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1

Counterbalanced radiation detection system  

SciTech Connect

A counterbalanced radiation detection system is described comprising: (a) a stand; (b) a first radiation detector; (c) a first radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the first radiation detector with the stand; (d) a second radiation detector; (e) a second radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the second radiation detector with the stand, whereby the tilting angles of the radiation detector arm means define a distance between the radiation detectors; and (f) a torque transforming means connected between the first and second radiation detector arm means for transforming the torque created by one of the radiation detectors in a sense opposed to the torque created by the other radiation detector.

Platz, W.

1987-03-24

2

Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

1991-11-01

3

Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

1993-10-01

4

Counterbalancing in Smoking Cue Research: A Critical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cue exposure research has been used to examine key issues in smoking research, such as predicting relapse, testing new medications, investigating the neurobiology of nicotine dependence, and examining reactivity among smokers with comorbid psychopathologies. Determining the order that cues are presented is one of the most critical steps in the design of these investigations. It is widely assumed that cue exposure studies should counterbalance the order in which smoking and control (neutral) cues are presented. This article examines the premises underlying the use of counterbalancing in experimental research, and it evaluates the degree to which counterbalancing is appropriate in smoking cue exposure studies. Methods: We reviewed the available literature on the use of counterbalancing techniques in human smoking cue exposure research. Results: Many studies counterbalancing order of cues have not provided critical analyses to determine whether this approach was appropriate. Studies that have reported relevant data, however, suggest that order of cue presentation interacts with type of cue (smoking vs. control), which raises concerns about the utility of counterbalancing. Primarily, this concern arises from potential carryover effects, in which exposure to smoking cues affects subsequent responding to neutral cues. Conclusions: Cue type by order of cue interactions may compromise the utility of counterbalancing. Unfortunately, there is no obvious alternative that is optimal across studies. Strengths and limitations of several alternative designs are considered, and key questions are identified to advance understanding of the optimal conditions for conducting smoking cue exposure studies.

Griffin, Kasey M.; Sayers, W. Michael

2010-01-01

5

Overweight, Gestational Weight Gain and Elevated Fasting Plasma Glucose and Their Association with Macrosomia in Chinese Pregnant Women.  

PubMed

To provide a current estimation of overweight, gestational weight gain(GWG), elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in pregnant women in Kunshan, China and investigate their association with macrosomia using recommendations of IOM and International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. We conducted a population-based retrospective study and analyzed routine data from Kunshan Maternity and Child Care Surveillance System of 27,322 women with singleton full-term birth from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of maternal overweight at early pregnancy according to WHO BMI categories (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) or the cutoffs for Chinese (BMI:24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)), elevated FPG (?5.1 mmol/L) were estimated. Proportions of women with GWG below, within and above 2009 IOM recommendations were used to evaluate the adequacy of GWG. The association between maternal overweight, GWG, elevated FPG and macrosomia was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of maternal overweight was 8.9 % according to WHO BMI categories and 11.9 % according to Chinese cutoffs. The rate of elevated FPG at first prenatal visit was 19.4 %. Overweight women gained, on average, 12.2 ± 5.3 or 13.0 ± 5.2 (kg) during gestation, 57.1 or 63.93 % of which had excessive weight gain above IOM recommendations (6.8-11.4 kg) according to WHO BMI categories or Chinese cutoffs, respectively. Maternal overweight, GWG and elevated FPG were positively and significantly associated with macrosomia after adjusting for maternal age and gestational weeks at delivery. Maternal overweight, excessive weight gain, elevated FPG are common in the Chinese population in Kunshan. These metabolic risk factors associated with macrosomia should be controlled under the recommendations for Chinese pregnant population. PMID:23784612

Shi, Peng; Yang, Wenhong; Yu, Qian; Zhao, Qian; Li, Chunying; Ma, Xiaoling; Jin, Lihua; Han, Xia; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Weili

2013-06-20

6

Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.  

PubMed

Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

2008-08-02

7

Lower extremity biomechanics during a regular and counterbalanced squat.  

PubMed

If the efficiency of human movement patterns could be improved using exercise, this could lead to more effective musculoskeletal disease-injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. It has been suggested that an efficient squat movement pattern emphasizes the use of the large hip extensors instead of the smaller knee extensors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a counterbalanced squat (CBS) could produce a more hip-dominant and less knee-dominant squat movement pattern as compared with a regular squat (RS). There were 31 recreationally trained college-aged participants (15 male, 16 female) who performed 10 squats (5 CBS and 5 RS), while segment kinematics, ground reaction forces, and muscle (gluteus maximus [GM], quadriceps, hamstrings) electromyographic (EMG) activations were recorded. Peak sagittal plane net joint moments and joint ranges of motion at the hip, knee, and ankle joints along with peak and integrated EMG activation levels for all 3 muscles were compared using analysis of variance (squat type × sex). The results revealed that the CBS increased the hip joint moment and GM activation, while it decreased the knee joint moment and quadriceps activation as compared with the RS. Therefore, the CBS produces a more hip-dominant and less knee-dominant squat movement pattern and could be used in exercise programs aimed at producing more hip-dominant movement patterns. PMID:22076098

Lynn, Scott K; Noffal, Guillermo J

2012-09-01

8

Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF.  

PubMed

Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration on metabolism and cognitive performance, both in control rats and in rats placed on a high-fat diet. The effects of caffeine were significant: caffeine both (i) prevented the weight-gain associated with the high-fat diet and (ii) prevented cognitive impairment. Caffeine did not alter hippocampal metabolism or insulin signaling, likely because the high-fat-fed animals did not develop full-blown diabetes; however, caffeine did prevent or reverse a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen in high-fat-fed animals. These data confirm that caffeine may serve as a neuroprotective agent against cognitive impairment caused by obesity and/or a high-fat diet. Increased hippocampal BDNF following caffeine administration could explain, at least in part, the effects of caffeine on cognition and metabolism. PMID:23220362

Moy, Gregory A; McNay, Ewan C

2012-12-06

9

Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?  

PubMed

Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings. PMID:24101972

Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemelä, Pekka

2013-07-22

10

Do elevations in temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated silver birch seedlings?  

PubMed Central

Climate warming increases the risk of insect defoliation in boreal forests. Losses in photosynthetically active surfaces cause reduction in net primary productivity and often compromise carbon reserves of trees. The concurrent effects of climate change and removal of foliage on root growth responses and carbohydrate dynamics are poorly understood, especially in tree seedlings. We investigated if exposures to different combinations of elevated temperature, CO2, and nutrient availability modify belowground carbon gain and root morphology in artificially defoliated 1-year-old silver birches (Betula pendula). We quantified nonstructural carbohydrates (insoluble starch as a storage compound; soluble sucrose, fructose, and glucose) singly and in combination in fine roots of plants under winter dormancy. Also the total mass, fine root proportion, water content, and length of roots were defined. We hypothesized that the measured properties are lower in defoliated birch seedlings that grow with ample resources than with scarce resources. On average, fertilization markedly decreased both the proportion and the carbohydrate concentrations of fine roots in all seedlings, whereas the effect of fertilization on root water content and dry mass was the opposite. However, defoliation mitigated the effect of fertilization on the root water content, as well as on the proportion of fine roots and their carbohydrate concentrations by reversing the outcomes. Elevation in temperature decreased and elevation in CO2 increased the absolute contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, whereas fertilization alleviated both these effects. Also the root length and mass increased by CO2 elevation. This confirms that surplus carbon in birch tissues is used as a substrate for storage compounds and for cell wall synthesis. To conclude, our results indicate that some, but not all elements of climate change alter belowground carbon gain and root morphology in defoliated silver birch seedlings.

Huttunen, Liisa; Saravesi, Karita; Markkola, Annamari; Niemela, Pekka

2013-01-01

11

Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M''(f ) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across Tg. The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below Tg. At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors.

Wojnarowska, Z.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Hawelek, L.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

2012-04-01

12

Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.  

PubMed

The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors. PMID:22559496

Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

2012-04-28

13

Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny in American toads.  

PubMed

Maternal transfer of environmental contaminants is a disadvantageous parental effect which can have long-lasting implications for offspring fitness. We investigated the effects of mercury (Hg) on the reproductive success of female amphibians and the subsequent effects of maternal transfer on the development of their offspring. American toads (Bufo americanus) maternally transferred Hg to their eggs, and there was a negative relationship between Hg concentrations and the percentage of viable hatchlings produced in clutches. However, when we continued to monitor larvae that successfully hatched, we found 21% greater metamorphic success in larvae from Hg-exposed mothers compared to reference larvae. The negative effect in the embryonic stage and positive effect in the larval stage counterbalanced one another, ultimately resulting in no difference in predicted terrestrial recruitment, regardless of maternal Hg exposure. Our findings demonstrate that maternal effects on survival manifesting at different stages in ontogeny have the potential to produce complicated outcomes. PMID:21903241

Bergeron, Christine M; Hopkins, William A; Bodinof, Catherine M; Budischak, Sarah A; Wada, Haruka; Unrine, Jason M

2011-09-07

14

Dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander of a split Stirling cryogenic cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low vibration Stirling cryocoolers, which find use in numerous vibration sensitive electronic and electro-optic applications, typically comprise a dual-piston linear compressor and a pneumatically driven expander. While such compressors have inherently low level of vibration export, the unbalanced motion of the displacer-regenerator of the traditional expander inevitably leads to an essential vibration export into the supporting structure to which the cryogenic cooler is normally rigidly attached. The authors report on the novel approach to a passive cancellation of vibration export from a pneumatically driven displacer of a split Stirling cryogenic cooler. This patent pending technique relies on the principle of dynamic counterbalancing, where an auxiliary movable mass is flexibly attached to a hot part of the movable displacer-regenerator assembly and to the stationary expander casing using two auxiliary mechanical low-damped springs. A theoretical analysis yields the simple condition of canceling the fundamental component of vibration export at the same power consumption and cooling performance. The authors successfully attempted to redesign the existing expander of the Stirling Ricor model K535 cryocooler, where the vibration export at the driving frequency was reduced 150-fold under typical thermal loading at the same power consumption.

Veprik, Alexander M.; Riabzev, Sergey V.; Pundak, Nachman

2004-08-01

15

WEIGHT GAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the last 40 years there have been dramatic changes in the recommendations for optimal maternal weight gain during pregnancy. In the past it was thought that it was necessary to restrict the diet of many pregnant women in order to reduce the perceived risks associated with higher weight gains....

16

Counterbalanced refueling arm assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a counter balanced refueling arm. It comprises: a supporting platform, wheels supporting the platform, an outer caster assembly. The wheel, a first swivel joint mounted on the outboard caster assembly having a substantially vertical axis of rotation, an inlet and an outlet defined on the joint, a fuel supply conduit communicating with the joint inlet, a second swivel joint mounted on the platform having a substantially horizontal axis of rotation, an inlet and an outlet, a rigid conduit interconnecting the first joint outlet with the second joint inlet establishing communication between the first and second joint, a substantially rigid arm conduit having an axis, an inner end affixed to and communicating with the second joint outlet and an outer end. The arm conduit being pivoted about the second joint axis within a substantially vertical plane, a first elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the arm conduit outer end, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to the arm conduit axis, a second elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the first coupling outlet, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to aid first coupling axis, a third elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the second coupling outlet, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to the coupling axis, and a nozzle connected to the third coupling outlet.

Fournier, P.J.E.; Reinker, J.F., Jr.

1990-02-06

17

ELEVATING MECHANISM  

DOEpatents

An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

1959-02-24

18

A hoist to the heavens [space elevators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the possibility of using space elevators as an alternative to rocket boosters for space exploration. With the advent of carbon nanotube composites, the space elevator concept has fast been gaining mainstream acceptance. With a space elevator providing cheap, easy, low-risk access to space, people's lives on Earth could be immeasurably enhanced as the wealth of the solar

B. C. Edwards

2005-01-01

19

Pregnancy weight gain and breast cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy

Tarja I Kinnunen; Riitta Luoto; Mika Gissler; Elina Hemminki; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

2004-01-01

20

Optimal Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal birth weight and outcome are influenced by maternal weight gain. Low gestational weight gain is associated with poor\\u000a fetal growth and risk of preterm delivery. Excessive weight gain affects infant growth, body fatness in childhood, and the\\u000a potential for postpartum weight retention and future obesity. Guidelines from the Institute of Medicine recommend that a woman\\u000a with a normal body

Grace A. Falciglia; Kristin H. Coppage

21

Metamaterials with Gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

Hess, Ortwin

2012-02-01

22

Switchable auto gain amplifier  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a switchable auto gain amplifier system for amplifying electrical signals of unknown magnitude has a plurality of amplifiers having different gains, each amplifier having an input connected to a system input. A switch controllably directs only one of the amplifier outputs to a system output. The switch is controlled by comparators providing an electrical outputs indicating each saturated amplifier. 2 figs.

Boye, C.A.; Phipps, G.S.; Schaefer, J.P.

1988-10-21

23

VECSEL gain characterization.  

PubMed

We present the first full gain characterization of two vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) gain chips with similar designs operating in the 960-nm wavelength regime. We optically pump the structures with continuous-wave (cw) 808-nm radiation and measure the nonlinear reflectivity for 130-fs and 1.4-ps probe pulses as function of probe pulse fluence, pump power, and heat sink temperature. With this technique we are able to measure the saturation behavior for VECSEL gain chips for the first time. The characterization with 1.4-ps pulses resulted in saturation fluences of 40-80 ?J/cm2, while probing with 130-fs pulses yields reduced saturation fluences of 30-50 ?J/cm2 for both structures. For both pulse durations this is lower than previously assumed. A small-signal gain of up to 5% is obtained with this technique. Furthermore, in a second measurement setup, we characterize the spectral dependence of the gain using a tunable cw probe beam. We measure a gain bandwidth of over 26 nm for both structures, full width at half maximum. PMID:22418171

Mangold, Mario; Wittwer, Valentin J; Sieber, Oliver D; Hoffmann, Martin; Krestnikov, Igor L; Livshits, Daniil A; Golling, Matthias; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

2012-02-13

24

Brain gain : boomerang PD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian teachers are gaining valuable professional experience by getting on a plane to the United States, thanks to an alliance between the US Visiting International Faculty (VIF) Program and the Australian Council for Educational Research. The VIF is the US's largest cultural exchange program for teachers, and has been placing Australian teachers in US schools for nearly 20 years, but

R Leech

2008-01-01

25

The Perfect Gain Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfect gain control is achieved when variation of an adjustable immittance affects only the magnitude of a specific network function. The adjustable immittances considered are those which can range between an open and short circuit, and for which the network function has finite values at these extreme points. It is shown that an adjustable element of this type behaves as

S. Parker; P. Chirlian; E. Peskin

1965-01-01

26

Vaccination against weight gain  

PubMed Central

Obesity endangers the lives of millions of people worldwide, through comorbidities such as heart disease, cancers, type 2 diabetes, stroke, arthritis, and major depression. New approaches to control body weight remain a high priority. Vaccines traditionally have been used to protect against infectious diseases and, more recently, for unconventional targets such as drug addiction. Methodologies that could specifically modulate the bioavailability of an endogenous molecule that regulates energy balance might provide a new foundation for treating obesity. Here we show that active vaccination of mature rats with ghrelin immunoconjugates decreases feed efficiency, relative adiposity, and body weight gain in relation to the immune response elicited against ghrelin in its active, acylated form. Three active vaccines based on the 28-aa residue sequence of ghrelin, a gastric endocrine hormone, were used to immunize adult male Wistar rats (n = 17). Synthetic ghrelin analogs were prepared that spanned residues 1–10 [ghrelin (1–10) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr1], 13–28 [ghrelin (13–28) hapten, Ghr2], and 1–28 [ghrelin(1–28) Ser-3(butanoyl) hapten, Ghr3], and included n-butanoyl esters at Ser-3. Groups immunized with Ghr1 or Ghr3 showed greater and more selective plasma binding capacity for the active, Ser-3-(n-octanoyl) form of ghrelin as compared with Ghr2 or keyhole limpet hemocyanin vaccinated controls. Accordingly, they gained less body weight, with sparing of lean mass and preferential reduction of body fat, consistent with reduced circulating leptin levels. The ratio of brain/serum ghrelin levels was lower in rats with strong anti-ghrelin immune responses. Effects were not attributable to nonspecific inflammatory responses. Vaccination against the endogenous hormone ghrelin can slow weight gain in rats by decreasing feed efficiency.

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Moss, Jason A.; Chang, Jason; Otsuji, Jonathan; Inoue, Koki; Meijler, Michael M.; Janda, Kim D.

2006-01-01

27

High gain solar photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skyline Solar Inc. has developed a novel silicon-based PV system to simultaneously reduce energy cost and improve scalability of solar energy. The system achieves high gain through a combination of high capacity factor and optical concentration. The design approach drives innovation not only into the details of the system hardware, but also into manufacturing and deployment-related costs and bottlenecks. The result of this philosophy is a modular PV system whose manufacturing strategy relies only on currently existing silicon solar cell, module, reflector and aluminum parts supply chains, as well as turnkey PV module production lines and metal fabrication industries that already exist at enormous scale. Furthermore, with a high gain system design, the generating capacity of all components is multiplied, leading to a rapidly scalable system. The product design and commercialization strategy cooperate synergistically to promise dramatically lower LCOE with substantially lower risk relative to materials-intensive innovations. In this paper, we will present the key design aspects of Skyline's system, including aspects of the optical, mechanical and thermal components, revealing the ease of scalability, low cost and high performance. Additionally, we will present performance and reliability results on modules and the system, using ASTM and UL/IEC methodologies.

MacDonald, B.; Finot, M.; Heiken, B.; Trowbridge, T.; Ackler, H.; Leonard, L.; Johnson, E.; Chang, B.; Keating, T.

2009-08-01

28

1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS (AS OPPOSED) TO THE SIMILAR STEEL ELEVATOR IN BUFFALO NEW YORK WITH ROUND ELEVATOR BINS. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

29

National Elevation Dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NED is designed to provide national elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, permit edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1999-01-01

30

Managing price, gaining profit.  

PubMed

The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

31

DAMPING OF VEHICLE ROLL DYNAMICS BY GAIN SCHEDULED ACTIVE STEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active steering is applied to robustly reduce the rollover risk of vehicles with an elevated center of gravity. An actu- ator sets an auxiliary steering angle which is mechanically added to the steering angle commanded by the driver. The control law presented, is based on feedback of the roll rate and the roll acceleration. The controller gains are scheduled with

Dirk Odenthal

1999-01-01

32

Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Basement of 1913 elevator looking west into 1945 elevator and indicating incorporation of railroad retaining wall as the elevator's basement wall - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

33

Hearing Aid Evaluation: Predicting Speech Gain from Insertion Gain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, involving 11 older males with mild or moderate sensorineural loss, tested whether speech gain that results from a hearing aid fitting is predictable on the basis of unaided performance intensity curve, unaided narrow-band sound field thresholds, hearing aid insertion gain as a function of frequency, ambient noise, and internal hearing…

Dillon, Harvey

1993-01-01

34

Space Elevator: Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the “centrifugal force” but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of

Lubos Perek

2008-01-01

35

Azimuth and Elevation Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows users to see what the elevation, noon elevation, and azimuth of the Sun is for specific locations (requested by city or latitude and longitude) and time zone for the current date. This program also shows how long the Sun will be above or below the horizon for the current date and the location the user chooses.

Giesen, Juergen

36

Pregnancy weight gain and breast cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, affects a mother's breast cancer risk. Methods Our cohort consisted of women who were pregnant between 1954–1963 in Helsinki, Finland, 2,089 of which were eligible for the study. Pregnancy data were collected from patient records of maternity centers. 123 subsequent breast cancer cases were identified through a record linkage to the Finnish Cancer Registry, and the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 35 – 74). A sample of 979 women (123 cases, 856 controls) from the cohort was linked to the Hospital Inpatient Registry to obtain information on the women's stay in hospitals. Results Mothers in the upper tertile of pregnancy weight gain (>15 kg) had a 1.62-fold (95% CI 1.03–2.53) higher breast cancer risk than mothers who gained the recommended amount (the middle tertile, mean: 12.9 kg, range 11–15 kg), after adjusting for mother's age at menarche, age at first birth, age at index pregnancy, parity at the index birth, and body mass index (BMI) before the index pregnancy. In a separate nested case-control study (n = 65 cases and 431 controls), adjustment for BMI at the time of breast cancer diagnosis did not modify the findings. Conclusions Our study suggests that high pregnancy weight gain increases later breast cancer risk, independently from body weight at the time of diagnosis.

Kinnunen, Tarja I; Luoto, Riitta; Gissler, Mika; Hemminki, Elina; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

2004-01-01

37

Analytical framework for gain scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain scheduling approach to the control of nonlinear systems is explained, and its characteristics are examined. On the basis of this framework questions are raised, and implications are drawn for practical design situations. The relationship between the gain scheduling formulation and the extended-linearization approach for nonlinear control design is considered

Wilson J. Rugh

1991-01-01

38

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue as there is little empirical evidence for its positive effects on economic growth. However, we find sizable welfare gains, 1 to 28 percent of permanent consumption though, consistent with the literature, the gain in the economic growth is ambiguous, -0.2 to 0.7 percent. We apply a canonical growth model with endogenous financial deepening

Robert M. Townsend; Kenichi Ueda

2007-01-01

39

Introduction to Grain Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

1998-01-01

40

Mechanisms of the Rosetta high gain antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the antenna pointing mechanism (APM) and the hold down and release mechanism (HRM) used in the high gain antenna of the ROSETTA mission. The hold down and release mechanism consists of three units which compensate the tolerance mismatch between antenna and spacecraft through incorporation of potting rings. Given that the activation mode is pyrotechnic, release shock is a major concern and is minimised through integration of shock absorbers which allow stroking of the separation nuts. The antenna pointing mechanism is a dual drive (azimuth over elevation) unit which allows controlled rotation of the antenna. The drive units incorporate spring loaded end stops to prevent the antenna from hitting the spacecraft, and optical encoders which register the absolute position of the antenna. The pointing and the hold down mechanisms of the ROSETTA antenna are fully qualified and will withstand the high launch loads of the Ariane-5 and the environmental demands of deep space operation.

Pereira, Carlos

2001-09-01

41

Visual Perception of Elevation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiments demonstrate the importance for human observers of the retinal orientation and location of individual straight lines in determining (1) the physical elevation visually perceived as being at eye level (VPEL), and (2) the orientation within a...

L. Matin

1992-01-01

42

Traction type elevator system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wire rope for use in a traction type elevator system is coated with a soft-solid agent or a greasy agent having a drip temperature higher than 55.degree. C. and exhibiting physical properties such that it is evaporated in an amount less than 1 weight percent at 105.degree. C. for an interval of eight hours and elevates the coefficient of friction or traction between the wire rope and the drive sheave when coated on the wire rope.

Suzuki; Katsuhiko (Nagoya, JP); Naganuma; Seihachi (Kawasaki, JP)

1985-02-26

43

2. VIEW OF ELEVATOR AT SECOND FLOOR BEDROOM, SHOWING ELEVATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF ELEVATOR AT SECOND FLOOR BEDROOM, SHOWING ELEVATOR CAR IN THE 'STUCK' POSITION, WHERE IT REMAINED FROM 1942 UNTIL REMOVAL IN 1985, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

44

Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement  

PubMed Central

Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d?=?2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d?=?1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d?=?1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

2013-01-01

45

21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

46

National Elevation Dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

U.S Geological Survey

2002-01-01

47

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization.  

PubMed

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

Townsend, Robert M; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-08-01

48

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

49

Compressing Elevation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares several, text and image, lossless and lossy, compression techniques for regular gridded elevation data , such as DEMs. Sp compress and progcode, the best lossless methods average 2.0 bits per point on USGS DEMs, about half the size ofgzipped files, and 6.2 bits per point on ETOPO5 samples. Lossy compression produces even smaller files at moderate error

Wm. Randolph Franklin

1995-01-01

50

Mars Elevation Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum t...

S. S. C. Wu A. E. Howington-kraus K. K. Ablin

1991-01-01

51

Elevation Differences on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of apparent frost phenomena, occurring preferentially in the Martian bright areas, have in the past led to. the conclusion that the bright areas are elevations. The argument hinges on the implicit assumption that, near midday, highlands should be at lower temperatures than lowlands. On the earth, this assumption is valid, because of adiabatic cooling of rising air, a diminished

Carl Sagan; James B. Pollack

1968-01-01

52

Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

1996-01-01

53

Cyclical Upswing is Gaining Momentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclical forces driving the economy are getting stronger. Exports and output in manufacturing post high gains, and an increasing number of enterprises is viewing the economic situation with optimism. Most economic indicators suggest that the present upturn is proceeding at a faster pace than the recovery after the recession of 1982-83. The main problem areas continue to be the

Ewald Walterskirchen

1994-01-01

54

Welfare Gain of Financial Liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial liberalization is a controversial issue. One of the reasons is that many empirical studies report conflicting views. So far, negligible effects were found in savings and lending, while positive effects in allocating capital efficiently. However, these regression based studies are not suitable to identify the true benefit, that is, welfare gain of the financial liberalization. We compute the welfare

Robert M Townsend; Kenichi Ueda

2006-01-01

55

Elevated temperature testing of gaskets for bolted flanged connections  

SciTech Connect

Bolted flanged connections are especially prone to leakage when operating at elevated temperatures. In 1986--87, the API Subcommittee on Pressure Vessels, Piping and Tanks expressed a need for gasket performance data and technical formulations to permit the design of gasket systems for high temperature service. The objective was to gain initial understanding of flange behavior, gasket deformation and leakage behavior under simulated elevated temperature service conditions. Experience gained through the previous PVRC-funded elevated temperature test programs as well as companion non-PVRC-funded programs has raised a number of basic questions which would be best answered in the context of a PVRC-supported effort. This Report summarizes the results obtained for four different topics covered in PVRC Grant No. 90-1, namely: (A) verify experimentally the extrapolated long term elevated temperature good performance of compressed asbestos reinforced sheet materials on which are based the MTI guidelines; (B) study the effect of creep/relaxation of flexible graphite sheet materials at elevated temperature on the tightness of a joint in which the gasket deflection remains practically constant; (C) study the effect of the gas medium and pressure on the tightness performance at elevated temperature of graphite filled spiral wound gaskets with and without internal rings; (D) establish correlations between the weight loss of elastomer sheet gasket materials during aging at elevated temperature, and changes in their mechanical properties (tensile strength and relaxation) as well as the variations of their tightness performance.

Derenne, M.; Marchand, L.; Bazergui, A. (Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Ecole Polytechnique); Payne, J.R. (J. Payne Associates, Long Valley, NJ (United States))

1994-05-01

56

Rapid Generation of Digital Elevation Models from Topographic Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we demonstrate that substantial gains in time can be made when using point sampling rather than contour line digitising for generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). A simple sampling scheme, based on regularly distributed points, was used supplemented with points near break-lines in the terrain. An evaluation of surfaces created with three different interpolation methods at three

Lars Eklundh; Ulrik Mårtensson

1995-01-01

57

LOW-ELEVATION NESTING BY CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRDS IN THE WESTERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calliope Hummingbird breeds uncommonly to fairly commonly in the Sierra Nevada and other high mountain ranges in California. In the Sierra it typically nests above 4000 feet elevation (Grinnell and Miller 1944, Gaines 1992, pers. obs.), usually near moist meadows or other relatively level and wet sites with a mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees, shrubs, and flowering plants

2001-01-01

58

Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Elevations in Healthy Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A number of factors contribute to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among postmenopausal women, including atherogenic changes in serum cholesterol profiles, weight gain, and decreases in physical activity during the menopause. To date, no study has attempted to prevent elevations in primary CHD risk factors as women experience menopause. Methods. A sample of 535 healthy premenopausal women,

L. Simkinsilverman; R. R. Wing; D. H. Hansen; M. L. Klem; A. Pasagianmacaulay; E. N. Meilahn; L. H. Kuller

1995-01-01

59

Redundancy gain for semantic features.  

PubMed

In a go/no-go experiment, semantic redundancy gain was assessed for responses to single written words. Specifically, we asked participants to respond only to words whose meaning matched at least one semantic target feature-that is, the target category (e.g., animal), the target color (e.g., gray), or both. On redundant-target trials, the word (e.g., elephant) matched both semantic target features (i.e., gray and animal). On single-target trials, the word (e.g., beaver) matched one target feature (i.e., animal) and a nontarget feature (i.e., brown). We observed shorter reaction times in the redundant-target condition than in the faster single-target condition. Hence, the present study provides the first evidence that redundancy gain is not limited to responses to redundant proximal stimulus features but can also be observed for responses to semantic feature information. PMID:23250760

Fiedler, Anja; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

2013-06-01

60

Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN)

1976-01-01

61

South and east elevations, looking northwest. Market Street Elevated ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South and east elevations, looking northwest. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Allison Substation, Intersection of Market & Allison Streets between Fifty-fifth & Fifty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

62

44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR NEAR WEST WALL OF MST STATION 111 ANTEROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

63

49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION OF BODY BUILDING, 1980 (MMI) - Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company Plant, Between Joseph Campau & Conant Avenues, Hamtramck, Wayne County, MI

64

location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

65

first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

66

Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

67

43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

68

4. OVERALL VIEW OF W ELEVATION AND N ELEVATION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. OVERALL VIEW OF W ELEVATION AND N ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY; LOOKING SSE DOWN GILLESPIE ROAD. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 135, Gillespie Road, South of Parker Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

69

View southeast, showing front elevation, side (west) elevation and ell. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southeast, showing front elevation, side (west) elevation and ell. Outbuildings and field stretching to west and south - Conner Homestead, Epping Road (State Route 101), Exeter, Rockingham County, NH

70

north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

71

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

72

3. NORTH ELEVATION (LEFT) AND EAST ELEVATION OF CARRIAGE HOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. NORTH ELEVATION (LEFT) AND EAST ELEVATION OF CARRIAGE HOUSE (RIGHT); (SEE HABS No. MI-236 A, Abner Baker House, Carriage House). - Abner Baker House, 318 West Mansion Street, Marshall, Calhoun County, MI

73

SOUTH ELEVATION OF POST OFFICE, WITH ELEVATED STORAGE TANK AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH ELEVATION OF POST OFFICE, WITH ELEVATED STORAGE TANK AND STANDPIPE AT LEFT AND WATER COLUMN AT RIGHT - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

74

South elevation of post office, with elevated storage tank and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South elevation of post office, with elevated storage tank and standpipe at left and water column at right. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

75

first floor plan, east elevation, north elevation, building section, paneling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

first floor plan, east elevation, north elevation, building section, paneling details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 1-2, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

76

first floor plan, north elevation, east elevation, building section, door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

first floor plan, north elevation, east elevation, building section, door details, window details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 9, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

77

first floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, building section, door ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

first floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, building section, door details, window details, paneling details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 14-16, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

78

33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

79

A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

2013-01-01

80

Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

81

Clinical Gains from Including Both Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate in Stimulant Trials.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical gains from including both dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in stimulant trials. Method: Thirty-six medication-naïve children ages 9-14 years diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were enrolled for 6 weeks in a crossover trial, with 2 weeks of methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and placebo, in a randomly assigned, counterbalanced sequence. Outcome measures constituted a computer-based continuous performance test combined with a motion tracking system (Qb Test) and an ADHD questionnaire rated by parents and teachers. Results: Group analyses found significant treatment effects of similar size for the two stimulants on both outcome measures. Single-subject analyses revealed that each stimulant produced a favourable response in 26 children; however, an individual child frequently responded qualitatively or quantitatively differently to the two stimulants. By including both stimulants in the trial, the number of favorable responders increased from 26 (72%) to 33 (92%). In children with favorable responses of unequal strength to the two stimulants, a shift from inferior drug to best drug was associated with a 64% mean increase in the overall response strength score, as measured by the ADHD questionnaire. Conclusions: The likelihood of a favorable response and optimal response strength is increased by including both stimulants in the stimulant trial. The study was first registered in clinical trials 28 September 2010. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01220440. PMID:23659360

Ramtvedt, Bjørn Erik; Røinås, Elisabeth; Aabech, Henning S; Sundet, Kjetil S

2013-05-01

82

Space Station Tethered Elevator System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. E...

L. A. Anderson

1989-01-01

83

Geared-Elevator Flutter Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental and analytical study was made of the transonic flutter characteristics of a supersonic transport tail assembly model having an all-movable, horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two model configurations, namely, one with a gear-elevator ...

C. L. Ruhlin R. V. Doggett R. A. Gregory

1976-01-01

84

Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) direct...

R. E. Goddard

1993-01-01

85

Automatic pipe elevator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

1987-03-17

86

Stochastic Gain in Population Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an extension of the usual replicator dynamics to adaptive learning rates. We show that a population with a dynamic learning rate can gain an increased average payoff in transient phases and can also exploit external noise, leading the system away from the Nash equilibrium, in a resonancelike fashion. The payoff versus noise curve resembles the signal to noise ratio curve in stochastic resonance. Seen in this broad context, we introduce another mechanism that exploits fluctuations in order to improve properties of the system. Such a mechanism could be of particular interest in economic systems.

Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Schuster, Heinz Georg

2004-07-01

87

Indirect excitons in elevated traps.  

PubMed

We report on the study of indirect excitons in elevated traps. The transition from a normal to elevated trap results in the appearance of narrow lines in the emission spectrum. The density, temperature, and voltage dependences indicate that these lines correspond to the emission of individual states of indirect excitons in a disorder potential in the elevated trap. PMID:19382780

High, A A; Hammack, A T; Butov, L V; Mouchliadis, L; Ivanov, A L; Hanson, M; Gossard, A C

2009-05-01

88

The NIAC Space Elevator Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) has been supporting a space elevator development program to investigate the initial design, deployment and operations scenario. The work has produced a plan for the construction and operation of a small (20 ton capacity) space elevator within the next couple decades. The elevator cable is composed of a carbon nanotube composite extending 100,000

Bradley Carl Edwards

89

Pollinators in high-elevation ecosystems: relative effectiveness of birds and bees.  

PubMed

During the rainy season bird-flowered plants at high elevations are more effectively pollinated than closely related bee-flowered plants. With good flight conditions the effectiveness of birds and bees is essentially equal. Thus, the higher incidence of bird flowers at higher elevations is attributable in part to the competitive advantage gained through greater reproductive success. PMID:17834653

Cruden, R W

1972-06-30

90

Holiday weight gain: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity continues to rise and controversy remains regarding the underlying specific causes of this trend. Recently, the magnitude of holiday weight gain and its contribution to annual weight gain were examined in a convenience sample of 195 adults. On average, weight gain during the 6-week winter period from Thanksgiving through New Year averaged only 0.37 kg. However, weight gain was greater among individuals who were overweight or obese, and 14% gained >2.3 kg (5 lb). In addition, among the entire population, weight gain during the 6-week holiday season explained 51% of annual weight gain. These results suggest that holiday weight gain may be an important contributor to the rising prevalence of obesity, even though absolute values for weight gain in this study were less than anticipated. Further studies using representative populations are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:11206847

Roberts, S B; Mayer, J

2000-12-01

91

False estimates of elevated creatinine.  

PubMed

One of the most common reasons for a nephrology consult is an elevated creatinine. An elevation in the serum creatinine concentration usually reflects a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Given the association of elevated creatinine and risk of cardiovascular mortality, it is important to keep in mind that at times the elevation of the creatinine is not representative of a true reduction in GFR. There are various causes of factitious elevation of creatinine. They can be broadly grouped into increased production of creatinine, interference with the assay and decreased tubular secretion of creatinine. PMID:22745616

Samra, Manpreet; Abcar, Antoine C

2012-01-01

92

Severely elevated transaminases in an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder that is associated with numerous medical complications and affects both females and males. Severely elevated transaminases have been reported in adult and younger females. We report the first case of elevated transaminases in an adolescent male with AN. The pathophysiologic mechanism of severely elevated serum transaminases observed in malnourished adolescent males with AN is complex and appears to be multifactorial. We present the first case of an adolescent male with AN who developed severely elevated serum transaminases that normalized with improved nutrition and weight gain. Liver injury in patients with AN is a complex medical complication that appears to be multifactorial in origin. In this case, starvation-induced autophagy in the human liver was considered one of the most likely mechanisms to explain hepatocytic injury in this patient. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013; 46:751-754). PMID:23881604

Smith, Ryan W; Korenblum, Chana; Thacker, Kunal; Bonifacio, Herbert Joey; Gonska, Tanja; Katzman, Debra K

2013-07-23

93

Gain-clamped Raman fiber oscillator.  

PubMed

Gain band expansion of a Raman amplifier based on a Raman fiber oscillator (RFO) was tested with two Raman lasers, which yielded a broad gain spectrum of about 40 nm. However, they also introduced gain-clamping behavior in the short-wavelength range and abnormal excessive gain in long-wavelength channels, which were undesirable for practical application. The proper mechanism of the behavior was analyzed and experimentally demonstrated to apply to a gain-clamped (GC) amplifier based on a RFO. Appropriate configuration of the GC-RFO for wide gain bandwidth was proposed and characterized. PMID:18278099

Seo, H S; Ahn, J T; Park, B J; Chung, W J

2008-02-15

94

Rotation-Elevation of Sun Tracking Mode to Gain High Concentration Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power conversion from solar thermal energy to electrical energy is still very cost-intensive. Serious effort has to be given in the development of the concentrator or heliostat structure expenditure which contributing the most expensive component in a central receiver solar power plant. With current development to find alternatives and lower down the capital, an alternative scheme of sun tracking has

Omar Aliman; Ismail Daut

2007-01-01

95

Weight Gain Increases Human Aromatase Expression in Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Aromhum) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5?-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Aromhum mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNF? and C/EBP?. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon V, John S.; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K.; Bulun, Serdar E.

2012-01-01

96

Elevation leads to altruistic behavior.  

PubMed

Feelings of elevation, elicited by witnessing another person perform a good deed, have been hypothesized to motivate a desire to help others. However, despite growing interest in the determinants of prosocial behavior, there is only limited evidence that elevation leads to increases in altruistic behavior. In two experiments, we tested the relationship between elevation and helping behavior. Prior to measuring helping behavior, we measured elevation among participants in an elevation-inducing condition and control conditions in order to determine whether witnessing altruistic behavior elicited elevation. In Experiment 1, participants experiencing elevation were more likely to volunteer for a subsequent unpaid study than were participants in a neutral state. In Experiment 2, participants experiencing elevation spent approximately twice as long helping the experimenter with a tedious task as participants experiencing mirth or a neutral emotional state. Further, feelings of elevation, but not feelings of amusement or happiness, predicted the amount of helping. Together, these results provide evidence that witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicits elevation, a discrete emotion that, in turn, leads to tangible increases in altruism. PMID:20424062

Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M T

2010-01-29

97

Analysis of integration gain in passive radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates various factors influencing the processing gain obtained thanks to coherent integration in a passive coherent location (PCL) radar. In theory, a longer integration time should lead to higher integration gain. In practice, however, some limitations exist, which restrict the maximum attainable processing gain. The paper presents theoretical considerations accompanied by numerical results based on simulated data as

Mateusz Malanowski; Krzysztof Kulpa

2008-01-01

98

High Gain Observer Design for Eth Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of a high gain observer (HGO) for the ETH helicopter laboratory process. The standard format of high gain observer is used and the parameters of the observer are selected in such away that the observer gain matrix H0 becomes Hurwitz. The observer not only estimates the angular positions and velocities of the system but

Naeem Ullah; A. Qayyum Khan; Ghulam Mustafa; M. Yousuf

2006-01-01

99

Gain characteristics of erbium doped fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), improving flat-gain has great important significance. The working principle and gain characteristics of EDFA are introduced briefly, the influence of the factors such as Erbium doped fiber (EDF) length and pump power on the gain of EDFA is analyzed in detail, and the simulation experiments were carried out with Optisystem software.

Lihua Zhang; Yungang Du; Ying Xi; Jijun Li; Chunwang Zhao

2008-01-01

100

Gain flattening in a Raman amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) systems, it is required that gain flattening must not be ignored. In this work, it is ensured that a Raman amplifier provides flat gain in a wide band, by analysis. The effects of the wavelength and the power of the pump laser on the gain flattening of a Raman amplifier are investigated. Using a

Mehmet Unal; Yusuf Hacisalihoglu; N. Ozlem Unverdi

2011-01-01

101

EDFA Gain Optimization for WDM System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain flatness of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is a key device for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) application in modern optical network systems. The purpose of this paper is to correct the gain non-uniformity for each channel in order to equalize the amplitude gain in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. The system is simulated using Optisystem software to achieve

Farah Diana; Binti Mahad; Abu Sahmah; Bin Mohd

102

Gestational Weight Gain Among Hispanic Women.  

PubMed

To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

2013-02-28

103

Achieving yield gains in wheat.  

PubMed

Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

2012-08-20

104

High-gain photorefractive polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the photorefractive properties of polymer composites based on the dye 2, N, N-dihexylamino-7- dicyanomethylidenyl-3, 4, 5, 6, 10-pentahydronaphthalene (DHADC-MPN). At 633 nm and with 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone as a sensitizer, the polyvinylcarbazole-based composites show complete internal diffraction at applied electric fields as low as E(pi /2) equals 30 V/micrometer. The sensitivity of the composite could be extended into the infrared by using (2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenylidene)malonitrile as a sensitizer, and at 830 nm complete internal diffraction occurred at an applied field of Epi/2 equals 59 V/micrometer. Finally, by using DHADC-MPN as a trifunctional dopant in an inert matrix, we have achieved a dynamic range of (Delta) n equals 0.0085 and a net two-beam coupling gain of (Gamma) equals 202 cm-1 at an applied field of 50 V/micrometer and at 633 nm. The composites are thermally stable or have shelf lifetimes of at least several years at room temperature.

Hendrickx, E.; Herlocker, J.; Maldonado, J. L.; Guillemet, G.; Roeckel, Harold; Erskine, L.; Marder, Seth R.; Kippelen, Bernard; Peyghambarian, Nasser

1998-04-01

105

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

106

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

107

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

108

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

109

Coherent coupling of optical gain elements  

SciTech Connect

A coherent light source is described comprising: a non-linear photorefractive medium; a laser for illuminating the photorefractive medium; a mirror on the opposite side of the photorefractive medium from the laser and aligned for retroreflecting light back toward the laser; and optical gain elements. Each optical gain element has its optical axis aligned with the photo-refractive medium, each optical gain element having a reflective end remote from the photorefractive medium, the laser and optical gain elements being sufficiently aligned that laser light scattered from the photorefractive medium illuminates all of the optical gain elements for amplification and producing a coherent output beam.

Ury, I.; Yariv, A

1989-05-23

110

Gain characteristics of erbium doped fiber amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA), improving flat-gain has great important significance. The working principle and gain characteristics of EDFA are introduced briefly, the influence of the factors such as Erbium doped fiber (EDF) length and pump power on the gain of EDFA is analyzed in detail, and the simulation experiments were carried out with Optisystem software. The result shows that, when pump power is constant, with EDF length departing the optimal value, the gain of each channel decreases at different degrees; when EDF length is constant, with pump power departing the optimal value, the gain of each channel changes at different degrees. Moreover, Er3+ concentration has significant effect on the gain, and there is an optimal Er3+ concentration to get the largest gain.

Zhang, Lihua; Du, Yungang; Xi, Ying; Li, Jijun; Zhao, Chunwang

2008-12-01

111

Evaluation of temperature-enhanced gain degradation of verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dose rate on radiation-induced gain degradation is compared for verticle npn and lateral pnp bipolar transistors. High dose rate irradiations at elevated temperatures are more effective at simulating low dose rate degradation in the lateral pnp transistors.

Witczak, S.C.; Lacoe, R.C. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Electronics Technology Center; Galloway, K.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [and others

1997-03-01

112

The Space Elevator Feasibility Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper ties together parameters pertaining to tetherspecific strength and to power system mass density to arrive at an inequality that determines whether a Space Elevator system is viable. The principle for the feasibility condition (FC) is that a Space Elevator must be able to lift its own weight fast enough – fast enough to grow by bootstrapping, fast

Ben Shelef

113

Science on a space elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by

B. E. Laubscher; A. M. Jorgensen

2004-01-01

114

Gravity referenced elevation encoder development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct

R. E. Goddard

1993-01-01

115

Transient hot-carrier optical gain in a gain-switched semiconductor laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient optical gain was quantitatively determined from the rise time of output pulses of a gain-switched semiconductor laser via impulsive optical pumping. The optical gain for a high carrier density during gain switching was greatly reduced from that during steady-state operation because of hot carriers.

Ito, Takashi; Chen, Shaoqiang; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

2013-08-01

116

Double-link elevators ETAD  

SciTech Connect

Double link elevators ETAD-50 and ETAD-80 having an automatic gripping device have been developed by AzINMash for clutching and clamping tubing strings and drill pipes and for holding in suspension a column of pipes during hoisting operations for major oil well repairs. The elevator ETAD consists of chasis, detachable grip, stops, a closing device, and two safety locks. Its advantages include: use of a single elevator, reduction of weight, convenience of handling of pipe, less movement of maintainence personnel, and longer service life. The technical parameters of ETAD are compared to EKhL, EZN, and EB type elevators and it is shown that ETAD increases labor productivity over the bulky EB type elevator.

Velikhanov, M.N.; Lemberanskii, F.D.

1983-07-01

117

PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain.

Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

2010-01-01

118

Managing smoking cessation?related weight gain.  

PubMed

About 80% of smokers who stop smoking gain weight after they stop; on average 5 kg in the first year and about 6 to 7 kg overall. However, weight gain varies a lot between individuals, with some putting on 10 kg or more in a year. Although some factors predict who will gain excessive weight, they are not clinically useful for targeting individuals at high risk. Instead, it may be prudent to monitor weight gain after cessation and intervene with people gaining more than 1 kg/month. There is some evidence that weight gain after cessation can be prevented by dietary intervention that includes setting an energy intake goal and regular monitoring of weight and adjustment of energy intake. However, there are fears that such an approach may harm the success of a quit attempt because it may worsen craving for cigarettes. There is no evidence that this is the case, but the data are too imprecise to be completely reassuring. Exercise programs may reduce cravings for tobacco and increase the likelihood of achieving smoking abstinence, and there is some evidence that they reduce weight gain in the longer term. Consequently, they may be safely recommended but the effect on weight gain is modest. Long?term nicotine replacement therapy prevents several kilograms of weight gain but it may produce harmful metabolic changes that increase cardiovascular risk. Randomized trials are needed to assess efficacy. Thus, weight gain after cessation remains problematic with few interventions to prevent it that have only modest effectiveness. PMID:23123526

Aveyard, Paul; Lycett, Deborah; Farley, Amanda

2012-01-01

119

44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...base flood elevation. Scientific and technical information to support a request to gain exclusion from an area of special flood...previously been established, we may also request hydrologic and hydraulic calculations. (7) A revision of floodplain...

2012-10-01

120

44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...base flood elevation. Scientific and technical information to support a request to gain exclusion from an area of special flood...previously been established, we may also request hydrologic and hydraulic calculations. (7) A revision of floodplain...

2011-10-01

121

A digitally programmable VGA [variable gain amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a digitally programmable MOST-only variable gain amplifier (VGA) built around a high-performance fully-differential operational amplifier with gain enhancement. Digital controllability is based on an inherent linear MOST-only current division technique. The system, built in 0.8 ?m CMOS technology and supplied at 3.3 V, achieves gains between -34 dB and 54 dB with linearity better than -80 dB

T. Sanz; B. Calvo; S. Celma; C. Moran

2001-01-01

122

1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

123

One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 h similar to three sets.  

PubMed

To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m(-2)) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~400 kJ day(-1)) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout. PMID:20886227

Heden, Timothy; Lox, Curt; Rose, Paul; Reid, Steven; Kirk, Erik P

2010-10-01

124

Pharmacodynamics of drug-induced weight gain.  

PubMed

Body weight gain during treatment with drugs for any kind of disease may represent improvement of the disease itself. However, sometimes these drug-induced alterations of the body's appetite-regulating mechanisms result in excessive weight gain, thus jeopardizing compliance with prescribed medication. A number of drugs are capable of changing body weight as an adverse consequence of their therapeutic effect. Included in this category are the psychotropic drugs such as antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Antipsychotics are well-known culprits of weight gain. The low-potency (e.g., chlorpromazine and thioridazine) and atypical agents (e.g., clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) are most often associated with weight gain. Antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are most often associated with significant weight gain. The tertiary tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline is thought to induce the most weight gain. Mood stabilizers such as lithium carbonate, valproic acid and carbamazepine also induce weight gain in a considerable number of patients. Treatment with corticosteroids is associated with dose-dependent body weight gain in many patients and corticosteroid-induced obesity aggravates other corticosteroid-associated health risks. Insulin therapy in diabetic patients usually increases body weight. Finally, sulfonylurea derivatives, antineoplastic agents used for the treatment of breast cancer and several drugs used in migraine prophylaxis may cause body weight gain as well. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12743638

Kulkarni, S. K.; Kaur, Gurpreet

2001-08-01

125

Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

2007-11-16

126

ConcepTest: Elevated Terraces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of elevated terraces (former wave-cut platforms) along an active plate boundary coast is evidence for ______________. a. Sea level rise b. Uplift of continental crust c. Subsidence (sinking) of crust

127

Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator  

SciTech Connect

An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

1993-08-24

128

Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

129

Gain calibration of CCD systems at VBO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system gain of two CCD systems in regular use at the Vainu Bappu Observatory, Kavalur, is determined at a few gain settings. The procedure used for the determination of system gain and base-level noise is described in detail. The Photometrics CCD system at the 1-m reflector uses a Thomson-CSF TH 7882 CDA chip coated for increased ultraviolet sensitivity. The gain is program-selected through the parameter 'cgain' varying between 0 and 4095 in steps of 1. The inverse system gain for this system varies almost linearly from 27.7 electrons/DN at cgain = 0 to 1.5 electrons/DN at cgain = 500. The readout noise is less than or approximately equal to 11 electrons at cgain = 66. The Astromed CCD system at 2.3-m Vainu Bappu Telescope uses a GEC P8603 chip which is also coated for enhanced ultraviolet sensitivity. The amplifier gain is selected in discrete steps using switches in the controller. The inverse system gain is 4.15 electrons/DN at the gain setting of 9.2, and the readout noise of about 8 electrons.

Prabhu, T. P.; Mayya, Y. D.; Anupama, G. C.

1992-03-01

130

Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

2010-01-01

131

GaInNAs laser gain  

SciTech Connect

The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

2000-05-23

132

Silicon nanowire detectors showing phototransistive gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanowire photodetectors are shown to function as phototransistors with high sensitivity. Due to small lateral dimensions, a nanowire detector can have low dark current while showing large phototransistive gain. Planar and vertical silicon nanowire photodetectors fabricated in a top-down approach using an etching process show a phototransistive gain above 35 000 at low light intensities. Simulations show that incident light

Arthur Zhang; Cesare Soci; Yisi Liu; Deli Wang; Yu-Hwa Lo

2008-01-01

133

Gain scheduling: potential hazards and possible remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current gain scheduling control of nonlinear practice is limited to slow variations in the scheduling variable. These limitations are revealed to be consequences of fundamental control concepts. It is shown how a reformulation of the gain scheduling procedure can lead to the ultimate removal of these restrictions

Jeff S. Shamma; Michael Athans

1992-01-01

134

Gaining access to shiftworkers through labor unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide the procedures used to gain access to shiftworkers who served as subjects in a work-sleep study.\\u000a Our experiences in gaining the cooperation of labor union organizations and their members are described in detail, as are\\u000a characteristics of the surveyed workers.

Gloria C. Gordon; Donald I. Tepas; Cynthia G. Stock; James K. Walsh

1979-01-01

135

Meaningful Reading Gains by Adult Literacy Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To obtain a fuller picture of the efficacy of reading instruction programs for adult literacy learners, gains by individual students were examined in a sample (n = 148) in which weak to moderate gains at the group level had been obtained in response to tutoring interventions that focused on strengthening basic decoding and fluency skills of low…

Scarborough, Hollis S.; Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Cutting, Laurie E.; Pugh, Kenneth; Katz, Leonard

2013-01-01

136

Compliance Gaining on Prime Time Family Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies compliance gaining behaviors among characters in 18 prime time television programs. Finds that situation comedies were more likely than dramas to contain family characters who attempted to gain compliance. Finds that parental characters were more likely than children to seek and achieve compliance. Compares results to "real life" parental…

Haefner, Margaret J.; Comstock, Jamie

1990-01-01

137

Information Gains for Stress Release Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information gain of a point process model quantifies its predictability, relative to a reference model such as the Poisson process. This is bounded above by the entropy gain, or difference between the point process entropy rates. This provides a bound on the utility of the model as a forecasting tool, separate from the usual ``goodness of fit'' assessment criteria.

Mark S. Bebbington

2005-01-01

138

Information Gains for Stress Release Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information gain of a point process model quantifies its predictability, relative to a reference model such as the Poisson process. This is bounded above by the entropy gain, or difference between the point process entropy rates. This provides a bound on the utility of the model as a forecasting tool, separate from the usual “goodness of fit” assessment criteria.

Mark S. Bebbington

2005-01-01

139

The Journey to Manhood in Gaines' Bloodline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ernest Gaines collection of five short stories Bloodline, (1968) depicts the effects of racism and its denigrating effects on the lives of the black men. Gaines use of animal imagery furthers the effects of racism on the psychology of the blacks. The resolution comes around in the form of a mentor who helps the protagonists to break through the debilitating

Shagun Rawat

2011-01-01

140

Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers  

SciTech Connect

The limiting factors in short pulse generation by gain switching of semiconductor lasers are analyzed using an approach parallel to conventional Q switching analysis. The dependence of the gain-switched pulse width and pulse energy on various input parameters such as drive current amplitude, bias current, and spontaneous emission factor, etc., can be predicted in a simple manner.

Lau, K.Y.

1988-01-25

141

Excessive maternal weight gain patterns in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the correlates of excessive maternal weight gain among adolescent mothers in the United States. Data from the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention 2000 natality file were analyzed to examine weight gain among adolescents (?19 years) compared with their older counterparts (?20 years). Using the Institute of Medicine guidelines, we defined excessive

Lajeana D. Howie; Jennifer D. Parker; Kenneth C. Schoendorf

2003-01-01

142

Contrast Gain Control in Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary The auditory system must represent sounds with a wide range of statistical properties. One important property is the spectrotemporal contrast in the acoustic environment: the variation in sound pressure in each frequency band, relative to the mean pressure. We show that neurons in ferret auditory cortex rescale their gain to partially compensate for the spectrotemporal contrast of recent stimulation. When contrast is low, neurons increase their gain, becoming more sensitive to small changes in the stimulus, although the effectiveness of contrast gain control is reduced at low mean levels. Gain is primarily determined by contrast near each neuron's preferred frequency, but there is also a contribution from contrast in more distant frequency bands. Neural responses are modulated by contrast over timescales of ?100 ms. By using contrast gain control to expand or compress the representation of its inputs, the auditory system may be seeking an efficient coding of natural sounds.

Rabinowitz, Neil C.; Willmore, Ben D.B.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.; King, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

143

Quantification of Glacier Changes Using Icesat Elevation Data and the Srtm Digital Elevation Model in the Western Karakoram Himalaya Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although notable rates of glacier retreat have been monitored across the Eastern Himalaya region in recent years, glacier changes due to increases in global air temperature in the Western Karakoram Himalaya are not well documented. The objective of this study is to quantify ice mass changes of major glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) of the Western Karakoram Himalaya using ICESat elevation data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) C-band digital elevation model. ICESat GLA06 elevations data, release 28 over the glaciers in the UIB were examined for the period of 2004-2008. The SRTM 90-meter resolution was used as reference DEM for computing elevation changes since February, 2000. The difference in elevation at each ICESat footprint location was computed by subtracting the SRTM elevation data from the ICESat data. In order to estimate the glacier elevation changes in snow accumulation and ablation zones, the glaciated area was classified as either clean ice or debris-covered ice using Landsat ETM and TM data available for the period of 1990-2001. The elevation differences were then computed for all available ICESat data points in the accumulation and ablation zones at the scale of individual glaciers and sub-watersheds. The preliminary results for the Hunza watershed in the UIB showed that the mean difference for all years combined is +0.64 m/year in the accumulation zone, while +0.01 m/year in the ablation zone. The mean elevation difference from February, 2000 to March, 2008 for two major glaciers (i.e. Hispar and Batura glaciers) in the Hunza watershed showed a mean altitude gain in the ablation and accumulation zones of 0.1 m/year and 0.88 m/year, respectively for the Batura glacier, while a mean altitude loss of 0.91 m/year and mean altitude gain of 1.28 m/year were detected in the ablation and accumulation zones, respectively for the Hispar glacier. Such results show the potential of ICESat data for assessing relief changes on mountain glaciers and could be used in the estimation of glacier mass balance at higher temporal resolutions. Further work will focus on isolating changes in glacier altitude from seasonal snow cover differences through comparisons between ICESat data acquisitions in spring and fall campaigns.

Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Crawford, M. M.

2008-12-01

144

2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

145

An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to

He Xiaofeng; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun

2012-01-01

146

Literature Review on Enclosure of Elevator Lobbies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey was conducted to explore the need and appropriate systems for protecting elevator lobbies from smoke migration. The focus is on smoke spread through elevator shafts and lobbies, building occupant and fire fighter use of elevators durin...

D.W. Stroup

2003-01-01

147

Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement  

SciTech Connect

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward.

Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Max-Planck Forschungsgruppe, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Guenther-Scharowsky strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Mista, Ladislav Jr. [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 772 07 Olomouc (Czech Republic); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 772 07 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Filip, Radim [Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Max-Planck Forschungsgruppe, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Guenther-Scharowsky strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 772 07 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Leuchs, Gerd [Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Max-Planck Forschungsgruppe, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Guenther-Scharowsky strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2007-09-15

148

Life testing of EMCCD gain characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two electron-multiplication, charge-coupled devices (e2v CCD97) were operated continuously for 52 days to assess their avalanche gain stability. This work was part of an evaluation study into their suitability for the radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) instrument on the European Space Agency's Gaia cornerstone mission. After one day the device gain was stable to within 10%, and at the end of the test both devices reached the required multiplication gain of 8 with an avalanche electrode voltage of less than 36 V.

Ingley, Richard; Smith, David R.; Holland, Andrew D.

2009-03-01

149

Isostasy and Global Elevation Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This investigation explores the basic process of isostasy and its explanatory power for the observed bimodal distribution for global elevations. In Part A, the densities of representative rock samples of granite and basalt are determined experimentally and compared to typical crustal values. In Part B, the concept of isostasy is examined through a continent-to-ocean transect by determining if the hydrostatic pressure at a common asthenosphere depth is approximately equal under four different "columns" of overlying material. In Part C, a dynamic web-based isostasy model is used to predict elevations for lithospheric columns of different crustal thickness and density. In Part D, the bimodal distribution of global elevations is explicitly explored and connected to the fundamental components of isostasy as explored in Parts A, B, and C.

Schellenberg, Stephen

150

Plasmon electron energy-gain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore multiple energy losses and gains undergone by swift electrons interacting with resonant evanescent light fields. We predict remarkably high gain probabilities in the range of a percentage when the electrons are passing near a resonant plasmonic structure under continuous-wave illumination conditions with moderate laser intensities ? 108 W m?2. Additionally, we observe fine structure in the dependence of the gain and loss probabilities on the light wavelength, which reveals a complex interplay between multiple plasmon–electron interactions. These results constitute a solid basis for the development of a new spectroscopy technique based upon the analysis of energy gains, capable of rendering information on the optical properties of the sampled resonant nanostructures. We illustrate this concept for plasmon-supporting noble metal nanoparticles.

Asenjo-Garcia, A.; García de Abajo, F. J.

2013-10-01

151

Scientists Gain Genetic Insight into Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Scientists Gain Genetic Insight Into Alzheimer's Disease Study of mice builds on landmark findings ... Preidt Friday, September 27, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Genes and Gene Therapy FRIDAY, Sept. 27 ( ...

152

High-gain end-pumped lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New-generation diode pump sources allow end-pumped cw lasers to achieve gain levels previously reached only in quasi-cw diode-pumped systems. We report end-pumped lasers with single-pass small signal gain G=10, producing Q-switched output at the 16-W level in 6-ns pulses at 20 kHz. We achieved these results with a modified version of the Opto Power Beam Shaper, capable of producing a

M. Fuller; D. Matthews; L. R. Marshall

1998-01-01

153

Pressure-gain combustion for gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation has been performed to evaluate {open_quotes}pressure-gain{close_quotes} combustion systems for gas turbine applications. Results from the investigation have shown that, due to the oscillatory combustion process, a pressure boost can be achieved for suitable combustor geometries. The pressure gains achieved thus far have been as high as

R. Gemmen; G. Richards; M. Janus

1995-01-01

154

Life testing of EMCCD gain characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two electron-multiplication, charge-coupled devices (e2v CCD97) were operated continuously for 52 days to assess their avalanche gain stability. This work was part of an evaluation study into their suitability for the radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) instrument on the European Space Agency's Gaia cornerstone mission. After one day the device gain was stable to within 10%, and at the end of

Richard Ingley; David R. Smith; Andrew D. Holland

2009-01-01

155

Prenatal Weight Gain: Who is Counseled?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Because prenatal counseling is associated with adherence to weight gain guidelines, we sought to identify patient-level characteristics associated with the receipt of counseling on weight gain, nutrition, and exercise during prenatal care. Methods We performed a secondary data analysis on a cohort of women enrolled in a prenatal counseling intervention study. We controlled for study group assignment (intervention versus usual care) as well as patient characteristics in a multivariable analysis. We performed three separate multivariable analyses for predictors of provider-patient discussions about (1) weight gain, (2) nutrition, and (3) exercise. Results The cohort consisted of 311 predominantly low-income prenatal patients receiving care at several sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. Prepregnancy body mass index, nutrition knowledge, maternal age, parity, and type of insurance were not significantly associated with receipt of counseling about weight gain, nutrition, and exercise. In the multivariable analysis, white women were significantly less likely to be counseled about nutrition than non-white women (p=0.02). Former smokers were more likely to receive counseling about nutrition and exercise than never smokers (p<0.05). More advanced gestational age was associated with a higher rate of counseling on weight gain (p=0.01). Conclusions Despite having the highest rates of excessive weight gain nationally, white women were the least likely to receive counseling about nutrition during pregnancy. Interventions that prompt clinicians and simplify counseling may improve counseling rates for all patients during prenatal care.

Tsoh, Janice Y.; Gerbert, Barbara

2012-01-01

156

Convergent intron gains in hymenopteran elongation factor-1?.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1? gene (eEF1A) has been used extensively in higher level phylogenetics of insects and other groups, despite being present in two or more copies in several taxa. Orthology assessment has relied heavily on the position of introns, but the basic assumption of low rates of intron loss and absence of convergent intron gains has not been tested thoroughly. Here, we study the evolution of eEF1A based on a broad sample of taxa in the insect order Hymenoptera. The gene is universally present in two copies - F1 and F2 - both of which apparently originated before the emergence of the order. An elevated ratio of non-synonymous versus synonymous substitutions and differences in rates of amino acid replacements between the copies suggest that they evolve independently, and phylogenetic methods clearly cluster the copies separately. The F2 copy appears to be ancient; it is orthologous with the copy known as F1 in Diptera, and is likely present in most insect orders. The hymenopteran F1 copy, which may or may not be unique to this order, apparently originated through retroposition and was originally intron free. During the evolution of the Hymenoptera, it has successively accumulated introns, at least three of which have appeared at the same position as introns in the F2 copy or in eEF1A copies in other insects. The sites of convergent intron gain are characterized by highly conserved nucleotides that strongly resemble specific intron-associated sequence motifs, so-called proto-splice sites. The significant rate of convergent intron gain renders intron-exon structure unreliable as an indicator of orthology in eEF1A, and probably also in other protein-coding genes. PMID:23396205

Klopfstein, Seraina; Ronquist, Fredrik

2013-02-07

157

LESQUERELLA PRODUCTION AT DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production regions for lesquerella, a potential new oilseed crop for hydroxy fatty acid production, are not defined yet. This crop has a wide range of natural distribution in the Southwestern US. Plants were established at four different sites in Arizona ranging from 300 to 900 m in elevation to...

158

Defense of a space elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the

Laubscher

2004-01-01

159

Space elevator systems level analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing

Laubscher

2004-01-01

160

Analysis of a Space Elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the engineering principles that govern the design of a Space Elevator. The presentation includes extensive mathematical analysis of several basic approaches, reviews historical approaches and looks at some novel implementations. The technical challenges that must be overcome and the potential application of new technology to meet these challenges are discussed. While the paper focuses on the engineering

J. L. Langston

2003-01-01

161

Elevator for cobalt-60 source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elevator used for cobalt-60 source is a key device in the irradiation industry. It plays an important role in the safety and control of irradiation operation as well as the utilization rate of radiation source. From 1983 to 1986, Beijing Institute of ...

Z. Tang D. Liang

1990-01-01

162

Intrinsically-low Brillouin gain optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous methods to increase the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold have been previously implemented. Some are passive, based on acousto-optic fiber designs that incorporate longitudinally- or radially-tailored optical and/or acoustic index profiles, leading to broadened Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) with reduced peak gain. Some are active, relying on an applied temperature or strain distribution, also resulting in broadened BGS. Broadening the laser spectrum still represents the most effective method to-date to obtain large-scale (> 20 dB) decreases in the gain, but the suitability of this method depends largely on the application and system requirements on the laser spectrum. Despite these technologies, some introduced only in the last decade, the vast majority of high-energy, narrow-linewidth fiber laser systems are still limited by SBS rather than the availability of pump power. We present an alternative approach; rather than focusing on `suppressing' SBS in waveguide or other designs, we propose implementing materials with intrinsically low Brillouin gain. We focus on high-density, high-soundvelocity, large acoustic-damping-coefficient, and low-photoelastic-constant materials wherein the correct balancing of physical characteristics gives rise to extremely low Brillouin gain. In general, the approach requires the use of compositions that would be considered to be highly unconventional and unachievable utilizing standard fiber fabrication methods. For example, we describe recent results on sapphire-derived fibers (among other compositions) wherein a Brillouin gain nearly 20 dB lower than those of more conventional fibers has been realized. Other compositions will also be presented, including new results on a novel baria doped fiber, including others predicted to have zero-valued photoelastic constants, and therefore zero Brillouin gain.

Dragic, Peter D.; Ballato, John; Morris, Stephanie; Hawkins, Thomas

2013-05-01

163

Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a successful application of sheet metal forming technologies at elevated temperatures. Among data needed to settle a numerical model of the process, information about material formability may help in better designing and optimizing hot stamping operations. In the first part of the work, a new experimental apparatus based on Nakazima concept is presented; process parameters are optimized in order to accurately replicate the thermo-mechanical conditions typical of the industrial process, paying particular attention to the thermal and microstructural evolution. On the other hand, as commercial FE codes require the implementation of Forming Limit Diagrams at constant temperature, numerical investigations have been performed in order to determine the proper testing conditions to obtain FLD at nearly constant temperature.

Turetta, A.; Ghiotti, A. [DIMEG, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131, Padova (Italy); Bruschi, S. [DIMS, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38050, Trento (Italy)

2007-04-07

164

Exponential Tethers for Accelerated Space Elevator Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exponential space elevator is a space elevator with a tether cross-section that varies exponentially with altitude. With such an elevator it is possible to reel in tether material at one end of the elevator while reeling out at the other end, without changing the overall taper prole. I show how to use this property to build up or clone

Blaise Gassendy

165

Temperature dependence of the current gain in power 4H-SiC NPN BJTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 1-kV 30-A 4H-SiC epitaxial emitter n-p-n bipolar junction transistors, the dependences of the common-emitter current gain ?CE on the collector current IC were measured at elevated temperatures. The collector-emitter voltage was fixed (at 100 V) to provide an active operation mode at all collector currents varying in a wide range from 150 mA to 40 A (current densities of

Pavel A. Ivanov; Michael E. Levinshtein; Anant K. Agarwal; Sumi Krishnaswami; John W. Palmour

2006-01-01

166

Indirect Excitons in Elevated Traps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduced an elevated trap technique and exploited it for lowering the effective temperature of indirect excitons. We observed narrow photoluminescence lines which correspond to the emission of individual states of indirect excitons in a disorder potential. We studied the effect of exciton-exciton interaction on the localized and delocalized exciton states and found that the homogeneous line broadening increases with density and dominates the linewidth at high densities.

High, A. A.; Hammack, A. T.; Butov, L. V.; Mouchliadis, L.; Ivanov, A. L.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A. C.

2009-05-01

167

Elevated mixing at a front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mesoscale, submesoscale, and microscale structure of a front in the California Current was observed using a towed vehicle outfitted with microconductivity sensors. Thirteen >60 km cross-front sections from 0 to 350 m in depth were covered in 3.5 days. Objectively mapped data are fit via the Omega (?) equation to obtain vertical velocity. A composite cross-front section shows elevated mixing on the dense side within 10-20 km of the front. Water downwells and gradients are elevated there: i.e., Rossby number (Ro), horizontal strain (?), spice gradients, and microscale thermal dissipation (?). Thermal eddy diffusivity (KT) reaches 10-3 m2 s-1 and increases 3-10× from the anticyclonic to the cyclonic side with a depth mean of ˜10-4 m2 s-1. The spatial structure of KT, Ro, and ? are similar on the dense side, suggesting an energy cascade from the mesoscale via the submesoscale to the microscale. However, it is unclear whether frontogenesis, internal wave blocking by elevated vorticity, or internal wave trapping by large ? produces the elevated mixing. The mean turbulent heat flux opposes the mean restratifying, mesoscale heat flux of 10 W m-2 and may allow the front to persist. Turbulent nitrate fluxes are 0.1-0.3 mmol m-2 s-1. Chlorophyll fluorescence and beam transmission reveal a <6 km wide, ˜100 km long alongfront streamer which is a deep biomass maximum. Time scales for mixing and nutrient fluxes are 0.3-3 days, which are similar to phytoplankton growth rates and the time scale for frontal evolution.

Johnston, T. M. Shaun; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Pallã S-Sanz, E.

2011-11-01

168

Gain Narrowing in Few-Atom Systems  

SciTech Connect

Using a density matrix approach, we study the simplest systems that display both gain and feedback: clusters of 2 to 5 atoms, one of which is pumped. The other atoms supply feedback through multiple scattering of light. We show that, if the atoms are in each other's near field, the system exhibits large gain narrowing and spectral mode redistribution. The observed phenomena are more pronounced if the feedback is enhanced. Our system is to our knowledge the simplest exactly solvable microscopic system which shows the approach to laser oscillation.

Savels, Tom [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosk, Allard P. [Complex Photonic Systems, MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, Post Office Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Lagendijk, Ad [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Complex Photonic Systems, MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, Post Office Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2007-03-09

169

Varactor-diode modulator yields conversion gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that varactor diodes used as modulator elements can make a balanced diode mixer yield conversion gain when employed in an upconverter. Replacing the normal mixer diodes with varactor diodes and inserting the IF and LO voltages at a level that drives the diodes into their nonlinear voltage-capacitance region produces a parametric amplifying effect. This modification results in conversion gain rather than loss, and brings the desired output power up to the 0.1-1.0 W level. The use of this technique in a lower-sideband UHF TV upconverter is considered.

Breitkopf, K.

1980-05-01

170

Silicon nanowire detectors showing phototransistive gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowire photodetectors are shown to function as phototransistors with high sensitivity. Due to small lateral dimensions, a nanowire detector can have low dark current while showing large phototransistive gain. Planar and vertical silicon nanowire photodetectors fabricated in a top-down approach using an etching process show a phototransistive gain above 35 000 at low light intensities. Simulations show that incident light can be waveguided into vertical nanowires resulting in up to 40 times greater external quantum efficiency above their physical fill factor. Vertical silicon nanowire phototransistors formed by etching are attractive for low light level detection and for integration with silicon electronics.

Zhang, Arthur; You, Sifang; Soci, Cesare; Liu, Yisi; Wang, Deli; Lo, Yu-Hwa

2008-09-01

171

Solitons supported by localized parametric gain.  

PubMed

We address the existence and properties of one-dimensional solitons maintained by localized parametric gain in focusing and defocusing lossy nonlinear media. Localized parametric gain supports both fundamental and multipole solitons. We found that the family of fundamental solitons is partly stable in focusing nonlinear medium, and completely stable in defocusing medium, while all higher-order solitons are unstable. In addition to numerical results, the existence threshold for the solitons and a particular stable exact solution are obtained in an exact analytical form. PMID:23455109

Ye, Fangwei; Huang, Changming; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Malomed, Boris A

2013-02-15

172

Gain and photoluminescence in semiconductor lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general scheme for the determination of vital operating characteristics of semiconductor lasers from low intensity photo-luminescence spectra is outlined and demonstrated. A fully microscopic model for the calculation of optical properties is coupled to a drift diffusion model for the mesoscopic charge and electric field distributions to calculate photo-luminescence and gain spectra in barrier-doped semiconductor laser material. Analyzing experiments on an optically pumped multi quantum-well structure it is demonstrated that the electric fields arising from the space charges of ionized dopants contribute to strongly excitation dependent optical properties, such as significant shifts of the luminescence versus peak gain wavelengths.

Hader, Joerg; Koch, Stephan W.; Zakharian, Aramais R.; Moloney, Jerome V.; Ehret, James E.; Nelson, Thomas R.

2002-06-01

173

Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes  

DOEpatents

A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

Cohn, Charles E. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1976-01-01

174

Microbes on mountainsides: Contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity  

PubMed Central

The study of elevational diversity gradients dates back to the foundation of biogeography. Although elevational patterns of plant and animal diversity have been studied for centuries, such patterns have not been reported for microorganisms and remain poorly understood. Here, in an effort to assess the generality of elevational diversity patterns, we examined soil bacterial and plant diversity along an elevation gradient. To gain insight into the forces that structure these patterns, we adopted a multifaceted approach to incorporate information about the structure, diversity, and spatial turnover of montane communities in a phylogenetic context. We found that observed patterns of plant and bacterial diversity were fundamentally different. While bacterial taxon richness and phylogenetic diversity decreased monotonically from the lowest to highest elevations, plants followed a unimodal pattern, with a peak in richness and phylogenetic diversity at mid-elevations. At all elevations bacterial communities had a tendency to be phylogenetically clustered, containing closely related taxa. In contrast, plant communities did not exhibit a uniform phylogenetic structure across the gradient: they became more overdispersed with increasing elevation, containing distantly related taxa. Finally, a metric of phylogenetic beta-diversity showed that bacterial lineages were not randomly distributed, but rather exhibited significant spatial structure across the gradient, whereas plant lineages did not exhibit a significant phylogenetic signal. Quantifying the influence of sample scale in intertaxonomic comparisons remains a challenge. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the forces structuring microorganism and macroorganism communities along elevational gradients differ.

Bryant, Jessica A.; Lamanna, Christine; Morlon, Helene; Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Enquist, Brian J.; Green, Jessica L.

2008-01-01

175

An ISS small gain theorem for general networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a generalized version of the nonlinear small gain theorem for the case of more than two coupled input-to-state stable systems. For this result the interconnection gains are described in a nonlinear gain matrix, and the small gain condition requires bounds on the image of this gain matrix. The condition may be interpreted as a nonlinear generalization of the

Sergey Dashkovskiy; Björn S. Rüffer; Fabian R. Wirth

2007-01-01

176

Attentional effects on contrast discrimination in humans: evidence for both contrast gain and response gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand how attention affects visual processing, we investigated the degree to which attention effects can be accounted for by increases in the contrast gain of the contrast response function, CRF (represented by an increase in effective con- trast) vs. increases in the response gain (represented by an overall amplification of response). To this end, we used a

Liqiang Huang; Karen R. Dobkins

2005-01-01

177

Adaptive Filtering Algorithms with Automatic Gain Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we introduce an automatic gain control (AGC) scheme for adaptive algorithms that are used extensively in many applications. The proposed AGC scheme is realized by using an estimate of the cross correlation between adaptive error and the inpu...

T. J. Shan T. Kailath

1985-01-01

178

Band mixing effects on quantum well gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The band structure and the optical matrix elements of a quantum well are studied by the kp perturbation method within the envelope function approximation. The quantum well gain spectra calculated by the kp method and the k-selection rules clearly show the effects of band mixing both in shape and in peak magnitude. The results differ considerably from those based on

Sel Colak; R. Eppenga; Martin F. H. Schuurmans

1987-01-01

179

Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be

Yu Matsutomi

2010-01-01

180

Electromagnetically induced gain in molecular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report electromagnetically induced gain in a highly degenerate two-level rotational vibrational molecular system. Using two photon (Raman-type) interaction with right and left circularly polarized pump and probe waves, the Zeeman coherence is established within the manifold of degenerate sublevels belonging to a rotational vibrational eigenstate. We analytically and numerically calculate the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for a Doppler-broadened molecular transition for an arbitrary high rotational angular momentum (J?20) . It is shown that for a Q -type open transition, a weak probe will experience an electromagnetically induced gain in presence of a strong copropagating pump wave. The inversionless gain originates due to cancellation of absorption from the interference of the coupled ? - and V-type excitation channels in an N -type configuration. A detailed analysis of the optical susceptibility as a function of Doppler detuning explains how the gain bands are generated in a narrow transparency window from the overlapping contributions of different velocity groups. It is shown that the orientation dependent coherent interaction in presence of a strong pump induces narrow resonances for the probe susceptibility. The locations, intensity, and sign (positive or negative susceptibility) of these resonances are decided by the frequency detuning of the Doppler group and the strength of the coupling field. The availability of high power tunable quantum cascade lasers covering a spectral region from about 4 to 12?m opens up the possibility of investigating the molecular vibrational rotational transitions for a variety of coherent effects.

Mukherjee, Nandini; Patel, C. Kumar N.

2009-12-01

181

Women's Gains at Risk in Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

M. Ashraf Haidari describes the gains Afghan women have made since the Taliban government ended 7 years ago. They have regained most of the freedoms they lost under the Taliban, and the Afghan government under President Karzai is committed to furthering t...

M. A. Haidari

2008-01-01

182

Health Tip: Avoid Weight Gain At College  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Avoid Weight Gain at College Don't ... Wednesday, October 23, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages College Health Nutrition Weight Control (HealthDay News) -- It's common for ...

183

Trans fatty acids and weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing rates of obesity have stimulated research into possible contributing factors, including specific dietary components such as trans fatty acids (TFAs). This review considers the evidence for an association between TFA intake and weight gain. It concludes that there is limited but consistent evidence from epidemiological studies, and from a primate model, that increased TFA consumption may result in a

A K Thompson; A-M Minihane; C M Williams

2011-01-01

184

The Gain of Steered Sonar Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods of calculating the gain of an array in simple and complex noise fields are presented. One method approaches the solutions from a knowledge of the spatial correlation of the noise, the other from a knowledge of the directivity pattern of the ar...

P. J. Enoch

1973-01-01

185

Fixed Gain Controller Design for Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Method for designing fixed gain controllers and filters for systems with large parameter variation is presented. The approach, based of minmax information criteria, is used to design a non-adaptive back-up control system for a given aircraft and is show...

Y. Baram D. Eidelman

1981-01-01

186

Performance gains through diverse top management teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging and future changes in workforce diversity have caused a need to examine the potential impact of these changes on all areas of the firm. One area of special interest is that of top management team (TMT) diversity. With more diverse TMTs on the horizon, there is potential for both conflict and performance gains as a result of increased diversity

Charles M. Carson; Don C. Mosley; Scott L. Boyar

2004-01-01

187

Adolescent Drug Addiction Treatment and Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens use has been linked to self-administration and learning following drug use. This endogenous reward system is also activated following food intake or sex. Therefore, rebound hyperphagia following abstinence may be a mechanism to replenish the release of neurotransmitters in this reward system, leading to increased weight gain and a rise in Body Mass Index

Candace C. Hodgkins; Kevin S. Cahill; Anne E. Seraphine; Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Mark S. Gold

2004-01-01

188

A brain gain with a brain drain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study human capital depletion and formation in an economy open to out-migration, as opposed to an economy which is closed. Under the assumption of asymmetric information, the enlarged opportunities and the associated different structure of incentives can give rise to a brain gain in conjunction with a brain drain. Migration by high-skill members of its workforce notwithstanding, the home

Oded Stark; Christian Helmenstein; Alexia Prskawetz

1997-01-01

189

Electromagnetically induced gain in molecular systems  

SciTech Connect

We report electromagnetically induced gain in a highly degenerate two-level rotational vibrational molecular system. Using two photon (Raman-type) interaction with right and left circularly polarized pump and probe waves, the Zeeman coherence is established within the manifold of degenerate sublevels belonging to a rotational vibrational eigenstate. We analytically and numerically calculate the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for a Doppler-broadened molecular transition for an arbitrary high rotational angular momentum (J>=20). It is shown that for a Q-type open transition, a weak probe will experience an electromagnetically induced gain in presence of a strong copropagating pump wave. The inversionless gain originates due to cancellation of absorption from the interference of the coupled LAMBDA- and V-type excitation channels in an N-type configuration. A detailed analysis of the optical susceptibility as a function of Doppler detuning explains how the gain bands are generated in a narrow transparency window from the overlapping contributions of different velocity groups. It is shown that the orientation dependent coherent interaction in presence of a strong pump induces narrow resonances for the probe susceptibility. The locations, intensity, and sign (positive or negative susceptibility) of these resonances are decided by the frequency detuning of the Doppler group and the strength of the coupling field. The availability of high power tunable quantum cascade lasers covering a spectral region from about 4 to 12 mum opens up the possibility of investigating the molecular vibrational rotational transitions for a variety of coherent effects.

Mukherjee, Nandini; Patel, C. Kumar N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2009-12-15

190

Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

2006-01-01

191

Measurement of Information Gain from Written Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pretest/post-test procedure for measuring information gain from discourse was investigated together with several other aspects of discourse processing. The main purpose was to determine the effect of a pretest on discourse learning as measured by post-test performance. The study also investigated (1) serial position effects in learning from…

Mosberg, Ludwig

192

Gaining Insights into Children's Geometric Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how research on children's geometric thinking was used in conjunction with the picture book "The Greedy Triangle" to gain valuable insights into children's prior geometric knowledge of polygons. Exercises focused on the names, visual appearance, and properties of polygons, as well as real-world connections for each, are…

Mack, Nancy K.

2007-01-01

193

The High Gain Free Electron Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is composed of two independent parts on a theoretical study of the high gain free electron laser. In the first part (Chapters 2-4) a non-linear (saturation) regime of the free electron lasers (FELs) with electromagnetic wigglers is described. Two opposite configurations for the wiggler field propagation direction are considered in a unified manner. The wiggler field propagating counter

Yoonho Seo; Yoonho

1989-01-01

194

Bayesian inference for the information gain model.  

PubMed

One of the most popular paradigms to use for studying human reasoning involves the Wason card selection task. In this task, the participant is presented with four cards and a conditional rule (e.g., "If there is an A on one side of the card, there is always a 2 on the other side"). Participants are asked which cards should be turned to verify whether or not the rule holds. In this simple task, participants consistently provide answers that are incorrect according to formal logic. To account for these errors, several models have been proposed, one of the most prominent being the information gain model (Oaksford & Chater, Psychological Review, 101, 608-631, 1994). This model is based on the assumption that people independently select cards based on the expected information gain of turning a particular card. In this article, we present two estimation methods to fit the information gain model: a maximum likelihood procedure (programmed in R) and a bayesian procedure (programmed in WinBUGS). We compare the two procedures and illustrate the flexibility of the bayesian hierarchical procedure by applying it to data from a meta-analysis of the Wason task (Oaksford & Chater, Psychological Review, 101, 608-631, 1994). We also show that the goodness of fit of the information gain model can be assessed by inspecting the posterior predictives of the model. These bayesian procedures make it easy to apply the information gain model to empirical data. Supplemental materials may be downloaded along with this article from www.springerlink.com. PMID:21302022

Stringer, Sven; Borsboom, Denny; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

2011-06-01

195

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

196

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting

M. C. MacCracken

2005-01-01

197

Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.  

PubMed

Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

2012-07-30

198

Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult blood pressure in 5 low- and middle-income-country cohorts: when does weight gain matter?123  

PubMed Central

Background: Promoting catch-up growth in malnourished children has health benefits, but recent evidence suggests that accelerated child weight gain increases adult chronic disease risk. Objective: We aimed to determine how birth weight (BW) and weight gain to midchildhood relate to blood pressure (BP) in young adults. Design: We pooled data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We used conditional weight (CW), a residual of current weight regressed on prior weights, to represent deviations from expected weight gain from 0 to 12, 12 to 24, 24 to 48 mo, and 48 mo to adulthood. Adult BP and risk of prehypertension or hypertension (P/HTN) were modeled before and after adjustment for adult body mass index (BMI) and height. Interactions of CWs with small size-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth were tested. Results: Higher CWs were associated with increased BP and odds of P/HTN, with coefficients proportional to the contribution of each CW to adult BMI. Adjusted for adult height and BMI, no child CW was associated with adult BP, but 1 SD of BW was related to a 0.5-mm Hg lower systolic BP and a 9% lower odds of P/HTN. BW and CW associations with systolic BP and P/HTN were not different between adults born SGA and those with normal BW, but higher CW at 48 mo was associated with higher diastolic BP in those born SGA. Conclusions: Greater weight gain at any age relates to elevated adult BP, but faster weight gains in infancy and young childhood do not pose a higher risk than do gains at other ages.

Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Hallal, Pedro C; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Wills, Andrew K; Norris, Shane A; Dahly, Darren L; Lee, Nanette R; Victora, Cesar G

2009-01-01

199

Determination of True Elevations from Aerial Photographs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are many problems involved in the determination of accurate elevations from tilted photographs. Plotting machines such as the Wild A-7 are able to compensate for tilt and provide accurate elevations, however, these machines are expensive and not ava...

C. L. Smith

1977-01-01

200

Global variation in elevational diversity patterns.  

PubMed

While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres and across latitudes. Our results show that most elevational diversity curves are positively skewed (maximum diversity below the middle of the gradient) and the elevation of the peak in diversity increases with the elevation of lower sampling limits and to a lesser extent with upper limit. Mountains with greater elevational extents, and taxonomic groups that are more inclusive, show proportionally more unimodal patterns whereas other ranges and taxa show highly variable gradients. The two hemispheres share some interesting similarities but also remarkable differences, likely reflecting differences in landmass and mountain configurations. Different taxonomic groups exhibit diversity peaks at different elevations, probably reflecting both physical and physiological constraints. PMID:24157658

Guo, Qinfeng; Kelt, Douglas A; Sun, Zhongyu; Liu, Hongxiao; Hu, Liangjun; Ren, Hai; Wen, Jun

2013-10-25

201

Diffusion rates for elevated releases  

SciTech Connect

A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Ramsdell, J.V.

1983-11-01

202

History of Elevators and Related Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of traction drive elevators in Japan is described. The electrical technologies such as the microprocessor car control and the VVVF motor control made remarkable progress leading to higher reliability and energy savings. Then, the various machine-room-less elevators have been developed and the space saving technology, such as the shuttle and the double-deck elevators become important, too. The elevators used for evacuation in case of emergencies are also discussed.

Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiki

203

Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

McKee, K. L.; Cherry, J. A.

2009-01-01

204

Why we need a space elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of and vision for development of a space elevator have been discussed repeatedly. However, why we should develop one has been glossed over. This paper will focus upon the major issue—why build a space elevator infrastructure? It considers why we need a space elevator, what missions it would enable and how far it would reduce costs. There is

Cathy W. Swan; Peter A. Swan

2006-01-01

205

Plasma Ceramides Are Elevated in Depression  

PubMed Central

This study preliminarily examined whether plasma ceramides were elevated in depression, and if the elevation was more pronounced in Alzheimer’s compared to controls. Results suggest plasma ceramides are elevated in persons with a major depression diagnosis regardless of dementia status.

Gracia-Garcia, Patricia; Rao, Vani; Haughey, Norman J.; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Smith, Gwenn; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Lobo, Antonio; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Mielke, Michelle M.

2011-01-01

206

Preventing Weight Gain in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Context Weight gain in young adults is an important public health problem and few interventions have been successful. Background This pilot study evaluated the preliminary efficacy of two self-regulation approaches to weight-gain prevention: Small Changes (changes in energy balance of roughly 200 kcal/day) and Large Changes (initial weight loss of 5–10 lbs to buffer against future weight gains). Intervention Participants were enrolled in 8-week programs teaching Small or Large Changes (SC; LC). Both approaches were presented in a self-regulation framework, emphasizing daily self-weighing. Design Randomized controlled pilot study. Setting/participants Young adults (N=52) aged 18–35 years (25.6±4.7 years, BMI of 26.7±2.4 kg/m2) were recruited in Providence RI and Chapel Hill NC. Main outcome measures Adherence to intervention, weight change, and satisfaction/confidence in approach assessed at 0, 8, and 16 weeks. Data were collected in 2008 and analyzed in 2008–2009. Results Participants attended 84% of sessions, and 86.5% and 84.5% of participants completed post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Participants adhered to their prescriptions. Daily weighing increased markedly in both groups, whereas the eating and exercise changes observed in the SC and LC reflected the specific approach taught. Weight changes were significantly different between groups at 8 weeks (SC= ?0.68±1.5 kg, LC= ?3.2±2.5 kg, p<0.001) and 16 weeks (SC = ?1.5±1.8 kg, LC= ?3.5±3.1 kg, p=0.006). Participants in both groups reported high levels of satisfaction and confidence in the efficacy of the approach they were taught. Conclusions Both Small and Large Change approaches hold promise for weight-gain prevention in young adults; a fully powered trial comparing the long-term efficacy of these approaches is warranted.

LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Tate, Deborah F.; Gorin, Amy A.; Wing, Rena R.

2011-01-01

207

Solitary vortices supported by localized parametric gain.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the existence and stability of bright vortex solitons sustained by a ring-shaped parametric gain, for both focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities in lossy optical media. With the defocusing nonlinearity, the vortices are stable at all values of the detuning parameter, while under the focusing nonlinearity their stability region is limited to some positive values of the detuning. Unstable vortices in the focusing medium transform into stable rotating azimuthons. PMID:23811869

Huang, Changming; Ye, Fangwei; Malomed, Boris A; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Chen, Xianfeng

2013-07-01

208

On relative gain array and condition number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviations of open-loop properties in the presence of modeling uncertainties are studied. The aim is to gain insights into how open-loop properties and, thus, potentially closed-loop properties may vary in the face of a diagonally structured uncertainty. Several estimates are given for the worst-case deviations of the open-loop transfer function in terms of the scaled plant condition numbers, the relative

Jie Chen; J. S. Freudenberg; Carl N. Nett

1992-01-01

209

8 GHz high conversion gain Darlington mixer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new Darlington AC-coupled mixer operating at 8 GHz with improved figure-of-merits. This Darlington AC-coupled mixer along with a simple AC- coupling mixer used for reference are implemented in a 0.35 mum SiGe bipolar process. The supply voltage and current consumption are 3.2 V and 28 mA. In the Darlington AC-coupling mixer, the conversion gain, the operating

Jongsoo Lee; Patrick Roblin; Steven Bibyk; Chang-Woo Kim; Hyo-Dal Park; Young-Gi Kim

2007-01-01

210

Gain scaling for multirate filter banks  

SciTech Connect

Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

211

Loss/gain on ignition test report  

SciTech Connect

Document provides the results of tests done on Product Cans from the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. Tests included running a simulated Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA, on the processed material that have received Loss On Ignition (LOI) sample results that show a gain on ignition or a high LOI and reprocessing product cans with high LOIs. Also, boat material temperatures in the furnace were tracked during the testing.

Winstead, M.L.

1996-01-10

212

Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; York, Robbie Lynn [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2012-03-01

213

NOVA: A Nanotube Space Elevator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-minute video adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores the potential of carbon nanotubes, whose strength and unique properties make them useful for a variety of applications. See animations of how carbon atoms bond to one another in different ways to make diamond, graphite, buckyballs, and nanotubes. Consider how a seemingly impossible application, such as an elevator from the surface of Earth to space, is now theoretically possible given this revolutionary new building material. Hosted by Neil Degrasse Tyson. Editor's Note: Carbon nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family, which includes buckyballs. They are the strongest material yet discovered in terms of tensile strength, though product development is still in its infancy. The potential applications for carbon nanotubes are impressive, especially in fibers, electrical circuits, optics, and medicine. This resource includes background information for teachers and suggested discussion questions.

2011-08-19

214

[Unexplained, subclinical chronically elevated transaminases].  

PubMed

Unexplained, subclinical chronically elevated transaminases is mainly a marker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, alcoholism and diabetes, which are very common situations but viral hepatitis and iatrogenic origin must also be considered. Before looking for hepatic or genetic rare diseases, it is worth considering hypertransaminasemia as a clue for muscular disease, particularly in paediatric settings, and creatine phosphokinase is a specific marker. Then, patient history, examination and appropriate biologic requests can permit the identification of less frequent disorders where isolated hypertransaminasemia is possibly the unique marker of the disease for a long while: hemochromatosis, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson's disease, ?1-anti-trypsine deficiency, thyroid dysfunctions, Addison's disease. Liver biopsy should be performed only in patients with aspartate aminotransferases upper the normal range or alanine aminotransferases higher than twice the normal range after 6 months delay with dietetic corrections. PMID:23623710

Vital Durand, D; Lega, J-C; Fassier, T; Zenone, T; Durieu, I

2013-04-25

215

IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

2012-01-01

216

Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.  

PubMed

The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests. PMID:23795916

Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

2013-06-25

217

Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit  

DOEpatents

A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

Barrett, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

218

Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit  

DOEpatents

A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

Barrett, D.M.

1996-11-05

219

Gravity aided inertial navigation system (GAINS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a new autonomous covert INS uniquely suited to underwater applications. Unlike the conventional INS, schuler and siderial errors are bounded without external navigation aids or active instrumentation of ground speed. As a result, the system exhibits excellent long-term navigation performance while maintaining the inherent covertness of the INS system. A conventional INS is integrated with a gravity gradiometer capable of measuring gravity field components independently of platform accelerations. This new integration scheme takes advantage of navigation system velocity error observability. Parametric performance results are presented for GAINS, varying gyro, gravimeter, gradiometer, depth sensor quality, and gravity field activity.

Jircitano, Albert; Dosch, Daniel E.

220

SIMBAD4: Experiences Gained from the Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SIMBAD 4 will be operating shortly. This new release involves the JAVA language, a PostgreSQL database, and is running on a cluster of PCs running Linux. This is a very different schema from SIMBAD 3 (C language, object-oriented home-made database management system and one Sun Workstation). This leads to some comparisons and experiences gained from this new development. This paper present conclusions we draw from the design of SIMBAD 4 as well as comments about the first query performance results.

Wenger, M.; Oberto, A.

2007-10-01

221

Social inequality in excessive gestational weight gain.  

PubMed

Objective:Optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) leads to better outcomes for both the mother and child, whereas excessive gains can act as a key stage for obesity development. Little is known about social inequalities in GWG. This study investigates the influence of education level on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and GWG.Design:Register-based population study.Setting:SwedenParticipants:Four thousand and eighty women born in Sweden who were a part of the third generation Uppsala Birth Cohort Study. Register data linkages were used to obtain information on social characteristics, BMI and GWG of women with singleton first births from 1982 to 2008.Main outcome measure:Pre-pregnancy BMI and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) categories of GWG for a given pre-pregnancy BMI. Results were adjusted for calendar period, maternal age, living arrangements, smoking, history of chronic disease and pre-pregnancy BMI when appropriate.Results:Although most women (67%) were of healthy pre-pregnancy BMI, 20% were overweight and 8% were obese. Approximately half of all women in the sample had excessive GWG, with higher pre-pregnancy BMI associated with higher risk of excessive GWG, regardless of education level; this occurred for 76% of overweight and 75% of obese women. Lower educated women with a healthy pre-pregnancy BMI were at greater risk of excessive GWG-odds ratio 1.76 (95% confidence interval 1.28-2.43) for elementary and odds ratio 1.32 (1.06-1.64) for secondary compared with tertiary educated, adjusted for age and birth year period. Nearly half of women with an elementary or secondary education (48%) gained weight excessively.Conclusion:Education did not provide a protective effect in avoiding excessive GWG among overweight and obese women, of whom ?75% gained weight excessively. Lower educated women with a BMI within the healthy range, however, are at greater risk of excessive GWG. Health professionals need to tailor their pre-natal advice to different groups of women in order to achieve optimal pregnancy outcomes and avoid pregnancy acting as a stage in the development of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 28 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.62. PMID:23711774

Holowko, N; Mishra, G; Koupil, I

2013-05-02

222

Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain  

DOEpatents

An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

Iwanczyk, Jan (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2003-04-01

223

Neuronal Plasticity: Increasing the Gain in Pain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe those sensations that are unpleasant, intense, or distressing as painful. Pain is not homogeneous, however, and comprises three categories: physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Multiple mechanisms contribute, each of which is subject to or an expression of neural plasticity-the capacity of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, or structure. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain, identifying distinct forms of plasticity, which we term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity.

Woolf, Clifford J.; Salter, Michael W.

2000-06-01

224

Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain.  

PubMed

We describe those sensations that are unpleasant, intense, or distressing as painful. Pain is not homogeneous, however, and comprises three categories: physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Multiple mechanisms contribute, each of which is subject to or an expression of neural plasticity-the capacity of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, or structure. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain, identifying distinct forms of plasticity, which we term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity. PMID:10846153

Woolf, C J; Salter, M W

2000-06-01

225

Phylogenetic clustering increases with elevation for microbes.  

PubMed

Although phylogenetic approaches are useful for providing insights into the processes underlying biodiversity patterns, the studies of microbial phylogenetic relatedness are rare, especially for elevational gradients. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, we examined the biodiversity patterns for biofilm bacterial communities that were scraped from stream stones along an elevational gradient from 1820 to 4050?m in China. The patterns of bacterial species richness and phylogenetic diversity were hollow towards higher elevations. The bacterial communities consisted of closer relatives than expected and displayed increasing terminal phylogenetic clustering towards mountain top. The increasing phylogenetic clustering with elevation contrasts reports for macroorganisms that revealed phylogenetic overdispersion at low or intermediate elevations. Because water temperature showed the strongest correlation with phylogenetic relatedness (r(2) ?=?0.516), the elevational pattern in the bacterial phylogenetic structure indicated that environmental filtering possibly due to lower temperature or more frequent temperature fluctuations increased towards higher elevations. Evidence supporting the environmental filtering on bacteria was also reflected by the orderly succession in the relative abundance of different bacterial phyla along the elevational gradient and in the high evenness of bacterial taxa at higher elevations. Overall, our results indicated that ecological processes possibly related to temperature may play a dominant role in structuring bacterial biodiversity along the elevational gradient. PMID:23757276

Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne; He, Jizheng; Shen, Ji

2012-01-16

226

Hybrid optical antenna with high directivity gain.  

PubMed

Coupling of a far-field optical mode to electronic states of a quantum absorber or emitter is a crucial process in many applications, including infrared sensors, single molecule spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. In particular, achieving high quantum efficiency for a system with a deep subwavelength quantum absorber/emitter has remained desirable. In this Letter, a hybrid optical antenna based on coupling of a photonic nanojet to a metallo-dielectric antenna is proposed, which allows such efficient coupling. A quantum efficiency of about 50% is predicted for a semiconductor with volume of ~?³/170. Despite the weak optical absorption coefficient of 2000 cm(-1) in the long infrared wavelength of ~8 ?m, very strong far-field coupling has been achieved, as evidenced by an axial directivity gain of 16 dB, which is only 3 dB below of theoretical limit. Unlike the common phased array antenna, this structure does not require coherent sources to achieve a high directivity. The quantum efficiency and directivity gain are more than an order of magnitude higher than existing metallic, dielectric, or metallo-dielectric optical antenna. PMID:23903124

Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

2013-08-01

227

Gain control in the sonar of odontocetes.  

PubMed

The sonar of odontocetes processes echo-signals within a wide range of echo levels. The level of echoes varies widely by tens of decibels depending on the level of the emitted sonar pulse, the target strength, the distance to the target, and the sound absorption by the water media. The auditory system of odontocetes must be capable of effective perception, analysis, and discrimination of echo-signals within all this variability. The sonar of odontocetes has several mechanisms to compensate for the echo-level variation (gain control). To date, several mechanisms of the biosonar gain control have been revealed in odontocetes: (1) adjustment of emitted sonar pulse levels (the longer the distance to the target, the higher the level of the emitted pulse), (2) short-term variation of hearing sensitivity based on forward masking of the echo by the preceding self-heard emitted pulse and subsequent release from the masking, and (3) active long-term control of hearing sensitivity. Recent investigations with the use of the auditory evoked-potential technique have demonstrated that these mechanisms effectively minimize the variation of the response to the echo when either the emitted sonar pulse level, or the target distance, or both vary within a wide range. A short review of these data is presented herein. PMID:23132646

Ya Supin, Alexander; Nachtigall, Paul E

2012-11-07

228

Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents  

SciTech Connect

There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

1999-06-10

229

Generalized gas gain formula for proportional counters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical consideration of gas amplification in proportional counters has indicated that ?/N, the ratio of the first Townsend coefficient to the gas density, is generally expressed in the form, ?/N = KSmexp(- L/S1-m), where S = E/N is the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas density, and K, L and m (0 <= m <= 1) are constants characteristic of the gas. When m = 0 the ?/N formula reduces to the analytical form used by Williams and Sara, and when m = 1 it reduces to that assumed by Diethorn. A gas gain formula derived from the ?/N formula fitted the experimental gas gain data by Charles for a mixture of Ar + 10% CH4 and by Hendricks for a mixture of Xe + 5% CO2 when m = 1/2 was assumed. Theoretical justification for m = 1/2 was confirmed from the data of the total cross section for electrons in these gases and the characteristic energy of electrons in an electric field.

Aoyama, Takahiko

1985-01-01

230

Meta-analysis of the increase in height in maxillary sinus elevations with osteotome  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the different variations of sinus elevation techniques with osteotomes, to evaluate the increase in height achieved, and to quantify the osseointegration periods and the success rates for the implants placed. Study Design: A meta-analytic study with descriptive statistics was carried out on sinus elevations using osteotomes, analyzing a total of 11 articles published between the years 2003 and 2008. Results: Summers’ classic technique for performing sinus elevations with osteotomes differs from the current techniques being used with respect to the use of drills, the manner in which the sinus floor is fractured and how the sinus membrane is lifted, and especially on the type of graft used—the most current tendency being not to use a graft. The maximum gain in height is 4.62 mm, and the minimum gain in height is 2.07 mm, starting with a maximum residual bone height of 8.8 mm and a minimum of 4.1 mm. The osseointegration period is 4.9 months and the success rate is 95.5%. Conclusions: Performing sinus elevations with osteotomes is a predictable technique that enables achieving an increase in bone height and successful results, similar to those of other techniques used, in the placement of implants. Key words:Osteotomes, maxillary sinus elevation, dental implants, osseointegration.

Antonaya-Mira, Rocio; Martinez-Rodriguez, Natalia; Caceres-Madrono, Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose M.

2012-01-01

231

Considerations to maximize fat mass gain in a mouse model of diet-induced weight gain.  

PubMed

Mouse experimental models of diet-induced weight gain are commonly used as analogs to human obesity; however, a wide variety of feeding methods have been used and the most effective way to maximize weight gain is not known. Maximizing weight gain may allow for a reduction in the number of animals required for a given experiment. The purpose of this study was how to cause the greatest amount of weight gain in CD-1 mice by modifying the composition and source of their diet. To accomplish this goal, we completed two experiments: (1) Effect of dietary macronutrient fat intake (60% (HF60), 45% (HF45), 30% (HF30), or 13.5% (CON) fat diet for 18 weeks); and (2) Effect of 1:1 mixed HF60 and CON diets. Outcome measures included food intake, body mass, and body composition, which were measured bi-weekly and statistically analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA). In Experiment 1, the greatest increase in body and fat mass was observed in HF60 (36%) and HF45 (29%) compared with HF30 and CON (P?gained 25% more body mass and 70% more fat mass than HF (P?45% calories from fat), mixed with a stock diet, results in substantially more weight gain over a similar period, of time, which would allow an investigator to use ?40% fewer animals in their experimental model. PMID:24025568

Carpenter, Kc; Strohacker, K; McFarlin, Bk

2013-10-01

232

Ding! Going Up? Elevators and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students create model elevator carriages and calibrate them, similar to the work of design and quality control engineers. Students use measurements from rotary encoders to recreate the task of calibrating elevators for a high-rise building. They translate the rotations from an encoder to correspond to the heights of different floors in a hypothetical multi-story building. Students also determine the accuracy of their model elevators in getting passengers to their correct destinations.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) GK-12 Program,

233

Unconventional modes in lasers with spatially varying gain and loss  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a class of lasing modes created by a spatially inhomogeneous gain profile. These lasing modes are ''extra modes,'' in addition to, and very different from, conventional lasing modes, which arise from the passive cavity resonances. These new modes do not have high intensity across the entire gain region, but instead are localized at the gain boundary and throughout the gain-free region. They are surface modes, originating from the transmission resonances of the gain-free region. Using an S-matrix description we connect these surface modes to the lasing modes in PT-symmetric (balanced gain-loss) cavities.

Ge Li; Tuereci, H. E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Chong, Y. D.; Stone, A. D. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rotter, S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

2011-08-15

234

Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients.

Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Siglin, Joshua; Jin, Lianjin; Simone, Nicole L.

2012-01-01

235

Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.  

PubMed

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, Zhongmao

2012-12-21

236

Gaining and losing sections of horizontal wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux along a horizontal well in uniform flow is examined using an analytic three-dimensional, steady model. Wells with uniform head and low pumping rates have gaining sections along which water enters the well and losing sections along which water exits. Such a well may provide a conduit for contaminated groundwater to be drawn into the well, conveyed a large distance, and injected into an uncontaminated region of an aquifer. Dimensionless ratios of the well's length L and radius R, aquifer thickness H, and uniform flow rate U are developed to quantify the minimum pumping rate Qmin at which no losing section occurs. The ratio Qmin/(ULH) is presented as a nomograph usingR/H and L/H for placement parallel to flow and is 6?R/H for placement perpendicular to flow, and a parabolic relationship between these limiting cases is developed for placement oblique to flow. Capture zone geometry is quantified using Qmin/(ULH).

Steward, David R.; Jin, Wei

2001-11-01

237

High gain selective metal organic framework preconcentrators  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Novel metal organic framework (MOF) molecules and methods of synthesizing them are described. MOFs are organometallic crystalline structures that have high sorption capacity due to high surface area, tailorable selectivity, an inert nature, and thermal stability at high temperatures. MOFs may be used as sorbents in preconcentrators for analytical devices to provide orders of magnitude of improved sensitivity in analyte detection. MOFs are also useful as sorbents in new compact and portable micropreconcentrator designs such as a modified purge and trap system and a multi-valve microelectromechanical system (MEMS) to achieve high gain in analyte detection. Further, MOFs may be used as coatings for novel microstructure arrays in micropreconcentrators where the microstructures are designed to increase the surface area to volume ratio inside the micropreconcentrator while minimizing the pressure drop across the micropreconcentrator.

2012-02-28

238

Gaining Public Support for RFI Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy's access to radio spectrum depends to a great extent on international and national regulatory agencies. Such regulation is inherently a political process, so support for radio astronomy by the general public is vital to success. Educating the public about a subject perceived as so highly technical can be challenging. Success in advancing public understanding of the issue and gaining public support is based on two foundations: publicizing the societal value of astronomy; and explaining the interference problem in non-technical terms that draw upon the well-understood terminology of environmental protection. Effective communication can convince non-scientists that astronomical research is a vital and beneficial activity, and that unpolluted access to the radio spectrum is essential to making the new discoveries that are astronomy's contribution to humanity. Convinced of this, the public will support imposing the expense of engineering measures designed to protect radio astronomy, just as they support spending money to protect air, water and soil from pollution.

Finley, D. G.

2004-05-01

239

Biological determinants linking infant weight gain and child obesity: current knowledge and future directions.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions. Excessive weight gain in infancy is associated with persistence of elevated weight status and later obesity. In this review, we make the case that weight gain in the first 6 mo is especially predictive of later obesity risk due to the metabolic programming that can occur early postpartum. The current state of knowledge regarding the biological determinants of excess infant weight gain is reviewed, with particular focus on infant feeding choice. Potential mechanisms by which different feeding approaches may program the metabolic profile of the infant, causing the link between early weight gain and later obesity are proposed. These mechanisms are likely highly complex and involve synergistic interactions between endocrine effects and factors that alter the inflammatory and oxidative stress status of the infant. Gaps in current knowledge are highlighted. These include a lack of data describing 1) what type of infant body fat distribution may impart risk and 2) how maternal metabolic dysfunction (obesity and/or diabetes) may affect milk composition and exert downstream effects on infant metabolism. Improved understanding and management of these early postnatal determinants of childhood obesity may have great impact on reducing its prevalence. PMID:22983846

Young, Bridget E; Johnson, Susan L; Krebs, Nancy F

2012-09-01

240

Antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance and postprandial hormonal dysregulation independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior. PMID:23835329

Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Michael R; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

2013-07-08

241

Neural correlates of weight gain with olanzapine.  

PubMed

CONTEXT Iatrogenic obesity caused by atypical antipsychotics increases the rate of death from all causes. Olanzapine is a commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medication that frequently causes weight gain. To our knowledge, the neural correlates of this weight gain have not been adequately studied in humans. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that olanzapine treatment disrupts the neural activity associated with the anticipation and receipt (consumption) of food rewards (chocolate milk and tomato juice). DESIGN Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, before and after a 1-week treatment with olanzapine. SETTING A university neuroimaging center. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five healthy individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Changes in blood oxygen level-dependent activations to the anticipation and receipt of food rewards after olanzapine treatment. RESULTS One week of olanzapine treatment caused significant increases in weight, food consumption, and disinhibited eating. Our imaging data showed enhanced activations in the inferior frontal cortex, striatum, and anterior cingulate cortex to the anticipation of a food reward. Activation in the caudate and putamen were enhanced to the receipt of the rewarding food. We also found a decrease in reward responsivity to receipt of the rewarding food in the lateral orbital frontal cortex, an area of the brain thought to exercise inhibitory control on feeding. CONCLUSIONS Olanzapine treatment enhanced both the anticipatory and consummatory reward responses to food rewards in the brain reward circuitry that is known to respond to food rewards in healthy individuals. We also noted a decrease in responsivity to food consumption in a brain area thought to inhibit feeding behavior. PMID:22868896

Mathews, Jose; Newcomer, John W; Mathews, Jennifer R; Fales, Christina L; Pierce, Kathy J; Akers, Brandon K; Marcu, Ioana; Barch, Deanna M

2012-12-01

242

Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

243

Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing Section & Elevation, South Tower Section & Elevation, and North Tower Sections & Elevation - Cape Arago Light Station Footbridge, Gregory Point, Charleston, Coos County, OR

244

Effects of internal gain assumptions in building energy calculations  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of direct solar gains in buildings can be affected by operating profiles, such as schedules for internal gains, thermostat controls, and ventilation rates. Building energy analysis methods use various assumptions about these profiles. The effects of typical internal gain assumptions in energy calculations are described. Heating and cooling loads from simulations using the DOE 2.1 computer code are compared for various internal-gain inputs: typical hourly profiles, constant average profiles, and zero gain profiles. Prototype single-family-detached and multi-family-attached residential units are studied with various levels of insulation and infiltration. Small detached commercial buildings and attached zones in large commercial buildings are studied with various levels of internal gains. The results of this study indicate that calculations of annual heating and cooling loads are sensitive to internal gains, but in most cases are relatively insensitive to hourly variations in internal gains.

Christensen, C.; Perkins, R.

1981-01-01

245

Gain characteristics of a MAGPIE coaxial CO2 laser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain coefficient measurements of a MAGPIE (magnetically stabilized, photoinitiated, impulse-enhanced, electrically excited) coaxial CO2 laser discharge are presented. The effects of gas composition, input power, pulser ionization, and magnetic field on gain are examined. Measurements of the radial gain profile and saturation intensity are also discussed. A maximum small-signal gain of 0.30\\/m is observed, along with a saturation intensity of

V. A. Seguin; H. J. J. Seguin; C. E. Capjack; S. K. Nikumb

1987-01-01

246

A high-gain, low-noise amplifier for EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an amplifier for an electroencephalograph with gain of 1×104 to 1×106 and made entirely of commercially available IC components. The two-stage amplifier has a preamplifier stage with fixed gain\\u000a of 1000, and a second stage with variable gain from 1 to 100. The final stage, an anti-aliasing filter, adds a gain of 10\\u000a to the signal. The

Michael Wogan; David N. Michael

1988-01-01

247

The estimation of yearly probability gain for seismic statistical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the calculation method of information gain in the stochastic process presented by Vere-Jones, the relation between\\u000a information gain and probability gain is studied, which is very common in earthquake prediction, and the yearly probability\\u000a gain for seismic statistical model is proposed. The method is applied to the nonstationary Poisson model with whole-process\\u000a exponential increase and stress release model.

Jie Liu; Jian-Cang Zhuang; Vere-Jones David; Yao-Lin Shi; Li Ma

2000-01-01

248

International intercomparison of horn gain at X-band  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international intercomparison of horn gain and polarization measurements at X-band has previously been completed. There were seven participating laboratories with the National Institute of Standards and Technology serving as the pilot laboratory. Two X-band pyramidal standard gain horns with a nominal gain of 22 dB served as the traveling standards. Quantities measured included on-axis fixed frequency gain at 8,

C. F. Stubenrauch; A. C. Newell; A. G. Repjar; K. Macreynolds; D. T. Tamura; F. H. Larsen; J. Lemanczyk; R. Behe; G. Portier; J. C. Zehren; H. Hollmann; J. D. Hunter; D. G. Gentle; J. P. M. de Vreede

1996-01-01

249

Space Elevator Ribbon Mass and Taper Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assumptions about tensile strength and density aect the space elevator ribbon taper ratio, and therefore its mass. We examine the technical trade-os between material properties and total mass of a modern space elevator ribbon, and the economic trade-os between ribbon mass, the number of rocket launches required to loft the initial ribbon, and the time required to build the ribbon

Tom Nugent

250

Satellite Placement Using a Partial Space Elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for launching cargo into space. However, the construction of such a structure requires a material much stronger than any currently in existence. Instead, a partial elevator is considered for satellite placement. In the first part of the thesis, the fundamentals of very long tethered systems are studied. From static analysis

Pamela Woo

2009-01-01

251

Failure analysis of an elevator drive shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study failure analysis of an elevator drive shaft is analyzed in detail. Failure occurred at the keyway of the shaft. Microstructural, mechanical and chemical properties of the shaft are determined. After visual investigation of the fracture surface it is concluded that fracture occurred due to torsional-bending fatigue. Fatigue crack has initiated at the keyway edge. Considering elevator and

A. Göksenli; I. B. Eryürek

2009-01-01

252

Elevator Group Control with Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this report a novel control that optimizes passenger service in an elevator group is described. Fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence are applied in the control when,allocating landing calls to the elevators. Fuzzy logic is used to recognize the traffic pattern and the traffic peaks from statistical forecasts. In order to form the statistical forecasts, the passenger traffic flow

Marja-Liisa Siikonen

1997-01-01

253

Elevator Group Control with Artificial Intelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report a novel control that optimizes passenger service in an elevator group is described. Fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence are applied in the control when allocating landing calls to the elevators. Fuzzy logic is used to recognize the traf...

M. L. Siikonen

1997-01-01

254

Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

255

Assessing interpolation accuracy in elevation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods that identify the spatial variation in elevation model accuracy and highlight relative variation are proposed. Visualization within the geographic resources analysis support system (GRASS) is used to identify the accuracy preserved in interpolation digital contour data to produce elevation models. The interpolation routines are inverse distance weighting, contour flood filling, simultaneous over-relaxation, and one-dimensional spline fitting. The results of

Joseph D. Wood; Peter F. Fisher

1993-01-01

256

Design of Modern Elevator Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide good transportation services for passengers in modern buildings, a good elevator group control system (EGCS) is inevitably necessary. The viewpoint of designing the EGCS is very important. The passenger-based viewpoint proposed provides a new way to think about this system. The capacity constraint following consideration for the passengers is utilized to make the performance better. Details of elevator

Tsung-che Chiang; Li-chen Fu

2002-01-01

257

Design of a Powered Elevator Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the ST...

W. L. B. Glende

1974-01-01

258

Contributions to the Elevation North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental elevations result from a combination of buoyancy (i.e. compositional and thermal) and geodynamic forces. Thermal isostasy can produce nearly three kilometers of relief between cold shield platforms and hot rift zones. However, changes in bulk density and crustal thickness can potentially produce relief greater than nine kilometers; whereas, geodynamic contributions to elevation are frequently no greater than a few

D. P. Hasterok; D. S. Chapman; R. N. Harris

2003-01-01

259

A procedure for evaluating grain elevator bankruptcies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1981-1982 season, seven grain elevator bankruptcies occurred in Louisiana resulting in significant losses to warehouse receipts and scale ticket holders, to creditors, and to owners of the elevators. Through a rigorous comparison of certain financial and operating ratios of those that failed with a sample of survivors, a procedure for evaluation and prediction of failures was investigated. Measures

Robert B. Wharton; Susan D. Harper; Harlon D. Traylor

1987-01-01

260

Novel transimpedance amplifier formulation exhibiting gain-bandwidth independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel transimpedance feedback configuration based around a current-gain amplifier is described which achieves gain-bandwidth independence at microwave frequencies. Full layout simulation indicates that an optical receiver front-end amplifier designed on these principles will exhibit gain-bandwidth independence through the GHz region

Brett Wilson; Jason D Drew

1997-01-01

261

Mechanisms of intron gain and loss in Cryptococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genome comparisons across deep phylogenetic divergences have revealed that spliceosomal intron gain and loss are common evolutionary events. However, because of the deep divergences involved in these comparisons, little is understood about how these changes occur, particularly in the case of intron gain. To ascertain mechanisms of intron gain and loss, we compared five relatively closely related genomes from

Thomas J Sharpton; Daniel E Neafsey; James E Galagan; John W Taylor

2008-01-01

262

24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section 3280.507...Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat gain. Information necessary to calculate...specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this...

2013-04-01

263

Simple analytical model of gain saturation in microchannel plate devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive, discuss, and test against experimental data an analytical model of the gain saturation in microchannel plate (MCP) devices. By introducing a simple recharging circuit for each dynode, we extend the well-known, unsaturated gain model of Eberhardt to a microchannel operating in condition of gain saturation and show that the amplification of a current pulse and the voltage drop

L. Giudicotti; M. Bassan; R. Pasqualotto; A. Sardella

1994-01-01

264

Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement, (b) gains

Flynn, James R.

2010-01-01

265

Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic method is described for fully characterizing the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) that is based on easily measured monochromatic absorption data. The analytic expressions presented, which involve the solution of one transcendental equation, can predict signal gains and pump absorptions in an amplifier containing an arbitrary number of pumps and signals from arbitrary directions. The gain

A. A. M. Saleh; R. M. Jopson; J. D. Evankow; J. Aspell

1990-01-01

266

Relative Motion on an Elevator Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Relative Motion on an Elevator model displays the relative motion as seen by two classical observers. The eight-years old kid Pepe Neurons plays yo-yo in an elevator with transparent walls in a shopping mall and his sister, Lola, looks at him from the ground floor of the shopping mall while he does so. Watch the motion of the kids, the elevator and the yo-yo from either Lola's or Pepe's perspective. The Relative Motion on an Elevator model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_murcia_mech_RelativeMotionOnElevator.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Franciscouembre

2010-04-16

267

Gaseous N fluxes in Mediterranean catchments: from low elevation chaparral to high elevation subalpine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies on gaseous N emissions from soils in semiarid ecosystems have highlighted the importance of these losses for terrestrial ecosystems. Losses tend to be relatively large during seasonal transitions where soil rewetting results in a “hot moment” of increased biological nitrification and gaseous N flux. To gain better understanding of chaparral N-dynamics, we measured NO and N2O emissions for one year in a chamise-dominated watershed located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (California) whose previous nitrogen budget suggested net N retention (i.e., N inputs from atmospheric deposition > hydrologic outputs). We are also making additional gas flux measurements along an elevational gradient (300 to 2800 m) to determine if NO and N2O fluxes vary across ecosystems (chaparral, mixed conifer, and subalpine) with varying capacity for assimilation of N deposition. Gaseous N fluxes measured at the chaparral site through the one-year period are in agreement with other studies of semiarid ecosystems showing a pulse of NO (as high as 100 ng N m-2 s-1) immediately after rewetting of dry soils. The hot moment decreases by about half 24-hours after rewetting and decreases in magnitude with increasing frequency of rewetting episodes during the winter rainy season. As with other studies in semiarid ecosystems, NO emissions decreased significantly with decreases in temperature averaging about 0.03 ng N m-2 s-1 and sometimes becoming negative during the cool winter. Measurements of the magnitude of the hot moment along the altitudinal gradient are in progress, and to the best of our knowledge, will be the first field measurement to include nitric oxide fluxes in subalpine ecosystems. Based on our current data, it is clear that gaseous N fluxes are an important component in N budgets for ecosystems experiencing a strong seasonal transition in soil physico-chemical conditions.

Homyak, P. M.; Sickman, J. O.

2010-12-01

268

Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be effectively varied. The parametric study with the lumped parameter model has shown that engine frequency of up to approximately 15 Hz is attainable. However, requirements for upstream air pressure increases significantly with higher engine frequency. The higher pressure requirement indicates pressure loss in the system and lower overall engine performance. The loss of performance due to the pressure loss is a critical issue for the integrated pressure-gain combustors. Two types of transitional methods are examined using entropy-based models. An accumulator based transition has obvious loss due to sudden area expansion, but it can be minimized by utilizing the gas dynamics in the combustion tube. An ejector type transition has potential to achieve performance beyond the limit specified by a single flow path Humphrey cycle. The performance of an ejector was discussed in terms of apparent entropy and mixed flow entropy. Through an ideal ejector, the apparent part of entropy increases due to the reduction in flow unsteadiness, but entropy of the mixed flow remains constant. The method is applied to a CFD simulation with a simple manifold for qualitative evaluation. The operation of the wave rotor constant volume combustion rig is experimentally examined. The rig has shown versatility of operation for wide range of conditions. Large pressure rise in the rotor channel and in a section of the exhaust duct are observed even with relatively large leakage gaps on the rotor. The simplified analysis indicated that inconsistent combustion is likely due to insufficient fuel near the ignition source. However, it is difficult to conclude its fuel distribution with the current setup. Additional measurement near the rotor interfaces and better fuel control are required for the future test.

Matsutomi, Yu

269

Recommended practices in elevated temperature design: A compendium of breeder reactor experiences (1970-1986): An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant experiences have been accumulated in the establishment of design methods and criteria applicable to the design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) components. The Subcommittee of the Elevated Temperature Design under the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) has undertaken to collect, on an international basis, design experience gained, and the lessons learned, to provide guidelines for next generation

B. C. Wei; W. L. Jr. Cooper; A. K. Dhalla

1987-01-01

270

Progress toward high-gain laser fusion  

SciTech Connect

A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

Storm, E.

1988-09-28

271

Hybrid optical antenna with high directivity gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling between electronic state and far field light, including absorption and spontaneous emission, is a central issue for applications such as quantum metrology, optical quantum information, single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultra sensitive detection which demand on high quantum efficiency. In such applications, propagating far field light with diffraction limited spatial distribution has to be coupled to the electronic state of a quantum absorber/emitter with a size far below the diffraction limit. Such a significant contrast between the wavelengths of photon and electron sets limitations on the light-matter interaction strength. The most straight forward solution is to convert far-field modes to near-field modes with dimensional scale closer to the electronic state. The process of converting far field to near field and vice versa can be conducted by an antenna as an intermediate element between far field mode and electronic state in a quantum element (absorber/emitter). Here, we classify optical antenna based on their performance into three categories. Considering each category advantage, we propose a hybrid antenna with superior performance. A quantum efficiency of about 50% is predicted for a semiconductor with volume of ~?3/170. Despite the weak optical absorption coefficient of 2000 cm-1 in the long infrared wavelength of ~8 ?m, very strong far-filed coupling has been achieved, as evidenced by an axial directivity gain of 16 dB, which is only 3 dB bellow of theoretical limit.

Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

2013-09-01

272

Power scalable semiconductor disk laser using multiple gain cavity.  

PubMed

We report on power scaling of optically-pumped semiconductor disk lasers using multiple gain scheme. The method allows for significant power improvement while preserving good beam quality. Total power of over 8 W was achieved in dual-gain configuration, while one-gain lasers could produce separately about 4 W, limited by the thermal rollover of the output characteristics. The results show that reduced thermal load to a gain element in a dual-gain cavity allows extending the range of usable pump powers boosting the laser output. PMID:19532179

Saarinen, Esa J; Härkönen, Antti; Suomalainen, Soile; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

2006-12-25

273

Gain-phase grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain in cold atoms  

SciTech Connect

In order to obtain an atomic grating which can diffract light into the high-order directions more efficiently, a gain-phase grating (GPG) based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain is theoretically presented. This grating is induced by a pump field and a standing wave in ultracold atoms, and it not only diffracts a weak probe field propagating along a direction normal to the standing wave into the high-order directions, but also amplifies the amplitude of the zero-order diffraction. In contrast with electromagnetically induced grating or electromagnetically induced phase grating, the GPG has larger diffraction efficiencies in the high-order directions. Hence it is more suitable to be utilized as an all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

Kuang Shangqi; Jin Chunshui; Li Chun [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

2011-09-15

274

Laser-gain scanning microscopy: a new characterization technique for dopant engineered gain media.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an optical technique, called laser-gain scanning microscopy (LGSM), to map dopant concentration profiles in engineered laser gain-media. The performance and application range of this technique are exampled on a Nd(3+) concentration profile embedded in a YAG transparent ceramic sample. Concentration profiles measured by both LGSM and SIMS techniques are compared and agree to within 5% over three-orders of magnitude in Nd(3+) doping level, from 0.001 at.% to 0.9 at.%. One of the unique advantages of LGSM over common physical methods such as SIMS, XPS and EMPA, is the ability to correlate optical defects with the final doping profile. PMID:20940785

Wisdom, Jeff A; Gaume, Romain M; Byer, Robert L

2010-08-30

275

Measurement of the absolute gas gain and gain variations study in straw-tube detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the absolute gas gain measurement of a straw drift-tube filled with a binary gaseous mixture Ar-CO2(90-10) at 2 bar absolute pressure. The measurement has been performed using an intense 1.3 GBq 137Cs-source producing the primary ionization current. The results, as a function of the high voltage and gas parameters, were fitted and parameterized with a Diethorn's formula.

Gianotti, P.; Kashchuk, A.; Levitskaya, O.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Russo, A.; Savriè, M.

2013-08-01

276

Flapless approach to maxillary sinus augmentation using minimally invasive antral membrane balloon elevation.  

PubMed

In the atrophic posterior maxilla, successful implant placement is often complicated by the lack of quality and volume of available bone. In these cases, sinus floor augmentation is recommended to gain sufficient bone around the implants. Sinus elevation can be performed by either an open lateral window approach or by a closed osteotome approach depending on available bone height. This case series demonstrates the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive antral membrane balloon elevation, followed by bone augmentation and implant fixation in 20 patients with a residual bone height of 2 to 6 mm below the sinus floor. The surgical procedure was performed using a flapless approach. At 18 months follow-up, the implant survival rate was 100%. Absence of patient morbidity and satisfactory bone augmentation with this minimally invasive procedure suggests that minimally invasive antral membrane balloon elevation should be considered as an alternative to some of the currently used methods of maxillary bone augmentation. PMID:22067602

Mazor, Ziv; Kfir, Efraim; Lorean, Adi; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Horowitz, Robert A

2011-12-01

277

Prenatal Organochlorine Compound Exposure, Rapid Weight Gain, and Overweight in Infancy  

PubMed Central

Background Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. Objectives We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Methods Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ? the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, ?-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. Results After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. Conclusions In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

Mendez, Michelle A.; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Monica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goni, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

2011-01-01

278

How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?  

PubMed

The hypothesis was tested that O(3)-induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O(3) regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O(3) regime (elevated O(3)), as released through a free-air canopy O(3) fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O(3). As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O(3)-induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. PMID:22487316

Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Winkler, J Barbro; Löw, Markus; Nunn, Angela J; Kuptz, Daniel; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Ilja M; Matyssek, Rainer

2012-04-07

279

The Gain-of-Function Arabidopsis acd6 Mutant Reveals Novel Regulation and Function of the Salicylic Acid Signaling Pathway in Controlling Cell Death, Defenses, and Cell Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated a dominant gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, accelerated cell death 6 ( acd6 ), with elevated defenses, patches of dead and enlarged cells, reduced stature, and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringae . The acd6 - conferred phenotypes are suppressed by removing a key signaling molecule, salicylic acid (SA), by using the nahG transgene, which encodes SA hydroxylase. This suppression includes

Debra N. Rate; James V. Cuenca; Grant R. Bowman; David S. Guttman; Jean T. Greenberg

1999-01-01

280

Newton's Laws Problem: Scales and Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An elevator accelerates upward for one second, travels at constant velocity, and then decelerates one second prior to reaching its destination such that it comes to rest (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-21

281

21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

2013-04-01

282

76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding source South Creek. DATES: Comments...Incorporated Areas'' addressed the flooding source South Creek. That table...

2011-03-14

283

77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations...Kentucky. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Little River (backwater effects...of Cadiz, Kentucky'' addressed the flooding sources Little River (backwater...

2012-03-16

284

Precursors to Rapid Elevations in Intracranial Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and management have substantially improved the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) . However, rapid elevations in ICP remain a significant problem as they may lead to secondary brain injury and wors...

J. McNames C. Crespo M. Aboy M. Ellenby S. Lai

2001-01-01

285

Transients in Elevated Temperature Crack Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transients which affect the crack growth behavior of metals at elevated temperature under cyclic and static loading are classified as (1) deformation transients which are present due to the relaxing crack tip stress fields during small scale creep and (2)...

A. Saxena B. Gieseke

1987-01-01

286

76 FR 45485 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...elevations, and communities affected for Livingston County, Kentucky, and Incorporated...CFR 67.4. The table entitled ``Livingston County, Kentucky and Incorporated Areas...Livingston County, Kentucky, and...

2011-07-29

287

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using surveys and topographic maps, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has determined distances between points and elevations of features, and put them into a data format at this website. Elevations of the 50 largest cities, highest and lowest points in each state, summits over 14,000 feet, summits east of the Rocky Mountains, geographic centers of each state, length of US boundaries, and extreme distances are covered at this site.

288

Improving Elevator Performance Using Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of reinforcement learning (RL)to the difficult real world problem of elevator dispatching. The elevatordomain poses a combination of challenges not seen in mostRL research to date. Elevator systems operate in continuous statespaces and in continuous time as discrete event dynamic systems.Their states are not fully observable and they are nonstationarydue to changing passenger arrival rates.

Robert H. Crites; Andrew G. Barto

1995-01-01

289

Urinary F2-isoprostanes, obesity, and weight gain in the IRAS cohort.  

PubMed

Obesity has been associated with increased F(2)-isoprostane (F(2)-IsoP) levels cross-sectionally. However, the prospective association may be inverse, based on our earlier finding that elevated urinary F(2)-IsoP levels predict lower risk of diabetes. This earlier finding led us to hypothesize that urinary F(2)-IsoPs reflect the intensity of oxidative metabolism and as such predict lower risk of both diabetes and weight gain. We examined cross-sectional relationships with obesity and prospective relationships with weight gain using the data from 299 participants of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS), all of whom were free of diabetes at baseline. Four urinary F(2)-IsoPs were assayed in stored baseline urine samples using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: iPF(2?)-III, 2,3-dinor-iPF(2?)-III, iPF(2?)-VI, and 8,12-iso-iPF(2?)-VI (F(2)-IsoP 1-4, respectively). Baseline F(2)-IsoPs were positively associated with baseline measures of obesity; the strongest associations were found with two F(2)-IsoPs: odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overall and abdominal obesity were 1.74 (1.26-2.40) and 1.63 (1.18-2.24) for F(2)-IsoP2 and 1.47 (1.12-1.94) and 1.64 (1.22-2.20) for F(2)-IsoP4. F(2)-IsoP2 showed the strongest and significant inverse association with weight gain during the 5-year follow-up period: increase in F(2)-IsoP2 equal to 1 s.d. was associated with 0.90 kg lower weight gain (P = 0.02) and the odds ratios for relative (?5%) and absolute (?5 kg) weight gain were 0.67 (0.47-0.96) and 0.57 (0.37-0.87), respectively. The other three F(2)-IsoPs were consistently inversely associated with weight gain, although not significantly, suggesting that different F(2)-IsoPs vary in their ability to detect the association with weight gain. PMID:21959342

Il'yasova, Dora; Wang, Frances; Spasojevic, Ivan; Base, Karel; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

2011-09-29

290

Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice.  

PubMed

Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the ?-isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R(-/-)) fed a standard chow or HFD. We next performed gain-of-function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R(-/-) mice display increased weight gain, ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation, and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL-18 into skeletal muscle activated AMPK and concomitantly inhibited HFD-induced weight gain. In summary, IL-18 enhances AMPK signaling and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle implicating IL-18 in metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23670974

Lindegaard, Birgitte; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus; Hojman, Pernille; Allen, Tamara L; Estevez, Emma; Watt, Matthew J; Bruce, Clinton R; Mortensen, Ole H; Syberg, Susanne; Rudnicka, Caroline; Abildgaard, Julie; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hidalgo, Juan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Alsted, Thomas J; Madsen, Andreas N; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

2013-05-13

291

The effects of neural gain on attention and learning.  

PubMed

Attention is commonly thought to be manifest through local variations in neural gain. However, what would be the effects of brain-wide changes in gain? We hypothesized that global fluctuations in gain modulate the breadth of attention and the degree to which processing is focused on aspects of the environment to which one is predisposed to attend. We found that measures of pupil diameter, which are thought to track levels of locus coeruleus norepinephrine activity and neural gain, were correlated with the degree to which learning was focused on stimulus dimensions that individual human participants were more predisposed to process. In support of our interpretation of this effect in terms of global changes in gain, we found that the measured pupillary and behavioral variables were strongly correlated with global changes in the strength and clustering of functional connectivity, as brain-wide fluctuations of gain would predict. PMID:23770566

Eldar, Eran; Cohen, Jonathan D; Niv, Yael

2013-06-16

292

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier with flattened gain spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical notch filter was incorporated within the length of all erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Careful choice of the filter characteristics and location made it possible to enhance the amplifier gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. An amplifier with 27-dB gain and 33-nm bandwidth was demonstrated. The saturation characteristics of the amplifier were uniform across its gain spectrum, making it ideal

M. Tachibana; R. I. Laming; P. R. Morkel; D. N. Payne

1991-01-01

293

Reform U.S. Capital Gains Taxation à la Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reformed taxation of capital gains could play an important role in a broader policy package to improve the simplicity, equity, and efficiency of the federal tax system. Constructive reforms for the United States would draw on Canadian provisions for taxing capital gains: a) eliminate the distinction between short-term and long-term gains, taxing both equally; b) use an average-cost basis for

Jonathan R. Kesselman

2005-01-01

294

A Family-Based Approach to Preventing Excessive Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Preventing weight gain in adults and excessive weight gain in children is a high priority. We evaluated the ability of a family-based program aimed at increasing steps and cereal consumption (for breakfast and snacks) to reduce weight gain in children and adults.Research Methods and Procedures: Families (n = 105) with at least one 8- to 12-year-old child who was

Susan J. Rodearmel; Holly R. Wyatt; Mary J. Barry; Fang Dong; Dongmei Pan; Richard G. Israel; Susan S. Cho; Michael I. McBurney; James O. Hill

2006-01-01

295

WFC3 TV3 Testing: IR Gain Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of Thermal Vacuum 3 (TV3) testing during the spring of 2008, we used flat field data to calculate the gain of the IR4 (FPA165) flight detector. At the nominal flight gain setting of 2.5 e-/ADU, we measure gain values between 2.31 - 2.41 e-/ADU, after accounting for inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). This corresponds to 2.66 - 2.77 e-/ADU before the IPC correction.

Hilbert, B.

2008-12-01

296

Unity-gain cumulant-based adaptive line enhancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a unity-gain cumulant-based adaptive line enhancer (UGCBALE) is presented. This enhancer is formulated by adaptive filtering of the CBALE output to adjust the overall gain to unity. Owing to the unity-gain feature, this enhancer can be, for example, utilized as a sinusoidal interference canceller by subtracting the enhanced output from the noisy input. The UGCBALE is insensitive

R. R. Ghariebf; Y. Horita; T. Murai; A. Cichocki

2000-01-01

297

Effect of Body Image on Pregnancy Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related\\u000a to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines.\\u000a The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image

Ushma J. Mehta; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Amy H. Herring

2011-01-01

298

Dynamic gain compensation in saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic compensation of low-frequency gain fluctuations in saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. This compensation, based on a simple feedback-loop scheme makes it possible to reduce transient gain fluctuations efficiently across the whole amplifier bandwidth using only a low-power optical feedback signal. Such an, automatic gain control technique could be applied to suppress data packet interference due to traffic bursts

E. Desurvire; M. Zirngibl; H. M. Presby; D. Digiovanni

1991-01-01

299

Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as superstring theory and extra dimensions in spacetime calling for the "constants" to change over time, he said. The astronomers used the GBT to detect and study radio emissions at four specific frequencies between 1612 MHz and 1720 MHz coming from hydroxyl (OH) molecules in a galaxy more than 6 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was at roughly half the Universe's current age. Each of the four frequencies represents a specific change in the energy level of the molecule. The exact frequency emitted or absorbed when the molecule undergoes a transition from one energy level to another depends on the values of the fundamental physical constants. However, each of the four frequencies studied in the OH molecule will react differently to a change in the constants. That difference is what the astronomers sought to detect using the GBT, which, Kanekar explained, is the ideal telescope for this work because of its technical capabilities and its location in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where radio interference is at a minimum. "We can place very tight limits on changes in the physical constants by studying the behavior of these OH molecules at a time when the Universe was only about half its current age, and comparing this result to how the molecules behave today in the laboratory," said Karl Menten of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany. Wetterich, a theorist, welcomes the new capability, saying the observational method "seems very promising to obtain perhaps the most accurate values for such possible time changes of the constants." He pointed out that, while some theoretical models call for the constants to change only in the early moments after the Big Bang, models of the recently-discovered, mysterious "dark energy" that seems to be accelerating the Universe's expansion call for changes "even in the last couple of billion years." "Only observations can tell," he said. This research ties together the theoretical and observation

2005-12-01

300

Dynamic gain induced pulse shortening in Q-switched lasers.  

PubMed

We describe a novel mechanism of pulse shortening in a Q-switched laser induced by the gain compression effect under strong pumping conditions. The pulse shortening requires a large variation of the gain excursion during the saturation process and benefits from the large volume of the gain medium. The effect has been experimentally demonstrated using a passive Q-switched Tm/Ho-doped fiber laser that shows gain-induced pulse compression from 800 ns down to 160 ns when the pump threshold is exceeded by 15 times. PMID:18451970

Herda, Robert; Kivistö, Samuli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

2008-05-01

301

Effect of Body Image on Pregnancy Weight Gain  

PubMed Central

The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image Assessment for Obesity tool was used to measure ideal and current body sizes in 1,192 women participating in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Descriptive and multivariable techniques were used to assess the effects of ideal body size and discrepancy score (current—ideal body sizes), which reflected the level of body dissatisfaction, on gestational weight gain. Women who preferred to be thinner had increased risk of excessive gain if they started the pregnancy at a BMI ?26 kg/m2 but a decreased risk if they were overweight or obese. Comparing those who preferred thin body silhouettes to those who preferred average size silhouettes, low income women had increased risk of inadequate weight gain [RR = 1.76 (1.08, 2.88)] while those with lower education were at risk of excessive gain [RR = 1.11 (1.00, 1.22)]. Our results revealed that body image was associated with gestational weight gain but the relationship is complex. Identifying factors that affect whether certain women are at greater risk of gaining outside of guidelines may improve our ability to decrease pregnancy-related health problems.

Mehta, Ushma J.; Herring, Amy H.

2012-01-01

302

Nonlinear gain behavior in injectorless quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gain spectra of a continuous wave operating injectorless quantum cascade lasers are presented. These are extracted by the Hakki-Paoli method from electroluminescence measurements. The device operates around 7.4 ?m and has threshold current densities in pulsed and continuous wave operation at room temperature that measure 1.1 and 1.76 kA/cm2, respectively. The differential gain coefficients around 100 cm/kA at liquid nitrogen temperature and 44 cm/kA around room temperature are determined. The gain measurement values are compared with the 1/L threshold behavior versus temperature, indicating a nonlinear gain current dependence of injectorless devices.

Katz, Simeon; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus-Christian

2010-11-01

303

Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.  

PubMed

The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

Engel, Kilian A

304

Elevated CO 2 ameliorated oxidative stress induced by elevated O 3 in Quercus mongolica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using open top chambers, the effects of elevated O3 (80 nmol mol?1) and elevated CO2 (700 ?mol mol?1), alone and in combination, were studied on young trees of Quercus mongolica. The results showed that elevated O3 increased malondialdehyde content and decreased photosynthetic rate after 45 days of exposure, and prolonged exposure (105 days)\\u000a induced significant increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction of chlorophyll content. All these

Kun Yan; Wei Chen; Guoyou Zhang; Sheng Xu; Zhouli Liu; Xingyuan He; Lanlan Wang

2010-01-01

305

Quantification of glacier elevation changes using ICESat and SRTM elevation data in the Upper Indus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies carried out in the Karakoram Himalayas suggest an expansion of glaciers. Many studies conducted in the Himalayan region have focused on monitoring changes in the aerial extent of individual glaciers from remotely sensed data or through field surveys. Limited work, however, has been done in this region to estimate glacier volume changes using measurements of elevation change over time, particularly at a large scale. Here we used Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to estimate glacier elevation changes within the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB). The elevation changes were estimated within snow-covered and clean-ice zones which were delineated using historic Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (Landsat) images. ICESat/GLA06 elevations data from spring campaigns, release 28 were used to estimate ice elevation changes for the period of 2004-2008 relative to 2000. The accuracy of elevation change was assessed by analyzing non-glacier elevation difference points within different categories of a Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI). This comparison showed that elevations precision decreased with increasing TRI, so using TRI to categorize glacier areas helps to identify data points with higher accuracy. Our analysis of elevation changes estimated from the ICESat altimeter identified two clear patterns in elevation changes. Firstly, glaciers in the northern half of the Upper Indus valley have thickened in the last decade, while those in the southern sub-watersheds are thinning. Secondly, glacier thickening occurred on the higher elevation snow-covered ice zone, while more thinning rates were observed within the clean ice zone for all sub-watersheds of the UIB, except in the Hunza river basin. Such results showed the potential of ICESat data for assessing relief changes on mountain glaciers and could be used in the estimation of glacier mass balance at higher temporal resolutions.

Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Crawford, M. M.

2010-12-01

306

Orographic versus non-orographic precipitation isotopic elevation gradients: Implications for paleoaltimetry of continental plateaus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The link between topography and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in orographic settings is well established, despite a modest amount of global variation. Where moisture is derived primarily from a single source and experiences simple orographic ascent (e.g. the Andes, Himalaya or Sierra Nevada), regional ?18O (or ?D)-elevation gradients are well modeled by Rayleigh distillation, and precipitation becomes isotopically lighter with elevation gain (the “altitude effect”; ~ -2.8 ‰/km for ?18O or ~ -23 ‰/km for ?D). Temporal changes in the isotopic composition of paleoprecipitation at a specific location, as recorded in geologic proxies, can be used to infer changes in paleoelevation, given that a relationship between elevation and the isotopic composition of precipitation can be assumed. However, the applicability of this relationship, empirically observed in orographic settings, to continental plateaus has recently been questioned. Over the northern Tibetan Plateau, in particular, the change in isotopic composition per unit elevation appears to be half or less that observed across orographic barriers. If reduced isotopic elevation gradients are common over continental plateaus, then determination of paleoelevations of these regions may be significantly overestimated by applying a gradient typical of an orographic setting. Here we present isotopic compositions of small-catchment-area springs and streams in mountain ranges characterized by significant topographic relief (> 1500 m) and high elevation gradients across a latitudinal transect at ~36°N in the southwestern US. The results reveal distinct ?18O-elevation gradients for each mountain range that correlate with relative position east of the major regional orographic barrier, the southern Sierra Nevada (maximum elevations > 2500 m). Samples collected from two transects on the western (windward) slope of the Sierra Nevada yield isotopic elevation gradients typical of an orographic setting (-2.1‰/km and -2.8‰/km for the Tule River and Kern River, respectively). Samples collected from two ranges on the leeward side of the Sierra Nevada show progressively decreasing isotopic elevation gradients with distance from the Sierra Nevada (-1 ‰/km in the Panamint Mountains, ~100 km east of the Sierra Nevada, and -0.5 ‰/km in the Spring Mountains, ~225 km east of the Sierra Nevada). ?D vs. ?18O analyses in both the windward and leeward regions indicate the importance of moisture recycling and evaporative influence (both depositional and post-depositional) on the leeward side of the orographic barrier, processes which violate the assumptions underlying simple Rayleigh distillation. Surprisingly, however, the results do not reveal a systematic increase in these effects with distance from the orographic barrier. The observed progressive decrease in isotopic-elevation gradients provides new insights into constraints on the interpretation of paleoelevations from isotopic proxies.

Lechler, A. R.; Niemi, N. A.

2009-12-01

307

Characterization of ultrasound elevation beamwidth artifacts for prostate brachytherapy needle insertion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Ultrasound elevation beamwidth leads to image artifacts and uncertainties in localizing objects (such as a surgical needle) in ultrasound images. The authors examined the clinical significance of errors caused by elevation beamwidth artifacts and imaging parameters in needle insertion procedures. Methods: Beveled prostate brachytherapy needles were inserted through all holes of a grid template under real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The needle tip position as indicated by the TRUS image was compared to their observed physical location. A new device was developed to measure the ultrasound elevation beamwidth. Results: Imaging parameters of the TRUS scanner have direct impact on the localization error ranging from 0.5 up to 4 mm. The smallest localization error was observed laterally close to the center of the grid template and axially within the beam's focal zone. Largest localization error occurs laterally around both sides of the grid template and axially within the beam's far field. The authors also found that the localization errors vary with both lateral and elevation offsets. Conclusions: The authors found properly adjusting the TRUS imaging settings to lower the ultrasound gain and power effectively minimized the appearance of elevation beamwidth artifacts and in turn reduced the localization errors of the needle tip.

Peikari, Mohammad; Chen, Thomas Kuriran; Lasso, Anras; Heffter, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Burdette, Everette C. [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery (Perk), School of Computing, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Acoustic MedSystems, 208 Burwash Avenue, Savoy, Illinois 61874 (United States)

2012-01-15

308

Feasibility Study of a Stratospheric Elevator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a first step in the development of a space elevator, we focused on the stratospheric platform that would be used as a relay station of communication and high-resolution earth observation base at 20~30 km altitude. We propose a new system for connecting the platform to the ground by a tether that would allow the payload to be transported by a climber moving along the tether. We call this system a stratospheric elevator. The stratospheric elevator offers not only the chance to verify the space elevator technology but also the chance to extend the life of the platform by making its maintenance easy. The result of our initial study of the system showed that we can build a stratospheric elevator using currently available materials and technology. The total tether system, including a 200 kg payload and a 200 kg climber, would weigh about 2 tons with considering the effect of the high-speed airstream when we built the system at 20 km altitude, and a platform of about 80 m diameter could sustain the total system.

Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Nakata, Masafumi; Miwa, Toru; Matsui, Makoto

309

53. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F5) looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F-5) - looking North - along Washington Street toward Bray Street. Former New England Hospital is in the background. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

310

46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ladders, elevators, and landings within machinery spaces and cargo holds...with severe space constraints...stairway or elevator exceeds one deck...enclosure. In spaces containing a...stairways or elevators need not...

2009-10-01

311

46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or cargo holds are...Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces and cargo holds shall...provided the stairway or elevator serves only the space and the balcony...

2010-10-01

312

46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or cargo holds are...Stairways, ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces and cargo holds shall...provided the stairway or elevator serves only the space and the balcony...

2009-10-01

313

46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ladders, elevators, and landings within machinery spaces and cargo holds...with severe space constraints...stairway or elevator exceeds one deck...enclosure. In spaces containing a...stairways or elevators need not...

2010-10-01

314

Elevator/Hatch Controller Platform Leveling Logic with Safety Features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an elevator levelling/hatch control circuit including a motor controller, an elevator dispatching unit, an elevator location sensing unit, and a control unit. The control unit receives hatch position signals, monitors the speed and d...

G. Thomas

1983-01-01

315

6. Elevator no. 2, east and north sides, with track ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Elevator no. 2, east and north sides, with track shed attached to right; elevator no. 3 to left; facing west - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

316

29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

317

2. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS (STEEL) 1900 SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; ANNEX NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS (STEEL) 1900 SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; ANNEX NO. 3 (LEFT) ANNEX NO. 1 (RIGHT) 1920'S; CONVEYOR LINE LEADS TO ELEVATOR X. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

318

2. GLF, north elevation. Visible from left to right ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GLF, north elevation. Visible from left to right - elevator C, and B, feed mill in foreground, and former molasses storage tanks. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

319

19. View of elevated Mainline structure looking Southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. View of elevated Mainline structure - looking Southeast - across Franklin Square park with the Franklin Square House in the background. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

320

Orbital dermoid mimicking a monocular elevation deficiency  

PubMed Central

Dermoid cysts are choristomas (a mass of histologically normal tissue in an abnormal location), which originate from aberrant primordial tissue and are often evident soon after birth. It may occur anywhere in the body. Dermoid cysts account for about 3–9% of all orbital masses and 0.04–0.6% of primary orbital tumors. The frequent site of origin is the superotemporal quadrant of orbit. Depending on the location, size, and associated abnormalities of the cyst, the patient may have proptosis, diplopia, and restriction of eye movements. Monocular elevation deficiency (MED) is the inability to elevate one eye in abduction, adduction, or from primary position. We report this case of orbital dermoid in an adult female presenting as a monocular elevation deficiency with unilateral ptosis of right eye which was investigated and managed with good results.

Srikanth, R.; Meenakshi, S.; Chaterjee, Raka; Mukherjee, Bipasha

2012-01-01

321

Orbital dermoid mimicking a monocular elevation deficiency.  

PubMed

Dermoid cysts are choristomas (a mass of histologically normal tissue in an abnormal location), which originate from aberrant primordial tissue and are often evident soon after birth. It may occur anywhere in the body. Dermoid cysts account for about 3-9% of all orbital masses and 0.04-0.6% of primary orbital tumors. The frequent site of origin is the superotemporal quadrant of orbit. Depending on the location, size, and associated abnormalities of the cyst, the patient may have proptosis, diplopia, and restriction of eye movements. Monocular elevation deficiency (MED) is the inability to elevate one eye in abduction, adduction, or from primary position. We report this case of orbital dermoid in an adult female presenting as a monocular elevation deficiency with unilateral ptosis of right eye which was investigated and managed with good results. PMID:22993470

Srikanth, R; Meenakshi, S; Chaterjee, Raka; Mukherjee, Bipasha

2012-05-01

322

Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

2013-07-01

323

Capital Gains Taxation in an Economy with an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of a proportional capital gains tax in an economy with an Austrian sector (with wine and trees) and an ordinary sector. We analyze the effect of capital gains taxation (on both an accrual and a realization basis) on the efficiency with which resources are used within the Austrian sector. Since time is the only input

Daniel J. Kovenock; Michael Rothschild

1983-01-01

324

Job Gains and Job Losses: Recent Literature and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent literature on job gains and job losses. Economies exhibit high rates of gross job reallocation - both high levels of job gains and job losses. For the OECD nations for which data are available, total turnover averaged more than twenty per cent during the 1980s. This is a result of differing behaviour of establishments (firms) in

Alex Grey

1995-01-01

325

The Causes of and Gains from Intertemporal Trade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors show how the causes of and the gains from current account imbalances can be integrated into undergraduate economics courses using the same pedagogical tools that are used to explain comparative advantage and the gains from trade. A nonzero current account provides a mechanism for intertemporal trade, and a country has a comparative…

Craighead, William D.; Miller, Norman C.

2010-01-01

326

Consequences of Weight Gain Associated With Insulin Therapy in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive insulin therapy is associated with the delayed onset and reduced risk of the development of microvascular com- plications in type 1 diabetes and is therefore recommended for most patients, including children and adolescents. Intensification of insu- lin therapy can be accompanied by increased weight gain, and fear of weight gain can represent a major barrier to adherence to intensive

Francine Ratner Kaufman

2006-01-01

327

Gas Gain Stability of MSGCs Operating at High Rate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Micro Strip Gas Counters (MSGCs) with coated and uncoated borosilicate glass substrates have been investigated on their high rate capability and long term gas gain stability. It is shown that the gain remains almost constant at count rates up to (10 to th...

F. D. van den Berg C. Daum B. van Eijk F. G. Hartjes F. Udo V. Zhukov

1997-01-01

328

Noise-induced divisive gain control in neuron models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent computational study of gain control via shunting inhibition has shown that the slope of the frequency- versus-input (f ? \\/I ) characteristic of a neuron can be decreased by increasing the noise associated with the inhibitory input (Neural Comput. 13, 227 ? \\/248). This novel noise-induced divisive gain control relies on the concommittant increase of the noise variance

Brent Doiron; Adi R. Bulsara; Louis Pasteur

2002-01-01

329

When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... 2 - 4 pounds during the first trimester, and 1 pound a week for the rest of the pregnancy. ... more weight if you are having more than one baby. Women having twins will need to gain 37 - 54 pounds. Some women have a hard time gaining weight ...

330

20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gainful work activity is work activity that the claimant...does for pay or profit. Work activity is gainful if it is the kind of work usually done for pay...hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club activities, or social programs to be...

2013-04-01

331

Intellect, Perceptual Characteristics, and Weight Gain in Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied weight-gain 127 primary anorexics by examining the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Rorschach for indices that may predict improvement. Results showed that cognitive-focusing skills, measured by the Wechsler, account for roughly half of the variance and were good predictors of weight gain. (WAS)|

Small, Arnold; And Others

1983-01-01

332

On systems and control approaches to therapeutic gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of cancer relevant processes are being developed at an increasing rate. Conceptual frameworks are needed to support new treatment designs based on such models. METHODS: A modern control perspective is used to formulate two therapeutic gain strategies. RESULTS: Two conceptually distinct therapeutic gain strategies are provided. The first is direct in that its goal is to kill

Tomas Radivoyevitch; Kenneth A Loparo; Robert C Jackson; W David Sedwick

2006-01-01

333

Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-period fiber gratings are used to flatten the gain spectrum of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A broadband amplifier with >0.2-dB gain variation over 30 nm is presented. We also show that a chain of amplifiers can be equalized, leading to a bandwidth enhancement by a factor of 3. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

Ashish M. Vengsarkar; J. Renee Pedrazzani; Justin B. Judkins; Paul J. Lemaire; Neal S. Bergano; Carl R. Davidson

1996-01-01

334

Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Importance for Maternal and Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gestational weight gain is a strong predictor of short- and long-term health outcomes for both childbearing women and their offspring. Epidemiologic studies have found that higher maternal gestational weight gains are associated with abnormalities in maternal prenatal glycemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and delivery complications, along with an increased risk of postpartum weight retention, incident obesity and adverse cardiometabolic sequelae

Sharon J. Herring; Emily Oken

2010-01-01

335

Gain-scheduled reusable launch vehicle attitude controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of gain-scheduled attitude controller for reusable launch vehicle is presented. In this paper, gain-scheduled controller design is finished without considering small perturbation linearization. Simultaneously, coordinated scheduling controller is used to deal with intentionally cross coupling. This framework is applied to the design of coupling between roll, pitch and yaw of reusable launch vehicle with large angles of

Nai-gang Cui; Jiangtao Xu; Rongjun Mu; Pengxin Han

2009-01-01

336

Gain Limitations of a Single-Transistor Voltage Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum voltage gain achievable with an amplifier, using only a single bipolar transistor, is shown to depend mainly on the power supply voltage Vcc. Textbooks show that the gain of an emitter follower amplifier is the product of the trans-conductance and the collector resistor, making it seem as though one can increase the gain indefinitely by choosing better transistors and/or larger resistors. However, to prevent saturation (and decreased gain) these parameters are not independent. Thus, the maximum possible gain Gmax is nearly independent of the transistor characteristics. For small signal one-transistor AC amplifiers, Gmax is found to be Gmax = Vcc/(nkT/q) = Vcc/(0.026 n Volts) at room temperature. Here n is the ideality factor of the base-emitter junction, a number that is typically between 1 and 2. For large signal AC amplifiers Gmax is reduced by a factor of two. Emitter stabilization reduces the maximum gain (in our example by a factor of ten) but extends the gain to DC, and makes it independent of temperature. It also allows for "universal" replacement transistors, requiring only a sufficiently high voltage rating, and a nearly linear current gain large compared to unity.

Penchina, Claude M.

2001-03-01

337

The Causes of and Gains from Intertemporal Trade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors show how the causes of and the gains from current account imbalances can be integrated into undergraduate economics courses using the same pedagogical tools that are used to explain comparative advantage and the gains from trade. A nonzero current account provides a mechanism for intertemporal trade, and a country has a comparative…

Craighead, William D.; Miller, Norman C.

2010-01-01

338

Pattern, gain and temperature measurements of reflector antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an overview of results for far field pattern, antenna gain, and antenna temperature measurements of reflector antennas in several frequency bands. The pattern and gain measurements were taken in the compact range at the Ohio State University. In a series of related measurements an 8 ft diameter Cassegrain reflector was used for antenna temperature measurements under clear

R. C. Rudduck; T.-H. Lee; K. M. Lambert

1990-01-01

339

Stability of School-Building Accountability Scores and Gains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the stability of accountability scores and gains for schools using fourth-grade reading results for schools (samples from 757 to 802 schools) in Colorado for 4 years of administration of the Colorado Student Assessment Program. Year-to-year changes were found to be quite unstable, resulting in a near zero correlation of the school gains

Linn, Robert L.; Haug, Carolyn

2002-01-01

340

Does Weight Gain during Pregnancy Influence Postpartum Depression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to determine if weight gain during pregnancy has an effect on postpartum depression (PPD). Data were collected in a web survey from 238 women who had recently given birth. The data were analyzed for the total sample and also by body weight category before pregnancy. Findings revealed that weight gain was inversely associated with

Krista M. C. Cline; Jessica Decker

2012-01-01

341

A software environment for gain scheduled controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical developments have improved the understanding of gain scheduled control and suggested new methods for design, analysis, and implementation of such nonlinear control systems. An integrated software environment for gain scheduled local controller network design and analysis, including computer-aided modeling and system identification, is described. Some background theory is included, and a speed control design problem for an experimental vehicle-a

Tor A. Johansen; K. J. Hunt; H. Fritz

1998-01-01

342

Gain saturation model of microchannel plate devices: recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous model of microchannel plate (MCP) devices operating in conditions of gain saturation has been extended to include charge diffusion along the microchannel during the gain recovery process. To this purpose the set of independent recharging circuits previously associated to each MCP dynode has been replaced by a distributed parameter electrical network that represents the entire microchannel consistently with

Leonardo Giudicotti; Michele Bassan; Roberto Pasqualotto; Andrea Sardella

1997-01-01

343

Exponential gain in a Smith--Purcell amplifier  

SciTech Connect

We study here the gain of an amplifier based on the Smith--Purcell effect. The grating is characterized by a reflection matrix and the gain, in the exponential region, is calculated as a function of the beam height and thickness.

Schaechter, L.; Ron, A.

1988-09-05

344

Exposure to Obesity and Weight Gain Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a treatment-effect framework using Add Health data, we investigate whether adolescents gain weight when increasingly exposed to obesity in their social networks. In this paper, we have assembled empirical evidence that supports an effect of increased exposure to obesity on weight gain within a social network. Based on Wave I and II of the Add Health surveys, we find

Muzhe Yang; Rui Huang

2010-01-01

345

Amisulpride is an “atypical” antipsychotic associated with low weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale It is possible that amisulpride, with its unique receptor binding profile, is not associated with significant weight gain, a serious side effect of most “atypical” antipsychotic drugs. While most “atypicals” have a high affinity for both dopamine and serotonin receptors, amisulpride has only dopamine receptor action. Objectives To analyse the weight gain associated with amisulpride. Methods A pooled database

Stefan Leucht; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Johannes Hamann; Werner Kissling

2004-01-01

346

Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel surface-emitting semiconductor laser structure with a vertical cavity, extremely short gain medium length, and enhanced gain at a specific design wavelength is described. The active region consists of a series of quantum wells spaced at one half the wavelength of a particular optical transition in the quantum wells. This spatial periodicity allows the antinodes of the standing wave

M. Y. A. Raja; C. F. Schaus; J. G. McInerney; T. M. Brennan; B. E. Hammons

1989-01-01

347

Novel Architectures of Class AB CMOS Mirrors with Programmable Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two schemes for power-efficient gain-programmable V-I conversion based on class AB CMOS mirrors are introduced. The proposed topologies also allow for high-speed gain-programmable precision rectification. Experimental results from a test chip prototype in 0.5-µ m CMOS technology with ±1 V supplies are shown that validate the proposed circuits.

Chandrika Durbha; Jaime Ramírez-Angulo; RAM ´ ON G. CARVAJAL; Antonio J. López-Martín

2005-01-01

348

Gain flatness of a planar optical waveguide amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the broad gain and gain flatness spectra (1530-1565 nm) of a 14 cm long Er3+ doped aluminosilicate waveguide amplifier pumped at 1470 nm. We demonstrate its successful use as an in-line amplifier in an 8 channels WDM 155 Mbit\\/s transmission fiber experiment

J.-M. P. Delavaux; C. McIntosh; J. Shmulovich; A. J. Bruce; R. K. Pattnaik; B. R. Wirstiuk

2000-01-01

349

Validity of Sudden Gains in Acute Phase Treatment of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the validity of sudden gains identified with T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis's (1999) method in 2 clinical data sets that involved treatment of major depressive disorder (N=227). Sudden gains replicated among self- and clinician reports of depressive symptoms and predicted better psychosocial functioning at the acute phase…

Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

2005-01-01

350

Eyewitness Identification: Information Gain From Incriminating and Exonerating Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An information-gain approach to the analysis and interpretation of eyewitness identification data is described. The information-gain analysis is grounded in Bayesian statistics, permitting the important role of prior probabilities to be explored. This approach also forces a more complete treatment of the data and reveals important patterns that have escaped previous attention in the eyewitness identification literature. Particularly important is

Gary L. Wells; Elizabeth A. Olson

2002-01-01

351

BIOBEHAVIORAL INFLUENCES ON ENERGY INTAKE AND ADULT WEIGHT GAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

U.S. adults are now gaining more weight and becoming obese at an earlier age than in previous years. The specific causes of adult weight gain are unknown, but may be attributed to a combination of factors leading to positive energy balance. U.S. food supply data indicate that Americans have had a gr...

352

Quantum derivatives and terahertz gain in a superlattice  

SciTech Connect

Simple formulas describing terahertz absorption and gain in a semiconductor superlattice irradiated by a microwave pump field are derived for the case when the signal frequency is a half harmonic of the pump. A simple qualitative analysis provides a geometric interpretation of the derived formulas, which can be used to determine if gain is feasible.

Shorokhov, A. V. [Ogarev Mordovian State University (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shorokhovav@math.mrsu.ru; Alekseev, K. N. [University of Oulu (Finland)

2007-07-15

353

23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

354

site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing original front entrance, interior detail showing fireplace in elevation - Neiman House, 1930 Providence Road, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC

355

WFC3 TV2 Testing: IR Gain Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of Thermal Vacuum 2 (TV2) testing during the summer of 2007, we obtained several datasets that allowed us to calculate the gain of the IR1 (FPA129) detector. At the nominal flight gain setting of 2.0 e-/ADU, we measure gain values between 2.12 - 2.16 e-/ADU, after accounting for inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). This corresponds to 2.41 - 2.45 e-/ADU before the IPC correction. For the other (unsupported) gain settings of 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 e-/ADU, we calculate actual gain values of 2.78 - 2.88, 3.33 - 3.48, and 4.50 - 4.76 e-/ADU respectively, after IPC correction.

Hilbert, B.

2007-12-01

356

Raman gain in modified tellurite glasses and thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the tailoring of Raman spectra of the tellurite glass by varying molar concentrations of phosphates, fluorides in phosphate modified tellurite glasses to analyze the Raman gain. From the measured Raman spectrum, the Raman gain and gain bandwidth in these glasses were calculated and compared. The structural features that give rise to the observed spectra and its dependence on glass composition are identified and reported. Raman gain as high as 170 × 10- 13 m/W is obtained for glass modified by zinc oxide. Glass thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition show a Raman gain of 5.0 × 10- 13 m/W suggesting their importance in short waveguide Raman amplifier fabrication.

Irannejad, M.; Jose, G.; Jha, A.; Steenson, P.

2012-05-01

357

Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers  

SciTech Connect

A novel surface-emitting semiconductor laser structure with a vertical cavity, extremely short gain medium length, and enhanced gain at a specific design wavelength is described. The active region consists of a series of quantum wells spaced at one half the wavelength of a particular optical transition in the quantum wells. This spatial periodicity allows the antinodes of the standing wave optical field to coincide with the gain elements, enhancing the frequency selectivity, increasing the gain in the vertical direction by a factor of two compared to a uniform medium or a nonresonant multiple quantum well, and substantially reducing amplified spontaneous emission. Optically pumped lasing was achieved in a GaAs/AlGaAs structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, with the shortest gain medium (310 nm) ever reported. Various other optoelectronic devices which depend on the interaction between an electromagnetic standing wave and a carrier population distribution can also benefit from this concept.

Raja, M.Y.A.; Schaus, C.F.; McInerney, J.G.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.

1989-06-01

358

Forest succession at elevated CO2  

SciTech Connect

We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

2002-02-01

359

A Brief Motivational Intervention for Preventing Medication-Associated Weight Gain Among Youth with Bipolar Disorder: Treatment Development and Case Report  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bipolar disorder (BP) in youth is an impairing psychiatric disorder associated with high rates of relapse and recurrence. High rates of psychiatric and medical co-morbidities account for additional illness burden in pediatric BP. The elevated risk of overweight and obesity in this population is of particular concern. One of the likely etiologies for weight gain in youth with BP is use of mood-stabilizing medications. Although these medications can be effective for mood stabilization, excessive weight gain is a common side effect. Obesity is associated with a host of medical problems and is also correlated with worse psychiatric outcomes in BP, rendering the prevention of weight gain in this population particularly clinically relevant. In this article, we describe the rationale and development of a brief motivational intervention for preventing weight gain among youth with BP initiating mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment and then present a case example illustrating the principles of the intervention.

Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Mantz, Michael B.; Bailey, Bridget; Douaihy, Antoine

2011-01-01

360

The Tie that Binds: The Role of Self-Reported High School Gains in Self-Reported College Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the extent to which students' retrospective self-reported gains from high school are associated with college self-reported gains. As such, the chapter offers an empirical test of how accounting for one's predisposition to report educational impact changes estimates of the effects of college…

Seifert, Tricia A.; Asel, Ashley M.

2011-01-01

361

Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for reconstructing intron evolution. The findings of this comprehensive study slightly challenge the current view on the evolutionary stasis in intron dynamics during the last 100 - 200 My. Domesticated genes could constitute an excellent system on which to analyse the mechanisms of intron gain in placental mammals. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Dan Graur, Eugene V. Koonin and Jürgen Brosius.

2011-01-01

362

Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a

A. Turetta; A. Ghiotti; S. Bruschi

2007-01-01

363

Elevated Concentrations of Actinides in Mono Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very

R. F. Anderson; M. P. Bacon; P. G. Brewer

1982-01-01

364

Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very

R. F. Anderson; M. P. Bacon; P. G. Brewer

1982-01-01

365

ELEVATING FRC MATERIAL DUCTILITY TO INFRASTRUCTURE DURABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete is a brittle material. The lack of durability of concrete infrastructure has been a recognized concern. Research in fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) often addresses the issue of material brittleness. However, the translation of improved ductility of FRC into infrastructure durability is often overlooked. This paper explores the concept of elevating the ductility of high performance fiber reinforced concretes (HPFRCC)

Victor C. Li; Henrik Stang

2004-01-01

366

Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of

Kilian A. Engel

2005-01-01

367

The physics of the space elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A space elevator is a tall tower rising from a point on the Earth's equator to a height well above a geostationary orbit, where it terminates in a counterweight. Although the concept is more than a century old, it was only with the discovery of carbon nanotubes that it began to receive serious scientific attention. NASA commissioned a study of

P. K. Aravind

2007-01-01

368

Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator

Paul Williams

2009-01-01

369

Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties  

SciTech Connect

The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150{degree}F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined.

Grant, P.R.; Gruber, R.S. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Van Katwijk, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

370

MGA Analysis on Elevated 238 Pu Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium gamma-ray data analysis, in the 100-keV region, using MGA has been improved to overcome the original maximum limit of 2% 238Pu relative plutonium content in a sample in order to perform an analysis. MGA analysis results of elevated 238Pu samples are compared to the results from mass spectrometry.

Wang, T. F.; Moody, K. J.; Raschke, K. E.; Ruhter, W. D.

2002-10-01

371

ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes NASA's ICESat mission ((Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), which was launched January 12, 2003. ICESat is the benchmark Earth Observing System mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.

2007-11-01

372

Effects of Elevated Temperature on Carcinogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To study the effects of elevated temperatures on carcinogenesis, 7 to 9 week old C3H-mice maintained at either 23 or 30 degrees-C were divided into four groups: a no treatment control; high level carcinogen, 2.0 milligrams/week (mg/wk) benzo(a)pyrene (503...

H. S. Weiss K. M. Kerr

1975-01-01

373

Recent Elevation Change in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Velocities of elevation change for two time periods have been determined from Southern California leveling data. Two periods were selected for study: 1906 through 1962 and 1959 through 1976. The study area extends from San Pedro north to latitude 35.5 deg...

S. R. Holdahl

1977-01-01

374

Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were…

Marlowe, Mike; And Others

375

[Elevation of hepatic enzyme values in hyperthyroidism].  

PubMed

Serum or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) activity may sometimes exhibit even considerable increases in connection with hyperthyroidism and present a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic problem. Open questions include whether the hepatic change is related to a primary disease, and how to select treatment. We report two patients, in whom carbimazole medication initiated for Graves' disease normalized elevated ALAT values. PMID:21553506

Soppi, Esa; Paul, Robert

2011-01-01

376

Climatic change at high elevation sites  

SciTech Connect

A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

Dr. Henry F. Diaz

1998-07-23

377

Elevation correction and the geoid tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is not a perfect sphere, but is instead more like a slightly squashed sphere called an ellipsoid. Because of this, GPS receivers must use a correction model (called a geoid) to calculate true elevation above sea level. UNAVCO has prepared this explanation for both teachers and students to learn more about accuracy, scientific models, and how GPS receivers work.

Unavco

378

Cranial polyneuropathy with elevated serum antiganglioside antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 6-year-old girl with cranial polyneuropathy with elevated serum levels of antiganglioside antibodies. She manifested herpetic vesicles around the right upper eyelid and mouth without antecedent infection. She developed facial asymmetry and double vision 5 days after the first apperance of the vesicles. Neurological examination on admission disclosed palsies of the bilateral sixth and twelfth cranial nerves and

Kousaku Matsubara; Hiroyuki Nigami; Hidekazu Harigaya; Kunizou Baba

1997-01-01

379

Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 °C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms

Y. H. Chen; Kuo Feng Chou; C. L. Li; Sanboh Lee

2011-01-01

380

Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177–197 °C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms

Y. H. Chen; Kuo Feng Chou; C. L. Li; Sanboh Lee

2011-01-01

381

Addressing women's concerns about weight gain due to smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Specific concerns about weight gain following smoking cessation inhibit attempts to quit smoking, especially in women. However, adjunct interventions to prevent weight gain after cessation have generally been successful only in attenuating, rather than preventing, weight gain. More aggressive weight control adjuncts may be necessary to prevent cessation-induced weight gain. On the other hand, weight control programs have not been found to improve long-term smoking abstinence and, in fact, may actually impede abstinence, necessitating a search for alternative approaches to addressing weight concerns. Since the typical amount of weight gain is essentially trivial from a health standpoint, particularly when compared with the health benefits of quitting smoking, the most appropriate clinical strategy may be to combat the weight concerns themselves rather than the weight gain. A second alternative approach is to focus all treatment efforts on smoking cessation alone, to avoid placing excessive burdens on participants resulting from attempting simultaneous changes in multiple health behaviors (i.e., smoking and those related to weight). The rationales for these three clinical approaches to addressing concerns about weight gain-more effective weight control, direct reduction in weight concerns by cognitive-behavioral treatment, and smoking cessation only-are presented, followed by descriptions of the adjunct treatments based on these approaches currently being evaluated in a clinical outcome study with women trying to quit smoking. PMID:9258862

Perkins, K A; Levine, M D; Marcus, M D; Shiffman, S

382

Sticky Prospects: Loss Frames Are Cognitively Stickier Than Gain Frames.  

PubMed

Research across numerous domains has highlighted the current-and presumably temporary-effects of frames on preference and behavior. Yet people often encounter information that has been framed in different ways across contexts, and there are reasons to predict that certain frames, once encountered, might tend to stick in the mind and resist subsequent reframing. We propose that loss frames are stickier than gain frames in their ability to shape people's thinking. Specifically, we suggest that the effect of a loss frame may linger longer than that of a gain frame in the face of reframing and that this asymmetry may arise because it is more difficult to convert a loss-framed concept into a gain-framed concept than vice versa. Supporting this notion, loss-to-gain (vs. gain-to-loss) reframing had a muted impact on both risk preferences (Study 1) and evaluation (Study 2). Moreover, participants took longer to solve a math problem that required reconceptualizing losses as gains than vice versa (Studies 3-5), and reframing changed gain-based conceptualizations but not loss-based ones (Study 6). We discuss implications for understanding a key process underlying negativity bias, as well as how sequential frames might impact political behavior and economic recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23527949

Ledgerwood, Alison; Boydstun, Amber E

2013-03-25

383

Transverse mode properties of lasers with Gaussian gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modes and beam characteristics of a Gaussian gain laser resonator are analyzed. Such a gain is typically associated with an end pumped solid state laser. The beam propagation method is used to find the eigenmodes. The eigenmodes are non Gaussian in appearance and differ greatly from the modes of the same cavity with a quadratic gain. It is found that the cavity geometry strongly influences mode formation around degenerate cavity geometries throughout a broad range of operational parameters. The beam propagation method is used to evolve the field through the resonator, resulting in computation of the nonorthogonal eigenmodes. This permits evaluation of the excess noise dependence on geometric cavity parameters such as length and focal length. It is shown that the beam quality M 2 and Petermann K factor are related and are anticorrelated at degeneracies. An explanation is given based on the self Fourier transforming properties of degenerate cavity locations. It is shown how the empty cavity properties of transverse mode degeneracies are not revealed with a quadratic gain, but are strikingly present with a Gaussian gain. A confocal cavity is studied in detail and found to have the property that forces K to unity even in the presence of strong gains and narrow pump widths. The interplay between the diffraction effects of a geometrically stable cavity and the Gaussian gain will be studied to reveal the nature and implications of the non-normal modes encountered.

Maes, Carl Francis

384

High temperature and wavelength dependence of avalanche gain of AlAsSb avalanche photodiodes.  

PubMed

The evolution of the dark currents and breakdown at elevated temperatures of up to 450 ?K are studied using thin AlAsSb avalanche regions. While the dark currents increase rapidly as the temperature is increased, the avalanche gain is shown to only have a weak temperature dependence. Temperature coefficients of breakdown voltage of 0.93 and 1.93 ?mV/K were obtained from the diodes of 80 and 230 ?nm avalanche regions (i-regions), respectively. These values are significantly lower than for other available avalanche materials at these temperatures. The wavelength dependence of multiplication characteristics of AlAsSb p-i-n diodes has also been investigated, and it was found that the ionization coefficients for electrons and holes are comparable within the electric field and wavelength ranges measured. PMID:22048393

Sandall, Ian C; Xie, Shiyu; Xie, Jingjing; Tan, Chee Hing

2011-11-01

385

Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-04-01

386

High gain single GaAs nanowire photodetector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An undoped single GaAs nanowire (NW) photodetector based on a metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky diode structure is fabricated by a focused ion beam method. The photoconductive gain of the device reaches 20 000 at low laser excitation. Bias-dependence of gain proves that the surface contributes more to the gain at higher bias because of an increased surface charge region. The spectral response demonstrates not only the band-edge absorption profile of the single GaAs NW, but also the existence of leaky-mode resonance.

Wang, Hao

2013-08-01

387

Memristive devices as parameter setting elements in programmable gain amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the AC performance of a variable gain amplifier that utilizes an in-house manufactured memristor as a gain setting element. Analysis includes frequency and phase responses as the memristor is programmed at different resistive states. A TiO2-based solid-state memristor was employed in the feedback branch of an inverting voltage amplifier and was programmed externally. We have also observed indications of memcapacitive effects and a correlation with resistive states is presented. We demonstrate that our TiO2 memristive devices, although possessing relatively low ROFF/RON switching ratios (~10), are versatile and can be used reliably in programmable gain amplifiers.

Berdan, R.; Prodromakis, T.; Salaoru, I.; Khiat, A.; Toumazou, C.

2012-12-01

388

Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots.  

PubMed

The development of optical gain in chemically synthesized semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystal quantum dots) has been intensely studied as the first step toward nanocrystal quantum dot lasers. We examined the competing dynamical processes involved in optical amplification and lasing in nanocrystal quantum dots and found that, despite a highly efficient intrinsic nonradiative Auger recombination, large optical gain can be developed at the wavelength of the emitting transition for close-packed solids of these dots. Narrowband stimulated emission with a pronounced gain threshold at wavelengths tunable with the size of the nanocrystal was observed, as expected from quantum confinement effects. These results unambiguously demonstrate the feasibility of nanocrystal quantum dot lasers. PMID:11030645

Klimov, V I; Mikhailovsky, A A; Xu, S; Malko, A; Hollingsworth, J A; Leatherdale, C A; Eisler, H; Bawendi, M G

2000-10-13

389

Studies of high-gain microchannel plate photomultipliers  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics and performance of several kinds of high-gain micro-channel plate photomultipliers have been investigated. Special attention was directed toward (1) lifetime studies, (2) performance in the magnetic field, and (3) timing properties. Lifetime studies include separate investigations of the photocathode quantum efficiency degradation caused by ion feedback, and the deterioration of the micro-channel plate gain. The dependence of the micro-channel plate photomultiplier gain on the intensity and the direction of the magnetic field (up to 7 kGauss) is reported.

Oba, K.; Rehak, P.

1980-01-01

390

Symmetry breaking and multipeaked solitons in inhomogeneous gain landscapes  

SciTech Connect

We address one-dimensional soliton formation in a cubic nonlinear medium with two-photon absorption and transversally inhomogeneous gain landscape consisting of a single or several amplifying channels. Existence of the solitons requires certain threshold gain while the properties of solitons strongly depend on whether the number of the amplifying channels is odd or even. In the former case, an increase of the gain leads to symmetry breaking, which occurs through the pitchfork bifurcation, and to emergence of a single or several coexisting stable asymmetric modes. In the case of an even number of amplifying channels, we have found only asymmetric stable states.

Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, and Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Mediterranean Technology Park, ES-8860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Konotop, Vladimir V. [Centro de Fisica Teorica e Computacional and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, Lisboa PT-1649-003 (Portugal)

2011-04-15

391

Does weight gain during pregnancy influence postpartum depression?  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine if weight gain during pregnancy has an effect on postpartum depression (PPD). Data were collected in a web survey from 238 women who had recently given birth. The data were analyzed for the total sample and also by body weight category before pregnancy. Findings revealed that weight gain was inversely associated with PPD for the obese women in our sample. For these women, the less weight they gained, the more likely they were to experience PPD. History of depression, partner support, and age were also predictors of PPD. PMID:21824894

Cline, Krista M C; Decker, Jessica

2011-08-08

392

Proton and gamma ray induced gain degradation in bipolar transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of the effect of 24 MeV proton and (CO)-C-60 gamma-irradiation on the collector characteristic., and forward current gain of commercial bipolar transistor (npn 2N2219A). The transistor has been exposed to these radiations in the biased condition and the collector characteristics and forward current gain have been measured as a function of proton fluence and gamma-dose. The observation is that both the proton and gamma-irradiation induce significant gain degradation in the transistor. The results are discussed in terms of displacement damage produced by energetic protons and gamma-radiation in the bulk of the semiconductor.

Kulkarni, S. R.; Sarma, A.; Joshi, G. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

2003-09-01

393

Measuring gain-sharing dividends in acute care hospitals.  

PubMed

Hospitals have responded to industry consolidation by increasing productivity with nonmanagement, group-incentive compensation, known as gain sharing. A nationwide study conducted to obtain quantitative performance data for gain-sharing programs revealed that they are most successful during the initial stages of the program. Many variables affect the size of employee bonuses and the duration of employee support. Employers must identify how to appropriately install their gain-sharing program so that employee motivation, participation, and trust in management are maximized. PMID:8206759

Barbusca, A; Cleek, M

1994-01-01

394

Optical gain and loss in 3-um diode W lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gain in broad area mid-infrared diode W lasers ((lambda) =3- 3.1micrometers ) has been measured using lateral mode spatial filtering combined with the Hakki-Paoli approach. The internal optical loss of approximately equals 19cm-1 determined from the gain spectra was the same for devices with either 10- or 5-period active regions and nearly constant in the temperature range between 80 and 160K. Analysis of the differential gain and spontaneous emission spectra shows that the main contribution to the temperature dependence of the threshold current is Auger recombination, which dominates within almost the entire temperature range studied (80-160K).

Suchalkin, Sergei; Westerfeld, David; Donetski, Dimitrii; Martinelli, Ramon U.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Luryi, Serge; Belenky, Gregory L.

2002-05-01

395

A Highly Linear Broadband Variable Gain LNA for TV Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broadband variable-gain low noise amplifier with triple output for TV tuners has been demonstrated in a 0.18 mum SiGe technology. The gain varies continuously from 27 dB to -28 dB and has better than 1 dB precision over a 1GHz bandwidth. At 27 dB gain the amplifier shows 6.5 dB NF, 82 dBmV OIP3 and 121 dBmV OIP2. OIP3

D. Manstretta; L. Dauphinee

2007-01-01

396

Absolute Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Gain Measurement  

SciTech Connect

We present the first direct measurement of the time evolution of the gain of a soft x-ray laser amplifier. The measurement is based on the injection of a seed pulse, obtained by high-order harmonic generation, into an x-ray laser medium. Strong amplification occurs when the seed pulse is synchronized with the gain period. By precisely varying the delay between the x-ray laser plasma creation and the seed pulse injection, the actual temporal evolution of the soft x-ray amplifier gain is obtained with a subpicosecond resolution.

Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Faivre, G.; Hallou, A.; Rousseau, J.P. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee (LOA), ENSTA-Ecole polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Maynard, G.; Cros, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 210, 91405 Orsay (France); Fajardo, M. [Centro de Fisica dos Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Kazamias, S.; Dubau, J. [Laboratoire d'Interaction du Rayonnement X avec la Matiere, Batiment 350, Universite Paris-sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Aubert, D.; Lacheze-Murel, G. de [CEA/DIF, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

2005-10-21

397

The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical high-resolution encoder interpolator relies on careful mechanical alignment of the encoder read-heads and tight electrical tolerances of the signal processing electronics to ensure linearity. As the interpolation factor increases, maintaining these tight mechanical and electrical tolerances becomes impractical. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is designed to utilize strip-type encoders on the main axes. Because of the very large scale of the telescope, the accumulative length of the azimuth and elevation encoder strips exceeds 80 meters, making optical tape prohibitively expensive. Consequently, the designers of the LBT incorporated the far less expensive Farrand Controls Inductosyn® linear strip encoder to encode the positions of the main axes and the instrument rotators. Since the cycle pitch of these encoders is very large compared to that of optical strip encoders, the interpolation factor must also be large in order to achieve the 0.005 arcsecond encoder resolution as specified. The authors present a description of the innovative DSP-based hardware / software solution that adaptively characterizes and removes common systematic cycle-to-cycle encoder interpolation errors. These errors can be caused by mechanical misalignment, encoder manufacturing flaws, variations in electrical gain, signal offset or cross-coupling of the encoder signals. Simulation data are presented to illustrate the performance of the interpolation algorithm, and telemetry data are presented to demonstrate the actual performance of the LBT main-axis encoder system.

Ashby, David S.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Rosato, Jerry; Brynnel, Joar G.

2008-08-01

398

75. Southeast elevation of Forest Hills station looking Northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. Southeast elevation of Forest Hills station - looking Northwest from junction of Washington and Walk Hill Streets. At left is the beginning of Section F-7 the exposed steel portion of elevated structure leading to the Forest Hills storage yard (demolished in 1985). - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

399

3. View North. South front elevation and partial east side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View North. South front elevation and partial east side elevation of the original 1883 building; and the south front elevation and partial east side elevation of the c. 1900 side ell addition. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

400

Intelligent Elevator Control By Ordinal Structure Fuzzy Logic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advancement of intelligent computerised buildings in recent years, there has been strong demands for intelligent elevator control with more sophistication and diverse functions. The design criteria of an intelligent elevator control system would include optimising the movement of a group of elevators with respect to time, energy, load, etc. In this paper, a new elevator group supervisory control

Tan Kok Khiang; Marzuki Khalid; Rubiyah Yusof

401

Cokriging model for estimation of water table elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In geological settings where the water table is a subdued replica of the ground surface, cokriging can be used to estimate the water table elevation at unsampled locations on the basis of values of water table elevation and ground surface elevation measured at wells and at points along flowing streams. The ground surface elevation at the estimation point must also

R. J. Hoeksema; R. B. Clapp; A. L. Thomas; A. E. Hunley; N. D. Farrow; K. C. Dearstone

1989-01-01

402

67. West elevation Green Street station looking East across ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. West elevation Green Street station - looking East across Washington Street along Green Street. In foreground is the reconstructed version of the intermediate level passenger platform which was originaly suspended from the elevated structure. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

403

ACE2 deficiency is associated with impaired gestational weight gain and fetal growth restriction  

PubMed Central

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that influences the relative expression of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang-(1–7). Although ACE2 expression increases in normal pregnancy, the impact of ACE2 deficiency in pregnancy has not been elucidated. We determined the influence of ACE2 deficiency on circulating and tissue RAS components, fetal and maternal growth characteristics, and maternal hemodynamics (mean blood pressure (MBP) and cardiac output (CO)) at day 18 of gestation. Gestational body weight gain was lower in the ACE2 knock out (KO) vs C57BL/6 (WT) mice (30.3 ± 4.7 vs 38.2 ± 1.0 g, p<0.001). Fetal weight (0.94 ± 0.1 vs 1.24 ± 0.01 g, p<0.01) and length (19.6 ± 0.2 vs 22.2 ± 0.2 mm, p<0.001) were less in KO. MBP was significantly reduced in WT with pregnancy; it was elevated (p<0.05) in the KO virgin and pregnant mice, and this was associated with an increased CO in both WT and KO pregnant mice (p<0.05). Plasma Ang-(1–7) was reduced in pregnant KO mice (p<0.05). Placenta Ang II levels were higher in KO mice (52.9 ± 6.0 vs 22.0 ± 3.3 fmol/mg protein, p<0.001). Renal Ang II levels were greater in KO virgin mice (30.0 ± 1.7 vs 23.7 ± 1.1 fmol/mg protein, p<0.001). There was no change in the Ang-(1–7) levels in the KO placenta and virgin kidney. These results suggest that ACE2 deficiency and associated elevated placenta Ang II levels impact pregnancy by impairing gestational weight gain and restricting fetal growth.

Bharadwaj, Manish S; Strawn, William B; Groban, Leanne; Yamaleyeva, Liliya M; Chappell, Mark C; Horta, Carina; Atkins, Katie; Firmes, Luciana; Gurley, Susan B; Brosnihan, K Bridget

2011-01-01

404

Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use  

PubMed Central

Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

2013-01-01

405

Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.  

PubMed

Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

2013-08-29

406

Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses.  

PubMed

Several different compositions of tellurium-thallium oxide glasses were fabricated and tested for their Raman gain performance. The addition of PbO to the glass matrix increased the surface optical damage threshold by 60-230%. The maximum material Raman gain coefficient experimentally obtained was (58 +/- 3) times higher than the peak Raman gain of a 3.18 mm thick Corning 7980-2F fused silica sample (Deltanu = 13.2 THz). The highest peak in the Raman gain spectrum of the tellurium-thallium glass is attributed to the presence of TeO3 and TeO3+1 structural units with thallium ions in the vicinity at a frequency shift near 21.3 THz. PMID:19494983

Stegeman, Robert; Rivero, Clara; Richardson, Kathleen; Stegeman, George; Delfyett, Peter; Guo, Yu; Pope, April; Schulte, Alfons; Cardinal, Thierry; Thomas, Philippe; Champarnaud-Mesjard, Jean-Claude

2005-02-21

407

Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several different compositions of tellurium-thallium oxide glasses were fabricated and tested for their Raman gain performance. The addition of PbO to the glass matrix increased the surface optical damage threshold by 60-230%. The maximum material Raman gain coefficient experimentally obtained was (58 ± 3) times higher than the peak Raman gain of a 3.18 mm thick Corning 7980-2F fused silica sample (?? = 13.2 THz). The highest peak in the Raman gain spectrum of the tellurium-thallium glass is attributed to the presence of TeO3 and TeO3+1 structural units with thallium ions in the vicinity at a frequency shift near 21.3 THz.

Stegeman, Robert; Rivero, Clara; Richardson, Kathleen; Stegeman, George; Delfyett, Peter, Jr.; Guo, Yu; Pope, April; Schulte, Alfons; Cardinal, Thierry; Thomas, Philippe; Champarnaud-Mesjard, Jean-Claude

2005-02-01

408

Giotto Spacecraft High Gain Antenna Mechanical Design and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development approach of the Giotto spacecraft high gain antenna structure is presented. The antenna structure consists of a dynamically and statically balanced offset parabolic reflector and a tripod support structure for the S/X-band feed. The reflec...

R. Halm F. Felici H. J. Schoedel H. Raupp

1986-01-01

409

1300-nm gain obtained with dysprosium-doped chloride crystals  

SciTech Connect

Dy{sup 3+} - doped chloride crystals have high 1300-nm emission quantum yields. Pump - probe experiments on La Cl{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} demonstrate optical gain consistent with predictions based on spectroscopic cross sections and lifetimes.

Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

1996-03-01

410

Losing it: The Influence of Losses on Individuals' Normalized Gains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers and practitioners routinely use the normalized gain (Hake, 1998) to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Normalized gain (g) has been useful in distinguishing active engagement from traditional instruction. Recently, concerns were raised about normalized gain because it implicitly neglects retention (or, equivalently, "losses"). That is to say, g assumes no right answers become wrong after instruction. We analyze individual standardized gain (G) and loss (L) in data collected at Harvard University during the first five years that Peer Instruction was developed. We find that losses are non-zero, and that losses are larger among students with lower pre-test performances. These preliminary results warrant further research, particularly with different student populations, to establish whether the failure to address loss changes the conclusions drawn from g.

Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Reshef, Orad; Dowd, Jason E.; Araujo, Ives; Mazur, Eric

2010-12-31

411

Gain-switched Yb-doped fiber laser for microprocessing.  

PubMed

The gain-switched fiber laser presents the simplest construction among pulsed lasers in the nanosecond region and consequently is also very robust. These properties make it potentially appropriate for industrial applications, especially in some types of microprocessing. However, careful design of such lasers is important in order to reach the required pulse parameters (peak power and pulse duration). To design and optimize a gain-switched fiber laser for microprocessing, a numerical model using time and spatial dependencies was developed and reported in this paper. The effects of pump power and laser length on the pulse duration and peak power were investigated by modeling gain-switched operation. Further, the results of modeling were compared to data from an experimental setup based on a Yb3+-doped gain-switched fiber laser, revealing good agreement. PMID:23669775

Agrež, Vid; Petkovšek, Rok

2013-05-01

412

Pinned modes in lossy lattices with local gain and nonlinearity.  

PubMed

We introduce a discrete linear lossy system with an embedded "hot spot" (HS), i.e., a site carrying linear gain and complex cubic nonlinearity. The system can be used to model an array of optical or plasmonic waveguides, where selective excitation of particular cores is possible. Localized modes pinned to the HS are constructed in an implicit analytical form, and their stability is investigated numerically. Stability regions for the modes are obtained in the parameter space of the linear gain and cubic gain or loss. An essential result is that the interaction of the unsaturated cubic gain and self-defocusing nonlinearity can produce stable modes, although they may be destabilized by finite-amplitude perturbations. On the other hand, the interplay of the cubic loss and self-defocusing gives rise to a bistability. PMID:23031046

Malomed, Boris A; Ding, Edwin; Chow, K W; Lai, S K

2012-09-26

413

Stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy of GaAs  

SciTech Connect

Applications of stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy to characterization of semiconductor materials is discussed. Results from below-bandgap studies of bulk GaAs are presented, from which scattering mechanisms are deduced.

Beck, S.; Wessel, J.

1986-08-15

414

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

2013-04-01

415

Gain-assisted hybrid-superlens hyperlens for nano imaging.  

PubMed

We propose an innovative active imaging device named gain-assisted hybrid-superlens hyperlens and examine its resolving power theoretically. This semi-cylindrical device consists of a core of semi-cylindrical super-lens and a half cylindrical outer shell of hyperlens. Both the superlens and hyperlens parts of the device are appropriately designed multi-layered metal-dielectric structures having indefinite eigenvalues of dielectric tensors. The dielectric layers of the hyperlens are doped with Coumarin, which play the role of gain medium. The gain medium is analyzed thoroughly using a generic four-level system model, and the permittivity of the gain medium is extracted from this analysis for simulating the imaging characteristics of the device. According to our simulation at wavelength of 365 nm, an excellent resolution power much better than the diffraction limit value can be achieved. PMID:23037445

Wang, Yao Ting; Cheng, Bo Han; Ho, You Zhe; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Luan, Pi-Gang; Tsai, Din Ping

2012-09-24

416

Review of health and productivity gains from better IEQ  

SciTech Connect

The available scientific data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

Fisk, William J.

2000-08-01

417

Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift  

SciTech Connect

A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-11-15

418

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the additional increment of energy gains provided by it to the downstream project. (3) Annual energy losses at a downstream project, or...subsequent years until no net loss remains. (b) Energy generated at the headwater...

2009-04-01

419

18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the additional increment of energy gains provided by it to the downstream project. (3) Annual energy losses at a downstream project, or...subsequent years until no net loss remains. (b) Energy generated at the headwater...

2010-04-01

420

Gaining Public Acceptance for Nuclear Power: The Philippine Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strategy adopted by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) to gain acceptance for the country's nuclear power program is described. The various dimensions of Philippine society that affects the attainment of this objective is explored, includi...

A. Remedios L. D. Ibe M. P. A. Savelano

1977-01-01

421

Comparative gain measurements for twelve organic laser dye solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain versus frequency is measured for twelve organic laser dye solutions in identical transversely pumped configurations.\\u000a Results show lasing performance and give relative values of dye parameters.

A. Dienes

1975-01-01

422

Gain and Loss Learning Differentially Contribute to Life Financial Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt). In a community sample of healthy adults (n?=?75), rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences) and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education) confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes.

Knutson, Brian; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.

2011-01-01

423

Diamond/Sapphire Gain Element for Modelocked Backbone Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated diamond sapphire laser design was explored using analytical expressions, computer based simulation, and experimentation. The analytical expressions and computer based simulation predicted a solid state laser gain medium composed of diamond f...

R. L. Fork S. T. Cole W. W. Walker

2005-01-01

424

Extraordinary optical gain from silicon implanted with erbium  

SciTech Connect

Here we report on measurements of optical gain at 1.5 {mu}m in crystalline silicon. Gain is achieved by the incorporation of the rare earth erbium in silicon. A method was developed to enable the gain measurement in short silicon waveguides. Crucially, gain values obtained are significantly greater than previously supposed. We have measured a lower limit for the optical cross section for Er{sup 3+} of 5x10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}, 30 times higher than previously anticipated. Given these higher values, this system now offers a realistic route to the production of electrically pumped silicon optical amplifier and laser devices using standard silicon process technology.

Lourenco, M. A.; Gwilliam, R. M.; Homewood, K. P. [Advanced Technology Institute, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2007-10-01

425

Increased gain of channel intensifier tubes by pulsed biasing  

SciTech Connect

Although the most common use of proximity-focused channel intensifier tubes (CITs) is as optical image amplifiers, electrical gating allows them to be used as fast shutters. Except for gating, however, the effects of imposing transient or pulsed changes on CIT biases have received little attention in the literature. It would be desirable in many applications to attain the maximum possible gain, but not at the expense of reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the experiments described here, we used pulsed biasing to increase gain; our measurements show a marked increase in gain over the dc gain without the increase in electronic noise and risk of damage that higher dc potentials create. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Noel, B.W.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1987-09-01

426

Skipping Breakfast May Not Lead to Weight Gain After All  

MedlinePLUS

... Breakfast May Not Lead to Weight Gain After All Small study found it did not make college ... Skipping breakfast may not sabotage your waistline after all, a small, new study suggests. For years, people ...

427

35. To left of center is freight elevator used to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. To left of center is freight elevator used to move materials to the upper floors of the building. This elevator is also powered via the belts and drive shafts which operate the machine tools. Sign on elevator reads 'For Mr. Edison's Personal Use Only;' according to rumor, Edison was encouraged to use the elevator as he grew older, but refused. The elevator is designed for freight only. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

428

Multi-Car Elevator System using Genetic Network Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control systems are the control systems that systematically manage elevators in order to transport passengers efficiently. With the increasing need for high-performance transportation systems in buildings, multi-car elevators where two cars operate separately and independently in an elevator shaft are attracting attention as the next novel elevator system. Genetic network programming(GNP) can introduce various priori knowledge of the

Lu Yu; Jin Zhou; Shingo Mabu; Kaoru Shimada; Kotaro Hirasawa; Sandor Markon

2008-01-01

429

Predicted gain and functional gain with transcranial routing of signal completely-in-the-canal hearing aids.  

PubMed

Transcranial routing of signal (TCROS) was accomplished using completely-in-the-canal (CIC) hearing aids in 5 profoundly unilaterally hearing-impaired individuals. The functional gain realized by the participants far exceeded the gain predicted by measuring the acoustic output and real ear aided response of the hearing aids. The difference between predicted and functional gain increased with signal frequency and was attributed at least in part to mechanical vibration of the hearing aid in the external canal. Implications for fitting unilateral hearing loss using TCROS amplifying systems are discussed. PMID:14964323

Fagelson, Marc A; Noe, Colleen M; Murnane, Owen D; Blevins, Jennifer S

2003-12-01

430

Analysis of gain suppression in undoped injection lasers  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an analysis and discussion of gain suppression in injection lasers which have an undoped active region and an index guiding structure. In previous papers, we used a semiclassical density-matrix analysis to show that an injection laser with an updoped active region has a nearly, but not perfectly, homogeneous (or uniform) gain property under operating conditions due to the mode coupling effects by phase synchronization of electrons to the lasing field. The gain of adjacent modes is well suppressed by the oscillating mode, and single-longitudinal-mode operation is obtained in undoped injection lasers. Such suppression depends closely on the spacial distribution of the resonating field and injected carrier density. The suppression effect is examined theoretically considering electronic intraband relaxation, effects from the standing wave of the lasing field, spatial diffusion of carriers, etc. When the relaxation time is larger than 3 x 10/sup -13/ sec, the gain shows ''hole burning,'' strong nonuniformity across the spectral or energy distributions, and the gain of some resonating modes is increased. Single-longitudinal-mode operation is not obtained in such a strongly inhomogeneous laser. When the relaxation time is smaller than 2 x 10/sup -13/ sec, the gain can be seen to be nearly homogeneous, and the gain of nonoscillating modes is sufficiently suppressed, that is, lower than that at threshold, because of the strong-mode-coupling effect. The relaxation time of GaAs is expected to be approximately 1 x 10/sup -13/ sec, implying 0.1% of excess suppression. The spatial distribution of the resonating field and induced ''spatial hole burning'' of carriers tends to increase the gain of higher transverse modes, but only weakly affects the fundamental transverse modes when the oscillating mode is the fundamental mode. It is then necessary to design the laser so that such higher transverse modes are cut off.

Yamada, M.; Suematsu, Y.

1981-04-01

431

GAIN MEASUREMENTS IN A FLUID MIXING CO2 LASER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-signal gain coefficients for the P(18) vibration—rotation transition of CO2 at 10.57 ? have been measured in a high-velocity gas flow system utilizing the rapid mixing of vibrationally excited N2 with initially unexcited CO2. These measurements demonstrate that very high gain coefficients which are approximately independent of dimensions transverse to the flow can be realized in high-speed flow systems.

Terrill A. Cool; John A. Shirley

1969-01-01

432

Smoking cessation, weight gain, andDRD4 ?521 genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated change in body mass index following long-term smoking cessation in a repre- sentative cohort of treatment-seeking heavy smo- kers in the United Kingdom, to determine the extent of long-term weight gain in successful quitters versus continuing smokers. We further investigated whether DRD4 genotype moderated any weight gain in either group. Smoking cessa- tion was associated with an increase

Michael F. G. Murphy; Elaine C. Johnstone

2006-01-01

433

Sharpening of enhanced backscattering peak in a disordered gain medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the phenomenon of enhanced backscattering (EBS) from a bulk disordered gain medium due to the presence of a dye and a pump beam. We show that the presence of the gain, in combination with the effect of saturation, can dramatically sharpen the EBS peak function. In the particular case of a point source incidence for the probe beam along with the presence of a plane-wave pump beam, the EBS approaches a ? function in angular space.

Feng, Shechao Charles; Zhang, Zhao-Quing

1996-08-01

434

Opticla and X-Ray Streak Camera Gain Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of streak camera gain as the number of CCD (charge-coupled-device) electrons recorded per single-electron events hitting the streak tube phosphor are presented. The CCD is fiber optically coupled to the streak tube output; there is no image intensifier in the system. The gain is measured from the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the recorded photoelectrons. This technique allows us to verify that the photoelectron SNR follows Poisson statistics and to establish the linear dynamic range.

Ghosh, S.; Boni, R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.

2004-10-19

435

Recent Progress in High-Gain FEL Theory  

SciTech Connect

High-gain free electron lasers (FEL) are being developed as extremely bright x-ray sources of a next-generation radiation facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory and the recent progress in understanding the startup, the exponential growth and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). We will also discuss how the FEL performance may be affected by various errors and wakefield effects in the undulator.

Huang, Z.; /SLAC

2005-09-30

436

Psychosocial working conditions and weight gain among employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To study the associations between psychosocial working conditions and weight gain.DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS:Data from postal questionnaires (response rate 67%) sent to 40- to 60-y-old women (n=7093) and men (n=1799) employed by the City of Helsinki in 2000–2002 were analysed. Weight gain during the previous 12 months was the outcome variable in logistic regression analyses. Independent variables included Karasek's job

T Lallukka; M Laaksonen; P Martikainen; S Sarlio-Lähteenkorva; E Lahelma

2005-01-01

437

Gain-guided and dispersion-managed soliton fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain-guided solitons are experimentally observed in dispersion-managed fiber lasers with net positive group velocity dispersion. In contrast to the conventional solitons generated in fiber lasers with net negative dispersion, gain-guided solitons have steep spectral edge(s), large pulse width and broader bandwidth, which are also different to the dispersion-managed solitons generated in fiber lasers with net positive but near zero dispersion

L. M. Zhao; D. Y. Tang; T. H. Cheng; C. Lu

2006-01-01

438

Low Refractive Metamaterials for Gain Enhancement of Horn Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flat metamaterials (MTMs) structure with low refractive index is proposed as a cover in a high-gain horn antenna configuration.\\u000a The MTMs is composed of two-layer metallic grids and slices of foam. For the characterization of the MTMs, the low refraction\\u000a property is studied and the effective refractive index n???0.08 (12.0 GHz) is retrieved. The antenna gain and the radiation pattern

Zhigang Xiao; Huiliang Xu

2009-01-01

439

An animal model of antipsychotic-induced weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established an animal model for olanzapine-induced body weight gain, and used it to explore the relation between this weight gain, excessive food consumption, gross motor activity, and macronutrient choice. Female Sprague–Dawley rats received olanzapine (OLAN) or diluent (1.2mg\\/kg per day) via gavage for 10 days. Rats receiving OLAN exhibited significant increases in body weight when compared with control

Anibal A Arjona; Sandy X Zhang; Brittany Adamson; Richard J Wurtman

2004-01-01

440

Gain of parabolic mesh reflector antennas with arbitrary depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions for calculating the gain of a parabolic mesh reflector with arbitrary ratio of the focal length to aperture diameter have been derived using the method of averaged boundary conditions. The results are obtained for a dense thin-wire mesh with square cells and ideal electric contacts between conductors at junctions. Specific features of the influence of mesh topology on the gain of reflectors with various depths are considered.

Akimov, V. P.; Glybovsky, S. B.; Dubrovich, V. K.

2013-02-01

441

Characteristics of Weight Gain in Pregnancy Among Canadian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to describe overall gestational weight gain among Canadian women and to assess demographic, socio-economic,\\u000a maternal, and pregnancy-related characteristics of gestational weight gain including uncovering the predictors above or below\\u000a the range recommended by Health Canada. This study proceeds as a secondary data analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey\\u000a targeting women aged ?15 years who had singleton live births

Christine Kowal; Jennifer Kuk; Hala Tamim

442

Thermodynamic properties of uranium in Ga–In based alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activity of uranium was determined in gallium, indium and gallium–indium eutectic (21.8 wt.% In) based alloys between 573 and 1073 K employing the electromotive force method. In two-phase U–Ga–In alloys, uranium forms the intermetallic compound UGa3. Activity coefficients and solubility of uranium in Ga–In eutectic were also determined in the same temperature range. Partial thermodynamic functions of ?-U in saturated alloys with gallium, indium and Ga–In eutectic were calculated.

Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Melchakov, S. Yu; Shchetinskiy, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2013-07-01

443

Generalised analysis of gain-bandwidth independence in feedback amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related dominant-pole-compensated feedback amplifier configurations have recently been developed specifically to exploit gain-bandwidth independence and offer constant- bandwidth operation throughout the full gain range. Do these two new amplifier types - the current- feedback amplifier (CFA) and the transconductance-feedback amplifier (TFA) - actually operate in a fundamentally different way to previous feedback amplifiers? Or are they able to

B. Wilson

444

Very short locking time PLL based on controlled gain technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a novel PLL circuit design with a variable control gain technique. The proposed PLL includes a Phase-Frequency Detector (PFD), a Variable Controlled Gain Charge Pump (VCGCP) based on a frequency detector and a Frequency-to-Voltage Converter (FVC), a Differential Voltage Controlled Oscillator (DVCO) and a frequency divider. First, the PLL reacts quickly and accelerates convergence using

Y. Fouzar; M. Sawan; Y. Savaria

2000-01-01

445

Evaluation and error analysis: Kalman gain regularization versus covariance regularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble size is critical to the efficiency and performance of the ensemble Kalman filter, but when the ensemble size is small,\\u000a the Kalman gain generally cannot be well estimated. To reduce the negative effect of spurious correlations, a regularization\\u000a process applied on either the covariance or the Kalman gain seems to be necessary. In this paper, we evaluate and compare

Yanfen Zhang; Dean S. Oliver

2011-01-01

446

Gain-scheduled wheel slip control in automotive brake systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wheel slip controller is developed and experimentally tested in a car equipped with electromechanical brake actuators and a brake-by-wire system. A gain scheduling approach is taken, where the vehicle speed is viewed as a slowly time-varying parameter and the model is linearized about the nominal wheel slip. Gain matrices for the different operating conditions are designed using an LQR

Tor A. Johansen; Idar Petersen; Jens Kalkkuhl; Jens Ludemann

2003-01-01

447

High gain amplifiers: Power oscillations and harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the power oscillations in saturated high gain free electron laser amplifiers and show that the relevant period can be written in terms of the gain length. We use simple arguments following from the solution of the pendulum equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Nontrivial effects due to nonlinear harmonic generation and inhomogeneous broadening are discussed too, as well as the saturated dynamics of short pulses.

Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S. [ENEA, Dipartimento Tecnologie Fisiche e Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

2007-08-01

448

The distribution of gains in uniformly multiplying avalanche photodiodes: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions are derived for the probabilityP_{n,m}that a pulse initiated bynelectrons (or holes) in a uniformly multiplying semiconductor diode will result in a total number of electrons (or holes)m, to give a gainm\\/n, and for the probabilityQ_{n,m}that the gain will bem\\/nor greater. It is shown that the distributions are far from Gaussian. The gain distributionP_{1,m}for a single photoelectron, for example, is

R. J. McIntyre

1972-01-01

449

Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating  

PubMed Central

Elevated heating by the Tibetan Plateau was long thought to drive the South Asian summer monsoon, but recent work showed this monsoon was largely unaffected by removal of the plateau in a climate model, provided the narrow orography of adjacent mountain ranges was preserved. There is debate about whether those mountain ranges generate a strong monsoon by insulating the thermal maximum from cold and dry extratropical air or by providing a source of elevated heating. Here we show that the strength of the monsoon in a climate model is more sensitive to changes in surface heat fluxes from non-elevated parts of India than it is to changes in heat fluxes from adjacent elevated terrain. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that orography creates a strong monsoon by serving as a thermal insulator, and suggests that monsoons respond most strongly to heat sources coincident with the thermal maximum.

Boos, William R.; Kuang, Zhiming

2013-01-01

450

Development of weight gain charts for healthy Egyptian pregnant women.  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted to develop weight gain charts for healthy Egyptian pregnant women and to determine the relationship between different anthropometric indicators and favorable birth weight. A total of 830 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The mean total weight gain was 9.3 kg. The velocity growth chart that were developed for weight gain showed that the increment of weight was about one kg up to the 4th gestational month, then, a steady increase of 0.37 kg per week till the end of pregnancy. The mean total gain in mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) was 0.8 cm and in triceps skin fold was 1.9 mm. There was a highly positive correlation between all anthropometric indicators studied and the birth weight. However only total weight gain and weight of the mother at first trimester showed significant relation with birth weight after using multi regression analysis. It is recommended to use the developed weight gain charts for monitoring the nutritional status of pregnant women and the MUAC and triceps skin folds are to be used for screening women at risk for malnutrition. PMID:17216933

Mahaba, H M; Ismail, N A; El Teheiwy, M M; El-Goewily, M M; Ramadan, M S

2001-01-01

451

Effect of revised IOM weight gain guidelines on perinatal outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to examine perinatal outcomes in women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 comparing those whose weight gain met 2009 IOM guidelines to women meeting 1990 IOM guidelines. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing birth records linked to hospital discharge data for all term, singleton infants born to overweight, Missouri residents (2000–2006) with a BMI of 25 kg/m2. We excluded congenital anomalies, mothers with diabetes, hypertension, or previous cesarean delivery. Results Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-five women gained 25–35 lbs (1990 guidelines); 1.6% delivered low birth weight (LBW) infants and 1.1% delivered macrosomic infants. Eight thousand three hundred fifty women gained 15–25 lbs (2009 guidelines); 3.4% delivered LBW infants and 0.6% delivered macrosomic infants. Women who gained 15–25 lbs were 1.99 (95% CI 1.67, 2.38) times more likely to have a LBW infant and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40, 0.76) times less likely to deliver a macrosomic infant. Conclusion Limiting weight gain in women with a BMI of 25 kg/m2, per the 2009 guidelines, increases the risk of LBW deliveries and decreases the risk of macrosomia but does not reduce associated adverse perinatal outcomes. Further studies should explore the optimal weight gain to reduce these outcomes.

Halloran, Donna R.; Wall, Terry C.; Guild, Camelia; Caughey, Aaron B.

2013-01-01

452

Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the state of health of Hindu-Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya glaciers and their contribution to regional hydrology and global sea-level rise suffer from a severe lack of observations. The globally averaged mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is negative. An anomalous gain of mass has been suggested for the Karakoram glaciers, but was not confirmed by recent estimates of mass balance. Furthermore, numerous glacier surges in the region that lead to changes in glacier length and velocity complicate the interpretation of the available observations. Here, we calculate the regional mass balance of glaciers in the central Karakoram between 1999 and 2008, based on the difference between two digital elevation models. We find a highly heterogeneous spatial pattern of changes in glacier elevation, which shows that ice thinning and ablation at high rates can occur on debris-covered glacier tongues. The regional mass balance is just positive at +0.11+/-0.22myr-1 water equivalent and in agreement with the observed reduction of river runoff that originates in this area. Our measurements confirm an anomalous mass balance in the Karakoram region and indicate that the contribution of Karakoram glaciers to sea-level rise was -0.01mmyr-1 for the period from 1999 to 2008, 0.05mmyr-1 lower than suggested before.

Gardelle, Julie; Berthier, Etienne; Arnaud, Yves

2012-05-01

453

Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-01

454

ST-elevation during biventricular pacing.  

PubMed

Pacemakers devaluate the accuracy of the electrocardiogram (ECG) for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and acute chest pain. Besides biventricular pacing, new ST-segment elevations were present leading to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. However, no ECG criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia in biventricular-paced rhythm are available. PMID:21969526

Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix; Buob, Axel; Böhm, Michael; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht

2011-10-02

455

Exercise-Induced RS-T Elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 4 patients in which an exercise test induced an elevation of the RS-T segment and an increase of the R-wave, coronary angiography showed a localized, subocclusive stenosis of the single major coronary vessel supplying the myocardial area responsible for the electrocardiographic alterations. This observation demonstrates the value of the exercise test in evoking electrocardiographic features often associated with Prinzmetal’s

P. Bobba; C. Vecchio; L. Di Guglielmo; J. Salerno; A. Casari; C. Montemartini

1972-01-01

456

Torsional vibration suppression of ship elevator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torsional vibration is one of the major problems of the Yangtze-Gorges ship elevator. The cause of the vibration and its suppression method are approached in this paper. To simplify the analysis, a 2 motor-1 shaft (2M-1S) system instead of real 4 motor-4 shaft (4M-4S) system is investigated first and the analysis results are verified by simulation and experiments. Then the

Qi Jiang; Bingyuan Wang; Xiaoliang Ma

2000-01-01

457

Elevated Temperature Oxygen Index Apparatus and Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus that performs elevated temperature (300-800°C) Oxygen Index (OI) measurements using radiant heating has been developed and used to perform OI measurements on a variety of high-OI composite materials. Comparisons of data with OI values obtained using a gas preheat device indicate reasonable agreement. Flame propagation down the edges of the samples dominated the burning behavior for many high

Stephen C. Bates; Peter R. Solomon

1993-01-01

458

Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.  

PubMed

Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable. PMID:21114113

Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

2010-04-01

459

Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.  

PubMed

Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2011-09-25

460

Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three months of quitting. Variation in weight change is large, with about 16% of quitters losing weight and 13% gaining more than 10 kg.

2012-01-01

461

A gain boosting method at RF frequency using active feedback and its application to RF variable gain amplifier (VGA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to achieve high voltage gain in RF-frequency range is proposed. The method adopts cascoded active feedback scheme with cascode amplifier to convert the behavior of a cascoding transistor from common gate type to quasi-common source operation. By this method, we acquire high voltage gain and increased 3 dB bandwidth simultaneously with less power consumption compared to conventional

Kwang-jin Koh; Yong-sik Youn; Hyun-kyu Yu

2002-01-01

462

Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations.  

PubMed

Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a likely complication, nor is the occurrence of severe haemorrhages since the trap door is in the periphery of the supplying vessels. Apart from these two aspects, a number of anatomical considerations are described in connection with sinus floor elevation. PMID:11168217

van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B

2000-06-01

463

Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein ligand inhibitor blunts excessive weight gain in genetically obese Zucker rats and rats during nicotine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Elevation of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the brain is associated with a reduction of food intake and body weight gain in normal and obese animals. A protein that binds CRF and the related peptide, urocortin, with high affinity, CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP), may play a role in energy homeostasis by inactivating members of this peptide family in ingestive and metabolic regulatory brain regions. Intracerebroventricular administration in rats of the high-affinity CRF-BP ligand inhibitor, rat/human CRF (6-33), which dissociates CRF or urocortin from CRF-BP and increases endogenous brain levels of “free” CRF or urocortin significantly blunted exaggerated weight gain in Zucker obese subjects and in animals withdrawn from chronic nicotine. Chronic administration of CRF suppressed weight gain nonselectively by 60% in both Zucker obese and lean control rats, whereas CRF-BP ligand inhibitor treatment significantly reduced weight gain in obese subjects, without altering weight gain in lean control subjects. Nicotine abstinent subjects, but not nicotine-naive controls, experienced a 35% appetite suppression and a 25% weight gain reduction following acute and chronic administration, respectively, of CRF-BP ligand inhibitor. In marked contrast to the effects of a CRF-receptor agonist, the CRF-BP ligand inhibitor did not stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion or elevate heart rate and blood pressure. These results provide support for the hypothesis that the CRF-BP may function within the brain to limit selected actions of CRF and/or urocortin. Furthermore, CRF-BP may represent a novel and functionally selective target for the symptomatic treatment of excessive weight gain associated with obesity of multiple etiology.

Heinrichs, Stephen C.; Lapsansky, Jeannette; Behan, Dominic P.; Chan, Raymond K. W.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Lorang, Marge; Ling, Nicholas; Vale, Wylie W.; De Souza, Errol B.

1996-01-01

464

A Prospective Study of Weight Gain after Premenopausal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose Many women who have had hysterectomies have the perception that they gained weight after surgery that cannot be attributed to changes in diet or physical activity. The purpose of this analysis was to assess weight gain in premenopausal women in the first year after hysterectomy compared with a control group of women with intact uteri and ovaries. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study designed to assess the risk for ovarian failure after premenopausal hysterectomy, weight was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up in 236 women undergoing hysterectomy and 392 control women. Changes in measured weight and reported weight were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for weight gains of >10 pounds. Results Women with hysterectomies weighed more and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) than control women at baseline. Mean weight gain was 1.36?kg (?3 pounds) for women with hysterectomies vs. 0.61?kg (?1.3 pounds) for control women (p?=?0.07). Weight gain of >10 pounds occurred in 23% of women with hysterectomies compared with 15% of control women (multivariable OR?=?1.61, 95% CI 1.04?=?2.48). Conclusions Women undergoing hysterectomies appear to be at higher risk for weight gain in the first year after surgery. Heavier women and women who have had weight fluctuations throughout adulthood may be at greater risk for postsurgical weight gain, suggesting that lifestyle interventions to maintain or lose weight may be particularly helpful for these women in the months following hysterectomy.

Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Myers, Evan R.; Gradison, Margaret; Warren-White, Nicolette; Wang, Frances

2009-01-01

465

Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept - an indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain - for low dose x-ray imaging has been proposed. The detector consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor optically coupled to a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. Under an electric field ESe, the a-Se is sensitive to light and converts the optical photons emitted from CsI into electronic signal. These signals can be stored and read out in the same fashion as in existing flat-panel detectors. When ESe is increased to > 90 V/?m, avalanche multiplication occurs. The avalanche gain ranges between 1-800 depending on ESe and the thickness of the a-Se layer dSe. The avalanche a-Se photoconductor is referred to as HARP (High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor). A cascaded linear system model for the proposed detector was developed in order to determine the optimal CsI properties and avalanche gain for different x-ray imaging applications. Our results showed that x-ray quantum noise limited performance can be achieved at the lowest exposure level necessary for fluoroscopy (0.1 ?R) and mammography (0.1 mR) with a moderate avalanche gain of 20 (d = 1-2 ?m). A laboratory test system using an existing HARP tube optically coupled (through a lens) to a CsI layer was built and the advantage of avalanche gain in overcoming electronic noise was demonstrated experimentally. One of the advantages of the avalanche gain is that it will permit the use of high resolution (HR) CsI (which due to its low light output has not previously been used in flat-panel detectors) to improve DQE at high spatial frequencies.

Zhao, Wei; Hunt, Dylan C.; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Rowlands, John A.

2004-05-01

466

Anatomy of Stroke Injury Predicts Gains from Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Many therapies are emerging that aim to improve motor function in people with stroke. Identifying key biological substrates needed for treatment gains would help to predict treatment effects, and to maximize treatment impact. The current study addressed the hypothesis that behavioral gains from therapy targeting distal upper extremity are predicted by the structural integrity of key motor system white matter tracts. Methods Twenty three subjects with chronic left-sided stroke underwent robotic therapy targeting the distal right upper extremity. MRI was obtained at baseline and used to outline the infarct. For each subject, the degree to which stroke injured each of four descending white matter tracts (from primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal premotor cortex, and ventral premotor cortex, respectively) was determined. Correlations between tract-specific injury and behavioral gains from therapy were then examined. Results Numerous examples were found whereby tract-specific injury predicted treatment gains. The strongest correlations related to stroke injury to tracts descending from primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex. Infarct volume and baseline behavior were weak predictors of treatment gains. Conclusions Extent of injury to specific motor tracts predicts behavioral gains from treatment in subjects with chronic stroke. This supports a role for these tracts in mediating treatment effects, and reinforces the importance of lesion location in stroke. Tract-specific injury was stronger than infarct volume or baseline clinical status at predicting gains, identifies subjects with sufficient biological substrate to improve from therapy, and so might be useful as an entry criterion in repair-based trials.

Riley, Jeff D.; Le, Vu; Der-Yeghiaian, Lucy; See, Jill; Newton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Nick S.; Cramer, Steven C.

2010-01-01

467

Patterns of intron gain and conservation in eukaryotic genes  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction of which share position in distant taxa, such as plants and animals. Depending on the methods and data sets used, researchers have reached opposite conclusions on the causes of the high fraction of shared introns in orthologous genes from distant eukaryotes. Some studies conclude that shared intron positions reflect, almost entirely, a remarkable evolutionary conservation, whereas others attribute it to parallel gain of introns. To resolve these contradictions, it is crucial to analyze the evolution of introns by using a model that minimally relies on arbitrary assumptions. Results: We developed a probabilistic model of evolution that allows for variability of intron gain and loss rates over branches of the phylogenetic tree, individual genes, and individual sites. Applying this model to an extended set of conserved eukaryotic genes, we find that parallel gain, on average, accounts for only ~8% of the shared intron positions. However, the distribution of parallel gains over the phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes is highly non-uniform. There are, practically, no parallel gains in closely related lineages, whereas for distant lineages, such as animals and plants, parallel gains appear to contribute up to 20% of the shared intron positions. In accord with these findings, we estimated that ancestral introns have a high probability to be retained in extant genomes, and conversely, that a substantial fraction of extant introns have retained their positions since the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. In addition, the density of sites that are available for intron insertion is estimated to be, approximately, one in seven basepairs. Conclusion: We obtained robust estimates of the contribution of parallel gain to the observed sharing of intron positions between eukaryotic species separated by different evolutionary distances. The results indicate that, although the contribution of parallel gains varies across the phylogenetic tree, the high level of intron position sharing is due, primarily, to evolutionary conservation. Accordingly, numerous introns appear to persist in the same position over hundreds of millions of years of evolution. This is compatible with recent observations of a negative correlation between the rate of intron gain and coding sequence evolution rate of a gene, suggesting that at least some of the introns are functionally relevant.

Carmel, Liran; Rogozin, Igor B; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

2007-01-01

468

Direct and Indirect Approaches to Increasing Conceptual Survey Gains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conceptual surveys like the FCI and CSEM are common, and course reforms often have the goal of improving student gains on these surveys. There exist various approaches to improving said gains, and there is occasionally concern that such methods âteach to the testâ excessively. To our knowledge, however, there has been little direct experimentation on whether teaching to the test, even intentionally, has the expected result. In this paper, we report on a simple two-semester experiment involving ~900 students where we tried two different approaches to improving CSEM gains in an introductory E&M class. In the first trial, we gave students many of the questions from the CSEM as Peer Instruction-style clicker questions in lecture. In the second, we redeveloped parts of our Studio physics curriculum to target CSEM concepts without replicating CSEM questions. Comparing the CSEM gains in the experimental sections to the previous yearâs sections, we find that the first trial resulted in significant (~0.20) shifts in normalized gains on the relevant questions, while the second trial resulted in minimal or no shifts.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Pearl, Charles; Kuo, H. V.

2011-01-01

469

Characterization of gain-aware routing in delay tolerant networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Majority of the existing Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols, attempt to minimize one of the popular DTN routing indices, i.e. message delay, forwarding count and storage. However, for many DTN applications such as distributing commercial content, targeting the best performance for one index and compromising the others is insufficient. A more practical solution would be to strike a balance between multiple of these indices. Gain Dissemination Protocol (GDP) is one of the protocols which targets this aim by introducing a gain concept which tries reach a maximum gain of delivery by keeping the balance between the value achieved via delivering the packet to the destination and the forwarding cost involved with that. In this paper, we focus on characterizing the GDP protocol in the scope of mobility. We also propose an upper bound for gain in multicast routing problem, i.e. the Union of Unicast Benchmark (UUB) and compare the performance of a few DTN routing protocols with the former. This eventually reveals the performance scope of a potential gain-aware DTN dissemination protocol.

Hajiaghajani, Faezeh; Piolet Thulasidharan, Yogesh; Taghizadeh, Mahmoud; Biswas, Subir

2013-05-01

470

Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.  

PubMed

Climate warming predicts changes to the frequency and height of cloud-immersion events in mountain communities. Threatened southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests have been suggested to persist because of frequent periods of cloud immersion. These relic forests exist on only seven mountaintop areas, grow only above ca. 1,500 m elevation (maximum 2,037 m), and harbor the endemic Abies fraseri. To predict future distribution, we examined the ecophysiological effects of cloud immersion on saplings of A. fraseri and Picea rubens at their upper and lower elevational limits. Leaf photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration, xylem water potentials, and general abiotic variables were measured simultaneously on individuals at the top (1,960 m) and bottom (1,510 m) of their elevation limits on numerous clear and cloud-immersed days throughout the growing season. The high elevation sites had 1.5 as many cloud-immersed days (75 % of days) as the low elevation sites (56 % of days). Cloud immersion resulted in higher photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and xylem water potentials, particularly during afternoon measurements. Leaf conductance remained higher throughout the day with corresponding increases in photosynthesis and transpiration, despite low photon flux density levels, leading to an increase in water potentials from morning to afternoon. The endemic A. fraseri had a greater response in carbon gain and water balance in response to cloud immersion. Climate models predict warmer temperatures with a decrease in the frequency of cloud immersion for this region, leading to an environment on these peaks similar to elevations where spruce-fir communities currently do not exist. Because spruce-fir communities may rely on cloud immersion for improved carbon gain and water conservation, an upslope shift is likely if cloud ceilings rise. Their ultimate survival will likely depend on the magnitude of changes in cloud regimes. PMID:23576108

Berry, Z Carter; Smith, William K

2013-04-11

471

Diel Shifts in Carboxylation Pathway and Metabolite Dynamics in the CAM Bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' in Response to Elevated CO2  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The deployment of temporally separated carboxylation pathways for net CO2 uptake in CAM plants provides plasticity and thus uncertainty on how species with this photosynthetic pathway will respond to life in a higher-CO2 world. The present study examined how long-term exposure to elevated CO2 influences the relative contributions that C3 and C4 carboxylation make to net carbon gain and to establish how this impacts on the availability of carbohydrates for export and growth and on water use efficiency over the day/night cycle. Methods Integrated measurements of leaf gas exchange and diel metabolite dynamics (e.g. malate, soluble sugars, starch) were made in leaves of the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’ after exposure to 700 µmol mol?1 CO2 for 5 months. Key Results There was a 60 % increase in 24-h carbon gain under elevated CO2 due to a stimulation of daytime C3 and C4 carboxylation in phases II and IV where water use efficiency was comparable with that measured at night. The extra CO2 taken up under elevated CO2 was largely accumulated as hexose sugars during phase IV and net daytime export of carbohydrate was abolished. Under elevated CO2 there was no stimulation of dark carboxylation and nocturnal export and respiration appeared to be the stronger sinks for carbohydrate. Conclusions Despite the increased size of the soluble sugar storage pool under elevated CO2, there was no change in the net allocation of carbohydrates between provision of substrates for CAM and export/respiration in A. ‘Maya’. The data imply the existence of discrete pools of carbohydrate that provide substrate for CAM or sugars for export/respiration. The 2-fold increase in water-use efficiency could be a major physiological advantage to growth under elevated CO2 in this CAM bromeliad.

Ceusters, J.; Borland, A. M.; Londers, E.; Verdoodt, V.; Godts, C.; De Proft, M. P.

2008-01-01

472

Carbon dynamics of eucalypt seedlings exposed to progressive drought in elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature.  

PubMed

Elevated [CO2] and temperature may alter the drought responses of tree seedling growth, photosynthesis, respiration and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) status depending on drought intensity and duration. Few studies have addressed these important climatic interactions or their consequences. We grew Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings in two [CO2] concentrations (400 and 640 ?l l(-1)) and two temperatures (28/17 and 32/21 °C) (day/night) in a sun-lit glasshouse, and grew them in well-watered conditions or exposed them to two drought treatments having undergone different previous water conditions (i.e., rewatered drought and sustained drought). Progressive drought in both drought treatments led to similar limitations in growth, photosynthesis and respiration, but reductions in TNC concentration were not observed. Elevated [CO2] ameliorated the impact of the drought during the moderate drought phase (i.e., Day 63 to Day 79) by increasing photosynthesis and enhancing leaf and whole-plant TNC content. In contrast, elevated temperature exacerbated the impact of the drought during the moderate drought phase by reducing photosynthesis, increasing leaf respiration and decreasing whole-plant TNC content. Extreme drought (i.e., Day 79 to Day 103) eliminated [CO2] and temperature effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and respiration. The combined effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on moderate drought stressed seedlings were reduced with progressive drought, with no sustained effects on growth despite greater whole-plant TNC content. PMID:23963410

Duan, Honglang; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Duursma, Remko A; O'Grady, Anthony P; Choat, Brendan; Tissue, David T

2013-08-20

473

Cardiac Troponin I elevation after epileptic seizure  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac troponin-I (cTNI) is highly specific biomarker to prove myocardial damage, e.g. in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, it occurs in other conditions as well. We therefore analysed cTNI increase in patients after generalized convulsive seizure. Methods Consecutive patients admitted with acute generalized convulsive seizure were included in case of cTNI measurement on admission. Among 898 selected cases, 53 patients were referred secondary to our department; in 845 cases cTNI measurements on admission were available. In case of multiple admissions (81 cases), only the first admission entered our analysis. In 17 patients elevated cTNI was determined due to ACS; in one patient a myocarditis was found. 5 patients suffered of relevant renal insufficiency. Finally 741 patients were included in the analysis. A cTNI cut-off level of???0.1 ng/ml was considered. Factors associated with a cTNI increase were analysed subsequently. Results The mean age of the study population (n?=?741) was 47.8 years (SD?±?18.6), 40.9% were female. In 50 patients (6.7%) a cTNI elevation of unknown origin was found; no obvious cardiac involvement could be detected in these patients who all remained asymptomatic. A vascular risk profile (including at least hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or diabetes) (OR?=?3.62; CI: 1.59 to 8.21; p?=?0.001) and elevated creatine kinase on admission (OR?=?2.36; CI: 1.26 to 4.39; p?=?0.002) were independent factors associated with cTNI release. Conclusion cTNI release occurs in patients with generalized convulsive seizure with predominance in patients with vascular risk profile.

2012-01-01

474

Serotonylated fibronectin is elevated in pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) and fibronectin (FN) have been associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We previously reported that FN is posttranslationally modified by tissue transglutaminase (TGase) to form serotonylated FN (s-FN) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and that serotonylation stimulates their proliferation and migration, hallmarks of PH. We hypothesized that s-FN and its binding to TGase are elevated in human and experimental PH. To assess this hypothesis, FN isolation and electrophoretic, immunoblotting, and densitometric techniques were used. Mean ratio of serum s-FN to total FN level (s-FN/FN) was elevated in 19 consecutive pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients compared with 25 controls (0.3 ± 0.18 vs. 0.05 ± 0.07, P < 0.001). s-FN/FN also was increased in lungs of mice and rats with hypoxia-induced PH and in rats with monocrotaline-induced PH. In mice, the increase was detected at 1 wk of hypoxia, preceding the development of PH. Hypoxic rats had elevated serum s-FN/FN. Enhanced binding of TGase to its substrate FN occurred in serum from patients with PAH (mean 0.50 ± 0.51 vs. 0.063 ± 0.11, P = 0.002) and s-FN/FN and TGase-bound FN were highly correlated (R2 = 0.77). TGase-bound FN also was increased in experimental PH. We conclude that increased serotonylation of FN occurs in human and experimental PH and may provide a biomarker for the disease.

Wei, Lin; Warburton, Rod R.; Preston, Ioana R.; Roberts, Kari E.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hill, Nicholas S.

2012-01-01

475

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is an emergency medical condition. Expediting the steps leading to coronary\\u000a reperfusion is of critical importance in improving survival after acute MI.\\u000a \\u000a After the diagnosis of acute MI is made, patients should be treated with oxygen, aspirin, nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, heparin,\\u000a and analgesics, barring any contraindications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a If an experienced cardiac catheterization laboratory is available within

Yerem Yeghiazarians; Peter H. Stone

2002-01-01

476

Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 deg. C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms for growth and shrinkage is proposed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The activation energies of evaporation and condensation processes are determined to be 477.31 and 611.49 kJ/mol, respectively.

Chen, Y. H.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Kuo Feng Chou [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2011-08-15

477

Elevations and Distances in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The information in this booklet was compiled to answer inquiries received by the Geological Survey from students, teachers, writers, editors, publishers of encyclopedias, almanacs and other reference books, and people in many other fields of work. The elevations of features and distances between points in the United States were determined from surveys and topographic maps of the Geological Survey or obtained from other sources. Some of this information, compiled from older maps, will be revised as new surveys are completed. For further information, write to the U. S. Geological Survey, 507 National Center.Reston,Virginia 22092.

U.S. Geological Survey

1980-01-01

478

Elevated temperature static and fatigue testing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft of the future, such as an aerospace vehicle or an advanced fighter, will have expanded operating envelopes and therefore, will be subject to extreme environmental conditions. They will experience high temperatures combined with high external loads. Due to the complexity of full scale testing with combined thermal and mechanical loads, subcomponent and coupon testing play an extremely important role in the verification of structural integrity. This paper describes testing facilities designed for elevated temperature testing of coupon specimens. These facilities are capable of simultaneously applying spectrum loads and a detailed thermal profile. A method is also outlined for developing realistic thermal and mechanical load profiles for advanced aircraft.

Harmon, D. M.; Coffey, F. J.; Antolovich, S. D.; Brown, R. C.

479

Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

Wallace, Cynthia S. A.; Gass, Leila

2008-01-01

480

[Functional and mechanical anatomy of arm elevation].  

PubMed

Experimental work on the functional anatomy of the shoulder has involved a study of the conditions involved in elevation of the arm. Movements of the upper limb are organised round a very special alignment of the scapulo-humeral joint whose geometric features and exact position have been determined. The ligaments of the joint play a major role in the controlling the attainment of this alignment. The value of this alignment in the physiology of the shoulder is demonstrated. A new terminology of shoulder movement is suggested. PMID:3175102

Gagey, O; Bonfait, H; Gillot, C; Mazas, F

1988-01-01

481

Pathology Case Study: Elevated Tricyclic Antidepressant Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman was found to have "elevated tricyclic antidepressant levels during a routine clinic visit." Visitors are given the physical exam notes, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and clinical chemistry.

Rao, K. N.; Harrison, James; Tamama, Kenichi

2008-12-11

482

Scientific reasoning and FCI gains for a Community College population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper (AJP, 73:1172, (2005)), Coletta and Phillips have found positive correlations between pre-instruction scores and normalized gains on the FCI, as well as between scores on the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning and normalized FCI gains. This poster presents results from a similar study conducted with a community college population. Students from seven different physics classes taught by three different instructors were tested during the fall semester. Students were further grouped in three different levels of physics ( applied physics, algebra-based physics, calculus-based physics). In addition to analyzing the correlations between the FCI gains and the scores on the Lawson test, we discuss the interactive engagement techniques used by the instructors and the most significant differences between the performances of the three groups of students.

Diff, Karim; Tache, N.