be used to extract this type of data, they cannot do it rapidly or efficiently. The AS-11B-X system is an experimental model of a new type of stereoplatter system intended explicitly for the collection of digital elevation data. The system achieves an increase in data collection rates of from 10-50 times that presently being obtained

  4. ST-elevation during biventricular pacing.

    PubMed

    Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix; Buob, Axel; Böhm, Michael; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht

    2012-04-01

    Pacemakers devaluate the accuracy of the electrocardiogram (ECG) for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and acute chest pain. Besides biventricular pacing, new ST-segment elevations were present leading to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. However, no ECG criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia in biventricular-paced rhythm are available. PMID:21969526

  5. Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Seeman; Hong-Chang Guan; Hubert H. M. van Tol

    1993-01-01

    ALTHOUGH the biological basis of schizophrenia is not known, possible causes include genetic defects, viruses1, amines2, brain structure and metabolism3-5, neuroreceptors6-8, and G proteins9. The hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is based on the fact that neuroleptics block dopamine D2 receptors in direct relation to their clinical antipsychotic potencies10-11. Moreover, dopamine D2 or D2-like receptors are elevated in postmortem

  6. Refractory intraoperative hypotension with elevated serum tryptase.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Juraj; Larson, Kelly J; Divekar, Rohit D; Butterfield, Joseph H; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Weingarten, Toby N

    2015-01-01

    Severe intraoperative hypotension has been reported in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists. We describe a patient on lisinopril who developed refractory intraoperative hypotension associated with increased serum tryptase level suggesting mast cell activation (allergic reaction). However, allergology workup ruled out an allergic etiology as well as mastocytosis, and hypotension recalcitrant to treatment was attributed to uninterrupted lisinopril therapy. Elevated serum tryptase was attributed to our patient's chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:25653920

  7. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  8. Automatic Geomorphometric Analysis for Digital Elevation Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Moreno; Serguei Levachkine; Miguel Torres; Rolando Quintero; Giovanni Guzmán

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a We present an approach to perform geomorphometric analysis for Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to obtain the Cartographic Knowledge Domain (CKD) of the landscapes. CKD is oriented to represent the essential properties of DEM by means of concepts. These properties are\\u000a obtained by analyzing the terrain topography. This analysis is based on two classifications: landform and topographic ruggedness.\\u000a The approach involves

  9. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into

  10. A Psychometric Assessment of the GAIN General Individual Severity Scale (GAIN-GISS) and Short Screeners (GAIN-SS) Among Adolescents in Outpatient Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ramchand, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) - General Individual Severity Scale (GAIN-GISS), and GAIN-Short Screener (GAIN-SS) are widely used diagnostic measures of internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance abuse, and criminal and violent behavior. Though prevalent in clinical and research settings, there is only limited psychometric evidence of the dimensional structure of these scales. Our investigation used intake data from 6,909 adolescents presenting to outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States. Our analytic approach used exploratory and item factor analyses to evaluate the underlying factor structure. Multi- and unidimensional item response theory models were employed to evaluate the utility of the scales at providing precise score estimates at various locations of severity. Most scales were confirmed as unidimensional; scales with evidence of multidimensionality, identified as having a weak general dimension and strong specific dimensions using a bifactor IRT model, include the Crime Violence Scale and the GAIN-SS. PMID:23994048

  11. Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.

    PubMed

    Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2010-04-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable. PMID:21114113

  12. Elevated CO2 and O3 Alter Productivity and Carbon Storage in Northern Temperate Forests: Results from Aspen FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talhelm, A. F.; Pregitzer, K.; Kubiske, M.; Zak, D.; Campany, C.; Burton, A.

    2013-12-01

    Three northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years, advancing from open-grown seedlings <0.25 m in height at the beginning to the experiment to closed-canopy stands that were >8 m tall. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment. In addition, we estimated cumulative net primary productivity (NPP) during the experiment and used these data to gain further insight into forest C cycling in two ways. First, we tested several canopy productivity models to understand variation in cumulative NPP. Second, we compared cumulative NPP to ecosystem C storage. Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem carbon (C) storage by 11%, but elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C storage by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C storage across communities and no significant interactions between CO2 and O3 for any major C pools. Tree C storage increased 44% under elevated CO2 and decreased 15% under elevated O3. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected the total amount of C in the top 1 m of mineral soil. However, soil C content within the top 0.1 m of mineral soil was lower under elevated O3, whereas soil C at 0.1 to 0.2 m and 0.4 to 0.5 m in depth were lower under elevated CO2. Cumulative NPP was 42% greater under elevated CO2, 11% lower under elevated O3, and was a strong predictor of variation in C storage in plants and organic soil (n = 36, r2 = 0.96). Tree productivity comprised 95% of cumulative NPP. Stands with more cumulative canopy N (g foliar N m-2 of ground area) had greater cumulative tree productivity, but N productivity (tree productivity per canopy N) decreased as canopy N accrued. Thus, elevated CO2 increased cumulative NPP because of a 28% increase in canopy N and a 28% increase in N productivity, while elevated O3 did not impact N productivity and lowered tree productivity only through a 21% decrease in canopy N. Because N productivity decreased as canopy N accrued, the difference in canopy N between ambient and elevated O3 had a gradually smaller influence on NPP through time as the stands became more developed, eventually eliminating the O3 effect. In comparison, variation in mineral soil C content was not positively related to cumulative NPP and the effects of CO2 and O3 on this important ecosystem C pool remain poorly understood..

  13. Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; Smith, William K

    2013-11-01

    Climate warming predicts changes to the frequency and height of cloud-immersion events in mountain communities. Threatened southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests have been suggested to persist because of frequent periods of cloud immersion. These relic forests exist on only seven mountaintop areas, grow only above ca. 1,500 m elevation (maximum 2,037 m), and harbor the endemic Abies fraseri. To predict future distribution, we examined the ecophysiological effects of cloud immersion on saplings of A. fraseri and Picea rubens at their upper and lower elevational limits. Leaf photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration, xylem water potentials, and general abiotic variables were measured simultaneously on individuals at the top (1,960 m) and bottom (1,510 m) of their elevation limits on numerous clear and cloud-immersed days throughout the growing season. The high elevation sites had 1.5 as many cloud-immersed days (75 % of days) as the low elevation sites (56 % of days). Cloud immersion resulted in higher photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and xylem water potentials, particularly during afternoon measurements. Leaf conductance remained higher throughout the day with corresponding increases in photosynthesis and transpiration, despite low photon flux density levels, leading to an increase in water potentials from morning to afternoon. The endemic A. fraseri had a greater response in carbon gain and water balance in response to cloud immersion. Climate models predict warmer temperatures with a decrease in the frequency of cloud immersion for this region, leading to an environment on these peaks similar to elevations where spruce-fir communities currently do not exist. Because spruce-fir communities may rely on cloud immersion for improved carbon gain and water conservation, an upslope shift is likely if cloud ceilings rise. Their ultimate survival will likely depend on the magnitude of changes in cloud regimes. PMID:23576108

  14. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  15. 7. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator spout floorgrain dryer on north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator spout floor-grain dryer on north wall. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  16. 8. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator spout floor with mayo distribution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator spout floor with mayo distribution spouts from northeast corner. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  17. 5. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908, Duluth, Minnesota, workhouse scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1908, Duluth, Minnesota, workhouse scale floor-Fairbanks scale. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  18. Dual swing-up elevator well drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H.; Vorarittinapa, T.

    1984-09-18

    A well drilling apparatus includes a first swing-up elevator platform on which the mast structure is pivotally mounted. After the mast structure has been raised to its erect position, the first elevator platform is elevated to carry the mast structure to a high operational level. A second swing-up elevator platform is provided to carry the drawworks to the same high level at which the two elevator platforms are coupled together to form the working floor. All of the raising and elevating operations can be accomplished with power supplied by the drawworks. The elevator platforms may be lowered after the drilling operation has been accomplished without interfering with any control valve structures that have been placed on the wellhead while the structure was at its raised operational level; the swing-up elevator platforms swing down in opposite directions over any such valve structure.

  19. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  20. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  1. 6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of round, terra cotta medallions on E elevation indicating date of building. - Central of Georgia Railway, Red (Administration) Building, 233 West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  3. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  4. 5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt house with Russell-Miller flour mill to right (now Eonacara and idle). - American Elevator, 87 Childs Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  6. 15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF WEST (REAR) ELEVATION AND PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  7. 14. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION WITH PARTIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION WITH PARTIAL VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  8. 31. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW ALONG WEST ELEVATION OF THE UMBRA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW ALONG WEST ELEVATION OF THE UMBRA TO A FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ON THE SOUTH ELEVATION - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  9. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

  10. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

  11. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  12. South (main) and east elevations, looking northwest Market Street is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (main) and east elevations, looking northwest Market Street is in foreground. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 69th Street Terminal, Market & Sixty-ninth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. South elevation of addition on west side of building, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation of addition on west side of building, looking northeast. Market Street is in foreground. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 69th Street Terminal, Market & Sixty-ninth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the tracks; 63rd street is perpendicular to them. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 63rd Street Station, Intersection of Market & Sixty-third Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...both inside and outside of the car. (h) Elevators shall be operated only by designated persons except for automatic or door interlocking elevators which provide full shaft door closing and automatic car leveling. [48 FR 30909, July...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...both inside and outside of the car. (h) Elevators shall be operated only by designated persons except for automatic or door interlocking elevators which provide full shaft door closing and automatic car leveling. [48 FR 30909, July...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...both inside and outside of the car. (h) Elevators shall be operated only by designated persons except for automatic or door interlocking elevators which provide full shaft door closing and automatic car leveling. [48 FR 30909, July...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...both inside and outside of the car. (h) Elevators shall be operated only by designated persons except for automatic or door interlocking elevators which provide full shaft door closing and automatic car leveling. [48 FR 30909, July...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...both inside and outside of the car. (h) Elevators shall be operated only by designated persons except for automatic or door interlocking elevators which provide full shaft door closing and automatic car leveling. [48 FR 30909, July...

  20. 20. East elevation of RTO building and stairway down to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. East elevation of RTO building and stairway down to platforms, rising above elevated tracks. Looking west. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  1. 15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  2. Gaining Con dence in Distributed Systems Gleb Naumovich,

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    , which uses data ow analysis to verify, automatically and e ciently, user-speci ed properties's expected behavior but instead describe important requirements of the system, such as the elevator door can not open while the elevator is moving. Thus, instead of a test case which would exercise one path to show

  3. External cavity multiwavelength semiconductor mode-locked lasers gain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Archundia-Berra, Luis C; Delfyett, Peter J

    2006-10-01

    The gain dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) were measured using pump-probe techniques for the amplification of 750 fs pulses, 6.5 ps pulses and multiwavelength pulses, obtained from an external cavity semiconductor mode-locked laser. Furthermore, the intracavity gain dynamics of an external cavity semiconductor mode-locked laser was measured under multiwavelength operation. The experimental results show how the inherent chirp in pulses from external cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers result in a slow gain depletion without significant fast gain dynamics. This mitigates gain competition between wavelength channels and nonlinearities in the gain media (SOA), enabling the multiwavelength operation of external cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers. Numerical simulations support the experimental results. PMID:19529304

  4. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  5. Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Makari-Judson, Grace; Braun, Barry; Jerry, D Joseph; Mertens, Wilson C

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged. PMID:25114844

  6. Carbon dynamics of eucalypt seedlings exposed to progressive drought in elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Duan, Honglang; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Duursma, Remko A; O'Grady, Anthony P; Choat, Brendan; Tissue, David T

    2013-08-01

    Elevated [CO2] and temperature may alter the drought responses of tree seedling growth, photosynthesis, respiration and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) status depending on drought intensity and duration. Few studies have addressed these important climatic interactions or their consequences. We grew Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings in two [CO2] concentrations (400 and 640 ?l l(-1)) and two temperatures (28/17 and 32/21 °C) (day/night) in a sun-lit glasshouse, and grew them in well-watered conditions or exposed them to two drought treatments having undergone different previous water conditions (i.e., rewatered drought and sustained drought). Progressive drought in both drought treatments led to similar limitations in growth, photosynthesis and respiration, but reductions in TNC concentration were not observed. Elevated [CO2] ameliorated the impact of the drought during the moderate drought phase (i.e., Day 63 to Day 79) by increasing photosynthesis and enhancing leaf and whole-plant TNC content. In contrast, elevated temperature exacerbated the impact of the drought during the moderate drought phase by reducing photosynthesis, increasing leaf respiration and decreasing whole-plant TNC content. Extreme drought (i.e., Day 79 to Day 103) eliminated [CO2] and temperature effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and respiration. The combined effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on moderate drought stressed seedlings were reduced with progressive drought, with no sustained effects on growth despite greater whole-plant TNC content. PMID:23963410

  7. Intrinsically gain-flattened staircase profile erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thyagarajan; Jagneet Kaur Anand

    2003-01-01

    We propose an intrinsically gain-flattened staircase profile, C-band erbium doped silica-based fiber amplifier (EDFA). This EDFA is shown to exhibit uniform amplification characteristics with a gain excursion of ±1.4 dB over a bandwidth of 34 nm with a 980 nm pump and a gain excursion of ±1 dB over 30 nm bandwidth using 1480 nm pump. The proposed doped fiber

  8. Propagation characteristics of novel gain-guided segmented planar waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thyagarajan; Vipul Rastogi; V. Mahalakshmi; M. R. Shenoy

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new class of segmented waveguides, namely gain-guided periodic segmented waveguides (GG-PSW), in which the guidance is brought about by a periodic linear array of gain guiding regions embedded in a homogeneous medium. Corresponding to a planar GG-PSW with segments having parabolic gain variation in the transverse direction, we have obtained the fundamental guided mode parameters using the

  9. Gain enhancement in a XeCl-pumped Raman amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Rifkin, J.; Bernt, M.L.; MacPherson, D.C.; Carlsten, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    A comparison of the theoretical predictions of a multimode broadband model with the experimentally measured gain enhancement in a Raman amplifier is presented. The results show that the multimode theory with fixed and totally random phases is in agreement with the data obtained from an excimer-laser-pumped Raman amplifier. Additionally, this theory indicates that the correlated gain can be larger than the gain for a monochromatic laser, as might be expected for a model with amplitude modulation.

  10. Liquid crystal as laser medium with tunable gain spectra.

    PubMed

    Blinov, L M; Cipparrone, G; Lazarev, V V; Pagliusi, P; Rugiero, T

    2008-04-28

    Amplified spontaneous emission intensity and gain spectra in polarized light have been measured in a dye doped nematic liquid crystal for different orientation of its optical axis and pump intensity. A possibility for switching the gain of the liquid crystal by an external electric field is shown experimentally. The liquid crystal materials with field controlled gain can be used in microlasers and light micro-amplifiers in both planar and waveguiding geometry. PMID:18545366

  11. High-Gain Adaptive Control: A Derivative-Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Blanchini; Thomas Parisini; Felice Andrea Pellegrino; Gilberto Pin

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we propose an adaptive scheme which is a counterpart of existing high gain control techniques based on control Lyapunov functions. Given a control Lyapunov function, the main idea is that of tuning the feedback gain according to a suitably-chosen Lyapunov time-derivative. The control gain is not monotonically non-decreasing as in existing techniques, but it is increased or

  12. High-gain adaptive control: A derivative-based approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Blanchini; Thomas Parisini; Felice Andrea Pellegrino; Gilberto Pin

    2008-01-01

    We propose an adaptive scheme which is a counterpart of existing high gain control techniques based on control Lyapunov functions. Given a control Lyapunov function, the main idea is that of tuning the feedback gain according to a suitably-chosen Lyapunov time-derivative. The control gain is not monotonically non-decreasing as in existing techniques, but it is increased or decreased depending on

  13. Competence effects for choices involving gains and losses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Guilherme de Lara Resende; George Wu

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how choices for uncertain gain and loss prospects are affected by the decision maker’s perceived level of knowledge\\u000a about the underlying domain of uncertainty. Specifically, we test whether Heath and Tversky’s (J Risk Uncertain 4:5–28, 1991) competence hypothesis extends from gains to losses. We predict that the commonly-observed preference for high knowledge\\u000a over low knowledge prospects for gains

  14. Automatic pump power adjustment for gain-flattened multi-wavelength pumped Raman amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sobe; Y. Yano

    2002-01-01

    We proposed Raman gain slope measurement method by measuring noise power originated from Raman gain, and pump power adjustment to flatten the gain on various transmission lines by using measured Raman gain slope. We also proposed the technique to vary average gain with flattened profile. Using the techniques, Raman gain profile could be automatically controlled at various average gains according

  15. Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A Richard; Harley, Christopher D G

    2010-08-22

    As CO(2) levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO(2) in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO(2) on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO(2) levels--those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years--on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO(2) levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

  16. Gain of circularly polarised arrays composed of linearly polarised elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. S.; Huang, J.; Rammos, E.; Roederer, A.

    1989-01-01

    The gain of circularly polarized (CP) array antennas realized by proper phasing of sequentially rotated linearly polarized (LP) elements is compared to that of arrays using CP elements and demonstrated by calculations for microstrip patch elements. When element spacing is large and array size is small, the advantages of LP elements are offset by the significant reduction in gain due to high cross polarized lobes in the diagonal planes. For large arrays of closely spaced elements, this gain loss reduces to a negligible amount. However, for spacings above a critical value of about 0.7 wavelengths, unacceptably high gain losses will be incurred.

  17. Stability, gain, and robustness in quantum feedback networks

    SciTech Connect

    D'Helon, C.; James, M. R. [Department of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In this paper we are concerned with the problem of stability for quantum feedback networks. We demonstrate in the context of quantum optics how stability of quantum feedback networks can be guaranteed using only simple gain inequalities for network components and algebraic relationships determined by the network. Quantum feedback networks are shown to be stable if the loop gain is less than one--this is an extension of the famous small gain theorem of classical control theory. We illustrate the simplicity and power of the small gain approach with applications to important problems of robust stability and robust stabilization.

  18. Mitigation of pulsed RFI via automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, R. W.-S.; Weinberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three automatic gain control (AGC) strategies and their potential capabilities for mitigation of pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) over a coded, nonlinear channel are examined. The first updates the AGC control voltage once each symbol interval in accordance with a prespecified criterion. The second implementation is designed to first detect high level RFI and then appropriately update its gain. The final implementation is a wideband device which updates its gain once each symbol interval by reducing the gain in direct proportion to a suitable power measurement. Computed results treat pulsed noise and pulsed CW RFI and compare performances in terms of bit error rate (BER) at the output of a Viterbi decoder.

  19. 69. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F5) looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F-5) - looking North - along Washington Street near the corner of the former Lotus Place. Arborway Yards and garage are at the right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  1. Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Network Programming YU, Lu Graduate School of Information, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Overview of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) . . . . . . 1.2.1 Development

  2. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72.05-20...05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1) Except as further noted...area. (3) Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral... § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430...this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral... § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430...this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their...

  5. Elevator-Type Polling Systems Ruth Shoham Uri Yechiali

    E-print Network

    Yechiali, Uri

    Elevator-Type Polling Systems Ruth Shoham Uri Yechiali Department of Statistics, School by a single server, usually in a cyclic order. In an Elevator-type polling scheme, instead of moving we apply a unified approach to study four Elevator- type polling systems, distinguished

  6. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72.05-20...05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1) Except as further noted...area. (3) Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or...

  7. 2. Occident Terminal Elevator, annex on left built 1930, workhouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Occident Terminal Elevator, annex on left built 1930, workhouse, train shed and annex on right built 1925. Occident Elevator Co., Division of Russell-Miller Milling Co., N.D. - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  8. On Elevator Polling with Globally Gated Regime \\Lambda Eitan Altman

    E-print Network

    On Elevator Polling with Globally Gated Regime \\Lambda Eitan Altman INRIA Centre Sophia Antipolis of N queues and a single server where polling is performed according to an Elevator (scan) scheme direction. We show that, for this Elevator scheme, the expected waiting times in all channels are equal

  9. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral... § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430...this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their...

  10. Numerical Study of Elevator and Stairwell Pressurization Systems Using Detailed

    E-print Network

    Miller, Richard S.

    Numerical Study of Elevator and Stairwell Pressurization Systems Using Detailed Building Models D;Numerical Study of Elevator and Stairwell Pressurization Systems Using Detailed Building Models D.C. Bowers@clemson.edu Abstract Numerical simulations are conducted for stairwell and elevator shaft pressurization smoke control

  11. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral... § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430...this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their...

  12. Converting Elevation Contours to a Grid Michael B Gousie

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Converting Elevation Contours to a Grid Michael B Gousie Dept of Computer Science Rensselaer. We present two new methods for approximating elevation data from contours to a grid. The first to improve the elevations. We compare the new methods to a more classical thin-plate approximation on various

  13. 2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  14. Logical Control of an Elevator with Defeasible Logic

    E-print Network

    Covington, Michael A.

    Logical Control of an Elevator with Defeasible Logic Michael A. Covington Senior Member, IEEE for assis- tance and encouragement. #12;Abstract The elevator control program described in this journal, defeasible logic, defaults, elevator #12;1 Introduction Human beings find it natural to explain complex

  15. Carving and adaptive drainage enforcement of grid digital elevation models

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    Carving and adaptive drainage enforcement of grid digital elevation models Pierre Soille, JuË? rgen spurious pits in digital elevation models consists of filling them until they overflow. However it to the nearest point having a lower elevation value. This is achieved by carving, i.e., lowering, the terrain

  16. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72.05-20...05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1) Except as further noted...area. (3) Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or...

  17. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72.05-20...05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1) Except as further noted...area. (3) Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section 77.1400 Mineral... § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430...this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their...

  19. Elevational Rapoport's rule is not pervasive on mountains

    E-print Network

    McCain, Christy M.

    RESEARCH PAPER Elevational Rapoport's rule is not pervasive on mountains Christy M. Mc, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA ABSTRACT Aim Elevational Rapoport's rule, proposed in 1992 by Stevens, predicts that species ranges on mountains become larger in elevational extent with increasing

  20. Degree elevation for single-valued curves in polar coordinates

    E-print Network

    Casciola, Giulio

    Degree elevation for single-valued curves in polar coordinates G.Casciola, M.Lacchini and S natural value k. In this paper, two alternative formulae for degree elevation from degree n to kn is numerically proved. Keywords: Degree elevation; Polar curves; Cartesian rational curves; Reparametrization 1

  1. Lossy Compression of Elevation Data Wm Randolph Franklin

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Lossy Compression of Elevation Data Wm Randolph Franklin Electrical, Computer, and Systems- cellently on gridded terrain elevation data. For example, an average DEM compressed down to 0.1 bits per point has an RMS elevation error of 3 meters, although di erent DEMs ranged from 0.25 to 15 meters

  2. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72.05-20...05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1) Except as further noted...area. (3) Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or...

  3. SEGMENTATION OF ELEVATION IMAGES BASED ON A MORPHOLOGY APPROACH FOR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SEGMENTATION OF ELEVATION IMAGES BASED ON A MORPHOLOGY APPROACH FOR AGRICULTURAL CLOD DETECTION of altitude or elevation images, i.e. images of the distance (-coordinate) between the surface or objects roughness, the elevation image analysis aims at detecting and identifying the clods as accurately

  4. Devising a Formal Specification for an Elevator Controller

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Conrad

    Devising a Formal Specification for an Elevator Controller Technical Report UMCIS­1994­10 H. Conrad for an Elevator Controller H. Conrad Cunningham, Viren R. Shah, and Shu Shen Department of Computer the requirements for the controlling mechanism for a system of N separate elevators, each of which can visit any

  5. arrying an elevator into space requires a special kind of

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    C arrying an elevator into space requires a special kind of cable. For a start, it would need medical fabrics and tough protective clothing such as body armour. As with the space elevator, though fibres going upJon Evans finds out what is needed to bring `space elevators' and a host of Earth

  6. CIRES /NGDC Professional Research Assistant Coastal Digital Elevation Modeler

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    candidate will build coastal DEMs and document their work in detailed technical reports and standards, and writing of technical documentation that accompany the DEMs. Duties Locate and obtain elevation data and topographic elevation data in a GIS environment Transform elevation data to common horizontal and vertical

  7. 3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 in background right, showing relation to associated Washburn Crosby Milling complex in foreground (left to right: utility building, A mill (with scaffolding), wheat house, Humboldt mill; elevator no. 1 in rear with gold medal flour sign), facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. Elevator Group Control System Based on Information Fusion Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liting Cao; Jingwen Tian; Zhaoli Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An elevator group control system based on information fusion is presented in this paper. The control system is consisting of data processing unit and elevator dispatching unit mainly. A fuzzy ANN based on data fusion technology is proposed in the data processing unit to process state signals, and the fusion result is used as the input of elevator dispatching unit.

  9. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION CONCEPTS FOR THE SPACE ELEVATOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David V. Smitherman

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the author managed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a space elevator workshop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to explore the potential feasibility of space elevators in the 21 st century, and to identify the critical technologies and demonstration missions needed to make the development of space elevators feasible. Since that time, a NASA

  10. Taking the Space Elevator from Science Fiction to Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartoszek

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Bradley Edwards and Eric Westling have published what has to be the cheapest way to build a space elevator in their book 'The Space Elevator - a revolutionary Earth-to-Space Transportation System'. The only thing missing at the moment is a Carbon Nanotube fabric strong enough to satisfy the strength requirements of the elevator. There are many reasons why this

  11. Climber motion optimization for the tethered space elevator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Williams; Wubbo Ockels

    2010-01-01

    The tethered space elevator could provide a revolutionary means for enabling cheap transportation to geostationary altitude and beyond. Assuming that such a system can be built, one of the dynamic design problems is determining a means of moving the elevator along the tether so as to minimize the residual in-plane librational motion of the elevator ribbon and counterweight. In particular,

  12. Mine elevator comprehensive performance testing system based on virtual instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guimei Wang; Qingdong Wang; Jiangbo Li; Jianfeng Wei

    2008-01-01

    Mine elevators are large electromechanical equipment with integration of mechanical, electrical and hydraulic parts, bearing the task of carrying material, equipment and personnel between ground and below ground levels. The mine elevator is the spine of the underground mining industry. At present, a great deal of elevating equipment on active service in China has not yet reached its life expectancy,

  13. Evaluating SRTM elevation products for hydrogeomorphological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falorni, G.; Vivoni, E. R.; Teles, V.; Bras, R. L.

    2003-04-01

    The recent SRTM mission produced the first high accuracy digital elevation model of 80% of the Earth's landmass, providing scientists with a global topographic base for a wide variety of applications in the Earth Sciences. As DEM quality has a significant effect on many such applications, investigations were performed to assess the accuracy of SRTM products. SRTM-derived datasets with a 30 m horizontal resolution were investigated by comparing grid elevations of a DEM of the Little Washita River watershed with two sets of ground control points (GCPs) and a USGS Level 2 DEM (30 m horizontal resolution). Correlation of vertical accuracy with elevation, slope, bearing, and contributing area was examined for both GCP datasets and on a cell-by-cell basis for the USGS DEM. Initial results indicate that a slight vertical bias is present in the SRTM DEM but that on the whole vertical accuracy is similar to that of USGS Level 2 products. Further analyses targeted the effect of vertical errors on hydrogeomorphological features such as stream networks, watershed boundaries and the width function, among others. Speckling (randomly distributed 1 - 3 m vertical errors), an inherent feature of inSAR-derived DEMs, affects hydrogeomorphological modeling, leading to differences in stream networks and to the presence of a higher number of sinks in the SRTM DEM compared to the USGS DEM. Results of additional studies in which SRTM-derived DEMs of the mountainous Tolt River basin (Washington, USA) and of a section of the Southern Apennines (Italy) are compared with DEMs obtained from high accuracy airborne laser mapping techniques (2 - 6 m horizontal resolution) and/or Level 3 USGS DEMs (10 m horizontal resolution) will also be presented.

  14. Training children in pedestrian safety: distinguishing gains in knowledge from gains in safe behavior.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-06-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children's street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7-8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that should be considered independently for research and training purposes. PMID:24573688

  15. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that should be considered independently for research and training purposes. PMID:24573688

  16. Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harrison, James

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

  17. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  18. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user inputs of vehicle characteristics (e.g., thrust and aerodynamic data), nor does it require reams of turn data after the traditional fashion of the Air Force ranges. The program requires a nominal trajectory table (time, altitude, range, velocity, and flight elevation) and makes heavy use of it to initialize and model a failure turn.

  19. Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers: A new method to measure gain in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Haslam, Bryan

    2005-08-05

    Gain and Loss are the fundamental factors contributing to laser effectiveness. Simply put, the gain is the light produced by stimulated emission and loss is then the light lost. This can happen if a photon hits an electron in a low energy level state and the electron absorbs the energy and moves to a higher energy level state. It can also happen when light escapes the laser cavity. Lasing is the condition when the gain exceeds the loss. It is very important to know the gain to see how effective your laser really is. The traditional Hakki-Paoli Method was found to be ineffective for measuring gain in quantum cascade lasers. A new, more effective method of measuring gain in quantum cascade lasers was developed and tested.

  20. Optical signal selection with a constant gain and a gain bandwidth by a multielectrode distributed feedback laser amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuaki Magari; Hitoshi Kawaguchi; Kunishige Oe; Yoshinori Nakano; Mitsuo Fukuda

    1987-01-01

    Optical demultiplexing characteristics are studied using a multielectrode distributed feedback laser amplifier. The gain maximum frequency is tunable over 20.6 GHz with a constant insertion gain (9.7±1.2 dB) and a constant gain bandwidth (2.9 GHz), without any mode jump, by changing the driving current of the divided two electrodes. A single optical signal can be selected from two optical inputs

  1. Learning Not to Generalize: Modular Adaptation of Visuomotor Gain

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Toni S.; Krakauer, John W.

    2010-01-01

    When a new sensorimotor mapping is learned through practice, learning commonly transfers to unpracticed regions of task space, that is, generalization ensues. Does generalization reflect fixed properties of movement representations in the nervous system and thereby limit what visuomotor mappings can and cannot be learned? Or does what needs to be learned determine the shape of generalization? We used the broad generalization properties of visuomotor gain adaptation to address these questions. Adaptation to a single gain for reaching movements is known to generalize broadly across movement directions. By training subjects on two different gains in two directions, we set up a potential conflict between generalization patterns: if generalization of gain adaptation indicates fixed properties of movement amplitude encoding, then learning two different gains in different directions should not be possible. Conversely, if generalization is flexible, then it should be possible to learn two gains. We found that subjects were able to learn two gains simultaneously, although more slowly than when they adapted to a single gain. Analysis of the resulting double-gain generalization patterns, however, unexpectedly revealed that generalization around each training direction did not arise de novo, but could be explained by a weighted combination of single-gain generalization patterns, in which the weighting takes into account the relative angular separation between training directions. Our findings therefore demonstrate that the mappings to each training target can be fully learned through reweighting of single-gain generalization patterns and not through a categorical alteration of these functions. These results are consistent with a modular decomposition approach to visuomotor adaptation, in which a complex mapping results from a combination of simpler mappings in a “mixture-of-experts” architecture. PMID:20357068

  2. Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon college entry in women.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lance O

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18-20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass. PMID:25049133

  3. Elevation dependence of air temperature trends in western Canada This research project will examine the seasonality and elevation dependence of

    E-print Network

    Dery, Stephen

    Elevation dependence of air temperature trends in western Canada This research project will examine the seasonality and elevation dependence of climate change in western Canada. Data from representative and elevation will then be explored. This may provide further evidence of the amplification of climate change

  4. Compartment-specific transcriptomics in a reef-building coral exposed to elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Anderson B; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2014-12-01

    Although rising ocean temperatures threaten scleractinian corals and the reefs they construct, certain reef corals can acclimate to elevated temperatures to which they are rarely exposed in situ. Specimens of the model Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from upwelling reefs of Southern Taiwan were previously found to have survived a 36-week exposure to 30°C, a temperature they encounter infrequently and one that can elicit the breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis in many corals of the Pacific Ocean. To gain insight into the subcellular pathways utilized by both the coral hosts and their mutualistic Symbiodinium populations to acclimate to this temperature, mRNAs from both control (27°C) and high (30°C)-temperature samples were sequenced on an Illumina platform and assembled into a 236 435-contig transcriptome. These P. damicornis specimens were found to be ~60% anthozoan and 40% microbe (Symbiodinium, other eukaryotic microbes, and bacteria), from an mRNA-perspective. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of genes from the Symbiodinium compartment were differentially expressed after two weeks of exposure. Specifically, at elevated temperatures, Symbiodinium populations residing within the coral gastrodermal tissues were more likely to up-regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism than their coral hosts. Collectively, these transcriptome-scale data suggest that the two members of this endosymbiosis have distinct strategies for acclimating to elevated temperatures that are expected to characterize many of Earth's coral reefs in the coming decades. PMID:25354956

  5. Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta, Erika S.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Chiariello, Nona R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.

    2003-01-01

    Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity, with combined effects that, at least in some settings, are simple, additive combinations of single-factor effects. PMID:12810960

  6. Compartment-specific transcriptomics in a reef-building coral exposed to elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Anderson B; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Although rising ocean temperatures threaten scleractinian corals and the reefs they construct, certain reef corals can acclimate to elevated temperatures to which they are rarely exposed in situ. Specimens of the model Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from upwelling reefs of Southern Taiwan were previously found to have survived a 36-week exposure to 30°C, a temperature they encounter infrequently and one that can elicit the breakdown of the coral–dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis in many corals of the Pacific Ocean. To gain insight into the subcellular pathways utilized by both the coral hosts and their mutualistic Symbiodinium populations to acclimate to this temperature, mRNAs from both control (27°C) and high (30°C)-temperature samples were sequenced on an Illumina platform and assembled into a 236 435-contig transcriptome. These P. damicornis specimens were found to be ?60% anthozoan and 40% microbe (Symbiodinium, other eukaryotic microbes, and bacteria), from an mRNA-perspective. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of genes from the Symbiodinium compartment were differentially expressed after two weeks of exposure. Specifically, at elevated temperatures, Symbiodinium populations residing within the coral gastrodermal tissues were more likely to up-regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism than their coral hosts. Collectively, these transcriptome-scale data suggest that the two members of this endosymbiosis have distinct strategies for acclimating to elevated temperatures that are expected to characterize many of Earth's coral reefs in the coming decades. PMID:25354956

  7. Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity.

    PubMed

    Zavaleta, Erika S; Shaw, M Rebecca; Chiariello, Nona R; Mooney, Harold A; Field, Christopher B

    2003-06-24

    Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity, with combined effects that, at least in some settings, are simple, additive combinations of single-factor effects. PMID:12810960

  8. Loss of STAT3 signaling during elevated activity causes vulnerability in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Sachiko; Kim, Eunyoung; Lin, Lin; Hoffman, Dax A.; McKay, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Chronically altered levels of network activity lead to changes in the morphology and functions of neurons. However, little is known of how changes in neuronal activity alter the intracellular signaling pathways mediating neuronal survival. Here we use primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons to show that elevated neuronal activity impairs phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase, Erk1/2 and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by phosphorylation of Serine 727. Chronically stimulated neurons go through apoptosis when they fail to activate another serine/threonine kinase, Akt. Gain and loss of function experiments show that STAT3 plays the key role directly downstream from Erk1/2 as the alternative survival pathway. Elevated neuronal activity resulted in increased expression of a tumor suppressor, p53 and its target gene, Bax. These changes are observed in Kv4.2 knockout mouse hippocampal neurons, which are also sensitive to the blockade of TrkB signaling, confirming that the alteration occurs in vivo. Thus, this study provides new insight to a mechanism by which chronic elevation of activity may cause neurodegeneration. PMID:23115188

  9. Elevated T cell subpopulations in dental students

    SciTech Connect

    Eedy, D.J.; Burrows, D.; Clifford, T.; Fay, A. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (Ireland))

    1990-05-01

    The absolute numbers of circulating white cells and lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 25 final-year dental students and compared with a control group of 28 medical students. The total lymphocyte count, total T cell numbers (CD3), T helper/inducer (CD4), and T suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the T helper/inducer to T suppressor/cytotoxic cell ratios or the circulating B cell (CD21) and natural killer cell (CD16) numbers between the study and control groups. Patch testing to mercury and mercuric compounds in both the study and control groups showed no evidence of cutaneous hypersensitivity to mercury. The reason for the observed elevations in T cell subpopulations in dental students is not clear. However, one possible explanation is the dental student's occupational exposure to mercury. Further work is underway to examine this possible relationship and it is suggested that dental personnel take adequate measures to reduce their exposure to mercury until the results of these studies are available.

  10. Digital Elevation Map of Spirit's Trek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This digital elevation map, produced from satellite data overlain on an image taken by the Mars Orbital Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, shows changes in elevation along the trek of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 328th martian day, or sol (Dec. 4, 2004). To that point, Spirit had driven a total of 3.89 kilometers (2.42 miles).

    The blue area represents the basaltic plains on the floor of Gusev Crater, about 20 meters (66 feet) below the rover's present location. Spirit crossed those plains for several months after landing to the west, off the left edge of this image. The greenish-blue area is the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills,' which Spirit reached on sol 156 (June 11, 2004). Since then, Spirit has been gradually ascending the slopes of the 'West Spur' in an east-northeasterly direction. Southeast of the rover's current position is a brighter green area that represents an abrupt increase in slope where the 'West Spur' meets the steeper flanks of the 'Columbia Hills.' The yellow and red areas represent the highest slopes and peaks. A steep valley east of the rover's location appears, from orbiter images, to have layered outcrops. Scientists are directing the rover to a ridge overlooking the valley to get a better look at what lies ahead.

  11. Bucket elevator linkage for coarse coal washer

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.

    1985-09-03

    A continuous bucket elevator used in a method of separating coal according to its size and for cleaning refuse material from the coal in a Baum-type jigging apparatus wherein each bucket is connected to the adjacent bucket by a link received by a roll pin held by a bushing at each end in each bucket and the flange of a plate which is centrally welded to the bucket and has portions biased outwardly therefrom which merge into further portions having openings for receiving the roll pins, the diameter of the aligned openings in the further part, in the bushings, and in intervening link and the diameter of the roll pins being such so as to restrict wear due to the abrasive nature of the material being handled so that all components of the elevator wear out at about the same time and need not be replaced until after two or three cycles of use, each cycle being normally for seven and ten months.

  12. Elevated Transferrin Saturation and Risk of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Frandsen, Merete; Birgens, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS In the combined studies, odds ratios in those with transferrin saturation ?50% vs. <50% were 2.1 (95% CI 1.3–3.4; P = 0.003) for any form of diabetes; 2.6 (1.2–5.6; P = 0.01) for type 1 diabetes; and 1.7 (1.4–2.1; P = 0.001) for type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Elevated transferrin saturation confers a two- to threefold increased risk of developing any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 and type 2 diabetes separately. PMID:21873562

  13. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bengel, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours.

  14. DSS 43 antenna gain analysis for Voyager Uranus encounter: 8.45-GHz radio science data correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Imbriale, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    A malfunction of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Australia forced the antenna to operate with a mispositioned subreflector during the Voyager Uranus encounter period (January 24, 1986). Because of changing main reflector shape and quadripod position as a function of elevation angle, the antenna gain and pointing were not as expected, and the 8.45 GHz received signal level changed during the pass. The study described here used the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) analysis to determine actual antenna gain and pointing during that period in an attempt to reconstruct the radio science data. It is found that the 1.4 dB of signal variation can be accounted for by antenna geometry changes and pointing error. Suggested modifications to the values measured during the pass are presented. Additionally, an extremely useful tool for the analysis of gravity deformed reflectors was developed for use in future antenna design and analysis projects.

  15. Effects of Fully Open-Air [CO2] Elevation on Leaf Photosynthesis and Ultrastructure of Isatis indigotica Fort

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xingyu; Li, Ping; Feng, Yongxiang; Han, Xue; Gao, Ji; Lin, Erda; Han, Yuanhuai

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine relies heavily on herbs, yet there is no information on how these herb plants would respond to climate change. In order to gain insight into such response, we studied the effect of elevated [CO2] on Isatis indigotica Fort, one of the most popular Chinese herb plants. The changes in leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure and biomass yield in response to elevated [CO2] (550±19 µmol mol–1) were determined at the Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Photosynthetic ability of I. indigotica was improved under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (PN), water use efficiency (WUE) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) of upper most fully-expended leaves, but not stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration ratio (Tr) and maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vc,max). Elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf intrinsic efficiency of PSII (Fv’/Fm’) and quantum yield of PSII(?PSII), but decreased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and did not affect leaf proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP) and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). The structural chloroplast membrane, grana layer and stroma thylakoid membranes were intact under elevated [CO2], though more starch grains were accumulated within the chloroplasts than that of under ambient [CO2]. While the yield of I. indigotica was higher due to the improved photosynthesis under elevated [CO2], the content of adenosine, one of the functional ingredients in indigowoad root was not affected. PMID:24058596

  16. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days each. Minor data gaps are introduced by particular environmental conditions (e.g. strong winds, fog) and external power failure, and a random forest-based approach has been successfully implemented to impute missing values. Visual inspection revealed that ET rates on study sites below the forest belt (<2000 m a.s.l.) remarkably differed from corresponding measurements above the densely wooded areas (>3500 m a.s.l.) in magnitude and diurnal variation. Diurnal ET variation on the lower elevated research plots followed the course of the sun, with maximum values in the early afternoon and minimum values during sunrise and sunset. Maximum evapotranspirative net water loss occurred on the selected grassland sites, followed by maize, coffee, and minimum values on savanna. The study sites located above the forest belt, however, showed maximum ET rates coinciding with sunrise, whilst ET remained almost constantly low during the remaining hours of sunlight. We tentatively suggest that tree density regulates net water loss on the lower elevated research plots, while water scarcity is of subordinate importance. As for the high-lying sites, maximum ET rates directly after sunrise indicate an immediate sublimation of ice accumulated in the soil during night and subsequently attenuated water loss as a result of limited water availability. However, further analysis steps need to be performed in order to draw more reliable conclusions on the observed ET patterns.

  17. Steering Assistance System for Driver Characteristics using Gain Scheduling Control

    E-print Network

    Adachi, Shuichi

    Steering Assistance System for Driver Characteristics using Gain Scheduling Control Yukihiro Shimotakanezawa, Haga-machi, Haga-gun, Tochigi, 321-3393, Japan Fax: +81-28-677-6730 Phone: +81-28-677-7259 e@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp Keywords:Driver support system, Vehicle control, H control, Gain-scheduling control, LMI. Abstract

  18. Exponential gain in a Smith--Purcell amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Schaechter, L.; Ron, A.

    1988-09-05

    We study here the gain of an amplifier based on the Smith--Purcell effect. The grating is characterized by a reflection matrix and the gain, in the exponential region, is calculated as a function of the beam height and thickness.

  19. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gershman; K. L. Buxbaum; J. M. Ludwinski; B. G. Paczkowski

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the

  20. Modeling and simulation of net energy gain by dark fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karnayakage Rasika J. Perera; Yalini Arudchelvam; Venkataramana Gadhamshetty; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan

    For dark fermentation (DF) to be accepted as a sustainable process for biohydrogen production, the net energy gain should be positive and as high as possible. A theoretical approach is proposed in this study to evaluate the net energy gain possible from hydrogen generated by the DF process as well as from the end products of DF via anaerobic digestion

  1. Background estimation under rapid gain change in thermal imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hulya Yalcin; Robert T. Collins; Martial Hebert

    2007-01-01

    We consider detection of moving ground vehicles in airborne sequences recorded by a thermal sensor with automatic gain control, using an approach that inte- grates dense optic flow over time to maintain a model of background appearance and a foreground occlusion layer mask. However, the automatic gain control of the thermal sensor introduces rapid changes in intensity that makes this

  2. Characterization of Raman-assisted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers Gain

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Characterization of Raman-assisted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers Gain S. H. Wang,1 Lixin Xu,2 of the gain of Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The model can be used to design amplifiers and oscillators; (190.4380) Four-wave mixing; (190.5650) Raman effect. 1. Introduction Fiber

  3. Temperature-dependent gain and noise in fiber Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. E. Lewis; S. V. Chernikov; J. R. Taylor

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the gain and noise performance of a silica-fiber Raman amplifier is described. A decrease in the Raman scattering cross section in a fiber amplifier cooled from a temperature of 300 K to 77 K was measured and found to be in agreement with theoretical values. No difference between the Raman gain coefficients

  4. Amplified spontaneous Raman scattering and gain in fiber Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK L. DAKSS; Paul Melman

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of amplified spontaneous Raman scattering and gain in a fiber Raman amplifer has been calculated analytically as a function of distance and pump power. The model used makes no assumptions on the magnitude of the gain and considers the pump nondepletion region. From the results, the on\\/off ratio has been calculated and is found to have a variation

  5. Collective Gaining: An Alternative to Conventional Bargaining. Fastback 185.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Richard

    An examination of collective gaining (interaction between people in a collective and collaborative transaction in which everyone gains) in educational institutions involves comparisons with collective bargaining, two case studies, a discussion of theoretical bases, and a consideration of do's and don'ts. Collective bargaining is anti-intellectual,…

  6. High-resolution Brillouin gain spectroscopy in fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Faris, G.W.; Jusinski, L.E.; Dyer, M.J.; Bischel, W.K.; Hickman, A.P. (Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (USA))

    1990-06-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first high-resolution Brillouin gain spectrum in a solid. Resonances corresponding to longitudinal (compressional) and transverse (shear) acoustic waves in fused silica are observed with good resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Absolute gain coefficients, linewidths, and Brillouin frequency shifts are measured. The agreement with previously measured values is good.

  7. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents Attempting to Lose or Gain Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…

  8. GAIN Appraisal Program II. Second Report, November 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System, San Diego, CA.

    California's Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) program provides job services, as well as training, education, and support services to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients to help them attain unsubsidized employment. The GAIN program includes an initial appraisal of participants' basic reading, mathematics, and functional…

  9. Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Klimov; A. A. Mikhailovsky; Su Xu; A. Malko; J. A. Hollingsworth; C. A. Leatherdale; H.-J. Eisler; M. G. Bawendi

    2000-01-01

    The development of optical gain in chemically synthesized semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystal quantum dots) has been intensely studied as the first step toward nanocrystal quantum dot lasers. We examined the competing dynamical processes involved in optical amplification and lasing in nanocrystal quantum dots and found that, despite a highly efficient intrinsic nonradiative Auger recombination, large optical gain can be developed at

  10. Variable Gain Haptic Coupling for Molecular Simulation Aude Bolopion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Variable Gain Haptic Coupling for Molecular Simulation Aude Bolopion Institut des Syst and repulsive terms. As a result, faithful haptic render- ing of such molecular interactions is both important describe a variable gain haptic coupling method specifically designed to ren- der high dynamic range

  11. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and...SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506 Section 3280.506 Housing and...SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat...

  13. Graduate Student Lounge Andleeb Mazhar and Dr. Kristi Gaines

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    discussions over a cup-of coffee is important to de-stress and restore the mental fatigue of students. MotherGraduate Student Lounge Andleeb Mazhar and Dr. Kristi Gaines Abstract Nature has been the source of restoration and relaxation for the students trying to gain some relief from stressors during the study breaks

  14. A Multisine Approach for Trajectory Optimization Based on Information Gain

    E-print Network

    Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    A Multisine Approach for Trajectory Optimization Based on Information Gain L. Mihaylova, J. De This paper presents a multisine approach for trajectory optimization based on information gain, with distance trajectory is parameterized as a linear combination of sine functions. An appropriate optimality criterion

  15. Relationship between pregnancy outcome and maternal BMI and weight gain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam-sadat Hosseini; Jameie Nastaran

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested the effects of maternal BMI and weight gain on pregnancy outcomes, thus, the present study was conducted over 106 parturients referring to Imam Hossein Hospital to determine the maternal BMI and weight gain and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: One hundred and six parturients had entered this longitudinal study. Initial data including

  16. Photoconductor gain mechanisms in GaN ultraviolet detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Muñoz; E. Monroy; J. A. Garrido; I. Izpura; F. J. Sánchez; M. A. Sánchez-García; E. Calleja; B. Beaumont; P. Gibart

    1997-01-01

    GaN photoconductive detectors have been fabricated on sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrates. The photodetectors showed high photoconductor gains, a very nonlinear response with illuminating power, and an intrinsic nonexponential photoconductance recovery process. A novel photoconductor gain mechanism is proposed to explain such results, based on a modulation of

  17. Validity of Sudden Gains in Acute Phase Treatment of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the validity of sudden gains identified with T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis's (1999) method in 2 clinical data sets that involved treatment of major depressive disorder (N=227). Sudden gains replicated among self- and clinician reports of depressive symptoms and predicted better psychosocial functioning at the acute phase…

  18. Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon

    E-print Network

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined finally apply this formalism to describe gain­assisted propagation in a dielectric­loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (240.6680) Surface plasmons; (230

  19. Analysis of Gain Monitoring System for UCNA David Harrison

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Analysis of Gain Monitoring System for UCNA David Harrison September 6, 2006 1 Introduction The purpose of this report is to analyze the gain monitoring system and calibration setup for ultra cold neutron decay and categorize possible calibration shifts. An outline of the apparatus, an analysis

  20. Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor,

    E-print Network

    Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor, Department University of Denmark; ss@byg.dtu.dk, www.byg.dtu.dk/english.aspx KEYWORDS: Low- energy windows, slim frame-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential

  1. Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. A. Raja; C. F. Schaus; J. G. McInerney; T. M. Brennan; B. E. Hammons

    1989-01-01

    A novel surface-emitting semiconductor laser structure with a vertical cavity, extremely short gain medium length, and enhanced gain at a specific design wavelength is described. The active region consists of a series of quantum wells spaced at one half the wavelength of a particular optical transition in the quantum wells. This spatial periodicity allows the antinodes of the standing wave

  2. Intellect, Perceptual Characteristics, and Weight Gain in Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied weight-gain 127 primary anorexics by examining the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Rorschach for indices that may predict improvement. Results showed that cognitive-focusing skills, measured by the Wechsler, account for roughly half of the variance and were good predictors of weight gain. (WAS)

  3. Finding Optimal Gains In Linear-Quadratic Control Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical method based on Volterra factorization leads to new approximations for optimal control gains in finite-time linear-quadratic control problem of system having infinite number of dimensions. Circumvents need to analyze and solve Riccati equations and provides more transparent connection between dynamics of system and optimal gain.

  4. Perceptions of Compliance-Gaining Situations: An Extended Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Robert L.; Bradac, James J.

    To explore the impact of the environment on perceptions of compliance gaining situations, 97 university students were asked to recall and describe situations in which they had had to persuade someone to do something. Their descriptions of compliance gaining situations were then evaluated for similarity by three additional groups of students. The…

  5. TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    TRADE COSTS AND THE GAINS FROM TRADE IN CROP AGRICULTURE JEFFREY J. REIMER AND MAN LI We develop trade, and the elasticity of trade volumes to trade costs. The distribution of the gains from trade the extent by which changes in one country are transmitted to others. Key words: geography, grains, trade

  6. A Constant Gain Kalman Filter Approach to track Maneuvering Targets

    E-print Network

    Naik, Naren

    1 A Constant Gain Kalman Filter Approach to track Maneuvering Targets Ashwin Yadav1 , Peeyush domains. One of the most fundamental and widely used approaches to target tracking is the Kalman filter to the target tracking problem of maneuvering targets, in order to obtain the constant Kalman gain. Our

  7. Humanoid Walking Robot: Modeling, Inverse Dynamics, and Gain Scheduling Control

    E-print Network

    Williams II, Robert L.

    1 Humanoid Walking Robot: Modeling, Inverse Dynamics, and Gain Scheduling Control Elvedin Kljuno combination of nonlinear gain scheduling with a concentrated mass model for a MIMO bipedal robot system. Detailed human body models can include calculations of the most important muscle forces for particular

  8. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    DOEpatents

    Hakala, Harri (Hyvinkaa, FI); Mustalahti, Jorma (Hyvinkaa, FI); Aulanko, Esko (Kerava, FI)

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  9. Geared-elevator flutter study. [transonic flutter characteristics of empennage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental and analytical study of the transonic flutter characteristics of an empennage flutter model having an all-movable horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two configurations were flutter tested: one with a geared elevator and one with a locked elevator with the model cantilever-mounted on a sting in the wind tunnel. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter boundary was nearly flat at transonic speeds for both configurations. It was found that an analysis which treated the elevator as a discrete surface predicted flutter dynamic pressure levels better than analyses which treated the stabilizer and elevator as a warped surface. Warped-surface methods, however, predicted more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  10. Mode evolution in optical resonators with a radial gain profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Shoaib; Macfarlane, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A Fox and Li analysis [Bell Syst. Tech J. 40, 453 (1961); Proc. IEEE 51, 80 (1963); IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-4, 460 (1968)] for a laser resonator with a radially varying gain yields a picture of the mode evolution dynamics and a steady-state mode distribution which are different from the constant-gain case. When an axially maximal gain is sharply peaked, the mode-settling time is markedly reduced and the final mode distribution is more tightly focused. When the gain distribution is sharply annular, an annular or ``doughnut''-shaped mode develops. In some intermediate cases, which may be relevant to some gas lasers, a stable transverse mode never definitively evolves. Misalignments of the gain with the cavity yield distortions to the mode shape and these are also explored.

  11. Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, M.Y.A.; Schaus, C.F.; McInerney, J.G.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1989-06-01

    A novel surface-emitting semiconductor laser structure with a vertical cavity, extremely short gain medium length, and enhanced gain at a specific design wavelength is described. The active region consists of a series of quantum wells spaced at one half the wavelength of a particular optical transition in the quantum wells. This spatial periodicity allows the antinodes of the standing wave optical field to coincide with the gain elements, enhancing the frequency selectivity, increasing the gain in the vertical direction by a factor of two compared to a uniform medium or a nonresonant multiple quantum well, and substantially reducing amplified spontaneous emission. Optically pumped lasing was achieved in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with the shortest gain medium (310 nm) ever reported. Various other optoelectronic devices which depend on the interaction between an electromagnetic standing wave and a carrier population distribution can also benefit from this concept.

  12. Smoking cessation and weight gain in the military.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A L; Helton, J

    2000-07-01

    Many studies of civilian populations have found a significant relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain. However, the effect of voluntary smoking cessation on weight for military personnel has not been studied. The present study evaluated 70 active duty military members (55 males and 15 females) who quit smoking after participating in an 8-week smoking cessation program. The results indicated that 88% of the participants gained weight and that the average weight gain was 6.4 lb (males, 5.5 lb; females, 9.8 lb). These results are particularly noteworthy because weight gain in military members may result in administrative actions for individuals exceeding weight standards. The authors recommend that military officials consider adopting a one-time temporary weight waiver for active duty military members who successfully quit smoking to help prevent any negative administrative consequences of post-cessation weight gain. PMID:10920654

  13. Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Altimetry and Digital Elevation Models in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.

    2012-12-01

    A global set of Ground Control Points (GCPs) from altimetry measurements from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) has been produced with the support of the NASA's Earth Surface and Interior Program. The highest quality altimetry measurements that can be used for ground control have been selected by applying rigorous editing criteria. This database represents a key means to establishing a much-needed global topography reference frame to aid solid Earth application studies, particularly useful at high latitudes, where other topographic control is scarce. ICESat GCPs were used to characterize and quantify spatially varying elevation biases in Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in the polar regions, assessing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of valuable topographic datasets produced by sensors like ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) missions, and datasets like GMTED2010 (Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data), developed by the USGS (United States Geological Survey) and NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency), a large improvement over the global GTOPO30 dataset. We have analyzed error statistics globally and per continent, in conjunction with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) and MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) land cover products, relief, topography and other DEM and altimetry specific parameters, and will present the results of these evaluations.

  14. The significance of persistent ST elevation versus early resolution of ST segment elevation after primary PTCA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shlomi Matetzky; Maxim Novikov; Luis Gruberg; Dov Freimark; Micha Feinberg; Dan Elian; Ilya Novikov; Elio Di Segni; Oren Agranat; Yedael Har-Zahav; Babeth Rabinowitz; Elieser Kaplinsky; Hanoch Hod

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo determine the prevalence and clinical significance of early ST segment elevation resolution after primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDDespite angiographically successful restoration of coronary flow early during AMI, adequate myocardial reperfusion might not occur in a substantial portion of the jeopardized myocardium due to microvascular damage. This phenomenon comprises the potentially beneficial effect of

  15. Field Dependent Dopant Deactivation in Bipolar Devices at Elevated irradiation Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    WITCZAK,STEVEN C.; LACOE,RONALD C.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; MAYER,DONALD C.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    Metal-oxide-silicon capacitors fabricated in a bi-polar process were examined for densities of oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated substrate acceptors following high-dose-rate irradiation at 100 C. Acceptor neutralization near the Si surface occurs most efficiently for small irradiation biases in depletion. The bias dependence is consistent with compensation and passivation mechanisms involving the drift of H{sup +} ions in the oxide and Si layers and the availability of holes in the Si depletion region. Capacitor data from unbiased irradiations were used to simulate the impact of acceptor neutralization on the current gain of an npn bipolar transistor. Neutralized acceptors near the base surface enhance current gain degradation associated with radiation-induced oxide trapped charge and interface traps by increasing base recombination. The additional recombination results from the convergence of carrier concentrations in the base and increased sensitivity of the base to oxide trapped charge. The enhanced gain degradation is moderated by increased electron injection from the emitter. These results suggest that acceptor neutralization may enhance radiation-induced degradation of linear circuits at elevated temperatures.

  16. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Erica Y.; Liu, Junxiu; McDonald, Samantha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring's body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n = 23) were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child's lifestyle factors). PMID:25371815

  17. The Tie that Binds: The Role of Self-Reported High School Gains in Self-Reported College Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Asel, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the extent to which students' retrospective self-reported gains from high school are associated with college self-reported gains. As such, the chapter offers an empirical test of how accounting for one's predisposition to report educational impact changes estimates of the effects of college experiences…

  18. Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining real sports marketing and communications experience. A marketing or business background and weekends (Schedule will vary, approx 3-10 hours per week) Passion for sports Cheerful, outgoing

  19. Elevated temperature fatigue testing of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    The major technology areas needed to perform a life prediction of an aircraft turbine engine hot section component are discussed and the steps required for life prediction are outlined. These include the determination of the operating environment, the calculation of the thermal and mechanical loading of the component, the cyclic stress-strain and creep behavior of the material required for structural analysis, and the structural analysis to determine the local stress-strain-temperature-time response of the material at the critical location in the components. From a knowledge of the fatigue, creep, and failure resistance of the material, a prediction of the life of the component is made. Material characterization and evaluation conducted for the purpose of calculating fatigue crack initiation lives of components operating at elevated temperatures are emphasized.

  20. Elevated temperature fatigue testing of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschberg, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Material characterization and evaluation conducted for the purpose of calculating fatigue crack initiation lives of components operating at elevated temperatures are discussed. The major technology areas needed to perform a life prediction of an aircraft turbine engine hot section component and the steps required for life prediction are outlined. These include: the determination of the operating environment, the calculation of the thermal and mechanical loading of the component, the cyclic stress strain and creep behavior of the material required for structural analysis, the structural analysis to determine the local stress strain temperature time response of the material at the critical location in the component, and from a knowledge of the fatigue, creep, and failure resistance of the material, a prediction of the life of the component.