Science.gov

Sample records for elevation gain counterbalancing

  1. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  2. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr?1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  3. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (inventor); Yang, Li-Farn (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  4. The impact of early morning elevated CO sub 2 on foliar carbon gain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Predawn concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the boundary layer above vegetated landscapes can be as much as 200 {mu}L{sup {minus}1} higher than typical midday concentrations (330-360 {mu}l L{sup {minus}1}). This period of elevated CO{sub 2} lasts up to 3 hours after sunrise. Estimates of daily carbon gain from models of photosynthesis have often assumed constant CO{sub 2} concentrations. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance models were coupled and used to assess the importance of a diurnal variation in CO{sub 2} concentration. Daily carbon gain estimates based on a constant CO{sub 2} concentration equal to the afternoon average (1,200 to 1,600 h), were as much as 13% less than estimates based on the more realistic diurnal pattern including elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations in the morning. The largest discrepancies in calculated carbon gain (6-13%) occurred for simulated sunny days, and for foliage having a low carboxylation efficiency.

  5. Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

    2008-11-01

    Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

  6. Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive snail species accrues elevated genetic

    E-print Network

    Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    Dispatches Biological Invasions: Paradox Lost and Paradise Gained A new study shows how an invasive human interference in animal and plant dispersal, biological invasions are wreaking havoc that can become economically and ecologically threatening. Recent studies of biological invasions, however

  7. Dopaminergic agonists normalize elevated hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Bina, K G; Cincotta, A H

    2000-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) influence feeding and levels of plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. Treatment of genetically obese, ob/ob mice, with dopamine receptor D(1)/D(2) agonists normalizes hyperphagia, body weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. We therefore examined whether levels of NPY and CRH immunoreactivity in discrete hypothalamic nuclei are altered in ob/ob mice, and whether dopaminergic treatment reverses this alteration. Female ob/ob mice were treated daily at 1 h after light onset with the D(1)/D(2) agonists, SKF-38393 (20 mg/kg) and bromocriptine (15 mg/kg), respectively or vehicle for 2 weeks. Such treatment, while normalizing body weight gain and hyperglycemia, also significantly reduced elevated NPY immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic (by 39%), intergeniculate (by 43%), paraventricular (PVN; by 31%), and arcuate (by 41%) nuclei in obese mice to levels observed in lean mice. This treatment also caused a 45-50% decline in levels of CRH in the PVN and dorsomedial hypothalamus compared to obese controls to levels observed in lean mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that dopaminergic D(1)/D(2) receptor coactivation may improve hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, and obesity in the ob/ob mouse, in part, by normalizing elevated levels of both NPY and CRH. PMID:10644901

  8. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnarowska, Z.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Hawelek, L.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M?(f ) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across Tg. The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below Tg. At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors.

  9. Une porte optique intensificatrice picoseconde a gain eleve: Caracterisation et application potentielle en imagerie de petits objets places dans des milieux diffusants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Stephanie

    Dans cette etude, nous avons developpe un amplificateur a colorant possedant ces deux caracteristiques. Le colorant choisi, l'iodure de 3,3'-dimethyloxatricarbocyanine (methyl-DOTCI), possede un epaulement dans la bande d'absorption a 620 nm ce qui convient bien a notre pompe femtoseconde. De plus, son maximum de fluorescence est a 720 nm ce qui est particulierement interessant dans le cas des etudes avec des tissus biologiques humains. En effet, la fenetre dite "therapeutique" se situe dans les longueurs d'onde rouge et proche infrarouge. Le phenomene d'amplification, qui se produit dans des conditions experimentales precises, est en fait une emission stimulee du colorant qui est largement favorisee par rapport a sa fluorescence naturelle (emission spontanee). L'arrivee du signal incident, dont la longueur d'onde correspond au saut energetique entre l'etat fondamental et l'etat excite ou se trouvent les molecules, provoque une avalanche coherente de celles-ci vers l'etat fondamental generant ainsi l'emission stimulee. Une des conditions necessaires pour l'obtention d'un gain eleve est que la duree de l'impulsion de pompe soit inferieure au temps de relaxation des molecules ainsi qu'inferieure au temps requis pour effectuer un trajet dans la cellule de colorant. Ceci nous a permis d'amplifier un signal incident par un facteur entre 103 et 104. De plus, ce gain eleve n'est observe qu'a l'interieur d'une fenetre temporelle d'environ 10 picosecondes. Nous avons integre cet amplificateur a notre montage de transillumination afin d'acquerir des images d'un patron de lignes opaques immerge dans un milieu diffusant liquide. Des images de lignes ayant une resolution spatiale de 200 mum ont ete obtenues. La cible etait placee au centre d'un melange contenant des proportions variables de lait et d'eau. Deux longueurs de trajet optique dans la solution ont ete utilisees: 30 et 50 mm. Pour determiner les proprietes optiques de notre milieu diffusant, nous avons mis au point une technique de caracterisation basee sur la distribution radiale des photons transmis a travers le milieu. Deux parametres de transport, les coefficients de diffusion effectif (mus') et d'absorption (mu a), caracterisent la forme et l'amplitude du profil radial. Le fit des courbes experimentales a des courbes simulees nous a permis d'extraire ces coefficients. Les courbes simulees ont ete realisees grace a une simulation Monte Carlo qui incorpore les conditions experimentales de notre montage de caracterisation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. PMID:25609845

  11. A contractile and counterbalancing adhesion system controls the 3D shape of crawling cells

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, Dylan T.; Shao, Lin; Ott, Carolyn; Pasapera, Ana M.; Fischer, Robert S.; Baird, Michelle A.; Der Loughian, Christelle; Delanoe-Ayari, Helene; Paszek, Matthew J.; Davidson, Michael W.; Betzig, Eric

    2014-01-01

    How adherent and contractile systems coordinate to promote cell shape changes is unclear. Here, we define a counterbalanced adhesion/contraction model for cell shape control. Live-cell microscopy data showed a crucial role for a contractile meshwork at the top of the cell, which is composed of actin arcs and myosin IIA filaments. The contractile actin meshwork is organized like muscle sarcomeres, with repeating myosin II filaments separated by the actin bundling protein ?-actinin, and is mechanically coupled to noncontractile dorsal actin fibers that run from top to bottom in the cell. When the meshwork contracts, it pulls the dorsal fibers away from the substrate. This pulling force is counterbalanced by the dorsal fibers’ attachment to focal adhesions, causing the fibers to bend downward and flattening the cell. This model is likely to be relevant for understanding how cells configure themselves to complex surfaces, protrude into tight spaces, and generate three-dimensional forces on the growth substrate under both healthy and diseased conditions. PMID:24711500

  12. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high < SS/low = L/high < L/low). Thus, 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure demonstrated counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. PMID:26136163

  13. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds.

  14. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  15. Development of an indirect counterbalanced pendulum optical-lever thrust balance for micro- to millinewton thrust measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubiši?, A. N.; Gabriel, S. B.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indirect hanging pendulum thrust balance using a laser-optical-lever principle to provide micro- to millinewton thrust measurement for the development of electric propulsion systems. The design philosophy allows the selection of the total thrust range in order to maximize resolution through a counterbalanced pendulum principle, as well as passive magnetic damping in order to allow relatively rapid transient thrust measurement. The balance was designed for the purpose of hollow cathode microthruster characterization, but could be applied to other electric propulsion devices in the thrust range of micro- to millinewtons. An initial thrust characterization of the T5 hollow cathode is presented.

  16. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher; Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root-microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or `priming') or indirectly promote SOC gains (via `protection' through interactions with mineral particles). We developed a new SOC model to examine priming and protection responses to rising atmospheric CO2. The model captured disparate SOC responses at two temperate free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of `new' carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of `old' SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter and high clay content (for example, Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses induced through priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters and lower clay content (for example, Duke). The SOC model was fully integrated into a global terrestrial carbon cycle model to run global simulations of elevated CO2 effects. Although protected carbon provides an important constraint on priming effects, priming nonetheless reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from enhanced ecosystem productivity.

  17. Implementation and integration of a counterbalanced CRT-based stereoscopic display for interactive viewpoint control in virtual environment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowall, I. E.; Bolas, M.; Pieper, S.; Fisher, S. S.; Humphries, J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA-Ames Counterbalanced CRT-based Stereoscopic Viewer (CCSV), which is being used as a viewing device for biomechanical CAD environments, is uniquely suited for applications in which the user frequently moves between desk work and virtual environment viewing, or in which high resolution views of the virtual environment are required, or in which the viewing device must be shared among collaborators in a group setting. The CCSV hardware encompasses a dual-CRT-based stereoscopic viewer with wide-angle optics, a video electronics box, a dedicated microprocessor system monitoring joint angles in the linkage, and a host computer interpreting sensor values and running the application which renders the right and left views for reader CRTs.

  18. Counterbalanced refueling arm assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, P.J.E.; Reinker, J.F., Jr.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes a counter balanced refueling arm. It comprises: a supporting platform, wheels supporting the platform, an outer caster assembly. The wheel, a first swivel joint mounted on the outboard caster assembly having a substantially vertical axis of rotation, an inlet and an outlet defined on the joint, a fuel supply conduit communicating with the joint inlet, a second swivel joint mounted on the platform having a substantially horizontal axis of rotation, an inlet and an outlet, a rigid conduit interconnecting the first joint outlet with the second joint inlet establishing communication between the first and second joint, a substantially rigid arm conduit having an axis, an inner end affixed to and communicating with the second joint outlet and an outer end. The arm conduit being pivoted about the second joint axis within a substantially vertical plane, a first elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the arm conduit outer end, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to the arm conduit axis, a second elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the first coupling outlet, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to aid first coupling axis, a third elbow swivel coupling having an inlet connected to the second coupling outlet, an outlet and an axis of rotation transverse to the coupling axis, and a nozzle connected to the third coupling outlet.

  19. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). Design and Methods 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g?kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. Results SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ? 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ? 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. Conclusions The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628 PMID:26574755

  20. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gain during pregnancy? It depends on your body mass index (BMI) before you get pregnant. BMI is ... gain during pregnancy? It depends on your body mass index (BMI) before you get pregnant. BMI is ...

  1. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  2. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  3. No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population

    PubMed Central

    Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p?=?0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  4. Gaining a World View 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    | pg. 26 --------------------------------------------- ???????????????????????? W hen Brandon Hartley traveled to Belgium last summer, he gained a first-hand appreciation for international soil and water issues. Hartley, a Texas A&M University...

  5. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, ...

  6. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (Hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling due to a buildup of fluid in the tissues can cause weight gain. This may be due to menstruation, ...

  7. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare Healthy Meals Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals ... are here Home / Interactive Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Error message ...

  8. Effect of Tolcapone on Brain Activity During a Variable Attentional Control Task: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Counter-Balanced Trial in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Magalona, Sophia C.; Rasetti, Roberta; Chen, Jingshan; Chen, Qiang; Gold, Ian; Decot, Heather; Callicott, Joseph H.; Berman, Karen F.; Apud, José A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention is the capacity to flexibly orient behaviors and thoughts towards a goal by selecting and integrating relevant contextual information. The dorsal cingulate (dCC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices play critical roles in attention. Evidence indicates that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) modulates dopaminergic tone in the PFC and dCC. Objective In this study, we explored the effect of tolcapone, a CNS penetrant COMT inhibitor that increases cortical dopamine levels, on brain activity during a Variable Attentional Control (VAC) task. Study Design We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counter-balanced trial with tolcapone (Tasmar, tablets, 100 mg three times a day for 1 day and then 200 mg three times a day for 6 days; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00044083). Setting The study was conducted in the Clinical Center of the National Institute of Mental Health from 2005 to 2009. Patients Twenty healthy volunteers (11 males; mean age = 32.7 years) with good imaging and performance data on both arms of the study were investigated. Intervention Participants underwent 3T blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the event-related VAC task, which varies attention over three levels of load: LOW, INT (intermediate), and HIGH. Main Outcome Measure Changes in behavioral data and individual contrast images were analyzed using ANOVA with drug and task load as co-factors. Results There was a significant main effect of increasing task load, with resulting decreased accuracy and increased reaction time. While there was no significant effect of tolcapone on these behavioral measures, the neuroimaging data showed a significant effect on load-related changes in dCC, with significantly lower dCC activation on tolcapone compared with placebo. Further, neural activity in dCC correlated positively with COMT enzyme activity (i.e., lower COMT activity and presumably more dopamine was associated with lower activation in dCC, i.e., more efficient information processing). Conclusion Our results show that pharmacological reduction of COMT activity modulates the engagement of attentional mechanisms, selectively enhancing the efficiency of dCC processing in healthy volunteers, reflected as decreased activity for the same level of performance. PMID:23794107

  9. USGS Elevation Monument

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS elevation monument for a level line run from Mojave, California to Keeler, California. The line ran through such places as 18-Mile Station, Dixie, Indan Wells, Little Lake, and Olancha. Elevations were based on Benecia datum....

  10. The Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.

    2005-09-01

    The Space Elevator is conceived to be a carbon nanotube ribbon stretching from an Earth station in the ocean on the equator to far beyond geosynchronous altitude. This elevator co-rotates with the Earth. Climbers ascend the ribbon using power beamed from Earth to launch spacecraft in orbit or to other worlds. The requirements of the ribbon material, challenges to the building of the space elevator, deployment and the promise of the space elevator are briefly discussed in this paper.

  11. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NED is designed to provide national elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, permit edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data.

  12. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  13. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  14. Loaded sectioned space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadov, Yu. A.; Nuralieva, A. B.

    2015-05-01

    New super strong materials discovered at the end of the 20th century have caused a surge of activity in work devoted to the space elevator (SE). A rather complete concept of the SE has been formulated. This concept, having many advantages, possesses, nevertheless, limited capabilities and insufficient reliability. In this paper we present a modified space elevator concept [1] that has higher reliability and extended capabilities. Such a construction is more complicated and its design is more expensive, so it can be realized only as a part of a large-scale space program. Inclusion of a space elevator in such a program will facilitate development of new technologies.

  15. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  16. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  17. 3. WEST ELEVATION; ELEVATIONS OF ROOM 'C' (DRAWING ROOM); EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST ELEVATION; ELEVATIONS OF ROOM 'C' (DRAWING ROOM); EXTERIOR ELEVATION DOORS A & B; REFLECTED PLAN PANELLED SOFFIT, DOORS A & B - Wakefield, State Route 204, Wakefield Corner, Westmoreland County, VA

  18. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  19. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  20. Space Elevator: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, Lubos

    2008-04-01

    Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the "centrifugal force" but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of the Earth, by the presence of space debris, etc. Not all of the minor effects have been adequately studied. The size of the Space Elevator and its lack of resistance against buckling or bending require a detailed study of its stability, both in its initial phase as a geostationary (GEO) satellite as well as in its operational phase as a "sling". Lunisolar perturbations and other minor forces may affect the stability in the initial phase and will cause oscillations in the operational phase. Station-keeping thrusters will have to be mounted at selected points along the cable in order to maintain stability. In addition, the thrusters will perform local maneuvers for avoiding collisions with passing space debris. The control system of thrusters has to be adaptive, reacting fast to actual situation and rectifying the attitude of the Elevator whenever necessary. A further advantage of the thrusters is a possibility to locate the Elevator at any longitude, possibly looking for a region with minimum traffic at GEO distance. Extensive numerical simulations will have to be performed in order to determine elements of the thrusters and their control system.

  1. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  3. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  4. Distracted Eating and Weight Gain

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... distraction can lead to weight gain. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Nutrition Weight Control About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  5. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g. for a surgeon or air traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g. color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counter-intuitively suggest that in many cases attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these ‘ideal observer’ models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not simply to enhance the representation of target features, but to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities. PMID:19776279

  6. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  7. Elevated temperature reference spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Phillips, B.; Tussey, L.

    1997-12-31

    A compilation of infrared spectra at elevated temperatures is required for the accurate quantification of gas concentrations for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) extractive sampling of stack gases and FTIR in-situ process monitoring. Analysis of high temperature gases utilizing ambient temperature reference spectra can result in significant quantification errors. The US Air Force`s Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is currently assisting the EPA in measuring reference spectra and making existing and new data available to the public through two ongoing efforts. One of these efforts is the measurement of elevated temperature infrared reference spectra of the low vapor pressure hazardous air pollutants (HAP) compounds, as well as spectral interfering compounds. The equipment and procedures used for the elevated temperature reference spectra measurements is described as well as some of the challenges encountered in these measurements. Examples of the reference spectra are also presented. To make the reference spectra developed by AEDC and other EPA programs easily accessible, AEDC has also been tasked to maintain a site on the World Wide Web containing reference spectra, reports, and software tools of interest to the optical sensing community. This web site has seen increased use during the three years that it has been in existence with users from academia, commercial, and government, both domestic and foreign. The site has undergone several improvements since inception and actively solicits inputs for further improvements from its users. A description of this web site and recent improvements and additions is given in this paper.

  8. 3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  9. 49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EAST ELEVATION OF ASSEMBLING BUILDING #2 AND SOUTH ELEVATION OF BODY BUILDING, 1980 (MMI) - Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company Plant, Between Joseph Campau & Conant Avenues, Hamtramck, Wayne County, MI

  10. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  11. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  14. Elevations and Floor Plan of Shed No. 1, Elevations and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations and Floor Plan of Shed No. 1, Elevations and Floor Plan of Work Shed, Elevations and Floor Plan of Garage - Roberts-Dolezal Farmstead, 75 miles northeast of the intersection of CR27 and FM 1722, Garrett, Ellis County, TX

  15. Elevated CO2 alters root N uptake and C turnover in Larrea tridentata L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of elevated CO2 on root N uptake, soil N availability and the feedbacks between them, we quantified the effects of elevated CO2 and N additions on root N uptake and leaf C gain in Larrea tridentata seedlings grown in reconstituted Mojave Desert soils. After six months of growt...

  16. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  17. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  18. Mutual Gains Means Everyone Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Bernard L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual gains negotiation is an innovative system that emphasizes interests instead of positions and problem solving instead of preconceived solutions. The process can reverse social disintegration, reverse worker alienation, and address a shifting educational environment. It can resolve difficult labor-management problems such as contracting out,…

  19. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  20. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  1. Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    VOLTAGE RTI(5) fB = 0.01Hz to 10Hz 1 µVp-p fO = 10kHz 30 nV/Hz DYNAMIC RESPONSE Small Signal ­3dB 5 MHz differential amplifier consisting of a precision op amp and on-chip metal film resistors. The resistors are laser trimmed for accurate gain and high common-mode rejection. Excellent TCR tracking of the resistors

  2. 38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. Addition to Bacteriology Laboratory at Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. January 1916. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  4. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  5. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  6. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  7. Holiday weight gain: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Mayer, J

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to rise and controversy remains regarding the underlying specific causes of this trend. Recently, the magnitude of holiday weight gain and its contribution to annual weight gain were examined in a convenience sample of 195 adults. On average, weight gain during the 6-week winter period from Thanksgiving through New Year averaged only 0.37 kg. However, weight gain was greater among individuals who were overweight or obese, and 14% gained >2.3 kg (5 lb). In addition, among the entire population, weight gain during the 6-week holiday season explained 51% of annual weight gain. These results suggest that holiday weight gain may be an important contributor to the rising prevalence of obesity, even though absolute values for weight gain in this study were less than anticipated. Further studies using representative populations are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:11206847

  8. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  9. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  10. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

  11. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  12. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  13. Antibiotics Might Cause Weight Gain in Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155294.html Antibiotics Might Cause Weight Gain in Kids Study finds ... 2015 THURSDAY, Oct. 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Repeated antibiotic use is linked to greater weight gains in ...

  14. Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers A new method to measure gain in Quantum, PRISM, *BYU Supported by NSF, PRISM #12;Outline Lasers ­ The Basics Quantum Cascade Lasers Gain and Loss unchanged http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfadd/1160/Ch29Atm/Laser.html #12;Quantum Cascade Laser Laser Bar Sample

  15. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  16. Space Elevator: Path to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, A. K.

    2012-05-01

    The Space Elevator is the most promising Space Transportation system on the drawing boards today, combining scalability, qualify of ride, and safety to deliver truly commercial-grade space access-practically comparable to a train ride to space.

  17. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  18. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  19. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain. PMID:23456347

  20. THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED [CO2] AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON TREE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Teskey, Robert O.

    THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED [CO2] AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON TREE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY by TIMOTHY #12;THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED [CO2] AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON TREE GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY by TIMOTHY EFFECT OF ELEVATED [CO2] AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON TREE GROWTH AND SPECIES DISTRIBUTION by TIMOTHY

  1. Analysis of a Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    This paper investigates the engineering principles that govern the design of a Space Elevator. The presentation includes extensive mathematical analysis of several basic approaches, reviews historical approaches and looks at some novel implementations. The technical challenges that must be overcome and the potential application of new technology to meet these challenges are discussed. While the paper focuses on the engineering aspects of the space elevator concept, some space is devoted to the potential use and benefit of a successful implementation. The primary objective of this paper is to show that no fundamental physical principles preclude the concept, but that technology development is required before a practical implementation can be realized.

  2. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  3. Ka-band monolithic gain control amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Contolatis, T.

    1986-01-01

    A monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band has been developed based on 0.25 micron-gate-length dual-gate FETs fabricated on ion-implanted material. A single-stage monolithic amplifier gives a gain of 6 dB at 31 GHz including fixture losses with a gain control range of over 20 dB. The device and IC design and fabrication are described.

  4. Microbes on mountainsides: Contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Lamanna, Christine; Morlon, Hélène; Kerkhoff, Andrew J.; Enquist, Brian J.; Green, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    The study of elevational diversity gradients dates back to the foundation of biogeography. Although elevational patterns of plant and animal diversity have been studied for centuries, such patterns have not been reported for microorganisms and remain poorly understood. Here, in an effort to assess the generality of elevational diversity patterns, we examined soil bacterial and plant diversity along an elevation gradient. To gain insight into the forces that structure these patterns, we adopted a multifaceted approach to incorporate information about the structure, diversity, and spatial turnover of montane communities in a phylogenetic context. We found that observed patterns of plant and bacterial diversity were fundamentally different. While bacterial taxon richness and phylogenetic diversity decreased monotonically from the lowest to highest elevations, plants followed a unimodal pattern, with a peak in richness and phylogenetic diversity at mid-elevations. At all elevations bacterial communities had a tendency to be phylogenetically clustered, containing closely related taxa. In contrast, plant communities did not exhibit a uniform phylogenetic structure across the gradient: they became more overdispersed with increasing elevation, containing distantly related taxa. Finally, a metric of phylogenetic beta-diversity showed that bacterial lineages were not randomly distributed, but rather exhibited significant spatial structure across the gradient, whereas plant lineages did not exhibit a significant phylogenetic signal. Quantifying the influence of sample scale in intertaxonomic comparisons remains a challenge. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the forces structuring microorganism and macroorganism communities along elevational gradients differ. PMID:18695215

  5. Compliance Gaining on Prime Time Family Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haefner, Margaret J.; Comstock, Jamie

    1990-01-01

    Studies compliance gaining behaviors among characters in 18 prime time television programs. Finds that situation comedies were more likely than dramas to contain family characters who attempted to gain compliance. Finds that parental characters were more likely than children to seek and achieve compliance. Compares results to "real life" parental…

  6. Energy: efficiency gains alone won't

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Energy: efficiency gains alone won't reduce emissions SIR -- Your News Feature `Electricity without and therefore its associated emissions. In combination with efficiency gains and renewable energy sourcesLovelaceNortonCanon, HerefordHR47BP,UK e-mail:Rob00x@gmail.com Energy: time to consider heavy-metal nuclear coolants? SIR -- You

  7. Complying with physician gain-sharing restrictions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1998-05-01

    Many IDSs are considering implementing gain-sharing programs as a way to motivate their physicians to provide high-quality, cost-effective services. Before embarking on such programs, however, IDSs need to understand the legal requirements associated with such programs to ensure that the gain-sharing arrangement is in compliance with Federal law. PMID:10179436

  8. Meaningful Reading Gains by Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Hollis S.; Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Cutting, Laurie E.; Pugh, Kenneth; Katz, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a fuller picture of the efficacy of reading instruction programs for adult literacy learners, gains by individual students were examined in a sample (n = 148) in which weak to moderate gains at the group level had been obtained in response to tutoring interventions that focused on strengthening basic decoding and fluency skills of low…

  9. 75 FR 63763 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Rulemaking on Program Integrity: Gainful Employment, published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2010 (75 FR 43616). DATES: The public meeting sessions will be held on the dates and at the locations... Part 668 RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary...

  10. Sudden Gains During Therapy of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schulz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive–behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967 session-to-session intervals met criteria for sudden gains, which most frequently occurred in Session 5. Individuals with sudden gains showed similar improvements in the 2 treatment groups. Although cognitive–behavioral therapy was associated with more cognitive changes than exposure therapy, cognitive changes did not precede sudden gains. In general, the results of this study question the clinical significance of sudden gains in social phobia treatment. PMID:16881776

  11. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive “wires”. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the “passive” view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g., putting in a contact lens) to highly forceful (emergency reactions). Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation. PMID:25120435

  12. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  13. Mass Gains of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Exceed Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Brenner, Anita; Bromwich, David

    2012-01-01

    During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements of elevation change. The net gain (86 Gt/yr) over the West Antarctic (WA) and East Antarctic ice sheets (WA and EA) is essentially unchanged from revised results for 1992 to 2001 from ERS radar altimetry. Imbalances in individual drainage systems (DS) are large (-68% to +103% of input), as are temporal changes (-39% to +44%). The recent 90 Gt/yr loss from three DS (Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd Coast) of WA exceeds the earlier 61 Gt/yr loss, consistent with reports of accelerating ice flow and dynamic thinning. Similarly, the recent 24 Gt/yr loss from three DS in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is consistent with glacier accelerations following breakup of the Larsen B and other ice shelves. In contrast, net increases in the five other DS of WA and AP and three of the 16 DS in East Antarctica (EA) exceed the increased losses. Alternate interpretations of the mass changes driven by accumulation variations are given using results from atmospheric-model re-analysis and a parameterization based on 5% change in accumulation per degree of observed surface temperature change. A slow increase in snowfall with climate waRMing, consistent with model predictions, may be offsetting increased dynamic losses.

  14. Leaf conductance and carbon gain under salt-stressed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, V.; Manzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Katul, G.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of plants to salt stress is often accompanied by reductions in leaf photosynthesis and in stomatal and mesophyll conductances. To separate the effects of salt stress on these quantities, a model based on the hypothesis that carbon gain is maximized subject to a water loss cost is proposed. The optimization problem of adjusting stomatal aperture for maximizing carbon gain at a given water loss is solved for both a non-linear and a linear biochemical demand function. A key novel theoretical outcome of the optimality hypothesis is an explicit relationship between the stomatal and mesophyll conductances that can be evaluated against published measurements. The approaches here successfully describe gas-exchange measurements reported for olive trees (Olea europea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceaL.) in fresh water and in salt-stressed conditions. Salt stress affected both stomatal and mesophyll conductances and photosynthetic efficiency of both species. The fresh water/salt water comparisons show that the photosynthetic capacity is directly reduced by 30%-40%, indicating that reductions in photosynthetic rates under increased salt stress are not due only to a limitation of CO2diffusion. An increase in salt stress causes an increase in the cost of water parameter (or marginal water use efficiency) exceeding 100%, analogous in magnitude to findings from extreme drought stress studies. The proposed leaf-level approach can be incorporated into physically based models of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to assess how saline conditions and elevated atmospheric CO2 jointly impact transpiration and photosynthesis.

  15. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

    1985-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

  16. Controlling gain one photon at a time

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

  17. Tapered InAs/InGaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier design for enhanced gain and beam quality.

    PubMed

    Mesaritakis, Charis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Simos, Hercules; Simos, Christos; Krakowski, Michel; Krestnikov, Igor; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2013-07-15

    In this Letter, a design for a tapered InAs/InGaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier is proposed and experimentally evaluated. The amplifier's geometry was optimized in order to reduce gain saturation effects and improve gain efficiency and beam quality. The experimental measurements confirm that the proposed amplifier allows for an elevated optical gain in the saturation regime, whereas a five-fold increase in the coupling efficiency to a standard single mode optical fiber is observed, due to the improvement in the beam quality factor M² of the emitted beam. PMID:23939062

  18. Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

  19. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift...

  2. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    E-print Network

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Jaden, John D.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2013-03-22

    combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness...

  3. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinfeng; Kelt, Douglas A; Sun, Zhongyu; Liu, Hongxiao; Hu, Liangjun; Ren, Hai; Wen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres and across latitudes. Our results show that most elevational diversity curves are positively skewed (maximum diversity below the middle of the gradient) and the elevation of the peak in diversity increases with the elevation of lower sampling limits and to a lesser extent with upper limit. Mountains with greater elevational extents, and taxonomic groups that are more inclusive, show proportionally more unimodal patterns whereas other ranges and taxa show highly variable gradients. The two hemispheres share some interesting similarities but also remarkable differences, likely reflecting differences in landmass and mountain configurations. Different taxonomic groups exhibit diversity peaks at different elevations, probably reflecting both physical and physiological constraints. PMID:24157658

  4. 75 FR 68710 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...selected locations in each community are shown. National Environmental...Siskiyou County Public Health and Community Development Department, 806...s) elevation above ground Communities affected [caret] Elevation...Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Gay Street. Crawford...

  5. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  6. 77 FR 66555 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  7. 78 FR 6745 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...FEMA-2013-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  8. 77 FR 30220 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  9. 75 FR 64165 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...FEMA-2010-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  10. 77 FR 21471 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  11. 77 FR 41323 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster [[Page...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  12. 76 FR 76055 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  13. 77 FR 45262 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  14. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  15. 77 FR 49360 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  16. 76 FR 35111 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  17. 78 FR 14697 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ...FEMA-2013-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  18. 77 FR 46972 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  19. 76 FR 21664 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  20. 75 FR 59989 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...FEMA-2010-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  1. 77 FR 26959 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  2. 76 FR 43923 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  3. 77 FR 3625 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  4. 77 FR 6976 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  5. 76 FR 39011 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  6. 78 FR 5738 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...FEMA-2013-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  7. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...

  8. Analysis of gain limitation in an amplitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churiumov, G. I.

    1988-06-01

    Computer simulation is used to investigate the undesirable phenomenon of gain limitation in an amplitron. The effects of the following factors are examined: space charge forces, secondary electron emission, and the phase deviation of the electron spoke and the HF wave. It is shown that gain limitation is connected with the phase shift of the electron spoke with respect to the maximum of the decelerating phase of the HF field.

  9. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  10. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  11. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  12. History of Elevators and Related Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiki

    The history of traction drive elevators in Japan is described. The electrical technologies such as the microprocessor car control and the VVVF motor control made remarkable progress leading to higher reliability and energy savings. Then, the various machine-room-less elevators have been developed and the space saving technology, such as the shuttle and the double-deck elevators become important, too. The elevators used for evacuation in case of emergencies are also discussed.

  13. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  14. 75 FR 52868 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...Street (Base Flood Elevations extend...Street (Base Flood Elevations extend...the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES...Approximately 500 feet +989...

  15. A Prospective Study of Holiday Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Sovik, Kara N.; Nguyen, Tuc T.; O'Neil, Patrick M.; Sebring, Nancy G.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is commonly asserted that the “average American” gains five pounds (2.27 kg) or more over the holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year's Day, yet few data support this statement. Methods To estimate actual holiday-related weight variation, we measured body weight in a non-clinical sample of 195 adults. Subjects were weighed four times, 6-8 weeks apart, such that weight change was determined for three intervals: Pre-Holiday (from late September to mid-November, Holiday (November to January) and Post-Holiday (January to March). A final weight was obtained in 165 participants the following September. Other vital signs and self-reported health measures were obtained to mask the main outcome of interest. Results Mean weight increased significantly during the Holiday (+0.37 ± 1.52 kg, P<0.001), but not during the Pre-Holiday (+0.18 ± 1.49 kg, P=0.09), or Post-Holiday (–0.07 ± 1.14 kg, P=0.36) interval. Holiday weight gain was greater than Post-holiday weight gain (P < 0.002). Compared with their weight in September, study subjects had an average net weight gain of +0.48 ± 2.22 kg at their March measurement (P<0.003). Between March and the next September, there was no significant additional weight change (+0.21 kg ± 2.3 kg, P=0.13) for the 165 participants who returned for follow-up. Conclusions Average holiday weight gain is 0.37 kg, far less than commonly asserted. As this gain is not reversed during spring or summer months, the net 0.48 kg fall/winter weight gain appears likely to contribute to the increase in body weight that frequently occurs during adulthood. PMID:10727591

  16. Approach to managing elevated creatinine.

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Richard

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a systematic approach to finding the underlying cause of an elevated creatinine level. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: This diagnostic approach is based on a synthesis of information from reference works on nephrology, articles found through a MEDLINE search, and the author's personal experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Elevated creatinine levels suggest the differential diagnosis of renal failure (RF). History and a complete physical examination are important, keeping in mind that RF is often asymptomatic in the early stages. After repeating the creatinine test to verify results, baseline tests should be ordered to identify the cause of the RF. Comparing results of serial tests is essential for determining whether RF is acute or chronic, stable or progressive. An ultrasound scan is particularly useful for eliminating an obstructive cause; the size of the kidney can indicate whether disease is acute or chronic. Complementary blood tests and imaging studies might be useful. CONCLUSION: Diagnosing and managing RF can appear complex, but a systematic approach will help you find the cause and treat the condition. PMID:15171676

  17. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  18. The freshman weight gain phenomenon revisited.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Aaron P; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Dutton, Gareth R; Panton, Lynn B; Abood, Doris A

    2009-02-01

    Earlier studies associated the first year of college with a dramatic increase in body weight, termed the "freshman 15". However, recent studies showed that weight gain might be smaller. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the extent of observed weight/body composition changes, including factors associated with them, among students entering university. Searches were conducted for studies examining weight/body composition changes during freshman semesters. Most studies were not comprehensive in assessing numerous potential causative factors for weight gain. Methods for assessing diet, physical activity, and behavioral factors varied among studies. Weight changes were often not quantified by measures of body composition (lean/fat) to ascertain that changes were limited just to gains in fat mass. Overall, weight changes ranged from 0.7-3.1 kg, but among individuals who gained weight, the range was narrower, 3.1-3.4 kg. There may be specific groups of students with a greater predisposition for weight gain and future research should focus on identifying those groups. PMID:19178649

  19. Gain and energy storage in holmium YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E.; Deyst, John P.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that Q-switched holmium lasers are capable of high-gain and high-energy operation at 300 K. Small-signal gain coefficients of 0.50 and 0.12/cm have been measured in YLF and YAG, respectively. Small-signal gains of 0.50/cm are comparable to those achievable in Nd:YAG and are not typical of low-gain materials. This large gain in the Ho:YLF material is made possible by operating the amplifier in the ground state depletion mode. The amplifier performance data and associated analysis presented demonstrate that efficient energy storage is possible with very high excited state ion densities of the Ho 5I7 upper laser level. This is an important result since upconversion can limit the 5I7 population. Although upconversion was still present in this experiment, it was possible to achieve efficient energy storage, demonstrating that the problem is manageable even at high excitation densities in YLF.

  20. Autonomic and prefrontal events during moral elevation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Walter T; Saslow, Laura R; Saturn, Sarina R

    2015-05-01

    Moral elevation, or elevation, is a specific emotional state triggered by witnessing displays of profound virtue and moral beauty. This study set out to characterize the physiology underlying elevation with measurements of heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. During elevation, HR and RSA increased. These findings illustrate that elevation involves an uncommon combination of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation, which is present in circumstances where arousal and social engagement are both required. In addition, we show evidence of content-dependent alterations of mPFC activity during elevation peaks. Altogether, this study shows that the induction of moral elevation recruits an uncommon autonomic and neural pattern that is consistent with previous understanding of socioemotional-induced allostasis. PMID:25813121

  1. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  2. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  3. 34 CFR 462.43 - How is educational gain measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is educational gain measured? 462.43 Section 462.43... Educational Gain? § 462.43 How is educational gain measured? (a)(1) Educational gain is measured by...

  4. 34 CFR 462.43 - How is educational gain measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How is educational gain measured? 462.43 Section 462.43... Educational Gain? § 462.43 How is educational gain measured? (a)(1) Educational gain is measured by...

  5. Graphene as gain medium for broadband lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jago, Roland; Winzer, Torben; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin

    2015-08-01

    Efficient nonradiative carrier recombination strongly counteracts the appearance of optical gain in graphene. Based on a microscopic and fully quantum-mechanical study of the coupled carrier, phonon, and photon dynamics in graphene, we present a strategy to obtain a long-lived gain: Integrating graphene into a high quality photonic crystal nanocavity and applying a high-dielectric substrate suppresses the nonradiative recombination channels and gives rise to pronounced coherent light emission. This suggests the design of graphene-based laser devices covering a broad spectral range.

  6. Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Shuttle Radar Topgraphy Mission (SRTM) images show the basin of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal: On the left a detail (27 km x 20.5 km) of the X-SAR digital elevation model (shown below), on the right the corresponding radar amplitude image. The amplitude is a measure of the backscattering of the transmitted microwaves. In the amplitude image the 'Bagmati-River' is visible south of the city center and the international Airport in the eastern part. The runway appears as a dark stripe. The airport is infamous for its difficult landing/takeoff conditions due to the close vicinity of the surrounding high mountains. For more information and a image of the region around Kathmandu, visit the German Remote Sensing Data Center SRTM Treasure Vault. Image courtesy German Remote Sensing Data Center

  7. [Unexplained, subclinical chronically elevated transaminases].

    PubMed

    Vital Durand, D; Lega, J-C; Fassier, T; Zenone, T; Durieu, I

    2013-08-01

    Unexplained, subclinical chronically elevated transaminases is mainly a marker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, alcoholism and diabetes, which are very common situations but viral hepatitis and iatrogenic origin must also be considered. Before looking for hepatic or genetic rare diseases, it is worth considering hypertransaminasemia as a clue for muscular disease, particularly in paediatric settings, and creatine phosphokinase is a specific marker. Then, patient history, examination and appropriate biologic requests can permit the identification of less frequent disorders where isolated hypertransaminasemia is possibly the unique marker of the disease for a long while: hemochromatosis, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson's disease, ?1-anti-trypsine deficiency, thyroid dysfunctions, Addison's disease. Liver biopsy should be performed only in patients with aspartate aminotransferases upper the normal range or alanine aminotransferases higher than twice the normal range after 6 months delay with dietetic corrections. PMID:23623710

  8. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.

  9. The space station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  10. Changes in wetland sediment elevation following major storms: implications for estimating trends in relative sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricanes can be important agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes and mangrove forests. Hurricanes can cause large-scale redistribution of sediments within the coastal environment resulting in sedimentation, erosion, disruption of vegetated substrates, or some combination of these processes in coastal wetlands. It has been proposed that such sediment pulsing events are important at maintaining wetland sediment elevations in sediment-poor settings with high rates of relative sea-level rise, such as the Mississippi River Delta. But do these pulsing events result in a net gain in sediment elevation even when substantial amounts of sediment are deposited? Clearly sediment erosion and scour would result in a loss of elevation. But will a substantial sediment deposit on poorly consolidated sediments always result in a net gain in elevation? If the wetland vegetation is killed by wind, tidal surge, or the introduction of saline water, will there be a collapse of sediment elevation in the absence of root production and ongoing decomposition of root matter? During the past decade several wetlands where my colleagues and I have monitored sedimentation and elevation change have been struck by one to several hurricanes. This paper describes the range of sediment elevation responses to hurricane strikes, the suggested mechanisms driving those responses, the implications for estimating long-term trends in relative sea-level rise, and future research needs for improving our understanding of the role that major storms play in wetland sediment elevation dynamics. For many wetlands the change in sediment elevation was directly proportional to the amount of sediment deposited by the storm. But surprisingly, there was a loss of elevation in some wetlands with substantial sediment deposits. In these wetlands, the impact of the storm was either direct (sedimentation and compaction) or indirect (vegetation death), and the effect on sediment elevation was either permanent or temporary. For example, 2 cm of sediment deposited by Hurricane Andrew on a healthy salt marsh in south Louisiana had a direct and positive effect on sediment elevation. But in a deteriorated salt marsh a 3 cm thick sediment deposit was associated with a permanent loss in elevation (we have monitored this site for 10 years). The apparent mechanism driving elevation loss was compaction of the weakened substrate by the weight of the sediment deposit, the storm surge waters, or both. Clearly, storm-related sediment pulses are not going to save this marsh from becoming submerged by rising sea level. A temporary loss in elevation, as much as 2 cm, was observed in a North Carolina salt marsh with a highly organic substrate after each of 3 successive hurricanes even when sediment was deposited. The loss in elevation was apparently related to degassing of the chronically flooded substrate while the rebound in elevation was apparently related to a temporary drawdown of marsh water levels. Interestingly, sediment elevation increased after Hurricane Dennis in 1999, although the increase was less than the thickness of the sediment deposit. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms driving storm-related elevation change (i.e., compaction and expansion) in this marsh. There were two marshes where the gain in sediment elevation was greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit, but the effect was short-lived. In a high salt marsh in southern California, we hypothesize that the temporary spike in elevation was related to the flushing of salts from the hypersaline soils, which enhanced root growth that led to an increase in elevation. In a marsh with a highly organic substrate in north Florida, temporary increases in elevation (as much as 2 cm) greater than the thickness of the sediment deposit were apparently related to groundwater fluxes, which may have been influenced by enhanced runoff from storm rainfall. Lastly, Hurricane Mitch

  11. VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain

    E-print Network

    VELOCITY-DEPENDENT DYNAMIC CURVATURE GAIN FOR REDIRECTED WALKING 1 Velocity-Dependent Dynamic Curvature Gain for Redirected Walking Christian T. Neth, Jan L. Souman, David Engel, Uwe Kloos, Heinrich H. B¨ulthoff and Betty J. Mohler Abstract--Redirected walking techniques allow people to walk

  12. RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority

    E-print Network

    Hulme, Mike

    49 LHP: HULME RHP: HOW CLIMATE MODELS GAIN AND EXERCISE AUTHORITY 2 How Climate Models Gain and Exercise Authority Mike Hulme Introduction Numerical climate models have become central to the unfolding story of climate change. Climate models underpin the knowledge claims and risk assessments

  13. A novel control method for on-off gain and gain tilt of fiber Raman amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoming; Peng, Jiangde

    2004-04-01

    Considering spectrum tilt due to signal-to-signal Raman scattering (SSRS) in backward distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (B-DFRA), an inverse tilted on-off gain profile is adopted to achieve flat net gain. A simple approximate linear relationship of pump power at each wavelength versus on-off gain level and tilt was derived numerically and experimentally so that a novel control method was established. Since there are only 3 pre-determinable constants required for individual pump wave, it is easy to be realized. As an example, maximum errors less than 0.2 and 0.4 dB respectively for average gain and gain tilt were achieved over C+L band in 100-km back-pumped standard single-mode fiber (SMF) experimentally.

  14. Net Photorefractive Gain In Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Prerequisite includes applied electric field. Electric field applied to GaAs crystal in which two infrared beams interfere. Depending on quality of sample and experimental conditions, net photorefractive gain obtained. Results offer possibility of new developments in real-time optical processing of signals by use of near-infrared lasers of low power.

  15. Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork

    E-print Network

    it introduced its high-efficiency 2007 ISB 6.7-L diesel engine, an engine that met 2010 emission standards- 1 - Engine improvement and efficiency gained by teamwork April 3, 2012 Car companies come calling to research and develop highly efficient, clean engines Cummins, Inc., is a U.S. corporation that designs

  16. Fast Light in Fully Coherent Gain Media

    E-print Network

    B. D. Clader; Q-Han Park; J. H. Eberly

    2006-06-15

    We analyze the propagation of fast-light pulses through a finite-length resonant gain medium both analytically and numerically. We find that intrinsic instabilities can be avoided in attaining a substantial peak advance with an ultra-short rather than a long or adiabatic probe.

  17. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells. PMID:26475094

  18. PV ENERGY ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains

    E-print Network

    PV ENERGY ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains the state of PV today E nergy payback time (EPBT) is the time by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved. JUNE 2012 VOL. 26, NO. 4 SOLARTODAY® By VASILIS. The production of all these materials requires large amounts of energy, as does the manufac- ture of the solar

  19. 75 FR 43615 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... September 9, 2009, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 46399) announcing our... evidence of low-quality programs that leave students with large debts and poor prospects for employment... their claim that they meet the statutory requirement of preparing students for ``gainful...

  20. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  1. High-flux magnetorheology at elevated temperatures

    E-print Network

    Ocalan, Murat

    Commercial applications of magnetorheological (MR) fluids often require operation at elevated temperatures as a result of surrounding environmental conditions or intense localized viscous heating. Previous experimental ...

  2. 76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...elevations, and communities affected for Yolo County, California, and Incorporated...entitled ``Unincorporated Areas of Yolo County, California'' addressed the flooding...Yolo County, California, and...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930 Wheelchair elevator. (a) Permanently mounted wheelchair...

  5. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  6. Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests. PMID:23795916

  7. Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

  8. National requirements for improved elevation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or submerged topography, built features, vegetation structure, and other landscape detail. Additional information about NEEA and its later use in the development of a 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) can be found at http://nationalmap.gov/3DEP/index.html.

  9. Modeling Root Exudation, Priming and Protection in Soil Carbon Responses to Elevated CO2 from Ecosystem to Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, B. N.; Phillips, R.; Shevliakova, E.; Oishi, A. C.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which plants induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or "priming") or promote SOC gains (via stabilization through physico-chemical protection). We developed a new SOC model, "Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere and Protection in the Soil Environment" (CORPSE), to examine the net effect of priming and protection in response to rising atmospheric CO2, and conducted simulations of rhizosphere priming effects at both ecosystem and global scales. At the ecosystem scale, the model successfully captured and explained disparate SOC responses at the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of "new" carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of "old" SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter (e.g. Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses owing to priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters (e.g. Duke). For global simulations, the model was fully integrated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3. Globally, priming effects driven by enhanced root exudation and expansion of the rhizosphere reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from the enhanced ecosystem productivity driven by CO2 fertilization. Collectively, our results suggest that SOC stocks globally depend not only on temperature and moisture, but also on vegetation responses to environmental changes, and that protected C may provide an important constraint on priming effects.

  10. Open Quantum Systems with Loss and Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system.Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.

  11. North Elevation: LowLift Pumping Station (East) 2008; West Elevation and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Elevation: Low-Lift Pumping Station (East) 2008; West Elevation and Floor Plan: Outbuilding - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  13. Mispredicting the Hedonic Benefits of Segregated Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Gilbert, Daniel T.; Keysar, Boaz; Berkovits, Michael J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    The hedonic benefit of a gain (e.g., receiving $100) may be increased by segregating it into smaller units that are distributed over time (e.g., receiving $50 on each of 2 days). However, if these units are too small (e.g., receiving 1 cent on each of 10,000 days), they may fall beneath the person's hedonic limen and have no hedonic benefit at…

  14. The Limits of the GAINS Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negret, A.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, Ph.; Kerveno, M.; Nankov, N.; Nyman, M.; Olacel, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Gamma Array for Neutron Inelastic Scattering (GAINS) is currently operating at the GELINA (Geel Linear Accelerator) neutron source producing highly precise neutron inelastic scattering data. A series of recent investigations explored the limits of the experimental setup and technique. Measurements on 12C and 57Fe attempted the determination of very high and very low energy gamma production cross sections, respectively. An extended analysis was directed towards the generation of covariance matrices specifically for this experimental approach.

  15. Gain scaling for multirate filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

  16. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  17. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  18. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  19. Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

  20. 75 FR 50955 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...On September 8, 2009, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 46047. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for York County,......

  1. 75 FR 77598 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  2. [Spiked helmet sign ST-segment elevation].

    PubMed

    Tomcsányi, János; Frész, Tamás

    2013-01-27

    The authors report the spiked helmet ST-segment elevation in two patients in order to draw attention to this high-risk electrocardiographic sign. This form of ST-segment elevation needs an urgent evaluation and management of the critically ill patient. PMID:23335725

  3. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  4. Mallard Use of Elevated Nesting Structures

    E-print Network

    B 752 Mallard Use of Elevated Nesting Structures 15 Years of Management in Eastern South Dakota.F. Higgins. 2007. Mallard use of elevated nesting structures: 15 years of management in eastern South Dakota in recognizing the value of this long-term data set and encouraging development of this technical report. Ducks

  5. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  6. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  7. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  8. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  9. 75 FR 78647 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  10. 75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  11. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  12. 75 FR 78650 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Docket No. FEMA-B-1159] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the...

  13. 77 FR 22551 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... rule published at 72 FR 68784, in the December 6, 2007, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs...

  14. 75 FR 5929 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on September 8, 2009, at 74 FR 46047. The table for Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  15. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  16. 76 FR 59960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  17. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 29238 and 76 FR 62006, in the May 25, 2010 and... Docket No. FEMA-B-1100 and FEMA-B-1222] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Management Agency (FEMA) publishes proposed determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations...

  18. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on May 26, 2009, at 74 FR 24729. The table for Ransom County, North Dakota, and Incorporated Areas... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  19. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  20. 75 FR 59181 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  1. 76 FR 19007 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  2. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  3. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  4. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  5. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  6. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  7. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  8. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  9. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  10. 75 FR 75949 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  11. 75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...On July 2, 2009, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 31656. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Cumberland County,......

  12. 75 FR 61371 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  13. 75 FR 55515 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  14. A Space Elevator Based Exploration Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Bradley C.

    2004-02-01

    Technological advances and recent studies have laid the groundwork for eventual construction of a space elevator. Within 15 years an operational space elevator could be running from Earth to beyond geosynchronous. The basic mechanical operation allows for low operational cost ($250/kg), high capacity (>13tons, >5tons/day/elevator), a range of destinations (LEO, GEO, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, and Venus), and minimal launch forces. The low risk operation of the space elevator would allow large scale robotic and human exploration of the solar system. An operational elevator will immediately move primary interest from LEO to GEO for many activities and open commercial space activities such as solar power satellite arrays for beaming power to Earth. Robotic exploration to all destinations would be able to use larger, fixed structures, more massive platforms and be launched for a fraction of current costs. Human exploration could start at GEO for maintaining commercial assets, and enhanced Earth-observing systems and then step to Mars where a receiving elevator could also be established. This paper will cover the basics of a space elevator and a comprehensive strategy for human and exploratory use of space based on the space elevator.

  15. 77 FR 30220 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... Flooding source(s) elevation in feet above Communities affected ground Elevation in meters (MSL)...

  16. 75 FR 14091 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...FEMA-2010-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...approximately 1,500 feet north...

  17. 75 FR 75945 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...FEMA-B-1168] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs...to the revised Flood Insurance Rate...Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  18. 77 FR 21476 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW...and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...Approximately 1,500 feet +269...

  19. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...FEMA-2013-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW...Approximately 1,500 feet + 835 Unincorporated...the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES...97.022, ``Flood...

  20. 76 FR 54134 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...FEMA-2011-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...Approximately 1,500 feet +85 upstream...Creek Tributary 1.1...97.022, ``Flood...

  1. 78 FR 9598 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...FEMA-2013-0002] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW...and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...Approximately 1,500 feet +1434...

  2. 75 FR 11468 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...FEMA-2010-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...and procedure, Flood insurance, Reporting...AMENDED] 0 1. The authority...Approximately 500 feet +117...

  3. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW...the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES...inspection at 500 Keough Road...97.022, ``Flood...

  4. Development of the Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strömmer, Sofia T.; Ingledew, David K.; Markland, David

    2015-01-01

    There are existing measures of exercise motives (what people want from exercise), but corresponding measures of gains (what people get) are needed, because motives and gains could influence each other and together influence other variables. An exercise motives and gains inventory (EMGI) was developed by creating gains scales to complement existing…

  5. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  6. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

  7. Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

  8. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

  9. Antenna Gain Enhancement and Beamshaping using a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbitt, Christopher

    Dielectric and metamaterial lenses have been designed for gain enhancement and beam shaping. The motivation for this work came from a commercially available slotted waveguide antenna with a dielectric lens that shapes the beam and enhances the gain only in the azimuth plane. When two of these antennas, each with a dielectric lens, are stacked as an array to form the sum and difference patterns the elevation plane gain is low and the beam width too wide to be acceptable for radar applications. The objective of the present work is to design a diffractive optical element (DOE) lens for gain enhancement gain and beam shaping. As compared to other available lenses it is much thinner, lighter and easily machined. The DOE lens is made from rexolite which has a dielectric constant of 2.53. The DOE lens is composed of a series of zones which focus the light at a certain focal length. The phase is the same everywhere on each zone at the focal point. The phase difference between neighboring zones is 2pi, resulting in a constructive interference at the focus. These zones are able to focus the radiation from an antenna in order to enhance the gain and shape the beam. The design parameters include the lens diameter, number of zones, the center zone thickness for a particular frequency and refractive index of the dielectric material. A comprehensive study has been performed in CST Microwave Studio to illustrate the properties of the DOE lens. The focusing property for image formation is verified by a plane wave excitation. Lenses have been designed and tested at different frequencies and with varying design parameters. Gain enhancement and beam shaping are illustrated by modeling the DOE lens in CST and placing it in front of different antennas. This work presents lenses for 10GHz and 40GHz horn antennas, a 3GHz slotted waveguide antenna array, and a 10GHz microstrip patch arrays. Beam shaping and focusing is clearly illustrated for each type of antenna. It is seen that the size of the lens is directly proportional to gain increase which can be as high 20dB enhancement for a 40-GHz horn antenna. The 3GHz DOE lens illustrates for the slotted waveguide array, a gain enhancement of 7dB in the elevation plane, as well as decrease of the 3dB beamwidth from 20° to 13.5°. It is also proved that the DOE lens allows for the creation of a good difference pattern. Experimental validation for the focusing properties and the gain enhancement has been done using the 10GHz DOE, made from rexolite, and fabricated using CNC milling in the RIT Brinkman Lab. The image formation has been verified using an electric field probing station in the Nanoplasmonic lab at RIT. Two types of excitation have been done with a dipole and with a horn antenna, where another dipole probes the field in the transmission plane. The electric field intensity shows clearly the beam focusing by the DOE lens. The X-band anechoic chamber in the Electromagnetics Theory and Application (ETA) lab has been used to demonstrate the gain enhancement of a horn antenna with the fabricated DOE lens. The distance of the lens from the receive antenna has been varied to obtain a maximum received power. The results show a substantial gain enhancement of 6.6 dB for the horn antenna and of 5.6 dB for the patch array.

  10. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  11. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  12. The Expanding Burden of Elevated Blood Pressure in China: Evidence From Jiangxi Province, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Junxiu; Liu, Shiwei; Zhou, Haiming; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Liu, Jie; Li, Yichong; Tang, Ji; Zhou, Chunlian; Huang, Jiuling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) as a risk factor accounts for the biggest burden of disease worldwide and in China. This study aimed to estimate attributed mortality and life expectancy (LE) to elevated BP in Jiangxi province between 2007 and 2010. BP and mortality data (2007 and 2010 inclusive) were obtained from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey and Disease Surveillance Points system, respectively. Population-attributable fraction used in comparative risk assessment of the Global Burden of Disease study 2010 were followed to quantify the attributed mortality to elevated BP, subsequently life table methods were applied to estimate its effects on LE. Uncertainty analysis was conducted to get 95% uncertainty intervals (95% uncertainty interval [UI]) for each outcome. There are 35,482 (95% UI: 31,389–39,928) and 47,842 (42,323–53,837) deaths in Jiangxi province were caused by elevated BP in 2007 and 2010, respectively. 2.24 (1.87–2.65) years of LE would be gained if all the attributed deaths were eliminated in 2007, and increased to 3.04 (2.52–3.48) in 2010. If the mean value of elevated BP in 2010 was decreased by 5 and 10?mm Hg, 5324 (4710–5991) and 11,422 (10,104–12,853) deaths would be avoided, with 0.41 (0.37–0.48) and 0.85 (0.71–1.09) years of LE gained, respectively. The deaths attributable to elevated BP in Jiangxi province has increased by 35% from 2007 to 2010, with 0.8 years of LE loss, suggesting the necessity to take actions to control BP in Chinese population. PMID:26426647

  13. Contribution of the hypothalamus and gut to weight gain susceptibility and resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Fam, Barbara C; Sgambellone, Rebecca; Ruan, Zheng; Proietto, Joseph; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2015-06-01

    Obesity susceptibility in humans and in rodent strains varies in response to the consumption of high-energy density (HED) diets. However, the exact mechanism(s) involved in this susceptibility remain(s) unresolved. The aim of the present study was to gain greater insight into this susceptibility by using C57BL/6J (B6) mice that were separated into obesity-prone (diet-induced obese (DIO)) and obesity-resistant (diet-induced resistant (DR)) groups following an HED diet for 6 weeks. Physiological, biochemical and gene expression assessments of energy balance were performed in the DIO and DR mice on an HED diet and chow-fed mice. The increased weight gain of the DIO mice as compared to the DR mice was associated with increased energy intake and higher plasma leptin and adiponectin levels but not with reduced physical activity or resting energy expenditure. Hypothalamic Pomc gene expression was elevated, but there were no changes in Npy or Agrp expression. Adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin gene expression were significantly reduced in the DIO group as compared to the DR group. Interestingly, ileum expression of G protein-coupled receptor (Gpr) 40 (Gpr40) was significantly increased, whereas Gpr120, Gpr119, Gpr41, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (Glp1) were reduced. Contrastingly, the lower weight gain of the DR group was associated with elevated adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin gene expression, but there were no differences in plasma hormone or hypothalamic gene expression levels as compared to chow-fed mice. Therefore, the present data demonstrate that susceptibility and resistance to diet-induced weight gain in B6 mice appears to be predominantly driven by peripheral rather than hypothalamic modifications, and changes in gut-specific receptors are a potentially important contributor to this variation. PMID:25934705

  14. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  15. Origin of the highly elevated Pyrenean peneplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babault, Julien; van den Driessche, Jean; Bonnet, StéPhane; Castelltort, SéBastien; Crave, Alain

    2005-04-01

    Peneplanation of mountain ranges is generally considered the result of long-term erosional processes that smooth relief and lower elevation near sea level. Therefore peneplain remnants at high elevation in mountain ranges are used to infer posttectonic surface uplift. Such an interpretation has been proposed for the Pyrenees where high-elevation, low-relief erosional surfaces rose up to more than 2000 m. Because the Pyrenean foreland basins are filled with very thick continental deposits, which have buried the early jagged landscape, we challenge this hypothesis by pointing out that relief applanation does not necessarily require elevation lowering. We propose an alternative interpretation in which piedmont aggradation of detrital sediment that comes from erosion of the high chain induces the rise of the base level of the range, therefore reducing strongly the erosive efficiency of the drainage system and resulting in the progressive smoothing of the relief. Such a process allows a high-elevation, low-relief erosional surface to develop at the scale of the range. In the Pyrenees, occurrence of high-elevation, low-relief erosional surface remnants does not imply a posttectonic uplift, but is instead due to the dissection of the initial Miocene high-elevation, low-relief surface by the recent drainage system, the erosive activity of which has been enhanced by global climate change from the late Pliocene onward.

  16. DSN 70-meter antenna X- and S-band calibration. Part 1: Gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, P. H.; Slobin, S. D.

    1989-01-01

    Aperture efficiency measurements made during 1988 on the three 70-m stations (DSS-14, DSS-43, and DSS-63) at X-band (8420 MHz) and S-band (2295 MHz) have been analyzed and reduced to yield best estimates of antenna gain versus elevation. The analysis has been carried out by fitting the gain data to a theoretical expression based on the Ruze formula. Newly derived flux density and source-size correction factors for the natural radio calibration sources used in the measurements have been used in the reduction of the data. Peak gains measured at the three stations were 74.18 (plus or minus 0.10) dBi at X-band, and 63.34 (plus or minus 0.03) dBi at S-band, with corresponding peak aperture efficiencies of 0.687 (plus or minus 0.015) and 0.762 (plus or minus 0.006), respectively. The values quoted assume no atmosphere is present, and the estimated absolute accuracy of the gain measurements is approximately plus or minus 0.2 dB at X-band and plus or minus 0.1 dB at S-band (1-sigma values).

  17. Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan (Los Angeles, CA); Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2003-04-01

    An avalanche drift photodetector (ADP) incorporates extremely low capacitance of a silicon drift photodetector (SDP) and internal gain that mitigates the surface leakage current noise of an avalanche photodetector (APD). The ADP can be coupled with scintillators such as CsI(Tl), NaI(Tl), LSO or others to form large volume scintillation type gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy, photon counting, gamma ray counting, etc. Arrays of the ADPs can be used to replace the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in conjunction with scintillation crystals in conventional gamma cameras for nuclear medical imaging.

  18. SIMBAD4: Experiences Gained from the Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, M.; Oberto, A.

    2007-10-01

    SIMBAD 4 will be operating shortly. This new release involves the JAVA language, a PostgreSQL database, and is running on a cluster of PCs running Linux. This is a very different schema from SIMBAD 3 (C language, object-oriented home-made database management system and one Sun Workstation). This leads to some comparisons and experiences gained from this new development. This paper present conclusions we draw from the design of SIMBAD 4 as well as comments about the first query performance results.

  19. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  20. Counterbalancing Student Debt with "Asset Empowerment" and Economic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Chan, Monnica; Poore, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Education provides one of the best opportunities for American children to build the capacity to climb up the economic ladder. It has even been called the "great equalizer" in American society. In today's tightened labor market, providing equal access to postsecondary education is more critical than ever. The Georgetown Center on…

  1. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Sirleto, Luigi; Antonietta Ferrara, Maria; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5??m). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

  2. Generalized gas gain formula for proportional counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Takahiko

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical consideration of gas amplification in proportional counters has indicated that ?/ N, the ratio of the first Townsend coefficient to the gas density, is generally expressed in the form, ?/ N = KSmexp(- L/ S1- m), where S = E/ N is the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas density, and K, L and m (0 ? m ? 1) are constants characteristic of the gas. When m = 0 the ?/ N formula reduces to the analytical form used by Williams and Sara, and when m = 1 it reduces to that assumed by Diethorn. A gas gain formula derived from the ?/ N formula fitted the experimental gas gain data by Charles for a mixture of Ar + 10% CH 4 and by Hendricks for a mixture of Xe + 5% CO 2 when m = {1}/{2} was assumed. Theoretical justification for m = {1}/{2} was confirmed from the data of the total cross section for electrons in these gases and the characteristic energy of electrons in an electric field.

  3. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  4. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...elevations, and communities affected for Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas...CFR 67.4. The tables, entitled ``Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas...Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated...

  5. 77 FR 73396 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...ID FEMA-2010-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1089] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...You may submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1089, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management...

  6. 77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...ID FEMA-2010-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1085] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...You may submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management...

  7. 77 FR 73398 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...ID FEMA-2010-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1085] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...You may submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management...

  8. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  9. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  10. Flood elevation limits in the rocky mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of 77,987 station-years of streamflow-gaging station data from 3,748 stations in the Rocky Mountains indicates that there is a latitude-dependent elevation limit to substantial rainfall-produced flooding. The elevation limit ranges from about 1,650 m in Montana to about 2,350 m in New Mexico. Above this elevation limit, large rainfall-produced floods occur very infrequently and maximum unit discharge is 1.7 m3/s/km2 or less. Below this elevation limit, large-magnitude flooding is more common and maximum unit discharge ranges from to 30 m3/s/km2 in Idaho and Montana to 59 m3/s/km2 in New Mexico. These results emphasize the critical need for additional research to increase our knowledge of floods, and have important implications in water-resources investigations in the Rocky Mountains.

  11. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...location approximately 1,500 feet upstream of...97.022, ``Flood...

  12. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington...County. Approximately 1,500 feet +130 upstream...to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES...97.022, ``Flood...

  13. Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  14. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  15. Natural history of elevated creatinine levels

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Laura; Godwin, Marshall

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate what happens to the serum creatinine (SC) levels of people with initial mild elevations in SC; whether a stable, non-progressive elevation in SC level is the most common scenario; how common a progressive increase in SC is among primary care patients; and how often primary care patients with substantial elevations in SC (>300 ?mol/L) progress to end-stage renal disease. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of laboratory data and chart review. SETTING Queen’s University Family Medicine Centre in Kingston, Ont. PARTICIPANTS All patients who had SC levels measured at a nearby hospital laboratory between January 1994 and December 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Recently recorded height and weight measurements, latest SC measurements (if available), whether patients had been referred to nephrologists, comorbidity, medications being taken, whether patients were currently undergoing dialysis or had received a renal transplant, and whether patients had died. RESULTS In the 1434 charts of eligible patients, 64 (4.5%) had elevated initial SC levels (>130 ?mol/L) recorded, and 57 of these contained follow-up SC levels also. Among these 57 patients, 32 (56%) saw their SC levels return to normal, including 50% of those whose initial levels had been >300 ?mol/L. Only 7 patients (12%) with elevated SC levels progressed to higher levels during the follow-up period. Average age in the study group was 63 years; those with initial elevated SC levels were older than the average (70 years). CONCLUSION More than half of those with initially elevated SC levels (>130 ?mol/L) saw their levels return to normal, including patients whose initial levels had been >300 ?mol/L. It seems that a single elevated SC measurement does not predict ongoing decline in renal function. PMID:17279186

  16. Ice elevation change from Swath Processing of CryoSat SARIn Mode Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta, Luca; Gourmelen, Noel; Shepherd, Andrew; Muir, Alan; Nienow, Pete

    2015-04-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice elevation, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level rise (e.g. McMillan et al., 2014). The Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) onboard the ESA radar altimetry CryoSat (CS) mission has collected ice elevation measurements since 2010. The corresponding SARIn mode of operation, activated over GISM areas, provides high spatial resolution in the along-track direction while resolving the angular origin of echoes (i.e. across-track). The current ESA SARIn processor calculates the elevation of the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) within each waveform and maps of elevation change in Antarctica and Greenland have been produced using the regular CS height product (McMillan et al., 2014; Helm et al., 2014). Data from the CS-SARIn mode has also been used to produce measurements of ice elevation beyond the POCA, also known as swath elevation (Hawley et al. 2009; Gray et al., 2013; ESA-STSE CryoTop project). Here we use the swath processing approach to generate maps of ice elevation change from selected regions around the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. We discuss the impact of the swath processing on the spatial resolution and precision of the resulting ice elevation field and compare our results to current dh/dt estimates. References: ESA STSE CryoTop project - http://www.stse-cryotop.org/ Gray L., Burgess D., Copland L., Cullen R., Galin N., Hawley R. and Helm V. Interferometric swath processing of Cryosat data for glacial ice topography. The Cryosphere, 7(6):1857-1867, December 2013. Hawley R.L., Shepherd A., Cullen R., Helm V. and WIngham D.J. Ice-sheet elevations from across-track processing of airborne interferometric radar altimetry. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(22):L22501, November 2009. Helm V., Humbert A. and Miller H. Elevation and elevation change of Greenland and Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2. The Cryosphere, 8(4):1539-1559, August 2014. McMillan M., Shepherd A., Sundal A., Briggs K., Muir A., Ridout A., Hogg A. and Wingham D. Increased ice losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2. Geophysical Research Letters, pages 3899-3905, 2014.

  17. Energy considerations in the partial space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

  18. Wireless Capacity With Arbitrary Gain Matrix

    E-print Network

    Halldorsson, Magnus M

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of wireless links, a fundamental problem is to find the largest subset that can transmit simultaneously, within the SINR model of interference. Significant progress on this problem has been made in recent years. In this note, we study the problem in the setting where we are given a fixed set of arbitrary powers each sender must use, and an arbitrary gain matrix defining how signals fade. This variation of the problem appears immune to most algorithmic approaches studied in the literature. Indeed it is very hard to approximate since it generalizes the max independent set problem. Here, we propose a simple semi-definite programming approach to the problem that yields constant factor approximation, if the optimal solution is strictly larger than half of the input size.

  19. The High Gain Free Electron Lasers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yoonho

    This dissertation is composed of two independent parts on a theoretical study of the high gain free electron laser. In the first part (Chapters 2-4) a non-linear (saturation) regime of the free electron lasers (FELs) with electromagnetic wigglers is described. Two opposite configurations for the wiggler field propagation direction are considered in a unified manner. The wiggler field propagating counter to the electron beam is subject to a depletion, and the one propagating parallel to the electron beam is to an amplification. Especially, the latter shows possibility of an explosive instability in a simple mode coupling analysis. A self-consistent set of equations is derived and solved numerically. In the Compton regime the instability saturates at a peak amplitude (eA/m_0c^2)^2 = 0.6(omega_{pb}/ omega_1)^{4/3}(eA_0/m _0c^2)^{1/3}, where A(A_0) is the vector potential of radiation(wiggler) field. In the Raman regime, the FEL instability saturates either by particle trapping or by detuning of the resonance condition due to the nonlinear frequency of the beam mode, depending on the initial wiggler strength. It turns out that these nonlinear saturations set up too early for the system to exhibit any explosive behavior. In the second part (Chapters 5-6) properties of laser field eigenmodes in the linear regime (exponential gain regime) is investigated, including the effect of finite electron beam radius. Existence of such eigenmodes implies the radiation guiding property of an electron beam. For a cold electron beam the eigenmode width is determined with a single parameter which is a ratio of the radiation growth rate to the Rayleigh diffraction rate. Proper scaling for the electron beam temperature and effects of beam bending or shifting is also investigated.

  20. Evaluation of Experimental Data from the Gains Balloon GPS Surface Reflection Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, George G.; Johnson, Thomas A.; Somero, John Ryan

    2002-01-01

    The GPS Surface Reflection Instrument was integrated as an experiment on the GAINS (Global Airocean IN-situ System) 48-hour balloon mission flown in June 2002. The data collected by similar instruments in the past has been used to measure sea state from which ocean surface winds can be accurately estimated. The GPS signal has also been shown to be reflected from wetland areas and even from subsurface moisture. The current version of the instrument has been redesigned to be more compact, use less power, and withstand a greater variation in environmental conditions than previous versions. This instrument has also incorporated a new data collection mode to track 5 direct satellites (providing a continuous navigation solution) and multiplex the remaining 7 channels to track the reflected signal of the satellite tracked in channel 0. The new software mode has been shown to increase the signal to noise ratio of the collected data and enhance the science return of the instrument. During the GAINS balloon flight over the Northwest US, the instrument measured surface reflections as they were detected over the balloon's ground track. Since ground surface elevations in this area vary widely from the WGS-84 ellipsoid altitude, the instrument software has been modified to incorporate a surface altitude correction based on USGS 30-minute Digital Elevation Models. Information presented will include facts about instrument design goals, data collection methodologies and algorithms, and will focus on results of the science data analyses for the mission.

  1. 2. GLF, north elevation. Visible from left to right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GLF, north elevation. Visible from left to right - elevator C, and B, feed mill in foreground, and former molasses storage tanks. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155...Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the positive limit...

  3. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155...Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the positive limit...

  4. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155...Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the positive limit...

  5. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155...Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the positive limit...

  6. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155...Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force needed to achieve the positive limit...

  7. 1. View of the Concrete Incline linking the elevated Mainline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of the Concrete Incline linking the elevated Mainline structure to the South Portal of the Washington Street Tunnel - looking North. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  9. Complex motion induced by elevator choice in peak traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    We study the dynamic motion of two elevators by an elevator-choice strategy of passengers. An elevator is correlated with another elevator by the elevator choice. The dynamics of the elevator traffic system is described by a pair of deterministic nonlinear maps. The motion of two elevators is determined by the three parameters: the passenger's preference, the fraction of fast passengers, and the inflow rate. The dynamics of two elevators depends highly on the elevator-choice strategy. The motion of two elevators displays a complex behavior by a neck-and-neck race between two elevators. We explore the dependence of elevator motion on the passenger's preference, the fraction of fast passengers, and the inflow rate.

  10. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

  11. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

  12. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

  13. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

  14. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section 172...PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided...bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked on two...

  15. 29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  16. Gain Scheduled Control Using the Dual Youla Parameterization 

    E-print Network

    Chang, Young Joon

    2011-08-08

    Stability is a critical issue in gain-scheduled control problems in that the closed loop system may not be stable during the transitions between operating conditions despite guarantees that the gain-scheduled controller ...

  17. Gain measurements of scattering-assisted terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qing

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, the gain of scattering-assisted terahertz quantum cascade lasers is measured. By examining the intersubband gain and absorption over a wide range of bias voltages, we experimentally ...

  18. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 416.910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1510 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means...

  20. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  1. Elevational Distribution and Extinction Risk in Birds

    PubMed Central

    White, Rachel L.; Bennett, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures – notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint) on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth) were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species’ current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data. PMID:25849620

  2. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

  3. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required ?v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  4. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    PubMed

    White, Rachel L; Bennett, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint) on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth) were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data. PMID:25849620

  5. Introduction GO FLNs GAIN Results Other Algorithms Gene Function Prediction

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liqing

    Introduction GO FLNs GAIN Results Other Algorithms Gene Function Prediction T. M. Murali Department, 6, 11, 2011 T. M. Murali CS 3824 Gene Function Prediction #12;Introduction GO FLNs GAIN Results;Introduction GO FLNs GAIN Results Other Algorithms to the System Keith Haring, Untited, 1986 Urs Wehrli

  6. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404... Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for pay or profit....

  7. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  8. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404... Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for pay or profit....

  10. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7... activity. (a) Purpose. This section defines substantial gainful activity for purposes of section 105(d) and... substantial gainful activity, and provides examples of the application of the definition and rules in...

  11. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  12. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  13. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7... activity. (a) Purpose. This section defines substantial gainful activity for purposes of section 105(d) and... substantial gainful activity, and provides examples of the application of the definition and rules in...

  14. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement, (b) gains in…

  15. Accepted Manuscript Title: Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow

    E-print Network

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Accepted Manuscript Title: Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through. Turhan, T.A. Zawodzinski, M.M. Mench, Dramatic Performance Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through Gains in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Through Modified Cell Architecture D. S. Aaron1 , Q. Liu1 , Z

  16. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220.141 Section 220.141 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD..., defined. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful....

  17. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220.141 Section 220.141 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT..., defined. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful....

  18. Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J., III; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m?2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

  19. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    E-print Network

    A. Bolonkin

    2007-05-14

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric line also can be used for delivery electric energy to a Geosynchronous Space Station. At present, the best solution of the climber problem (announced by NASA as one important awarding problem of Space Elevator) is problematic. Author also shows the linear electrostatic engine may be used as realistic power space launcher at the present time. Two projects illustrate these new devices. Key words: Space elevator, Electrostatic climber for space elevator, Electrostatic space launcher, Electrostatic accelerator. This work is presented as paper AIAA-2007-5838 for 43 Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 9-11 July, 2007,

  20. Feasibility Study of a Stratospheric Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Nakata, Masafumi; Miwa, Toru; Matsui, Makoto

    As a first step in the development of a space elevator, we focused on the stratospheric platform that would be used as a relay station of communication and high-resolution earth observation base at 20~30 km altitude. We propose a new system for connecting the platform to the ground by a tether that would allow the payload to be transported by a climber moving along the tether. We call this system a stratospheric elevator. The stratospheric elevator offers not only the chance to verify the space elevator technology but also the chance to extend the life of the platform by making its maintenance easy. The result of our initial study of the system showed that we can build a stratospheric elevator using currently available materials and technology. The total tether system, including a 200 kg payload and a 200 kg climber, would weigh about 2 tons with considering the effect of the high-speed airstream when we built the system at 20 km altitude, and a platform of about 80 m diameter could sustain the total system.

  1. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  2. Information gain versus coupling strength in quantum measurements

    E-print Network

    Xuanmin Zhu; Yuxiang Zhang; Quanhui Liu; Shengjun Wu

    2012-05-05

    We investigate the relationship between the information gain and the interaction strength between the quantum system and the measuring device. A strategy is proposed to calculate the information gain of the measuring device as the coupling strength is a variable. For qubit systems, we prove that the information gain increases monotonically with the coupling strength. It is obtained that the information gain of the projective measurement along the x-direction reduces with the increasing of the measurement strength along the z-direction, and a complementarity of information gain in the measurements along those two directions is presented.

  3. The physics of the space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, P. K.

    2007-02-01

    A space elevator is a tall tower rising from a point on the Earth's equator to a height well above a geostationary orbit, where it terminates in a counterweight. Although the concept is more than a century old, it was only with the discovery of carbon nanotubes that it began to receive serious scientific attention. NASA commissioned a study of the space elevator in the late 1990s that examined the feasibility of such a structure and explored many of its applications. I explain the basic mechanical principles underlying the construction of a space elevator and discuss several of its applications: the transport of payload into space and the launching of spacecraft on voyages to other planets.

  4. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  5. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  6. Among farm variation in heifer BW gains.

    PubMed

    Bond, G B; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Chapinal, N; Pajor, E A; Weary, D M

    2015-11-01

    BW of replacement heifers is rarely measured on commercial farms, making it difficult to evaluate the success of management practices related to calf growth. Our aims were to describe variability among commercial farms in Holstein heifer BW, determine how BW differences varied with management and propose a method of estimating calf growth based upon single measurement. Heart girth circumference was used to estimate BW of 576 heifers 48 to 70 weeks of age on 33 different farms (on average 11±6 heifers/farm) in British Columbia, Canada. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship of BW with age (BW (kg)=116+5×age (weeks)). Residuals from this regression were averaged across heifers within each farm to identify farms where heifers were heavier or lighter than would be predicted on the basis of their age; farm average residuals ranged from -54 to 72 kg. Farms with heifers showing the highest residual BW also had the highest rates of gain for pre-weaned calves. These results indicate that farms able to rear faster growing calves before weaning were also rearing faster growing heifers at breeding, and suggest that management of milk-fed calves is a particularly important component of replacement heifer management. PMID:26477529

  7. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  8. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  9. Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating

    E-print Network

    Kuang, Zhiming

    Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating William R. Boos1 the South Asian summer monsoon, but recent work showed this monsoon was largely unaffected by removal. There is debate about whether those mountain ranges generate a strong monsoon by insulating the thermal maximum

  10. MTR, TRA603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-8, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100567, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Precipitation, Elevation and Relief in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, A. M.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Gemperline, J.

    2011-12-01

    TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite precipitation radar data indicate that near-surface precipitation rates vary as a function of elevation in distinct ways in different mountain ranges across the tropics. Regional maximum precipitation rates are found at very low elevation in India's Western Ghats, Hawaii, and Eastern Australia. In New Guinea, the Northern Andes, and Taiwan, the locally maximum precipitation rates occur at moderate elevations (~1000 m). Regional maximum precipitation rates occur at very high elevation (>2000 m) in the African Rift Valley and Mexico's Sierra Madre Occidental. We present a simple model to explain the occurrence of these different relationships between precipitation and elevation as a function of large-scale atmospheric conditions, including those related to flow, moisture, and lower-tropospheric static stability. Additionally, we note that spatial variability in precipitation corresponds with spatial variability in ridge-valley relief in several tropical mountain ranges. We examine topography derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data and precipitation patterns in swaths cutting perpendicular to the strike of these mountain ranges. Ridge-valley relief is defined as the standard deviation of topographic elevation parallel to the strike of the range. Ridge-valley relief varies systematically across several mountain ranges in concert with annual average precipitation. Where precipitation rates are high, ridge-valley relief is diminished and where precipitation rates are low, ridge-valley relief is maximized. The correspondence of precipitation and relief suggest a dynamic interaction between orographic precipitation and topographic development and confirms the predictions of an idealized numerical model of the co-evolution of precipitation and topography.

  12. Laser-gain scanning microscopy: a new characterization technique for dopant engineered gain media.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jeff A; Gaume, Romain M; Byer, Robert L

    2010-08-30

    We demonstrate an optical technique, called laser-gain scanning microscopy (LGSM), to map dopant concentration profiles in engineered laser gain-media. The performance and application range of this technique are exampled on a Nd(3+) concentration profile embedded in a YAG transparent ceramic sample. Concentration profiles measured by both LGSM and SIMS techniques are compared and agree to within 5% over three-orders of magnitude in Nd(3+) doping level, from 0.001 at.% to 0.9 at.%. One of the unique advantages of LGSM over common physical methods such as SIMS, XPS and EMPA, is the ability to correlate optical defects with the final doping profile. PMID:20940785

  13. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Jastrow, Julie D; Miller, Michael R; Matamala, Roser; Boutton, Thomas W; Rice, Charles W; Owensby, Clenton E

    2005-01-01

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

  14. Loss restlessness and gain calmness: durable effects of losses and gains on choice switching.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Zahavi, Gal; Arditi, Eli

    2015-08-01

    While the traditional conceptualization of the effect of losses focuses on bias in the subjective weight of losses compared with respective gains, some accounts suggest more global task-related effects of losses. Based on a recent attentional theory, we predicted a positive after-effect of losses on choice switching in later tasks. In two experimental studies, we found increased choice switching rates in tasks with losses compared to tasks with no losses. Additionally, this heightened shifting behavior was maintained in subsequent tasks that do not include losses, a phenomenon we refer to as "loss restlessness." Conversely, gains were found to have an opposite "calming" effect on choice switching. Surprisingly, the loss restlessness phenomenon was observed following an all-losses payoff regime but not after a task with symmetric mixed gains and losses. This suggests that the unresolved mental account following an all-losses regime increases search behavior. Potential implications to macro level phenomena, such as the leverage effect, are discussed. PMID:25348826

  15. West and south elevations, view to northeast. Proximity of house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south elevations, view to northeast. Proximity of house and trees precluded photography of north and east elevations, but building is symmetrical. Entry is in east elevation; windmill was mounted at third story level on north elevation. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Tank House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  17. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  18. Oxygen iodine laser kinetics and small signal gain (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.; Truesdell, Keith A.; Latham, W. Pete; Avizonis, Petras V.

    1990-06-01

    A simple model for predicting the small signal gain as a function of flow direction will be presented. The small signal gain was measured on the Weapons Laboratory Rotocoil 02/I* gain medium. The characteristics observed in the experiment show a decrease in the small signal gain as a function of distance from the nozzle exit plane. Further results indicated that the small signal gain decreased with time and that the gain increased when the cold trap was turned on. All of these effects suggest a temperature dependence of the small signal gain. The approach presented in this paper is to develop a simple model which includes a simplified kinetics model and the gas dynamics for the flowing medium. An analytic solution to the model equations is also derived. These models account for the reduction in small signal gain in the flow direction due to heat release into the cavity when compared to the Rotocoil small signal gain data. The results show that the rise in gas temperature in the flowing 02/I* medium is primarily due to water deactivation of the I* and the O2(1?) plus I* pooling leading to water deactivation of 1?. Such temperature rise in the flowing medium causes the small signal gain to decay substantially in the flow direction due to the square root of the temperature dependence in the stimulated emission cross section, the shift in the equilibrium constant with temperature and the decrease in density which is inversely proportional to the temperature.

  19. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

  20. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion and results of the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, manufacturing producibility studies, quality assurance development, and production status.

  1. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  2. Troponin elevation after black widow spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sean P; Davy, J Veeran

    2015-09-01

    Black widow spider envenomation generally results in self-limiting pain that can be treated in the emergency department (ED) with analgesics and benzodiazepines, usually with no further intervention. Occasionally, a patient has to be admitted or treated with antivenom for refractory pain or a venom-induced complication. We present the case of an 84-year-old man who presented to our ED with chest pain and dyspnea after being bitten on the foot by a western black widow spider (Lactrodectus hesperus). His initial cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was elevated at 0.07 ng/ml and continued to rise to a peak of 0.17 ng/ml. He also had rhabdomyolysis, another uncommon complication of black widow envenomation. An elevated cTnI generally signifies myocardial injury and is rarely seen after black widow envenomation. We discuss the possible etiologies for an elevated cardiac biomarker, in this context, and review potentially serious complications of widow spider envenomation presenting with chest symptoms and an elevated cardiac biomarker. PMID:26206067

  3. ELEVATION DATA FOR OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WA 1:24,000 scale data have an elevation at approx. every 30 meters. The 1:250,000 scale data are gathered at intervals of approx. every 85 meters along the ground. These data may be used in the generation of graphics such as isometric projections displaying slope, directio...

  4. Research report Elevated depressive symptoms enhance reflexive

    E-print Network

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Research report Elevated depressive symptoms enhance reflexive but not reflective auditory category system Reflexive system a b s t r a c t In vision an extensive literature supports the existence to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion. The reflexive system is striatally

  5. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  6. 76 FR 8330 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-1061, appearing on pages 3590-3595, in the issue of...

  7. 77 FR 21000 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-31276 beginning on page 76055 in the issue of Tuesday, December 6, 2011, make the following corrections: Sec. 67.11 0 1....

  8. Automated building extraction using dense elevation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendett, A. A.; Rauhala, Urho A.; Pearson, James J.

    1997-02-01

    The identification and measurement of buildings in imagery is important to a number of applications including cartography, modeling and simulation, and weapon targeting. Extracting large numbers of buildings manually can be time- consuming and expensive, so the automation of the process is highly desirable. This paper describes and demonstrates such an automated process for extracting rectilinear buildings from stereo imagery. The first step is the generation of a dense elevation matrix registered to the imagery. In the examples shown, this was accomplished using global minimum residual matching (GMRM). GMRM automatically removes y- parallax from the stereo imagery and produces a dense matrix of x-parallax values which are proportional to the local elevation, and, of course, registered to the imagery. The second step is to form a joint probability distribution of the image gray levels and the corresponding height values from the elevation matrix. Based on the peaks of that distribution, the area of interest is segmented into feature and non-feature areas. The feature areas are further refined using length, width and height constraints to yield promising building hypotheses with their corresponding vertices. The gray shade image is used in the third step to verify the hypotheses and to determine precise edge locations corresponding to the approximate vertices and satisfying appropriate orthogonality constraints. Examples of successful application of this process to imagery are presented, and extensions involving the use of dense elevation matrices from other sources are possible.

  9. 75 FR 14091 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  10. 75 FR 59095 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  11. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  12. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-16640 appearing on pages 39063 through 39067 in the issue...

  13. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  14. 76 FR 13572 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 75945. The... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 75945, in the December 7, 2010, issue of the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  15. 76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29290. The... rule published at 75 FR 29290, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  16. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 46074. The... contents in those buildings. ] Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 46074, in the September 8... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  17. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  18. 75 FR 3885 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...

  19. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  20. 76 FR 61279 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-15507, beginning on page 36373, in the issue of Wednesday June 22, 2011,...

  1. 77 FR 6976 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  2. 76 FR 19018 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Docket ID FEMA-2011-0002 Proposed Flood...: Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed...

  3. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  4. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  5. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... located on the stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised...

  6. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  7. 75 FR 23608 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  8. 76 FR 43923 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order... FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  9. 77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 70397. The... rule published at 76 FR 70397, in the November 14, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations...

  10. 78 FR 5738 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  11. 76 FR 12308 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-2281 beginning on page 5769 in the issue of Wednesday, February...

  12. 77 FR 74610 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  13. 75 FR 78617 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  14. 75 FR 23595 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  15. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  16. Satellite Placement Using a Partial Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Pamela

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for launching cargo into space. However, the construction of such a structure requires a material much stronger than any currently in existence. Instead, a partial elevator is considered for satellite placement. In the first part of the thesis, the fundamentals of very long tethered systems are studied. From static analysis on a simple two-body system, it is demonstrated that an assumption made in the conventional analysis does not apply to very long tethered systems. For a uniform tether, the axial stress distribution is obtained. Following the Lagrangian approach, the equations of motion governing the planar librations of a multi-body tethered system are derived. From a linearization of these equations, the libration frequencies are found. Then, by solving the nonlinear equations numerically, the responses to various changes in the system parameters are determined. In the second part of the thesis, the use of a partial elevator in satellite placement is studied. In the case of single climber transit, residual librations occur, which alter the shape and size of the orbit of a satellite launched from the climber. An approach using two climbers is investigated in order to decrease the residual libration and thereby reduce orbit placement errors. Also, some energy calculations are done to determine whether the partial elevator offers significant advantages.

  17. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  2. University of Toronto Working from Elevated Heights

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    WORKING AT ELEVATED PLACES Fall Protection Standard: Guardrails, Travel Restraint, Fall Restricting travel restraint, fall restricting and fall arrest systems shall be used. This standard is based's fall to a specified distance Travel Restraint System: Any fall protection system that limits travel

  3. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  4. 78 FR 9831 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  5. TERRASTREAM: From Elevation Data to Watershed Hierarchies

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    TERRASTREAM: From Elevation Data to Watershed Hierarchies Andrew Danner Swarthmore College, and construction of a watershed hierarchy. Our approach has several advantages over existing methods. First, we. In this paper we consider the problem of extracting a river net- work and a watershed hierarchy from a set

  6. 75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs...to the revised Flood Insurance Rate...Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  7. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW...determinations of Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs...to the revised Flood Insurance Rate...Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  8. 77 FR 49367 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs...Management Agency, 500 C Street SW...Approximately 1,500 feet +2583 Unincorporated...Approximately 500 feet +2593 downstream...the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES...the Pima County Flood Control...

  9. Elevational dependence of projected hydrologic changes in the San Francisco Estuary and watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, N.; Cayan, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    California's primary hydrologic system, the San Francisco Estuary and its upstream watershed, is vulnerable to the regional hydrologic consequences of projected global climate change. Previous work has shown that a projected warming would result in a reduction of snowpack storage leading to higher winter and lower spring-summer streamflows and increased spring-summer salinities in the estuary. The present work shows that these hydrologic changes exhibit a strong dependence on elevation, with the greatest loss of snowpack volume in the 1300-2700 m elevation range. Exploiting hydrologic and estuarine modeling capabilities to trace water as it moves through the system reveals that the shift of water in mid-elevations of the Sacramento river basin from snowmelt to rainfall runoff is the dominant cause of projected changes in estuarine inflows and salinity. Additionally, although spring-summer losses of estuarine inflows are balanced by winter gains, the losses have a stronger influence on salinity since longer spring-summer residence times allow the inflow changes to accumulate in the estuary. The changes in inflows sourced in the Sacramento River basin in approximately the 1300-2200 m elevation range thereby lead to a net increase in estuarine salinity under the projected warming. Such changes would impact ecosystems throughout the watershed and threaten to contaminate much of California's freshwater supply.

  10. Status report for the 3D Elevation Program, 2013-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Eldridge, Diane F.; Jason, Allyson L.; Saghy, David L.; Steigerwald, Pamela R.; Stoker, Jason M.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Thunen, Diana R.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) goal is to acquire, manage, and distribute enhanced three-dimensional elevation data for the Nation and U.S. territories by 2023. This status report covers implementation activities during 2013–2014 to include meeting funding objectives, developing a management structure, modernizing systems, and collecting and producing initial 3DEP data and products. The Nation will not have complete coverage of 3DEP quality data until 2023 assuming that sufficient funding is available. In spite of the overall condition of government budgets, the 3DEP initiative has gained widespread support and had incremental budget success to include supplemental funding resulting from natural disasters. The 3DEP Executive Forum and a wide range of professional organizations are actively working to maintain support for the program. The systems that have been developed to support increasing acquisition and processing levels are largely in place. The first 3DEP quality datasets were released to the public in late 2014. In addition, light detection and ranging (lidar), interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar), and digital elevation models (DEMs) acquired before 2014 are all supported within the new infrastructure and available for download. Research is ongoing to expand the suite of products and services, and to increase overall throughput and data management efficiency. Emerging technologies may result in lower acquisition costs in the future. Elevation data acquired by 3DEP partnerships will be available through The National Map representing one of the largest and most comprehensive databases publicly available for the United States. 

  11. Low-frequency gain compensation in directional hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Todd; Henry, Paula

    2002-06-01

    Hearing aids currently available on the market with both omnidirectional and directional microphone modes often have reduced amplification in the low frequencies when in directional microphone mode due to better phase matching. The effects of this low-frequency gain reduction for individuals with hearing loss in the low frequencies was of primary interest. Changes in sound quality for quiet listening environments following gain compensation in the low frequencies was of secondary interest. Thirty participants were fit with bilateral in-the-ear hearing aids, which were programmed in three ways while in directional microphone mode: no-gain compensation, adaptive-gain compensation, and full-gain compensation. All participants were tested with speech in noise tasks. Participants also made sound quality judgments based on monaural recordings made from the hearing aid. Results support a need for gain compensation for individuals with low-frequency hearing loss of greater than 40 dB HL. PMID:12227355

  12. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  13. The Association Between Sleep Duration and Weight Gain in Adults: A 6-Year Prospective Study from the Quebec Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the relationship between sleep duration and subsequent body weight and fat gain. Design: Six-year longitudinal study. Setting: Community setting. Participants: Two hundred seventy-six adults aged 21 to 64 years from the Quebec Family Study. More than half of the sample is drawn from families with at least 1 parent and 1 offspring with a body mass index of 32 kg/m2 or higher. Measurements and Results: Body composition measurements and self-reported sleep duration were determined. Changes in adiposity indices were compared between short- (5–6 hours), average- (7–8 hours), and long- (9–10 hours) duration sleeper groups. After adjustment for age, sex, and baseline body mass index, short-duration sleepers gained 1.98 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.16–2.82) more and long-duration sleepers gained 1.58 kg (95% CI: 1.02–2.56) more than did average-duration sleepers over 6 years. Short- and long-duration sleepers were 35% and 25% more likely to experience a 5-kg weight gain, respectively, as compared with average-duration sleepers over 6 years. The risk of developing obesity was elevated for short- and long-duration sleepers as compared with average-duration sleepers, with 27% and 21% increases in risk, respectively. These associations remained significant after inclusion of important covariates and were not affected by adjustment for energy intake and physical activity participation. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that both short and long sleeping times predict an increased risk of future body weight and fat gain in adults. Hence, these results emphasize the need to add sleep duration to the panel of determinants that contribute to weight gain and obesity. Citation: Chaput JP; Després JP; Bouchard C; Tremblay A. The association between sleep duration and weight gain in adults: a 6-year prospective study from the Quebec Family Study. SLEEP 2008;31(4):517-523. PMID:18457239

  14. If there is dissipation the particle can gain energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egydio de Carvalho, R.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we summarize two different mechanisms to gain energy from the presence of dissipation in a time-dependent non-linear system. The particles can gain energy, in the average, from two different scenarios: i) for very week dissipation with the creation of an attractor with high velocity, and ii) in the opposite limit, for very strong dissipation, the particles can also gain energy from a boundary crisis. From the thermodynamic viewpoint both results are totally acceptable.

  15. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  16. Training Children in Pedestrian Safety: Distinguishing Gains in Knowledge from Gains in Safe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries contribute greatly to child morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that training within virtual pedestrian environments may improve children’s street crossing skills, but may not convey knowledge about safety in street environments. We hypothesized that (a) children will gain pedestrian safety knowledge via videos/software/internet websites, but not when trained by virtual pedestrian environment or other strategies; (b) pedestrian safety knowledge will be associated with safe pedestrian behavior both before and after training; and (c) increases in knowledge will be associated with increases in safe behavior among children trained individually at streetside locations, but not those trained by means of other strategies. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating pedestrian safety training. We randomly assigned 240 children ages 7–8 to one of four training conditions: videos/software/internet, virtual reality (VR), individualized streetside instruction, or a no-contact control. Both virtual and field simulations of street crossing at 2-lane bi-directional mid-block locations assessed pedestrian behavior at baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. Pedestrian knowledge was assessed orally on all three occasions. Children trained by videos/software/internet, and those trained individually, showed increased knowledge following training relative to children in the other groups (ps < 0.01). Correlations between pedestrian safety knowledge and pedestrian behavior were mostly non-significant. Correlations between change in knowledge and change in behavior from pre- to post-intervention also were non-significant, both for the full sample and within conditions. Children trained using videos/software/internet gained knowledge but did not change their behavior. Children trained individually gained in both knowledge and safer behavior. Children trained virtually gained in safer behavior but not knowledge. If VR is used for training, tools like videos/internet might effectively supplement training. We discovered few associations between knowledge and behavior, and none between changes in knowledge and behavior. Pedestrian safety knowledge and safe pedestrian behavior may be orthogonal constructs that should be considered independently for research and training purposes. PMID:24573688

  17. Recommended practices in elevated temperature design: A compendium of breeder reactor experiences (1970-1986): An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, B.C.; Cooper, W.L. Jr.; Dhalla, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Significant experiences have been accumulated in the establishment of design methods and criteria applicable to the design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) components. The Subcommittee of the Elevated Temperature Design under the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) has undertaken to collect, on an international basis, design experience gained, and the lessons learned, to provide guidelines for next generation advanced reactor designs. This paper shall present an overview and describe the highlights of the work.

  18. Adaptation of the VOR in patients with low VOR gains.

    PubMed

    Viirre, E; Draper, M; Gailey, C; Miller, D; Furness, T

    1998-01-01

    Six subjects with histories of vertigo and with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains less than 0.5 were tested in an adaptation protocol. After initial VOR testing in the dark, the subjects had a computer-driven visual display system placed on their heads. The system had the capability for variation of visual image magnification. The magnification was set to be 5% greater than the subject's average VOR gain. Subjects then performed active head movements as they carried out a visual searching task looking for objects in a panoramic scene. After 6 minutes with each image, the magnification was increased by 3 to 5%. The process was repeated for a total of 5 images, for a total increase in magnification of approximately 20% over 30 minutes. The VOR gain was measured again. In 17 of 18 conditions tested, the VOR gain increased. The average increase was 16%. Significant increases in VOR gain occurred at 0.32 and 0.64 Hz. The VOR gain increase in these patients occurred in a visual environment that lowered VOR gain in normal subjects. These results suggest that the VOR has an adaptation mechanism tuned to correct for small changes in required gain. Further research is necessary to determine if this method can result in persistent VOR gain improvements and reduction in symptoms and disability in patients with vestibular disorders. PMID:9652483

  19. Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating.

    PubMed

    Boos, William R; Kuang, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Elevated heating by the Tibetan Plateau was long thought to drive the South Asian summer monsoon, but recent work showed this monsoon was largely unaffected by removal of the plateau in a climate model, provided the narrow orography of adjacent mountain ranges was preserved. There is debate about whether those mountain ranges generate a strong monsoon by insulating the thermal maximum from cold and dry extratropical air or by providing a source of elevated heating. Here we show that the strength of the monsoon in a climate model is more sensitive to changes in surface heat fluxes from non-elevated parts of India than it is to changes in heat fluxes from adjacent elevated terrain. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that orography creates a strong monsoon by serving as a thermal insulator, and suggests that monsoons respond most strongly to heat sources coincident with the thermal maximum. PMID:23378923

  20. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as superstring theory and extra dimensions in spacetime calling for the "constants" to change over time, he said. The astronomers used the GBT to detect and study radio emissions at four specific frequencies between 1612 MHz and 1720 MHz coming from hydroxyl (OH) molecules in a galaxy more than 6 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was at roughly half the Universe's current age. Each of the four frequencies represents a specific change in the energy level of the molecule. The exact frequency emitted or absorbed when the molecule undergoes a transition from one energy level to another depends on the values of the fundamental physical constants. However, each of the four frequencies studied in the OH molecule will react differently to a change in the constants. That difference is what the astronomers sought to detect using the GBT, which, Kanekar explained, is the ideal telescope for this work because of its technical capabilities and its location in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where radio interference is at a minimum. "We can place very tight limits on changes in the physical constants by studying the behavior of these OH molecules at a time when the Universe was only about half its current age, and comparing this result to how the molecules behave today in the laboratory," said Karl Menten of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany. Wetterich, a theorist, welcomes the new capability, saying the observational method "seems very promising to obtain perhaps the most accurate values for such possible time changes of the constants." He pointed out that, while some theoretical models call for the constants to change only in the early moments after the Big Bang, models of the recently-discovered, mysterious "dark energy" that seems to be accelerating the Universe's expansion call for changes "even in the last couple of billion years." "Only observations can tell," he said. This research ties together the theoretical and observation

  1. Plastic Responses to Elevated Temperature in Low and High Elevation Populations of Three Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Esther R.; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R.

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate. PMID:24901500

  2. Elevated temperature properties of aligned ferrous eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Iron base alloys containing aluminum and chromium together with smaller amounts of yttrium and silicon are of interest for high temperature applications. Strengthening an inherently weak but oxidation resistant solid solution matrix with aligned in situ chromium carbides represents an attractive approach to achieving both surface stability and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Aligned microstructures were produced in alloys of approximately 30 wt % (Cr + Mn), about 3 wt % C and the balance Fe consisting of a gamma matrix and the hexagonal carbide (Cr, Mn, Fe)7C3. The tensile and stress rupture strength to 2000 F of aligned Fe-20 w/t % Cr-10 wt % Mn-3.2 wt % C measured parallel to the carbide reinforcement exceeded those of the strongest iron-nickel superalloys, e.g., CRM-6D developed by Chrysler for automotive turbine application. The cyclic oxidation and sulfidation response of these alloys at elevated temperatures can be markedly improved by aluminum additions.

  3. Tether orientation control for lunar elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexander A.; Guerman, Anna D.; Kosenko, Ivan I.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on spatial motion of the lunar elevator which is studied in the framework of elliptical restricted three-body problem. Analysis of dynamics of a spacecraft anchored to the Moon by a tether is done assuming that the tether's length can be changed according to a prescribed law. The goal is to find the control laws that allow one to compensate for the eccentricity of the orbits, i.e., to maintain the pendulum at a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Moon direction. The results have shown that the fixed orientation of the tether can be kept for several configurations of the system; some of these configurations are found to be stable. The obtained results can be applied to study the properties and possible configurations of the lunar elevator, as well as applications for small planets and asteroids.

  4. Rotating Space Elevators: Classical and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Steven

    We investigate a novel and unique dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE). The RSE is a multiply rotating system of strings reaching beyond the Earth geo-synchronous satellite orbit. Objects sliding along the RSE string ("climbers") do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in the space elevator technology which is how to supply the energy to the climbers moving along the string. The RSE is a double rotating floppy string. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in the double rotating frame. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena studied in this thesis.

  5. The role of 8q24 copy number gains and c-MYC expression in amelanotic cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pouryazdanparast, Pedram; Brenner, Alex; Haghighat, Zahra; Guitart, Joan; Rademaker, Alfred; Gerami, Pedram

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous melanomas may be quite heterogeneous in their clinical, histological and molecular findings. Correlating these features may help identify distinctive subgroups of melanomas and improve our overall understanding and prognostication of melanoma. We recently identified a subgroup of melanomas with increased chromosomal copy number gains in 8q24 at MYC having several distinctive clinical and histopathological characteristics, including an aggressive clinical course and an amelanotic clinical and histological appearance. It has been postulated that oncogenes such as MYC may have regulatory effects on genes critical to melanin pigment synthesis, specifically microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which is known to have a key role in regulating the expression of tyrosinase (TYR), an important enzyme in the production of melanin pigment. We investigated the possible mechanism underlying the amelanotic appearance of melanomas with gains in 8q24 by evaluating the relationship between melanomas with and without 8q24 copy number gains and c-MYC, MITF and TYR protein expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of c-MYC, MITF and TYR was performed on 36 melanomas with gains in 8q24 and 40 melanomas without gains in 8q24. The melanomas with gains of 8q24 correlated with elevated c-MYC protein expression and melanomas without gains in 8q24 showed significantly decreased c-MYC protein expression. A direct relationship between the presence of gains in 8q24 and decreased MITF expression, as well as between c-MYC and TYR protein expression was also observed. Our results suggest that MYC can have a role in the pigmentary pathway of melanoma. In amelanotic melanomas with gains in 8q24, downregulation of TYR and other melanocyte-specific genes may be mediated by MYC leading to transcriptional suppression of MITF. As MITF is a frequently used marker to establish melanocytic lineage in melanoma, our study also raises the important clinical consideration that amelanotic melanomas, especially those with gains in 8q24 may lack expression of MITF. PMID:22555175

  6. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  7. Increased epigenetic alterations at the promoters of transcriptional regulators following inadequate maternal gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Tomoko; Yamada, Takahiro; Abe, Kosei; Okamura, Kohji; Kamura, Hiromi; Akaishi, Rina; Minakami, Hisanori; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are thought to serve as a memory of exposure to in utero environments. However, few human studies have investigated the associations between maternal nutritional conditions during pregnancy and epigenetic alterations in offspring. In this study, we report genome-wide methylation profiles for 33 postpartum placentas from pregnancies of normal and foetal growth restriction with various extents of maternal gestational weight gain. Epigenetic alterations accumulate in the placenta under adverse in utero environments, as shown by application of Smirnov-Grubbs’ outlier test. Moreover, hypermethylation occurs frequently at the promoter regions of transcriptional regulator genes, including polycomb targets and zinc-finger genes, as shown by annotations of the genomic and functional features of loci with altered DNA methylation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications at such developmental regulator loci, if occurring in foetuses as well, will elevate the risk of developing various diseases, including metabolic and mental disorders, later in life. PMID:26415774

  8. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2010-01-01

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  9. Methods for structural design at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, A. M.; Jones, W. E., Jr.; Leimbach, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure which can be used to design elevated temperature structures is discussed. The desired goal is to have the same confidence in the structural integrity at elevated temperature as the factor of safety gives on mechanical loads at room temperature. Methods of design and analysis for creep, creep rupture, and creep buckling are presented. Example problems are included to illustrate the analytical methods. Creep data for some common structural materials are presented. Appendix B is description, user's manual, and listing for the creep analysis program. The program predicts time to a given creep or to creep rupture for a material subjected to a specified stress-temperature-time spectrum. Fatigue at elevated temperature is discussed. Methods of analysis for high stress-low cycle fatigue, fatigue below the creep range, and fatigue in the creep range are included. The interaction of thermal fatigue and mechanical loads is considered, and a detailed approach to fatigue analysis is given for structures operating below the creep range.

  10. Progressive vestibular mutation leads to elevated anxiety.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Shahar; Gordon, Carlos R; Avraham, Karen B; Mintz, Matti

    2010-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders, and are comorbid with balance disorders in a significant proportion of these individuals. Presently, it is unclear whether anxiety and balance disorders are causally related, and what direction this causality may take. We argue that balance disorders may predispose an individual to anxiety and that demonstration of such causality may be informative to the development of preferred treatment for such individuals. To demonstrate that balance disorders may predispose to anxiety, we studied headbanger (Hdb) mutant mice in which the balance disorder is due to progressive vestibular impairment and wildtype (Wt) mice. Balance was assessed by swim and tail-hang tests that demonstrated clear behavioral balance deficits in the Hdb mice. Anxiety was assessed by open-field and elevated plus-maze tests, which confirmed elevated anxiety in the Hdb mice. These findings demonstrate that congenital vestibular genotype predisposes the animal to elevated levels of anxiety in space-related tests. Similar causality in clinics may redirect treatment strategies in afflicted patients. PMID:20043895

  11. Simple arrangement for spatially scanning gain measurements in cw lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Massig, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    A scheme for spatially scanning gain measurements is presented. Here, the parallel shift of the probe laser beam is effected by a rotating assembly of two plane mirrors. The arrangement is inexpensive and easy to adjust. It was applied to measure spatial gain profiles of a cw DF laser.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  14. Intellect, Perceptual Characteristics, and Weight Gain in Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied weight-gain 127 primary anorexics by examining the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Rorschach for indices that may predict improvement. Results showed that cognitive-focusing skills, measured by the Wechsler, account for roughly half of the variance and were good predictors of weight gain. (WAS)

  15. Steering Assistance System for Driver Characteristics using Gain Scheduling Control

    E-print Network

    Adachi, Shuichi

    Steering Assistance System for Driver Characteristics using Gain Scheduling Control Yukihiro Shimotakanezawa, Haga-machi, Haga-gun, Tochigi, 321-3393, Japan Fax: +81-28-677-6730 Phone: +81-28-677-7259 e@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp Keywords:Driver support system, Vehicle control, H control, Gain-scheduling control, LMI. Abstract

  16. Preventing excessive weight gain among publicly insured pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Laura; Buchert, Elizabeth; Vasiloff, Rosanne; Feinglass, Joseph; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an intervention to help women meet weight gain goals during pregnancy. From 2007 to 2008, pregnant women were recruited at a clinic in Chicago. Intervention participants received an educational pamphlet at their first prenatal visit. At follow up visits, provider counseling was encouraged via a weight gain trend graph and targeted feedback checklist. The primary outcome was the total weight gained over the course of prenatal care. We analyzed 57 intervention group participants and 109 controls. Demographic composition was similar between the groups except for parity. Patients in the intervention group and routine care group gained similar weight (24.5 + 13.5 lb vs. 25.3 + 14.0 lb, P = 0.71). After controlling for baseline weight, the intervention was associated with 4.6 pounds lower follow-up weight (P = 0.029). After controlling for baseline BMI and other covariates, participants who received the intervention were only 34% as likely to gain weight exceeding IOM guidelines (P = 0.009). This pilot prenatal care obesity prevention project was associated with lower weight gain in pregnancy. The feedback checklist, weight gain graph, and educational pamphlet on weight gain proved to be favorable components of this project and merit further examination in a larger intervention trial. PMID:22227775

  17. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-2 Substantial gainful activity. (a) Purpose. This section...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.507 Comfort heat... part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat...

  19. The Causes of and Gains from Intertemporal Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighead, William D.; Miller, Norman C.

    2010-01-01

    The authors show how the causes of and the gains from current account imbalances can be integrated into undergraduate economics courses using the same pedagogical tools that are used to explain comparative advantage and the gains from trade. A nonzero current account provides a mechanism for intertemporal trade, and a country has a comparative…

  20. UNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT (GE) PROGRAM DISCLOSURE

    E-print Network

    , there is not a requirement to report job placement data for certificate programs either at the state level or by our regionalUNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT (GE) PROGRAM DISCLOSURE 2011-12 This information is provided for each program at the University of New Hampshire that is subject to gainful employment (GE

  1. Design of a variable gain amplifier for an ultrawideband receiver 

    E-print Network

    Krishnanji, Sivasankari

    2005-11-01

    throughout the gain range to cater to the requirements of the ultra-wideband system. The noise-to-power ratio of the VGA is -23.9 dB for 1Vp-p differential input signal in the low gain setting, and the equivalent input referred noise is 1.01 V2 for the high...

  2. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents Attempting to Lose or Gain Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…

  3. Optimal gains for a single polar orbiting satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banfield, Don; Ingersoll, A. P.; Keppenne, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Gains are the spatial weighting of an observation in its neighborhood versus the local values of a model prediction. They are the key to data assimilation, as they are the direct measure of how the data are used to guide the model. As derived in the broad context of data assimilation by Kalman and in the context of meteorology, for example, by Rutherford, the optimal gains are functions of the prediction error covariances between the observation and analysis points. Kalman introduced a very powerful technique that allows one to calculate these optimal gains at the time of each observation. Unfortunately, this technique is both computationally expensive and often numerically unstable for dynamical systems of the magnitude of meteorological models, and thus is unsuited for use in PMIRR data assimilation. However, the optimal gains as calculated by a Kalman filter do reach a steady state for regular observing patterns like that of a satellite. In this steady state, the gains are constants in time, and thus could conceivably be computed off-line. These steady-state Kalman gains (i.e., Wiener gains) would yield optimal performance without the computational burden of true Kalman filtering. We proposed to use this type of constant-in-time Wiener gain for the assimilation of data from PMIRR and Mars Observer.

  4. Clinically Significant Weight Gain One Year After Occupational Back Injury

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Turner, Judith A.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence of clinically significant weight gain one year after occupational back injury, and risk factors for that gain. Methods A cohort of Washington State workers with wage-replacement benefits for back injuries completed baseline and 1-year follow-up telephone interviews. We obtained additional measures from claims and medical records. Results Among 1,263 workers, 174 (13.8%) reported clinically significant weight gain (?7%) 1 year after occupational back injury. Women and workers who had >180 days on wage replacement at 1 year were twice as likely (adjusted OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.54–3.07; adjusted OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.63–3.53, respectively; both P<0.001) to have clinically significant weight gain. Conclusions Women and workers on wage replacement >180 days may be susceptible to clinically significant weight gain following occupational back injury. PMID:23247606

  5. Adaptive gain and filtering circuit for a sound reproduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive compressive gain and level dependent spectral shaping circuitry for a hearing aid include a microphone to produce an input signal and a plurality of channels connected to a common circuit output. Each channel has a preset frequency response. Each channel includes a filter with a preset frequency response to receive the input signal and to produce a filtered signal, a channel amplifier to amplify the filtered signal to produce a channel output signal, a threshold register to establish a channel threshold level, and a gain circuit. The gain circuit increases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal falls below the channel threshold level and decreases the gain of the channel amplifier when the channel output signal rises above the channel threshold level. A transducer produces sound in response to the signal passed by the common circuit output.

  6. Relationship Between Optimal Gain and Coherence Zone in Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Bruno Jorge Correia; Pais, Ana Rita Valente; vanPaassen, M. M.; Mulder, Max; Kely, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    In motion simulation the inertial information generated by the motion platform is most of the times different from the visual information in the simulator displays. This occurs due to the physical limits of the motion platform. However, for small motions that are within the physical limits of the motion platform, one-to-one motion, i.e. visual information equal to inertial information, is possible. It has been shown in previous studies that one-to-one motion is often judged as too strong, causing researchers to lower the inertial amplitude. When trying to measure the optimal inertial gain for a visual amplitude, we found a zone of optimal gains instead of a single value. Such result seems related with the coherence zones that have been measured in flight simulation studies. However, the optimal gain results were never directly related with the coherence zones. In this study we investigated whether the optimal gain measurements are the same as the coherence zone measurements. We also try to infer if the results obtained from the two measurements can be used to differentiate between simulators with different configurations. An experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center which used both the Cockpit Motion Facility and the Visual Motion Simulator. The results show that the inertial gains obtained with the optimal gain are different than the ones obtained with the coherence zone measurements. The optimal gain is within the coherence zone.The point of mean optimal gain was lower and further away from the one-to-one line than the point of mean coherence. The zone width obtained for the coherence zone measurements was dependent on the visual amplitude and frequency. For the optimal gain, the zone width remained constant when the visual amplitude and frequency were varied. We found no effect of the simulator configuration in both the coherence zone and optimal gain measurements.

  7. Evaluation of Experimental Data from the GAINS Balloon GPS Surface Reflection Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gance, George G.; Johnson, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The GPS Surface Reflection Instrument was integrated as an experiment on the GAINS (Global Airocean IN-situ System) 48-hour balloon mission flown in September 2001. The data collected by similar instruments in the past has been used to measure sea state from which ocean surface winds can be accurately estimated. The GPS signal has also been shown to be reflected from wetland areas and even from subsurface moisture. The current version of the instrument has been redesigned to be more compact, use less power, and withstand a greater variation in environmental conditions than previous versions. This instrument has also incorporated a new data collection mode to track 5 direct satellites (providing a continuous navigation solution) and multiplex the remaining 7 channels to track the reflected signal of the satellite tracked in channel 0. The new software mode has been shown to increase the signal to noise ratio of the collected data and enhance the science return of the instrument. During the 48-hour flight over the Northwest US, the instrument will measure surface reflections that can be detected over the balloon's ground track. Since ground surface elevations in this area vary widely from the WGS-84 ellipsoid altitude, the instrument software has been modified to incorporate a surface altitude correction based on USGS 30-minute Digital Elevation Models. Information presented will include facts about instrument design goals, data collection methodologies and algorithms, and results of the science data analyses for the 48-hour mission.

  8. Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelle, Julie; Berthier, Etienne; Arnaud, Yves

    2012-05-01

    Assessments of the state of health of Hindu-Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya glaciers and their contribution to regional hydrology and global sea-level rise suffer from a severe lack of observations. The globally averaged mass balance of glaciers and ice caps is negative. An anomalous gain of mass has been suggested for the Karakoram glaciers, but was not confirmed by recent estimates of mass balance. Furthermore, numerous glacier surges in the region that lead to changes in glacier length and velocity complicate the interpretation of the available observations. Here, we calculate the regional mass balance of glaciers in the central Karakoram between 1999 and 2008, based on the difference between two digital elevation models. We find a highly heterogeneous spatial pattern of changes in glacier elevation, which shows that ice thinning and ablation at high rates can occur on debris-covered glacier tongues. The regional mass balance is just positive at +0.11+/-0.22myr-1 water equivalent and in agreement with the observed reduction of river runoff that originates in this area. Our measurements confirm an anomalous mass balance in the Karakoram region and indicate that the contribution of Karakoram glaciers to sea-level rise was -0.01mmyr-1 for the period from 1999 to 2008, 0.05mmyr-1 lower than suggested before.

  9. Accurately control and flatten gain spectrum of L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier based on suitable gain-clamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiuru; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Chunyu

    2016-04-01

    The increasing traffic with dynamic nature requires the applications of gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, the weak or over clamping may lead the unexpected gain-compression and flatness-worsening. In this article, to enhance practicality, we modify the partly gain-clamping configuration and utilize a pair of C-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to non-uniformly compress the gain spectrum of L-band. Through a comprehensive test and comparison, the suitable gain-clamping region for the amplified signals is found, and the gain in L-band is accurately controlled and flattened under the matched central wavelength of FBGs. The experimental results show that, our designed L-band EDFA achieves a trade-off among the output gain, flatness and stability. The ±0.44 dB flatness and 20.2 dB average gain are together obtained in the range of 1570-1610 nm, with the ±0.1 dB stability of signals in over 30 dBm dynamic range.

  10. 20. An elevation view of the north side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. An elevation view of the north side of the southern portion of the upper grain conveyor system on Elevator and Silo Complex B (1932). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  11. 6. This is an elevation view of the upper grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. This is an elevation view of the upper grain conveyor bridge (1940) connecting the 'Landmark' with Elevator and Silo Complex B. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  12. 12. Elevator no. 3: Southwest side, with tenth street grade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Elevator no. 3: Southwest side, with tenth street grade separation to left, facing northeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  13. 13. Tenth Avenue grade separation: south side with elevator no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Tenth Avenue grade separation: south side with elevator no. 2 and track shed to left, facing north-northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  14. 28. Conveyor gallery between elevators no. 2 and 3: conveyor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Conveyor gallery between elevators no. 2 and 3: conveyor belt rollers and sampling apparatus, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  15. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING THE SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING THE SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION OF THE LOG GRANARY AND THE EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION OF THE FRAME GRANARY (DE-221-C) - Achmester, Log Granary, Road 429, Route 896 vicinity, Armstrong, New Castle County, DE

  16. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  18. 7. GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION AND SIDE (SOUTH) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION AND SIDE (SOUTH) ELEVATION. CAPT. JAMES ABERCROMBIE HOUSE (PERELMAN ANTIQUE TOY MUSEUM) IS AT RIGHT - Samuel Neave House & Store, 272-274 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  20. 49 CFR 213.59 - Elevation of curved track; runoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevation of curved track; runoff. 213.59 Section 213.59 Transportation...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.59 Elevation of curved...

  1. 49 CFR 213.59 - Elevation of curved track; runoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elevation of curved track; runoff. 213.59 Section 213.59 Transportation...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.59 Elevation of curved...

  2. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  3. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form.

  4. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form.

  5. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...requested, of the proposed flood elevation determination to the CEO; and (c) Publication of the proposed flood elevation determination...the ten day period immediately following the notification of the CEO. [41 FR 46989, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44...

  6. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...requested, of the proposed flood elevation determination to the CEO; and (c) Publication of the proposed flood elevation determination...the ten day period immediately following the notification of the CEO. [41 FR 46989, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44...

  7. West & South Elevations and Floor Plan of Well House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West & South Elevations and Floor Plan of Well House, West & South Elevations and Floor Plan of Garage - J. M. Dunaway Farmstead, 0.35 miles southeast of the intersection of Boz and Barkers Branch Roads, Waxahachie, Ellis County, TX

  8. 12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET AT LEFT THAT HOUSES OPERATING VALVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING OPERATING CABLES AT LEFT, MAIN CABLE IN CENTER, AND CAR GUIDE AT RIGHT - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 8. Elevator no. 2: Track shed, showing cable and pulleys ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Elevator no. 2: Track shed, showing cable and pulleys for moving train cars, facing east - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  11. 6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of round, terra cotta medallions on E elevation indicating date of building. - Central of Georgia Railway, Red (Administration) Building, 233 West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  13. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  14. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Proposed flood elevation determination. 67.4 Section... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.4...

  15. 20. East elevation of RTO building and stairway down to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. East elevation of RTO building and stairway down to platforms, rising above elevated tracks. Looking west. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  16. 2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, REDPAINTED GABLE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BRICK END ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS, RED-PAINTED GABLE WITH WHITE STARS AND A DOORWAY HOOD. ALSO SHOWS PORTION OF REAR ELEVATION WITH X VENTILATORS - Decorated Red Barn (1852), State Route 100 vicinity, Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

  17. 15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. THE CAFETERIA DIET INCREASES FAT MASS AND CHRONICALLY ELEVATES LUMBAR SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S.; Barclay, Alicia; Ajasin, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity causes sympathetic activation that promotes atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and hypertension. Because high-fat induced weight gain in rats elevates plasma leptin at 1–3 days following onset of calorie dense diets, we hypothesized that diet-induced overfeeding will increase sympathetic activity within one week following onset of the regimen. To test this, we continuously measured sympathetic activity and blood pressure before and during the onset of diet-induced obesity using a high calorie cafeteria-style diet. Female Wistar rats, in which radiotelemeters had been implanted for continuous monitoring of lumbar sympathetic activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, were randomly assigned to groups that received regular chow (control) or a cafeteria diet for a period of 15 days. This short-term cafeteria-feeding regimen caused modest but non-significant increases in body weight (P = 0.07) and a doubling of brown and white adipose tissue (P < 0.01). The increases in fat mass were accompanied by elevations in plasma leptin (P < 0.001) but no change in glucose. Overall heart rates and blood pressure were higher in cafeteria rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). Cafeteria diet-induced weight gain caused increases in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that became significant by the 12th day of the diet (p < 0.001). These data show, for the first time, that the high-fat cafeteria-style diet stimulates sustained increases in lumbar sympathetic neural drive in rats. PMID:23090774

  19. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Erica Y.; Liu, Junxiu; McDonald, Samantha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring's body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n = 23) were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child's lifestyle factors). PMID:25371815

  20. Gain and noise analysis of an intensified EMCCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Junyu; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Dai, Xingxing; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Lili; Li, Mengting

    2011-08-01

    In order to unite the merits of ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) and EMCCD (electron multiplying charge coupled device) for detection of the weak signal in the high resolution Thomson scattering system from strong radiation background, a second generation image intensifier, lens coupled with an EMCCD are used together as a detector. The signal photon flux is so low in the actual measurement situation that the gain of the I.I., on-chip multiplication gain of EMCCD and on-chip binning scheme might all need to be utilized to enhance the detection capability or to set lower demands for other devices. At the same time, however, these amplification processes bring unexpected noise in addition to the detector noise itself, which will further degrade the signal to noise ratio (SNR). This paper will focus on three points. Firstly, the three gain methods, including MCP gain, EM gain and binning are theoretically described. Secondly, the amount of increase in signal counts based on this detector combination is experimentally investigated at various gain settings, as well as the total noise. Finally, a gain selection disciplines aiming to obtain an optimum SNR is generalized according to the comparison between test results and theory.

  1. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  2. Elevated Wintertime Ozone in Utah's Uinta Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. S.; Moore, K. D.; Hill, S.; Harper, K.

    2011-12-01

    Seemingly anomalous elevated wintertime ozone (O3) levels were first observed in Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in 2005 and have been recorded most in subsequent winters. While research continues, it has been hypothesized that the unacceptable levels are a unique combination of stagnant meteorology, enhanced insolation due to relatively high elevations and snow increased albedo, and abundant precursor sources owing to the region's recent rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration and production. The UGRB area has over 4,700 recorded gas/oil wells and sits mostly in rural Sublette County which has an estimated population of 7,925, an area of 12,644 km2, and a basin floor elevation around 2200 m asl, surrounded on three sides with mountains up to 4,200 km asl. Similarly, the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah is a rural area prone to frequent low-level wintertime inversion episodes and persistent snow cover, with an expanding economy significantly based on gas and oil development and production (approximately 11,500 wells, with an estimated 17,000 more planned in the future years). The Basin lies primarily in Duchesne and Uintah Counties which have a combined population of approximately 51,200 and an area of about 19,982 km2. The floor of the Basin has a typical elevation around 1,560 m asl and is surrounded by mountains up to 4,120 m asl. Ambient measurements at four sites in the winter of 2009-2010 found many instances of ozone concentrations well above the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS; 75 ppb, 8-hr average, 4th highest value). To more fully characterize the behavior and geographical extent of the Uinta Basin's wintertime O3 issue, the Uintah Impact Mitigation Special Service District (UIMSSD) funded a study which included deploying 10 portable O3 monitors (2B Technologies, Inc., Model 205, Dual Beam) throughout the Basin. Furthermore, cooperative partners including the USEPA, BLM, UDAQ, NPS, and Golder Associates provided access to an additional six monitoring locations within the Basin. The sites were operated from late December 2010 through mid-March 2011. Several stagnant, inversion episodes and associated periods of Basin-wide elevated ozone were captured. The highest 1-hr O3 concentration observed was 149.0 ppb, with 12 of the total 16 sites recording 1-hr values greater than 100 ppb. Of the 16 sites, only four were found not to exceed the current NAAQS regulation. The highest 8-hr averaged concentration recorded was 139.1 ppb. However, the U.S. standards specify that an area is regulated at the 4th highest values and the maximum value under this criterion during the observed winter period was 121.6 ppb. Two sites exceeded the NAAQS 25 days over the three month observation period, while five other locations exceed the NAAQS between 18 and 22 times. The sites with the highest O3 concentrations and the greatest number of daily exceedances were generally associated with the highest density of known oil and/or gas well locations. The sites with the fewest number of exceedances were at higher elevations or geographically peripheral locations.

  3. Low Gestational Weight Gain Skews Human Sex Ratios towards Females

    PubMed Central

    Navara, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human males are more vulnerable to adverse conditions than females starting early in gestation and continuing throughout life, and previous studies show that severe food restriction can influence the sex ratios of human births. It remains unclear, however, whether subtle differences in caloric intake during gestation alter survival of fetuses in a sex-specific way. I hypothesized that the ratio of male to female babies born should vary with the amount of weight gained during gestation. I predicted that women who gain low amounts of weight during gestation should produce significantly more females, and that, if gestational weight gain directly influences sex ratios, fetal losses would be more likely to be male when women gain inadequate amounts of weight during pregnancy. Methods I analyzed data collected from over 68 million births over 23 years to test for a relationship between gestational weight gain and natal sex ratios, as well as between gestational weight gain and sex ratios of fetal deaths at five gestational ages. Results Gestational weight gain and the proportion of male births were positively correlated; a lower proportion of males was produced by women who gained less weight and this strong pattern was exhibited in four human races. Further, sex ratios of fetal losses at 6 months of gestation were significantly male-biased when mothers had gained low amounts of weight during pregnancy, suggesting that low caloric intake during early fetal development can stimulate the loss of male fetuses. Conclusion My data indicate that human sex ratios change in response to resource availability via sex-specific fetal loss, and that a pivotal time for influences on male survival is early in fetal development, at 6 months of gestation. PMID:25493647

  4. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force... curve of stick force versus maneuvering load factor with increasing load factor....

  5. 73. View of concrete covered portion of elevated Mainline Structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. View of concrete covered portion of elevated Mainline Structure (Section F-6) - looking Northeast along Washington Street at intersection of Arborway. Arborway overpass crosses overhead at left. In the background is the start of Section F-5. Arborway yard is at the center in the background. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 72. View of elevated Mainline structure looking North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of elevated Mainline structure - looking North - along Washington Street at juncture of Section F-5 and Section F-6 (the concrete enclosed portion of structure). Remaining stub of the former incline that led down to the Arborway storage yards is at the right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be...

  8. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be...

  9. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be...

  10. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be...

  11. 3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 in background right, showing relation to associated Washburn Crosby Milling complex in foreground (left to right: utility building, A mill (with scaffolding), wheat house, Humboldt mill; elevator no. 1 in rear with gold medal flour sign), facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  12. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1403-4 - Criteria-Automatic elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... switches so arranged that the elevator car will be immovable while any door is opened or unlocked, and arranged so that such door or doors cannot be inadvertently opened when the elevator car is not at a... elevator to be stopped at any location in the shaft. (c) A slack cable device should be used...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1403-4 - Criteria-Automatic elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... switches so arranged that the elevator car will be immovable while any door is opened or unlocked, and arranged so that such door or doors cannot be inadvertently opened when the elevator car is not at a... elevator to be stopped at any location in the shaft. (c) A slack cable device should be used...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-4 - Criteria-Automatic elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... switches so arranged that the elevator car will be immovable while any door is opened or unlocked, and arranged so that such door or doors cannot be inadvertently opened when the elevator car is not at a... elevator to be stopped at any location in the shaft. (c) A slack cable device should be used...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1403-4 - Criteria-Automatic elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... switches so arranged that the elevator car will be immovable while any door is opened or unlocked, and arranged so that such door or doors cannot be inadvertently opened when the elevator car is not at a... elevator to be stopped at any location in the shaft. (c) A slack cable device should be used...

  18. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  19. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  20. Impact of Storm Water Recharge Practices on Boston Groundwater Elevations

    E-print Network

    Vogel, Richard M.

    groundwater elevations at a particular location resulting from the installation of a recharge BMP or a setImpact of Storm Water Recharge Practices on Boston Groundwater Elevations Brian F. Thomas, S periodically experienced a decline in groundwater elevations and the associated deterioration of untreated wood

  1. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  2. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  3. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply. PMID:17735740

  4. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user inputs of vehicle characteristics (e.g., thrust and aerodynamic data), nor does it require reams of turn data after the traditional fashion of the Air Force ranges. The program requires a nominal trajectory table (time, altitude, range, velocity, and flight elevation) and makes heavy use of it to initialize and model a failure turn.

  5. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  6. Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

  7. Void evolution in polycarbonate at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. H.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh; Kuo Feng Chou

    2011-08-15

    The void evolution in polycarbonate (PC) at elevated temperatures was investigated. Internal cylindrical cracks and voids were induced in PC by Nd-YAG laser irradiation. During the annealing at temperatures of 177-197 deg. C, the spherical void grows to a maximum size, which then decreases, and is finally leveling off. A model of void evolution based on the evaporation and condensation mechanisms for growth and shrinkage is proposed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The activation energies of evaporation and condensation processes are determined to be 477.31 and 611.49 kJ/mol, respectively.

  8. INITIAL GAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A 800 NM SASE FEL, VISA.

    SciTech Connect

    FRIGOLA,P.; MUROKH,A.; ET AL; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; JOHNSON,E.; MALONE,R.

    2000-08-13

    The VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL is designed to obtain high gain at a radiation wavelength of 800nm. The FEL uses the high brightness electron beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), with energy of 72MeV. VISA uses a novel, 4 m long, strong focusing undulator with a gap of 6mm and a period of 1.8cm. To obtain large gain the beam and undulator axis have to be aligned to better than 50{micro}m. Results from initial measurements on the alignment, gain, and spectrum will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations and simulations.

  9. Symmetry breaking and multipeaked solitons in inhomogeneous gain landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2011-04-15

    We address one-dimensional soliton formation in a cubic nonlinear medium with two-photon absorption and transversally inhomogeneous gain landscape consisting of a single or several amplifying channels. Existence of the solitons requires certain threshold gain while the properties of solitons strongly depend on whether the number of the amplifying channels is odd or even. In the former case, an increase of the gain leads to symmetry breaking, which occurs through the pitchfork bifurcation, and to emergence of a single or several coexisting stable asymmetric modes. In the case of an even number of amplifying channels, we have found only asymmetric stable states.

  10. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  11. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  12. Simulation of semiconductor nanowire photodetectors with high photoconductive gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hanqing; Lai, Jianjun; Zhu, Ji; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Changhong; Huang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, first we simulate the light absorption of individual cylindrical nanowire with the diameter ranging from 100 to 300 nm, it is found that the absorption peak has a red-shift along with the increased diameter. Then some numerical simulations have been done to elucidate the high gain mechanism and investigate the dependence of photoconductive gain on various parameters, such as doping, surface state density, and structure. The results show that optimizing these parameters appropriately can lead photoconductive gain up to 106, and give a reliable guiding to the actual device design.

  13. Gain saturation in semiconductor lasers - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasemset, D.; Fonstad, C. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The semiconductor stimulated gain saturation model of Zee has been extended using reasonable approximations to obtain an analytical solution for the gain saturation process in PbSnTe and to determine the limit to single mode power directly from the gain expression, the intraband relaxation time, and device and material parameters. The theoretical results are compared with experimental observations for single transverse mode cavity narrow stripe buried heterostructure PbSnTe lasers. Those results are interpreted in terms of an intraband relaxation time on the order of 2 x 10 to the -12th s in the temperature range 20-80 K.

  14. Quantification of Survival Gain From Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Finegold, Judith A.; Raphael, Claire E.; Levy, Wayne C.; Whinnett, Zachary; Francis, Darrel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to examine the impact of calculation-window duration on lifespan gain (as observed in trials) and on who gains most. Background The landmark trials of biventricular pacing (cardiac resynchronization therapy [CRT]) typically ran for <1 device battery life, and they may therefore underestimate lifespan benefit over longer durations. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of biventricular pacing trials to calculate lifespan gained: first, within the duration of randomized controlled trial data up to 2 years; second, over a 5-year typical battery life; and third, over >1 battery life. Importantly, we applied the Gompertz method for age-related increase in mortality from non–CRT-preventable causes. Results Five landmark trials (COMPANION [Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure], CARE-HF (CArdiac REsynchronization–Heart Failure), MADIT-CRT [Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy], REVERSE [Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction], RAFT (Resynchronization–Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure)) provided data for 2 years (6,561 patients), with an average hazard ratio of 0.71. Lifespan gained across all trials increased nonlinearly with time from 0.1 month at 1 year, to 0.5 month at 2 years, and a projected 6.5 months at 5 years (65 times more than at 1 year). After multiple devices, it reached 14 months, involving on average 1.6 devices (i.e., 8.8 months per device implanted). Moreover, while over a short window (e.g., 2 years), lower-mortality patients may gain less than higher-mortality patients (1.4 vs. 2.3 months), their positions reverse by 15 years (16.0 vs. 13.7 months). Conclusions Lifespan gain from biventricular pacing rises nonlinearly with time. Early on, higher-risk patients exhibit more gain, but later, lower-risk patients exhibit more gain. Quantifying gain over less than a patient’s lifetime underestimates lifespan gain. Over the first 1 or 2 years, lower-risk patients may seem to gain less, although they may ultimately be the ones who gain the most. PMID:23988700

  15. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  16. Bergmann's Rule rules body size in an ectotherm: heat conservation in a lizard along a 2200-metre elevational gradient.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Camacho, F J; Reguera, S; Moreno-Rueda, G

    2014-12-01

    Bergmann's Rule predicts larger body sizes in colder habitats, increasing organisms' ability to conserve heat. Originally formulated for endotherms, it is controversial whether Bergmann's Rule may be applicable to ectotherms, given that larger ectotherms show diminished capacity for heating up. We predict that Bergmann's Rule will be applicable to ectotherms when the benefits of a higher conservation of heat due to a larger body size overcompensate for decreased capacity to heating up. We test this hypothesis in the lizard Psammodromus algirus, which shows increased body size with elevation in Sierra Nevada (SE Spain). We measured heating and cooling rates of lizards from different elevations (from 300 to 2500 m above sea level) under controlled conditions. We found no significant differences in the heating rate along an elevational gradient. However, the cooling rate diminished with elevation and body size: highland lizards, with larger masses, have a higher thermal inertia for cooling, which allows them to maintain heat for more time and keep a high body temperature despite the lower thermal availability. Consequently, the net gaining of heat increased with elevation and body size. This study highlights that the heat conservation mechanism for explaining Bergmann's Rule works and is applicable to ectotherms, depending on the thermal benefits and costs associated with larger body sizes. PMID:25387908

  17. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (?(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress. PMID:25462972

  18. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  19. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  20. Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta, Erika S.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Chiariello, Nona R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.

    2003-01-01

    Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity, with combined effects that, at least in some settings, are simple, additive combinations of single-factor effects. PMID:12810960

  1. Compartment-specific transcriptomics in a reef-building coral exposed to elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Anderson B; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2014-12-01

    Although rising ocean temperatures threaten scleractinian corals and the reefs they construct, certain reef corals can acclimate to elevated temperatures to which they are rarely exposed in situ. Specimens of the model Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis collected from upwelling reefs of Southern Taiwan were previously found to have survived a 36-week exposure to 30°C, a temperature they encounter infrequently and one that can elicit the breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbiosis in many corals of the Pacific Ocean. To gain insight into the subcellular pathways utilized by both the coral hosts and their mutualistic Symbiodinium populations to acclimate to this temperature, mRNAs from both control (27°C) and high (30°C)-temperature samples were sequenced on an Illumina platform and assembled into a 236 435-contig transcriptome. These P. damicornis specimens were found to be ~60% anthozoan and 40% microbe (Symbiodinium, other eukaryotic microbes, and bacteria), from an mRNA-perspective. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of genes from the Symbiodinium compartment were differentially expressed after two weeks of exposure. Specifically, at elevated temperatures, Symbiodinium populations residing within the coral gastrodermal tissues were more likely to up-regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism than their coral hosts. Collectively, these transcriptome-scale data suggest that the two members of this endosymbiosis have distinct strategies for acclimating to elevated temperatures that are expected to characterize many of Earth's coral reefs in the coming decades. PMID:25354956

  2. Nitrogen saturation and soil N availability in a high-elevation spruce and fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2000-06-01

    A field study was conducted during the summer of 1995 to gain abetter understanding of the causes of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) leaching and ongoing changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in high-elevation (1524-2000 m) spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Indicators of soil N availability (total soil N concentrations, extractable NH{sub 4}-N, extractable NO{sub 3}-N, and C/N ratios) were measured in Oa and A horizons at 33 study plots. Dynamic measures included potential net soil N mineralization determined in 12-week aerobic laboratory incubations at 22 C. Potential net nitrification in the A horizon was correlated (r = + 0.83, P < 0.001) with total soil n concentrations. mostmeasures of soil n availability did not exhibit significanttrends with elevation, but there were topographic differences. Potential net soil N mineralization and net nitrification in the A horizon were higher in coves than on ridges. Relative amounts of particulate and organomineral soil organic matter influenced potential net N mineralization and nitrification in the A horizon. Calculations indicate that soil N availability and NO{sub 3}-N leaching in high-elevation spruce and fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park will increase in response to regional warming.

  3. Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine max) to Japanese

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Transcriptional profiling reveals elevated CO2 and elevated O3 alter resistance of soybean (Glycine the interactions between plants and insects. Using microarray analysis of field-grown soybean (Glycine max), we the ability to mount an effective defence, elevated CO2 may decrease resistance of soybean to herbivory. Key

  4. Elevated T cell subpopulations in dental students

    SciTech Connect

    Eedy, D.J.; Burrows, D.; Clifford, T.; Fay, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The absolute numbers of circulating white cells and lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 25 final-year dental students and compared with a control group of 28 medical students. The total lymphocyte count, total T cell numbers (CD3), T helper/inducer (CD4), and T suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the T helper/inducer to T suppressor/cytotoxic cell ratios or the circulating B cell (CD21) and natural killer cell (CD16) numbers between the study and control groups. Patch testing to mercury and mercuric compounds in both the study and control groups showed no evidence of cutaneous hypersensitivity to mercury. The reason for the observed elevations in T cell subpopulations in dental students is not clear. However, one possible explanation is the dental student's occupational exposure to mercury. Further work is underway to examine this possible relationship and it is suggested that dental personnel take adequate measures to reduce their exposure to mercury until the results of these studies are available.

  5. Applying Digital Elevation Model to Interpolate Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modallaldoust, S.; Bayat, F.; Soltani, B.; Soleimani, K.

    A watershed management program is usually based on the results of watershed modeling. Accurate modeling results are decided by the appropriate parameters and input data. Precipitation is the most important input for watershed modeling. Precipitation characteristics usually exhibit significant spatial variation, even within small watersheds. Therefore, properly describing the spatial variation of precipitation is essential for predicting the water movement in a watershed. This study is concerned with mapping annual precipitation in Jam and Riz watershed of Iran, from sparse point data using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. The objective in the optimization process is to minimize the estimated error of precipitation. Thus the performance of each interpolation was assessed through examination of mapped estimates of elevation. The results show that the estimated error is usually reduced by this method. Particularly, when optimized exponent in IDW method was selected for digital elevation model which, is secondary variable for the annual average precipitation gradient equation. It was conclude that IDW-3 with the best conditions and lowest mean standard error provides the most accurate estimates of precipitation.

  6. A global digital elevation model - GTOP030

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    GTOP030, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth, provides the flrst global coverage of moderate resolution elevation data.  The original GTOP30 data set, which was developed over a 3-year period through a collaborative effort led by the USGS, was completed in 1996 at the USGS EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  The collaboration involved contributions of staffing, funding, or source data from cooperators including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of Mexico, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research of New Zealand, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In 1999, work was begun on an update to the GTOP030 data set. Additional data sources are being incorporated into GTOP030 with an enhanced and improved data set planned for release in 2000.

  7. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  8. 1300-nm gain obtained with dysprosium-doped chloride crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Beach, R.J.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    Dy{sup 3+} - doped chloride crystals have high 1300-nm emission quantum yields. Pump - probe experiments on La Cl{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} demonstrate optical gain consistent with predictions based on spectroscopic cross sections and lifetimes.

  9. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    SciTech Connect

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  10. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

  11. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...substantial and gainful. (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. The claimant's work may be substantial even if it is done on a...

  12. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  13. Weight Gain Between Pregnancies May Affect Infant Survival

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 156039.html Weight Gain Between Pregnancies May Affect Infant Survival Researchers focused on women who previously had ... a first pregnancy might raise the risk of infant death and stillbirth in a second pregnancy, a ...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. ...exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo...

  19. Bacterial chemotaxis and the question of gain Dennis Bray*

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    Commentary Bacterial chemotaxis and the question of gain Dennis Bray* Department of Zoology by transient ``tumbles'' (or ``twiddles''). Chemotaxis--the ability of the cells to move toward distant sources

  20. Multistage CSR microbunching gain development in transport or recirculation arcs

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui; Tennant, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced microbunching instability has been one of the most challenging issues in the design of modern accelerators. A linear Vlasov solver has been developed [1] and applied to investigate the physical processes of microbunching gain amplification for several example lattices [2]. In this paper, by further extending the concept of stage gain as proposed by Huang and Kim [3], we develop a method to characterize the microbunching development in terms of stage orders that allow the quantitative comparison of optics impacts on microbunching gain for different lattices. We find that the microbunching instability in our demonstrated arcs has a distinguishing feature of multistage amplification (e.g, up to 6th stage amplification for our example transport arcs, in contrast to two-stage amplification for a typical 4-dipole bunch compressor chicane). We also try to connect lattice optics pattern with the obtained stage gain functions by a physical interpretation. This Vlasov analys...