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Sample records for eloy blanco estado

  1. 76 FR 30907 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Eloy, AZ; Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone--Eloy, AZ; Application An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of Eloy to establish a general-purpose foreign- trade zone at sites in Pinal County, Arizona, adjacent to the Phoenix U.S. Customs and...

  2. 77 FR 62216 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Eloy, AZ Comment Period on New Evidence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ..., requesting authority to establish a general-purpose FTZ at sites in Pinal County, Arizona (76 FR 30907, 05/27... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone--Eloy, AZ Comment Period on New Evidence On May 23... 15 CFR 400.27(d)(2)(v)(B)), the FTZ Board is now inviting public comment on new evidence submitted...

  3. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  4. New depside from Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2014-01-01

    A new depside, named depcitrus A (1), and 31 known compounds were isolated from the peels, leaves and branch barks of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Methylation of the high polarity fractions from the branch barks and peels gave one new methylated compound named depcitrus B (14) and five known compounds. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some pure compounds were evaluated. PMID:24635118

  5. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  6. Mt. Blanco revisited: Soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Vance T.

    1988-06-01

    Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (˜120000 km2) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons ≥1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Black-water Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggest that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

  7. Mt. Blanco revisited: soil-geomorphic implications for the ages of the upper Cenozoic Blanco and Blackwater Draw Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.

    1988-06-01

    Mt. Blanco, on the eastern edge of the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains stratigraphic features significant in interpreting the late Cenozoic history of the region and the vertebrate paleontology of the Great Plains; however, the stratigraphic relations are confused in the literature or are unreported. Mt. Blanco is the type locality for the Blanco Formation and the Blanco Local Fauna, which occurs throughout North America and is the type fauna for the Blancan Land Mammal Age in North America. Here also occur exposures of the Blackwater Draw Formation, an extensive (120,000 km/sup 2/) eolian sheet that is the surficial cover of the region and contains the 1.4 Ma Guaje Ash and several buried soils. A reexamination of the section shows that (1) the Blackwater Draw Formation, an eolian deposit, contains three well-expressed buried soils (5 YR hues, argillic horizons greater than or equal to 1 m thick, Stages III and IV calcic horizons) and the similar regional surface soil (Paleustalf); (2) the Guaje Ash is within the lower Blackwater Draw Formation but is separated from the Blanco Formation, a lacustrine unit, by about 1 m of sediment, including the lowest buried soil; and (3) the lowest buried soil shows a Stage IV calcrete formed at the top of the Blanco Formation and the base of the Blackwater Draw Formation and probably took about 200 ka to form. These new data suggested that deposition of the type Blanco sediments may have ended by about 1.6 Ma or earlier. Since that time, the Blackwater Draw Formation has accumulated episodically; periods of nondeposition are characterized by landscape stability and pedogenesis.

  8. DEBRIS DISKS OF MEMBERS OF THE BLANCO 1 OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, John R.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rebull, Luisa M.; James, David; Strom, Steven; Wolk, Scott; Carpenter, John M.; Barrado y Navascues, David; Backman, Dana; Cargile, P. A.

    2010-08-20

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m photometry for 37 members of the {approx}100 Myr old open cluster Blanco 1. For the brightest 25 of these stars (where we have 3{sigma} uncertainties less than 15%), we find significant mid-IR excesses for eight stars, corresponding to a debris disk detection frequency of about 32%. The stars with excesses include two A stars, four F dwarfs, and two G dwarfs. The most significant linkage between 24 {mu}m excess and any other stellar property for our Blanco 1 sample of stars is with binarity. Blanco 1 members that are photometric binaries show few or no detected 24 {mu}m excesses whereas a quarter of the apparently single Blanco 1 members do have excesses. We have examined the MIPS data for two other clusters of similar age to Blanco 1-NGC 2547 and the Pleiades. The AFGK photometric binary star members of both of these clusters also show a much lower frequency of 24 {mu}m excesses compared to stars that lie near the single-star main sequence. We provide a new determination of the relation between the V - K {sub s} color and K {sub s} - [24] color for main sequence photospheres based on Hyades members observed with MIPS. As a result of our analysis of the Hyades data, we identify three low mass Hyades members as candidates for having debris disks near the MIPS detection limit.

  9. Spectroscopy of the young cluster Blanco 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagi, P. M.; O'Dell, M. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; Robinson, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of some 115 stars of the cluster Blanco 1, extending from the Ca II(H,K) region to the Ca II(I-R) triplet, supporting an age similar to that of the young cluster alpha Persei. The H-alpha absorption equivalent with vs (B - V) diagram forms a well-defined locus, with decreasing absorption equivalent width for decreasing effective temperature, akin to solar neighborhood dwarfs. A large spread in the Ca II surface flux, as a function of (B - V), also indicates the presence of a high degree of surface inhomogeneity, synonymous with high magnetic activity in young stars. A drop-off in the Ca II flux at (B - V) = 1.0 is also similar to the solar neighborhood stars, and shows that the primary chromospheric cooling changes from the Ca II and Mg II lines to the Balmer lines. The mean chromospheric temperature for stars at 4800 K lies between 8000 K and 10,000 K, based on theoretical models, which is somewhat higher than the older solar neighborhood dwarfs. The high mean Ca II surface flux of the sample is also consistent with that of other young clusters. We were able to measure the equivalent width of the Li(6708) line, whose strength as a function of (B - V) indicates an age similar to the young cluster alpha Persei. The lithium abundance decreases with decreasing effective temperature, consistent with the premise of lithium depletion in stars with larger convection zones. Using published photometry and a recent Zero Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) fitting method, we also re-define the distance to the cluster to be 246 pc.

  10. New acridone from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Wanlaso, Nutthakran; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Carroll, Anthony R

    2013-10-01

    A new acridone, named citruscridone (1) together with five known compounds were isolated from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the wood extracts and pure compounds were evaluated. PMID:23697332

  11. BLANCO MOUNTAIN AND BLACK CANYON ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas, California indicated that areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential exist only in the Black Canyon Roadless Area. Gold with moderate amounts of lead, silver, zinc, and tungsten, occurs in vein deposits and in tactite. The nature of the geological terrain indicates little likelihood for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless areas. Detailed geologic mapping might better define the extent of gold mineralization. Detailed stream-sediment sampling and analysis of heavy-mineral concentrations could better define tungsten resource potential.

  12. 46 CFR 7.140 - Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA. 7.140 Section 7.140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.140 Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  13. Results from DESDM Pipeline on Data From Blanco Cosmology Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Shantanu; Mohr, J.; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Zenteno, A.; Tucker, D.; Song, J.; Ngeow, C.; Lin, H.; Bazin, G.; Liu, J.; Cosmology Survey, Blanco

    2011-01-01

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) is a 60-night survey of the southern skies using the CTIO Blanco 4 m telescope, whose main goal to study cosmic acceleration using galaxy clusters. BCS has carried out observations in two 50 degree patches of the southern skies centered at 23 hr and 5 hr in griz bands. These fields were chosen to maximize overlap with the the South Pole Telescope. The data from this survey has been processed using the Dark energy Data Management System (DESDM) on Teragrid resources at NCSA and CCT. DESDM is developed to analyze data from the Dark Energy Survey, which begins around 2011 and analysis of real data provides valuable warmup exercise before the DES survey starts. We describe in detail the key steps in producing science ready catalogs from the raw data. This includes detrending, astrometric calibration, photometric calibration, co-addition with psf homogenization. The final catalogs are constructed using model-fitting photometry which includes detailed galaxy fitting models convolved with the local PSF. We illustrate how photometric redshifts of galaxy clusters are estimated using red-sequence fitting and show results from a few clusters.

  14. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  15. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  16. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  17. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  18. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shore. (e) A line drawn from the northwestern tip of Tomales Point to latitude 38°15.1′ N. longitude 123... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135... Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6”...

  19. 46 CFR 7.140 - Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA. 7.140 Section 7.140 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.140 Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA. (a) A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Coos Bay South Jetty to...

  20. Multiple-Event Relocation of Blanco Transform Fault Zone Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnot, J. M.; Ledger, A. S.; Perkins, M. L.; Ruddock, S.; Salentine, B. J.; Salentine, S. J.; Larsen, H. E.; Cronin, V. S.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2001-12-01

    Earthquakes along the ~350 km long Blanco transform fault zone (BTFZ) between the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates are routinely mislocated northeast of the active transform boundary. A set of 111 magnitude >5 earthquakes recorded from 1964 through 2000 were relocated using the multiple-event relocation technique of Jordan and Sverdrup (1981). An earthquake on June 2, 2000, that was included in the relocated set had also been well located using independent data from the SOSUS hydrophone array (Fox, Dziak and Will, 2000), permitting specification of a static correction to improve absolute locations for the clusters. The static correction involved a rotation of all earthquake location vectors from the relocated positions by ~0.23° around a pole at latitude 11.14° N, longitude 28.99° W, resulting in an average change in location of 25 km toward azimuth 165° . The final locations resulting from the multiple-event relocation and static correction were an average distance of 30 +/-10 km toward azimuth 172 +/-31 degrees relative to the initial ISC locations. The 95% confidence-interval ellipses of these solutions generally fall on or very near active structural features along the BTFZ. The semi-major axis of the 95% CI error ellipse for most events in the set averaged 14.9 +/-5.9 km in length; however, the semi-major axis for 8 events recorded by <50 stations were >40 km long. The pattern of relocated epicenters does not indicate uniform spatial distribution of activity along the BTFZ; however, the sample time interval of just 36 years may be too short to expect uniform distribution. Focal mechanism solutions were obtained from the Harvard CMT catalog for 33 of the events. All but 2 of the focal mechanism solutions for earthquakes along the BTFZ indicate appropriate right-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms. One event relocated to near the Surveyor Basin has a normal-fault focal mechanism. The focal mechanism solutions support the interpretation that these are plate

  1. Characterizing the Stellar Content of the Young Open Cluster Blanco 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Piera Andrea Soto; James, David

    2015-01-01

    In this work we seek to derive the age of the nearby and young open cluster Blanco 1. This solar metallicity cluster, is located far from the Galactic plane making it quite unusual and astrophysically interesting. The methods that we used to determinate the age of Blanco 1 employed color magnitude diagrams and various flavors of stellar evolution models.Initially, the data that we used are a suite of F- and G-star spectra, which were acquired using the low-resolution cassegrain spectrograph installed on the 1.9m Radcliffe telescope located at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Comparing optical photometry with spectral types, we hoped to derive reddening vectors to help us with the isochrone fitting of Blanco 1. However, magnetic activity on our target stars prevented us from completing this analysis. We instead used hot, higher-mass, early-spectral type stars in thecluster to derive its reddening vectors.To fit the distance we tried with the HIPPARCOS (209 pc) distance, that have no a good fit in the main sequence. On the other hand we found that the best fit is 240 pc by isochrones D'Antona & Mazzitelli (1997).Finally, isochrones generated from theoretical stellar models were compared to the cluster's color magnitude diagrams, allowing us to estimate the distance-dependent age of Blanco 1. We find that its photometric age is ˜150 Myr, comparable to its lithium and gyrochronology age.

  2. EFFECTS OF PRESSING PROCEDURE AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE RHEOLOGY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF QUESO BLANCO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Blanco, a popular Hispanic-style cheese, was pressed using two methods and then stored under different conditions to determine if its rheological characteristics, and thus its consumer acceptance, would be affected. Texture profile analysis, torsion testing, and small amplitude oscillatory sh...

  3. RHEOLOGY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF QUESO BLANCO AS AFFFECTED BY PRESSING PROCEDURE AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Blanco, a popular Hispanic-style cheese, was pressed using either a vertical press or a compression molder, and then stored under different conditions to determine if its rheological characteristics, and thus its consumer acceptance, would be affected. Texture profile analysis, torsion testin...

  4. CTIO under Victor Blanco's Directorship in the Years 1968-1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, J. E.

    2015-05-01

    From my perspective of four decades of hindsight, diverse personal experiences in the initial years of Victor Blanco's directorship became lessons upon which I've gratefully drawn throughout my career. These years spanned a period of remarkable growth of CTIO's technical and scientific impact during exceptionally challenging times for Chile and Chileans.

  5. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  6. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF THE LITHIUM DEPLETION BOUNDARY AND AGE OF THE SOUTHERN OPEN CLUSTER BLANCO 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cargile, P. A.; James, D. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2010-12-20

    We present results from a spectroscopic study of the very low mass members of the Southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-N telescope. We obtained intermediate resolution (R {approx} 4400) GMOS spectra for 15 cluster candidate members with I {approx} 14-20 mag, and employed a series of membership criteria-proximity to the cluster's sequence in an I/I - K{sub s} color-magnitude diagram (CMD), kinematics agreeing with the cluster systemic motion, magnetic activity as a youth indicator-to classify 10 of these objects as probable cluster members. For these objects, we searched for the presence of the Li I 6708 A feature to identify the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) in Blanco 1. The I/I - K{sub s} CMD shows a clear mass segregation in the Li distribution along the cluster sequence; namely, all higher mass stars are found to be Li poor, while lower mass stars are found to be Li rich. The division between Li-poor and Li-rich (i.e., the LDB) in Blanco 1 is found at I = 18.78 {+-} 0.24 and I - K{sub s} = 3.05 {+-} 0.10. Using current pre-main-sequence evolutionary models, we determine an LDB age of 132 {+-} 24 Myr. Comparing our derived LDB age to upper-main-sequence isochrone ages for Blanco 1, as well as for other open clusters with identified LDBs, we find good chronometric consistency when using stellar evolution models that incorporate a moderate degree of convective core overshoot.

  8. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  9. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  10. Geologic framework, hydrostratigraphy, and ichnology of the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Golab, James A.; Morris, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the geologic framework, hydro­stratigraphy, and ichnology of the Trinity and Edwards Groups in the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quad­rangles in Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas. Rocks exposed in the study area are of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group and lower part of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group. The mapped units in the study area are the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand, and Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group and the lower portion of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Edwards Group. The Glen Rose Limestone is composed of the Lower and Upper Members. These Trinity Group rocks con­tain the upper and middle Trinity aquifers. The only remaining outcrops of the Edwards Group are the basal nodular member of the Fort Terrett Formation, which caps several hills in the northern portion of the study area. These rocks were deposited in an open marine to supratidal flats environment. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Balcones fault zone, an extensional system of faults that generally trends southwest to northeast in south-central Texas.The hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers were mapped and described using a classification system based on fabric-selective or not-fabric-selective poros­ity types. The only hydrostratigraphic unit of the Edwards aquifer present in the study area is hydrostratigraphic unit VIII. The mapped hydrostratigraphic units of the upper Trinity aquifer are (from top to bottom) the Camp Bullis, upper evaporite, fossiliferous, and lower evaporite which are interval equivalent to the Upper Member of the Glen Rose Limestone. The middle Trinity aquifer encompasses (from top to bottom) the Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone, the Hensell Sand Member, and the Cow Creek Limestone Member of the Pearsall Formation. The Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone is subdivided into six informal hydro

  11. Carbon and nutrient dynamics during coastal upwelling off Cape Blanco, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geen, A.; Takesue, R. K.; Goddard, J.; Takahashi, T.; Barth, J. A.; Smith, R. L.

    2000-05-01

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2) and concentrations of the nutrients phosphate (P) and silicate (Si) in coastal surface waters within a 100 km×300 km area centered on Cape Blanco, Oregon, were mapped at high resolution during August 17-27, 1995. Alkalinity and the concentration of total CO 2 were determined on a subset of stored samples. Over the 9-18°C range in sea-surface temperatures encountered during the cruise, PCO 2, and P and Si concentrations varied between 150-690 μatm, <0.1-1.8, and <1-33 μmol/kg, respectively. Spatial variations in the intensity of coastal upwelling set the wide range in surface water properties. Acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected throughout the cruise indicate the advective nature of many chemical features. PCO 2 data also indicate the presence of an intense phytoplankton bloom in continental shelf waters along the coast north of Cape Blanco, with little evidence of biological drawdown to the south. The available data do not provide an unambiguous explanation for this contrast. Surf-zone water was sampled from shore at 17 locations along the cruise area on August 25 and 26, 1995, concurrently with the shipboard measurements. PCO 2, and P and Si concentrations, varied in the range 250-640 μatm, 0.3-2.0, and 1.1-42 μmol/kg, respectively. North of Cape Blanco, the chemical expression of upwelling was considerably stronger in the surf-zone than at all locations sampled on board ship because the phytoplankton bloom did not extend to the coast. South of Cape Blanco, concentrations of upwelling tracers measured on board ship within a distance of 5-10 km from the coast and in the surf-zone were comparable. Vertical nutrient profiles across the continental shelf show that the composition of surf-zone water is consistent with conservative advection of nutrient-enriched bottom water from the edge of the continental shelf to the surf-zone.

  12. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  13. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515

  14. A photometric and astrometric investigation of the brown dwarfs in Blanco 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casewell, S. L.; Baker, D. E. A.; Jameson, R. F.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Dobbie, P. D.; Moraux, E.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of a photometric and astrometric study of the low-mass stellar and substellar population of the young open cluster Blanco 1. We have exploited J-band data, obtained recently with the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), and 10-year-old I- and z-band optical imaging from CFH12k on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), to identify 44 candidate low-mass stellar and substellar members, in an area of 2 deg2, on the basis of their colours and proper motions. This sample includes five sources which are newly discovered. We also confirm the lowest mass candidate member of Blanco 1 unearthed so far (29MJup). We determine the cluster mass function to have a slope of α = +0.93, assuming it to have a power-law form. This is high, but nearly consistent with previous studies of the cluster (to within the errors), and also that of its much better studied Northern hemisphere analogue, the Pleiades.

  15. Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study : Technical Report, No. 3. Geotechnical.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-04-01

    This preliminary geotechnical investigation of the proposed Cape Blanco Wind Farm site was directed towards the identification and evaluation of significant geologic features, so that a preliminary evaluation could be made of the project feasibility. To accomplish this, two borings were drilled, preliminary geologic reconnaissances were made, and available geologic and geotechnical literature relating to the project area was researched. Preliminary observations and conclusions are presented. The site under evaluation consists of 1600 acres located immediately south of Cape Blanco on the southern Oregon Coast. The project as presently envisioned would have a total design capacity of as much as 80 megawatts. The explorations and research revealed that the site is underlain by variable thicknesses of soil sediments, such as sand, gravel and silt. Typical examples of these sediments are exposed in the very steep ocean-facing bluffs along the western edge of the site. The soils are underlain by sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Otter Point Formation. This formation includes lithified sandstone, submarine basalt and sheared clay shales. The various geotechnical/geological conditions discussed in the report include: slope stability, foundation considerations, groundwater, earthquakes and earthquake-induced ocean waves, erosion, earthwork, and vibrations.

  16. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, β-pinene, linalool, and γ-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, γ-terpinene, linalool, and α-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

  17. Speckle Interferometry at the Blanco and SOAR Telescopes in 2008 and 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2010-01-01

    The results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary and multiple stars conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the Blanco and Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) 4 m telescopes in Chile are presented. A tot al of 1898 measurements of 1189 resolved pairs or sub-systems and 394 observations of 285 un-resolved targets are listed. We resolved for the first time 48 new pairs, 21 of which are new sub-systems in close visual multiple stars. Typical internal measurement precision is 0.3 mas in both coordinates, typical companion detection capability is delta m approximately 4.2 at 0.15 degree separation. These data were obtained with a new electron-multiplication CCD camera; data processing is described in detail, including estimation of magnitude difference, observational errors, detection limits, and analysis of artifacts. We comment on some newly discovered pairs and objects of special interest.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  19. Preliminary report on Bureau of Mines Yellow Creek core hole No. 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Coffin, D.L.; Ege, J.R.; Welder, F.A.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of geologic, hydrologic , and geophysical data obtained in and around Yellow Creek core hole No. 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, indicate a 1,615-foot section of oil shale was penetrated by the hole. Geophysical log data indicate the presence of 25 gallons per ton shale for a thickness of 500 feet my be marginal. The richest section of oil shale is indicated to be centered around a depth of 2,260 feet. Within the oil shale the interval 1,182 to 1,737 feet is indicated to be relatively structurally incompetent and probably permeable. Extension of available regional hydrologic data indicate the oil shale section is probably water bearing and may yield as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. Hydrologic testing in the hole is recommended.

  20. An evaluation of baseline conditions at lease tract C-a, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Barteaux, W.L.; Biezugbe, G.

    1987-09-01

    An analysis was made of baseline groundwater quality data from oil shale lease tract C-a, managed by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company. The data are limited in several respects. All conclusions drawn from the data must be qualified with these limitations. Baseline conditions were determined by analyzing data from wells in the upper bedrock and lower bedrock aquifers and from the alluvial wells. Baseline data were considered all data collected before mining operations began. The water quality was then evaluated using the 1987 Colorado State Basic Standards for Ground Water as a basis. The maximum baseline values for several parameters in each aquifer exceed the standard values. The quality of the upper lower bedrock aquifers varies from region to region within the site. Data on the lower bedrock aquifer are insufficient for speculation on the cause of the variations. Variations in the upper bedrock aquifer are possibly caused by leakage of the lower bedrock aquifer. 16 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. The Blanco Cosmology Survey: Data Acquisition, Processing, Calibration, Quality Diagnostics and Data Release

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.; Armstrong, R.; Mohr, J.J.; Semler, D.R.; Liu, J.; Bertin, E.; Allam, S.S.; Barkhouse, W.A.; Bazin, G.; Buckley-Geer, E.J.; Cooper, M.C.; /UC, Irvine /Lick Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-04-01

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) is a 60 night imaging survey of {approx}80 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky located in two fields: ({alpha},{delta})= (5 hr, -55{sup circ} and 23 hr, -55{sup circ}). The survey was carried out between 2005 and 2008 in griz bands with the Mosaic2 imager on the Blanco 4m telescope. The primary aim of the BCS survey is to provide the data required to optically confirm and measure photometric redshifts for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. We process and calibrate the BCS data, carrying out PSF corrected model fitting photometry for all detected objects. The median 10{sigma} galaxy (point source) depths over the survey in griz are approximately 23.3 (23.9), 23.4 (24.0), 23.0 (23.6) and 21.3 (22.1), respectively. The astrometric accuracy relative to the USNO-B survey is {approx}45 milli-arcsec. We calibrate our absolute photometry using the stellar locus in grizJ bands, and thus our absolute photometric scale derives from 2MASS which has {approx}2% accuracy. The scatter of stars about the stellar locus indicates a systematics floor in the relative stellar photometric scatter in griz that is {approx}1.9%, {approx}2.2%, {approx}2.7% and {approx}2.7%, respectively. A simple cut in the AstrOmatic star-galaxy classifier produces a star sample with good spatial uniformity. We use the resulting photometric catalogs to calibrate photometric redshifts for the survey and demonstrate scatter {delta} z/(1+z)=0.054 with an outlier fraction {eta}<5% to z{approx}1. We highlight some selected science results to date and provide a full description of the released data products.

  2. THE BLANCO COSMOLOGY SURVEY: DATA ACQUISITION, PROCESSING, CALIBRATION, QUALITY DIAGNOSTICS, AND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Semler, D. R.; Liu, J.; Bazin, G.; Zenteno, A.; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Allam, S. S.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Tucker, D.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Cooper, M. C.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Lin, Y.-T.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Rest, A.; Song, J.

    2012-09-20

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) is a 60 night imaging survey of {approx}80 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky located in two fields: ({alpha}, {delta}) = (5 hr, -55 Degree-Sign ) and (23 hr, -55 Degree-Sign ). The survey was carried out between 2005 and 2008 in griz bands with the Mosaic2 imager on the Blanco 4 m telescope. The primary aim of the BCS survey is to provide the data required to optically confirm and measure photometric redshifts for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. We process and calibrate the BCS data, carrying out point-spread function-corrected model-fitting photometry for all detected objects. The median 10{sigma} galaxy (point-source) depths over the survey in griz are approximately 23.3 (23.9), 23.4 (24.0), 23.0 (23.6), and 21.3 (22.1), respectively. The astrometric accuracy relative to the USNO-B survey is {approx}45 mas. We calibrate our absolute photometry using the stellar locus in grizJ bands, and thus our absolute photometric scale derives from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which has {approx}2% accuracy. The scatter of stars about the stellar locus indicates a systematic floor in the relative stellar photometric scatter in griz that is {approx}1.9%, {approx}2.2%, {approx}2.7%, and {approx}2.7%, respectively. A simple cut in the AstrOmatic star-galaxy classifier spread{sub m}odel produces a star sample with good spatial uniformity. We use the resulting photometric catalogs to calibrate photometric redshifts for the survey and demonstrate scatter {delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.054 with an outlier fraction {eta} < 5% to z {approx} 1. We highlight some selected science results to date and provide a full description of the released data products.

  3. Laramide tectonic evolution of San Juan sag, Colorado: Implications of Animas and Blanco basin formations

    SciTech Connect

    Brister, B.S. )

    1989-09-01

    The lower member of the Animas Formation (McDermott Member) is a volcaniclastic sequence derived from a north-northwest source (San Juan-La Plata area). It consists of purple andesitic debris flows, green fan-delta sandstones and mud rocks, and dark gray conglomerates with clast compositions indicating that the Precambrian core of the source uplift was exposed. The upper member is a sand-dominated alluvial plain sequence deposited by southwest-flowing braided streams. It includes green-gray-brown carbonaceous mudstones and pebbly sandstones containing clasts of mudstone, andesite, and detritus from Precambrian and Mesozoic sources in the Brazos-San Luis uplift to the east and northeast. by the end of Animas deposition, the San Juan sag (then a northeastern extension of the San Juan basin) was a broad, southwest-plunging synclinal downwarp bounded by hogback monoclines to the north and east. An erosional period followed Animas deposition; the greatest thickness of Animas was preserved along the axis of this synclinal feature. Bright-red sandy mudstones and yellow-gray pebbly sandstones and cobble conglomerates comprise the proximal alluvial-fan deposits of the Blanco Basin Formation. They unconformably overlie Precambrian through Paleocene rocks and clast compositions reflect these sources. Renewed uplift and segmentation of the Brazos-San Luis uplift resulted in the shedding of detritus southwestward into the San Juan sag and eastward into a narrow, asymmetrical, north-trending wrench basin within the uplift. Following Blanco Basin deposition, the last Laramide event is represented by the separation of the San Juan sag from the San Juan basin by uplift of the Archuleta anticlinorium.

  4. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    PubMed Central

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was performed. Further, in vitro antioxidant, anti-enzyme, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CR HAE were found to be higher than CR CAE. EC50 value of CR HAE and CR CAE for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Superoxide anion, and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were 250.33 ± 40.16 μg/ml and 254.73 ± 15.78 μg/ml, 221.27 ± 11.25 μg/ml and 354.20 ± 23.79 μg/ml, and 59.16 ± 2.17 μg/ml and 59.12 ± 6.21 μg/ml, respectively. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity values for CR HAE and CR CAE were found to be 1243 and 1063 μmoles 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetra methylchromane-2-carboxylic acid equivalent/g of substance, respectively. Anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities were evaluated for both CR HAE and CR CAE. EC50 values of CR HAE and CR CAE for anti-collagenase and anti-elastase were 329.33 ± 6.38 μg/ml, 466.93 ± 8.04 μg/ml and 3.22 ± 0.24 mg/ml, 5.09 ± 0.30 mg/ml, respectively. CR HAE exhibited stronger anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity than CR CAE. GC-MS analysis of CR HAE was carried out because CR HAE exhibited higher antioxidant and anti-enzyme potential than CR CAE. Conclusion: C. reticulata peel can be utilized in anti-wrinkle skin care formulations. SUMMARY Skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco peel was evaluated throughIn vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays

  5. Irradiation effect on α- and β-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. S.; Jeong, S. G.; Lee, S. G.; Han, G. S.; Chae, H. S.; Yoo, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; Jo, C.

    2009-02-01

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on α- and β-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. αS1-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of αS1- to αS0-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed αS1-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than αS0-casein. Similarly, αS1-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of αS1- to αS0-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of βA1-casein was also found. βA1-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of βA1- to βA2-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, αS0-, βB-, and βA3-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that αS1-casein and βA1-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation.

  6. Oxidative burst inhibition, cytotoxicity and antibacterial acriquinoline alkaloids from Citrus reticulate (Blanco).

    PubMed

    Fomani, Marie; Ngeufa Happi, Emmanuel; Nouga Bisoue, Achille; Ndom, Jean Claude; Kamdem Waffo, Alain François; Sewald, Norbert; Wansi, Jean Duplex

    2016-01-15

    Two novel acridone-quinoline alkaloids, acriquinoline A (1) and acriquinoline B (2), together with twenty-two known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the root of Citrus reticulata Blanco. The structures of all compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectral (EI and ESI) data. The possible biosynthesis for the formation of above compounds is proposed, based on close examination of their structures. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 10 and 14-17 exhibited strong suppressive effect on phagocytosis response upon activation with serum opsonized zymosan in the range of IC50 0.2-10.5μM, which was tested in vitro for oxidative burst studies of whole blood. However, compounds displayed low cytotoxic activity against the human Caucasian prostate adenocarcinoma cell line PC-3, with IC50 between 30.8 and 60.5μM compared to the standard doxorubicin with IC50 0.9μM. These compounds, tested against bacteria, fungi and plant pathogen oomycetes by the paper disk agar diffusion assay, resulting in missing to low activities corresponding with MICs>1mg/mL. PMID:26711890

  7. Effects of Pogostemon cablin Blanco extract on hypoxia induced rabbit cardiomyocyte injury

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Lim, Se-Hyun; Cho, Su-In

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pogostemonis Herba, the dried aerial part of Pogostemon cablin Blanco, is a well-known materia medica in Asia that is widely used for syndrome of gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Objective: This study was undertaken to examine whether Pogostemon cablin extract (PCe) might have any beneficial effect on hypoxia induced rabbit cardiomyocyte injury. Materials and Methods: Isolated cardiomyocytes were divided into three groups and the changes of cell viability in cardiomyocytes of hypoxic and hypoxia/reoxygenation group were determined. The effect of PCe on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, intracellular formation of ROS was also measured by monitoring the 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Results: PCe effectively protected the cells against both the hypoxia and reoxygenation induced injury, and the protective effect of PCe is not mediated by interaction with adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels. In the presence of PCe, production of ROS under chemical hypoxia was remarkably reduced which suggests that PCe might exert its effect as a ROS scavenger. Conclusion: The present study provides clear evidence for the beneficial effect of PCe on cardiomyocyte injury during hypoxia or reoxygenation following prolonged hypoxia. PMID:25829770

  8. Forensic Hydrological Investigation of the Blanco River Flood May 2015, Wimberley, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furl, C.

    2015-12-01

    A forensic hydrological investigation of a major flash flood was conducted for the Blanco River in south-central Texas. The unprecedented flood occurred during the early morning hours of May 24th leaving 12 dead in the towns of Wimberley and San Marcos. Hundreds of homes were damaged or destroyed, two reinforced concrete bridges were washed off their piers, and nearly 100 high water rescues were made the following day. The present work characterizes the meteorological setup leading to the event, describes the flood hydrology using the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model, and reports on an extensive field campaign seeking to document high water marks throughout the 1200 km2 basin. Results indicate high precipitable water values, large CAPE, and strong mid and upper level winds aided in impressive divergence over the region. This allowed for storms to continually produce heavy rainfall over the same areas. Large regions of the catchment received greater than 200 mm across the upper portion of the basin with 24 hr maximums around 330 mm. GSSHA simulations indicate good performance when compared to a stage hydrograph recorded mid-catchment. The remaining USGS gauges failed early on during the rising limb of the hydrograph. Model estimates indicate peak streamflow was approximately 5500 cms with stage values nearing 13 m as the flood wave moved through the town of Wimberley. Approximately 125 locations were examined for high water marks along the mainstem of the river using RTK GPS. Stage values ranged from 12 - 18 m.

  9. Holocene vegetation and climate in the Puerto Blanco Mountains, southwestern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Devender, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    Plant macrofossils from 21 pack rat ( Neotoma sp.) middens at 535-605 m from the Puerto Blanco Mountains, southwestern Arizona, provide and excellent history of vegetation and climate for the last 14, 120 yr B.P. in the Sonoran Desert. A late Wisconsin juniper-Joshua tree woodland gave way to a transitional early Holocene desertscrub with sparse Juniperus californica (California juniper) by 10,540 yr B.P. Important Sonoran Desert plants including Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) and Encelia farinosa (brittle bush) were dominants. Riparian trees such as Acacia greggii (catclaw acacia), Prosopis velutina (velvet mesquite), and Cerdicium floridum (blue palo verde) grew on dry, south-facing slopes in a middle Holocene Sonoran desertscrub in a warm, wet summer climate with frequent winter freezes. Modern subtropical Sonoran desertscrub formed about 4000 yr B.P. as summer rainfall and winter freezes declined. Cercidium microphyllum (foothills palo verde), Sapium biloculare (Mexican jumping bean), Olneya tesota (ironwood) and Stenocereus thurberi (organ pipe cactus) became dominant as riparian trees retreated to wash habitats. The inferences of a latest Wisconsin/early Holocene summer monsoonal maximum by J. E. Kutzbach (1983), Modeling of Holocene climates. In "Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States," Vol. 2, "The Holocene" (H. E. Wright, Ed.), pp. 271-277. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis) are not supported for the Southwest. Apparently the persistence of late Wisconsin circulation patterns offset any increases in insolation.

  10. Deformation across the forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone at Cape Blanco, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, W.H.; Murray, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Over the interval 1992-1999 the U.S. Geological Survey measured the deformation of a geodetic array extending N880°E (approximate direction of plate convergence) from Cape Blanco on the Oregon coast to the volcanic arc near Newberry Crater (55 and 350 km, respectively, from the deformation front). Within about 150 km from the deformation front, the forearc is being compressed arcward (N80°E) by coupling to the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. Dislocation modeling of the observed N80°E compression suggests that the main thrust zone (the locked portion of the Juan de Fuca-forearc interface) is about 40 km wide in the downdip direction. The transverse (N10°W) velocity component of the forearc measured with respect to the fixed interior of North America decreases with distance from the deformation front at a rate of about 0.03 mm yr-1 km-1. That gradient appears to be a consequence of rigid rotation of the forearc block relative to fixed interior North America (Euler vector of 43.4°±0.1° N, 120.0°±0.4° W, and -1.67±0.17° (m.y.)-1; quoted uncertainties are standard deviations). The rotation rate is similar to the paleomagnetically measured rotation rate (-1.0±0.2° (m.y.)-1) of the 15 Ma lava flows along the Columbia River 250 km farther north. The back arc does not appear to participate in this rotation but rather is migrating at a rate of about 3.6 mm yr-1northward with respect to fixed North America. That migration could be partly an artifact of an imperfect tie of our reference coordinate system to the interior of North America.

  11. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rio Blanco underground nuclear test site, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Earman, S.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-10-01

    DOE is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater is part of preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations allow prioritization of test areas in terms of risk, provide a basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work, and provide a framework for assessing site characterization data needs. The Rio Blanco site in Colorado was the location of the simultaneous detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear devices. The devices were located 1780, 1899, and 2039 below ground surface in the Fort Union and Mesaverde formations. Although all the bedrock formations at the site are thought to contain water, those below the Green River Formation (below 1000 in depth) are also gas-bearing, and have very low permeabilities. The transport scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Fort Union Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affect radionuclide transport at the site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values. Given the sparse data, the modeling results may differ significantly from reality. Confidence in transport predictions can be increased by obtaining more site data, including the amount of radionuclides which would have been available for transport (i.e., not trapped in melt glass or vented during gas flow testing), and the hydraulic properties of the formation. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Chemistry and age of groundwater in the Piceance structural basin, Rio Blanco county, Colorado, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Thomas, Judith C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, to better understand the chemistry and age of groundwater in the Piceance structural basin in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, and how they may relate to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs. Natural gas extraction in the area has been ongoing since at least the 1950s, and the area contains about 960 producing, shut-in, and abandoned natural-gas wells.

  13. Preliminary optical design for a 2.2 degree diameter prime focus corrector for the Blanco 4 meter telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.; Bernstein, R.; Abbott, T.; Bigelow, B.; Brooks, D.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Gladders, M.; Walker, A.; Worswick, S.; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Michigan U. /University Coll. London /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2006-04-01

    We describe a five element corrector for the prime focus of the 4 meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile that will be used in conjunction with a new mosaic CCD camera as part of the proposed Dark Energy Survey (DES). The corrector is designed to provide a flat focal plane and good images in the SDSS g, r, i, and z filters. We describe the performance in conjunction with the scientific requirements of the DES, particularly with regard to ghosting and weak-lensing point spread function (PSF) calibration.

  14. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco fracture zone, Northeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Dunham, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A Tiburon ROV dive within the East Blanco Depression (EBD) increased the mapped extent of a known hydrothermal field by an order of magnitude. In addition, a unique opal-CT (cristobalite-tridymite)-hematite mound was discovered, and mineralized sediments and rock were collected and analyzed. Silica-hematite mounds have not previously been found on the deep ocean floor. The light-weight rock of the porous mound consists predominantly of opal-CT and hematite filaments, rods, and strands, and averages 77.8% SiO2 and 11.8% Fe2O3. The hematite and opal-CT precipitated from a low-temperature (???115?? C), strongly oxidized, silica- and iron-rich, sulfur-poor hydrothermal fluid; a bacterial mat provided the framework for precipitation. Samples collected from a volcaniclastic rock outcrop consist primarily of quartz with lesser plagioclase, smectite, pyroxene, and sulfides; SiO2 content averages 72.5%. Formation of these quartz-rich samples is best explained by cooling in an up-flow zone of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids within a low permeability system. Opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz mineralization found in different places within the EBD hydrothermal field likely reflects decreasing silica saturation and increasing temperature of the mineralizing fluid with increasing silica crystallinity. Six push cores recovered gravel, coarse sand, and mud mineralized variously by Fe or Mn oxides, silica, and sulfides. Total rare-earth element concentrations are low for both the rock and push core samples. Ce and Eu anomalies reflect high and low temperature hydrothermal components and detrital phases. A remarkable variety of types of mineralization occur within the EBD field, yet a consistent suite of elements is enriched (relative to basalt and unmineralized cores) in all samples analyzed: Ag, Au, S, Mo, Hg, As, Sb, Sr, and U; most samples are also enriched in Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn. On the basis of these element enrichments, the EBD hydrothermal field might best be described as a base

  15. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  16. [Biotic and abiotic factors that affect the quality of Schinopsis balansae Engl. and Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. seeds].

    PubMed

    Alzugaray, Claudia; Carnevale, Nélida J; Salinas, Adriana R; Pioli, Rosanna

    2007-06-01

    Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (white quebracho) and Schinopsis balansae (red quebracho) are distinctive trees of the South American Park in Argentina. Quebrachos are found in forests that have been exploited very intensively. The object of this work was the identification of biotic and abiotic factors specially fungal pathogen that affect the quality of both species and its relation with germination. Seeds where evaluated through germination test and the percentage of the incidence of fungal agents in two different years of harvest was determined. In S. balansae the germination rate was 77% and of 27% in 2000 and 2001 harvests, respectively. Associations fungi-germination were found in 2001 for Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp., and Fusarium spp., showing an coefficient of correlation = -0.84; -0.85 and -0.73 (p < 0.00004), respectively. A high percentage of vane seeds (55%) was also found in 2001 harvest, due to adverse environmental factors, specifically higher precipitations during flowering. In A. quebracho-blanco seeds, the germination rate was 50% and 90% in 2000 and 2003 respectively, with a 42% of immature seeds in 2000 harvest that was associated to high precipitations and high temperatures during flowering and ripping of fruits. The incidence of pathogens was low and did not have association to germination. PMID:17604434

  17. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  18. An improved determination of the lithium depletion boundary age of Blanco 1 and a first look on the effects of magnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Aaron J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.

    2014-11-10

    The lithium depletion boundary (LDB) is a robust method for accurately determining the ages of young clusters, but most pre-main-sequence models used to derive LDB ages do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. In light of this, we present results from our spectroscopic study of the very-low-mass members of the southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-North Telescope, program IDs: GN-2009B-Q-53 and GN-2010B-Q-96. We obtained Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra at intermediate resolution for cluster candidate members with I ≈ 13-20 mag. From our sample of 43 spectra, we find 14 probable cluster members by considering proximity to the cluster sequence in an I/I – K {sub s} color-magnitude diagram, agreement with the cluster's systemic radial velocity, and magnetic activity as a youth indicator. We systematically analyze the Hα and Li features and update the LDB age of Blanco 1 to be 126{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr. Our new LDB age for Blanco 1 shows remarkable coevality with the benchmark Pleiades open cluster. Using available empirical activity corrections, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the LDB age of Blanco 1. Accounting for activity, we infer a corrected LDB age of 114{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for magnetic activity on LDB inferred stellar ages, suggesting the need to reinvestigate previous LDB age determinations.

  19. Definition of a mobilizing volume of sediment in a valley interested by volcanic eruption: Rio Blanco valley (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroumé, Andrés; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic explosive activity can strongly affect the riverine environments. Deposition of tephra, pyroclastic and hyperconcentrated flows along both the valley bottom and hillslopes can radically change the environmental morphology. Accumulation and transport of pyroclastic material can increase hazards and risks for anthropic activities. The aims of this research are to evaluate and quantify the amount of erodible sediment that can be transported along a gravel bed river affected by a volcanic eruption. The Rio Blanco valley (Chile) was upset by the plinian-type eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The great amount of tephra released in the initial phase and the subsequent pyroclastic flows, accumulated up to 8 m of sediment over a great portion of the Rio Blanco valley. Using aerial photographs was possible to define the extension of vegetated zones affected by the eruption. The area was interested by a high mortality of vegetation, as confirmed by field surveys. Dendrometric measurements permitted to quantify the volume of wood and observe that renewal and herbal layer are almost absent, determining low soil cohesion and easier erosion by superficial and river erosion processes. Analysis of sediment accumulation allowed quantifying the volume of sediment that can be transported downstream. The analyses were carried out considering 7 km-long a reach, from the river mouth to the confluence between Caldera creek and Rio Blanco. After the eruption, was possible to define as a total area of about 2.19 km2 was affected by tephra deposition, the 40% (0,87 km2) was eroded by flows, while 60% (1,32 km2) is still present and composed by tephra, buried large wood (LW) and dead standing trees. Considering an average high of 5 m, the potential erodible sediment is around 6,5 x 106 m3, moreover there is a potential amount of about 7,3 x 104 m3 of LW that can be transported towards mouth. These analyses can be useful to better define the management plan for the river delta. In

  20. Geomorphic change along a gravel bed river affected by volcanic eruption: Rio Blanco - Volcan Chaiten (South Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picco, Lorenzo; Ravazzolo, Diego; Ulloa, Hector; Iroumé, Andres; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Gravel bed rivers are environments shaped by the balance of flow, sediment regimes, large wood (LW) and vegetation. Geomorphic changes are response to fluctuations and changes of runoff and sediment supply involving mutual interactions among these factors. Typically, many natural disasters (i.e. debris flows, floods and forest fires) can affect the river basin dynamics. Explosive volcanic eruptions present, instead, the potential of exerting severe impacts as, for example, filling river valleys or changing river network patterns thanks to massive deposition of tephra and volcanic sediment all over the main channel and over the basin. These consistent impacts can strongly affect both hydrology and sediment transport dynamics, all over the river system, producing huge geomorphic changes. During the last years there has been a consistent increase in the survey technologies that permit to monitor geomorphic changes and to estimate sediment budgets through repeat topographic surveys. The calculation of differences between subsequent DEMs (difference of DEMs, DoD) is a commonly applied method to analyze and quantify these dynamics. Typically the higher uncertainty values are registered in areas with higher topographic variability and lower point density. This research was conducted along a ~ 2.2 km-long sub-reach of the Blanco River (Southern Chile), a fourth-order stream that presents a mainly rainfall regime with winter peak flows. The May 2008 Chaitén volcanic eruption strongly affected the entire Rio Blanco basin. The entire valley was highly exposed to the pyroclastic and fluvial flows, which affected directly a consistent area of evergreen forests. Extreme runoff from the upper Blanco catchment aggraded the channel and deposited up to several meters of tephra, alluvium, and LW along the entire river system. Aims of this contribution are to define and quantify the short term evolution of the Blanco River after the big eruption event and a subsequent consistent

  1. The ash deposits of the 4200 BP Cerro Blanco eruption: the largest Holocene eruption of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Saavedra, Julio; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Lobo, Agustin; Rejas, Marta; Gallardo, Juan-Fernando; Osterrieth, Margarita; Carrizo, Julieta; Esteban, Graciela; Martinez, Luis-Dante; Gil, Raul-Andres; Ratto, Norma; Baez, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present new data about a major eruption -spreading approx. 110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in the Central Andes of NW Argentina (Southern Puna, 26°45' S, 67°45' W). This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. Discrimination and correlation of pyroclastic deposits of this eruption of Cerro Blanco was conducted comparing samples of proximal (domes, pyroclastic flow and fall deposits) with distal ash fall deposits (up to 400 km from de vent). They have been characterized using optical and electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, particle-size distribution by laser diffraction and electron microprobe and HR-ICP-MS with laser ablation for major and trace element composition of glass, feldspars and biotite. New and published 14C ages were calibrated using Bayesian statistics. An one-at-a-time inversion method was used to reconstruct the eruption conditions using the Tephra2 code (Bonadonna et al. 2010, https://vhub.org/resources/tephra2). This method allowed setting the main features of the eruption that explains the field observations in terms of thickness and grain size distributions of the ash fall deposit. The main arguments that justify the correlation are four: 1) Compositional coincidence for glass, feldspars, and biotite in proximal and distal materials; 2) Stratigraphic and geomorphological relationships, including structure and thickness variation of the distal deposits; 3) Geochronological consistency, matching proximal and distal ages; and 4) Geographical distribution of correlated outcrops in relation to the eruption centre at the coordinates of Cerro Blanco. With a magnitude of 7.0 and a volcanic explosivity index or VEI 7, this eruption of ~4200 BP at Cerro Blanco is the largest in the last five millennia known in the Central

  2. Large wood budget assessment along a gravel bed river affected by volcanic eruption: the Rio Blanco study case (Chile).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroume, Andres; Lenzi, Mario; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Wood in riverine environments exerts different functions on ecological and geomorphic settings, influencing morphological processes, and increasing risks for sensitive structures. Large wood (LW) is defined as wood material, dead or alive, larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length. Natural hazards can strongly increase the presence of LW in waterways and flood events can transport it affecting the ecosystem and landscape. This study aims to increase the knowledge of wood budget, considering the effects of two subsequent slight flood events along a sub-reach of the Rio Blanco gravel bed river , in Chilean Patagonia, strongly affected by the eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The volcanic eruption affected almost 3,5 km 2 of evergreen forest on the southern (left) bank, because of primary direct effects from pyroclastic density currents and lahar-floods that caused deposition up to 8 m of reworked tephra, alluvium, and wood on floodplains and terrace along the Rio Blanco. After the eruption, there was a considerable increase of LW into the main channel: into the bankfull channel, volume exceeds 100 m 3 /ha. Field surveys were carried out in January and March 2015, before and after two slight flood events (Recurrence Intervals lower than 1 year). The pre-event phase permitted to detect and analyze the presence of LW into the study area, along a 80 m-long reach of Rio Blanco (7500 m 2 . Every LW element was manually measured and described, a numbered metal tag was installed, and the position was recorded by GPS device. In January, there was a total amount of 113 m 3 /ha, 90% accumulated in LW jams (WJ) and 10% as single logs. The LW was characterized by mean dimensions of 3,36 m height, 0,25 m diameter and 0,26 m 3 volume, respectively. The WJ are characterized by wide range of dimension: volume varies from 0,28 m 3 to 672 m 3 , length from 1,20 m to 56 m, width from 0,40 m to 8,70 m and height from 0,20 m to 3 m, respectively. After the flood events, field

  3. Acoustic monitoring of earthquakes along the Blanco Transform Fault zone and Gorda Plate and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, Robert Paul

    Hydroacoustic tertiary (T-) waves are seismically generated acoustic waves that propagate over great distances in the ocean sound channel with little loss in signal strength. Hydrophone recorded T-waves can provide a lower earthquake detection threshold and an improved epicenter location accuracy for oceanic earthquakes than land-based seismic networks. Thus detection and location of NE Pacific ocean earthquakes along the Blanco Transform Fault (BTFZ) and Gorda plate using the U.S. Navy's SOSUS (SOund SUrveillance System) hydrophone arrays afford greater insight into the current state of stress and crustal deformation mechanics than previously available. Acoustic earthquake information combined with bathymetry, submersible observations, earthquake source- parameter estimates, petrologic samples, and water-column chemistry renders a new tectonic view of the southern Juan de Fuca plate boundaries. Chapter 2 discusses development of seismo-acoustic analysis techniques using the well-documented April 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquake sequence. Findings include a hydrophone detection threshold estimate (M ~ 2.4), and T-wave propagation path modeling to approximate earthquake acoustic source energy. Empirical analyses indicate that acoustic energy provides a reasonable magnitude and seismic moment estimate of oceanic earthquakes not detected by seismic networks. Chapters 3 documents a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm along a pull-apart basin within the western BTFZ during January 1994. Response efforts yielded evidence of anomalous water-column 3He concentrations, pillow- lava volcanism, and the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone. Chapter 4 discusses the detection of a NE-SW trending microearthquake band along the mid-Gorda plate which was active from initiation of SOSUS recording in August 1991 through July 1992, then abruptly ceased. It is proposed that eventual termination of the Gorda plate seismicity band is due to

  4. Detection of and response to a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm on the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dziak, R.P.; Fox, C.G.; Embley, R.W.; Lupton, J.E.; Johnson, G.C.; Chadwick, W.W.; Koski, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The East Blanco Depression (EBD), a pull-apart basin within the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ), was the site of an intense earthquake T-wave swarm that began at 1317Z on January 9, 1994. Although tectonically generated earthquakes occur frequently along the BTFZ, this swarm was unusual in that it was preceded and accompanied by periodic, low-frequency, long-duration acoustic signals, that originated from near the swarm epicenters. These tremor-like signals were very similar in character to acoustic energy produced by a shallow-submarine eruption near Socorro Island, a seamount several hundred km west of Baja, California. The ???69 earthquakes and ???400 tremor-like events at the EBD occurred sporadically, with two periods of peak activity occurring between January 5-16 and 27-31. The swarm-like character of the earthquakes and the similarity of the tremor activity to the Socorro eruption indicated that the EBD was undergoing an intrusion or eruption episode. On January 27, six CTD/rosette casts were conducted at the site. Water samples from two of the stations yielded anomalous 3He concentrations, with maxima at ???2800 m depth over the main basin. In June 1994 two camera tows within the basin yielded evidence of pillow-lava volcanism and hydrothermal deposits, but no conclusive evidence of a recent seafloor eruption. In September 1994, deployments of the U.S. Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle resulted in the discovery of an active hydrothermal mound on the flanks of a pillow-lava volcano. The hydrothermal mound consists of Fe-rich hydrothermal precipitate and bacterial mats. Temperatures to 60??C were measured 30 cm below the surface. This is the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone. Although no conclusive evidence of volcanic activity associated with the T-wave event swarm was found during these response efforts, the EBD has been the site of recent seafloor eruptions. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical

  5. Diel Drift Patterns and Spatio-temporal Distribution of Macroinvertebrates in the Blanco River, Texas: A Groundwater Dominated Stream Subject to Intermittent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, D. R.; Arsuffi, T. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Blanco River is a relatively pristine karst stream in central Texas and designated a conservation target by The Nature Conservancy. It is fed primarily by groundwater in the upper reaches and dominated by runoff and intermittency downstream. The spatial and temporal structure of macroinvertebrates in the Blanco River was assessed with seasonal Hess and d-net samples during 2003-2004 and three diel drift samples from May to October 2004. Our downstream site showed a 47% drop in diversity, but comparable abundances to up- and mid-stream sites. Ephemeropteran and trichopteran taxa (e.g. Tricorythodes and Cheumatopsyche) comprised about 60% of drift and benthic samples alike, however, non-insect taxa were nearly absent from the drift. Some taxa not present in the benthic samples were present in the drift. Post-dusk and pre-dawn peaks in diel drift were discerned. No strong seasonal patterns were detected which may be attributable to an unusually wet year and asynchronous, multivoltinous life cycles associated with mild seasonality in subtropical regions. The Blanco River's historically variable hydrological regime may be further exacerbated by long-term flow alteration associated with increasing anthropogenic development and could alter the composition and distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages.

  6. In vivo redox effects of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl., Lantana grisebachii Stuck and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. on blood, thymus and spleen of mice.

    PubMed

    Canalis, A M; Cittadini, M C; Albrecht, C; Soria, E A

    2014-09-01

    Argentinian native plants Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Lantana grisebachii and Ilex paraguariensis are known to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We demonstrated it in vivo by the redox changes in murine hemolymphatic tissues after infusive extract intake of these plants as revealed in organic trophism, tissue phenolics, hydroperoxides, superoxide, nitrites and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in thymus, blood and spleen. A. quebracho-blanco reduced hydroperoxidation in blood and spleen of both sexes, with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase negativization in lymphatic organs and thymic nitrosative up-regulation. Males have shown increased phenolic content in blood after treatment. L. grisebachii and I. paraguariensis treatment exhibited incomplete antioxidation and oxidative induction in the studied tissues. Different results according to sex were found in redox response to phenolics and their kinetics, with males showing antioxidant effects, whereas females showed oxidative susceptibility. A. quebracho-blanco exhibited protection of murine tissues against oxidation in both sexes and modulation of their trophism, supporting its therapeutic uses in inflammatory diseases. Also, gender had significant influence in phenolic biodistribution and redox response. PMID:25241588

  7. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity. PMID:27295922

  8. A search for flares and mass ejections on young late-type stars in the open cluster Blanco-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Greimel, R.; Korhonen, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2014-09-01

    We present a search for stellar activity (flares and mass ejections) in a sample of 28 stars in the young open cluster Blanco-1. We use optical spectra obtained with European Southern Observatory's Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph installed on the Very Large Telescope. From the total observing time of ˜5 h, we find four Hα flares but no distinct indication of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the investigated dK-dM stars. Two flares show `dips' in their light curves right before their impulsive phases which are similar to previous discoveries in photometric light curves of active dMe stars. We estimate an upper limit of <4 CMEs per day per star and discuss this result with respect to a empirical estimation of the CME rate of main-sequence stars. We find that we should have detected at least one CME per star with a mass of ≤ 3 × 1017 g depending on the star's X-ray luminosity, but the estimated Hα fluxes associated with these masses are below the detection limit of our observations. We conclude that the parameter which mainly influences the detection of stellar CMEs using the method of Doppler-shifted emission caused by moving plasma is not the spectral resolution/velocity but the flux/mass of the CME.

  9. Postburn lithology and mineralogy at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a retort 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. [Core samples from near the in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Mason, G.M.; Fahy, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide basic data on some of the characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort after processing. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into Rio Blanco's Tract C-a retort 1 in the western part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The retort operation had been completed nearly four years before the coring, and the cavity and mine workings had been flooded by groundwater for almost one year. Cores were characterized by lithologic description, x-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Drilling and logging records indicate as much as 35 to 40 feet of roof rock has collapsed into the retort since the burn was terminated. A water-filled attic cavity 46 to 62 feet high exists at the top of the retort. One core hole penetrated 377 feet of rubble in the retort and floor rock with numerous fractures below the retort. Most of the material recovered from the retort consisted of highly altered, fused and vesicular rock. Lesser amounts of carbonized, oxidized and moderately heated-altered oil shale were recovered from the upper and lower parts. Raw shale roof fall at the top and unretorted oil shale rubble at the bottom are also present. Thermal alteration has produced high-temperature silicate minerals from the original mixtures of carbonate and silicate minerals in the raw oil shale. Adequate material was recovered from the retort contents to provide valuable data on the lithologic, mineralogic, and physical characteristics of the MIS retort. 19 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. The Mantos Blancos copper deposit: an upper Jurassic breccia-style hydrothermal system in the Coastal Range of Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, L. E.; Palacios, C.; Townley, B.; Parada, M. A.; Sial, A. N.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Lehmann, B.

    2006-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic Mantos Blancos copper deposit (500 Mt at 1.0% Cu), located in the Coastal Range of northern Chile, displays two superimposed hydrothermal events. An older phyllic alteration probably related to felsic magmatic-hydrothermal brecciation at ˜155 Ma, and younger (141-142 Ma) potassic, propylitic, and sodic alterations, coeval with dioritic and granodioritic stocks and sills, and dioritic dikes. Main ore formation is genetically related to the second hydrothermal event, and consists of hydrothermal breccias, disseminations and stockwork-style mineralization, associated with sodic alteration. Hypogene sulfide assemblages show distinctive vertical and lateral zoning, centered on magmatic and hydrothermal breccia bodies, which constitute the feeders to mineralization. A barren pyrite root zone is overlain by pyrite-chalcopyrite, and followed upwards and laterally by chalcopyrite-digenite or chalcopyrite-bornite. The assemblage digenite-supergene chalcocite characterizes the central portions of high-grade mineralization in the breccia bodies. Fluid inclusions show evidence of boiling during the potassic and sodic alteration events, which occurred at temperatures around 450-460°C and 350-410°C, and salinities between 3-53 and 13-45 wt% NaCl eq., respectively. The hydrothermal events occurred during episodic decompression due to fluid overpressuring, hydrofracturing, and sharp changes from lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Sulfur isotope results of hypogene sulfide minerals fall in a narrow range around 0 per mil, suggesting a dominance of magmatic sulfur. Carbon and oxygen isotopic data of calcites from propylitic alteration suggest a mantle-derived carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation due to low-temperature alteration.

  11. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  12. Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].

    PubMed

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  13. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4-1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  14. Low Temperature Induced Changes in Citrate Metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) Fruit during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Qian, Jing; Zhao, Chenning; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Wang, Zhidong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-01-01

    Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruit, and its concentration in fruit cells is regulated mainly by the balance between synthesis and degradation. Ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Ponkan) is one of the major citrus cultivars grew in China, and the fruit are picked before fully mature to avoid bad weather. Greenhouse production is widely used to prolong the maturation period and improve the quality of Ponkan fruit by maintaining adequate temperature and providing protection from adverse weather. In this research, Ponkan fruit cultivated in either a greenhouse or open field were used to investigate differences in the expression of genes related to citrate metabolism during maturation in the two environments. The citrate contents were higher in open field fruit, and were mainly correlated with expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4, which were significantly increased. In addition, the impacts of low temperature (LT) and water stress (WS) on citrate metabolism in Ponkan were investigated during fruit maturation. The citrate contents in LT fruit were significantly increased, by between 1.4–1.9 fold, compared to the control; it showed no significant difference in fruit with water stress treatment compared to the control fruit. Furthermore, the expressions of CitPEPCs, CitCSs, CitAco3 and CitGAD4 were significantly increased in response to LT treatment, but showed no significant difference in WS compared to the control fruit. Thus, it can be concluded that low temperature may be the main factor influencing citrate metabolism during maturation in Ponkan fruit. PMID:27249065

  15. Evaluating gyrochronology on the zero-age-main-sequence: rotation periods in the southern open cluster Blanco 1 from the Kelt-South survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cargile, P. A.; Pepper, J.; Siverd, R.; Stassun, K. G.; James, D. J.; Kuhn, R. B.

    2014-02-10

    We report periods for 33 members of Blanco 1 as measured from Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-South light curves, the first reported rotation periods for this benchmark zero-age-main-sequence open cluster. The distribution of these stars spans from late-A or early-F dwarfs to mid-K with periods ranging from less than a day to ∼8 days. The rotation period distribution has a morphology similar to the coeval Pleiades cluster, suggesting the universal nature of stellar rotation distributions. Employing two different gyrochronology methods, we find an age of 146{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr for the cluster. Using the same techniques, we infer an age of 134{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr for the Pleiades measured from existing literature rotation periods. These rotation-derived ages agree with independently determined cluster ages based on the lithium depletion boundary technique. Additionally, we evaluate different gyrochronology models and quantify levels of agreement between the models and the Blanco 1/Pleiades rotation period distributions, including incorporating the rotation distributions of clusters at ages up to 1.1 Gyr. We find the Skumanich-like spin-down rate sufficiently describes the rotation evolution of stars hotter than the Sun; however, we find cooler stars rotating faster than predicted by a Skumanich law, suggesting a mass dependence in the efficiency of stellar angular momentum loss rate. Finally, we compare the Blanco 1 and Pleiades rotation period distributions to available nonlinear angular momentum evolution models. We find they require a significant mass dependence on the initial rotation rate of solar-type stars to reproduce the observed range of rotation periods at a given stellar mass and are furthermore unable to predict the observed over-density of stars along the upper envelope of the clusters' rotation distributions.

  16. A NEW REDUCTION OF THE BLANCO COSMOLOGY SURVEY: AN OPTICALLY SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CATALOG AND A PUBLIC RELEASE OF OPTICAL DATA PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; Brodwin, M.; Busha, M. T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Gladders, M. D.; High, F. W.; Rest, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey is a four-band (griz) optical-imaging survey of ∼80 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky. The survey consists of two fields centered approximately at (R.A., decl.) = (23{sup h}, –55°) and (5{sup h}30{sup m}, –53°) with imaging sufficient for the detection of L {sub *} galaxies at redshift z ≤ 1. In this paper, we present our reduction of the survey data and describe a new technique for the separation of stars and galaxies. We search the calibrated source catalogs for galaxy clusters at z ≤ 0.75 by identifying spatial over-densities of red-sequence galaxies and report the coordinates, redshifts, and optical richnesses, λ, for 764 galaxy clusters at z ≤ 0.75. This sample, >85% of which are new discoveries, has a median redshift of z = 0.52 and median richness λ(0.4 L {sub *}) = 16.4. Accompanying this paper we also release full survey data products including reduced images and calibrated source catalogs. These products are available at http://data.rcc.uchicago.edu/dataset/blanco-cosmology-survey.

  17. Provenance of the Eocene Soebi Blanco formation, Bonaire, Leeward Antilles: Correlations with post-Eocene tectonic evolution of northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, S.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Vervoort, J.; Reiners, P.

    2014-07-01

    Middle to upper Eocene fluvial strata in the island of Bonaire contain detrital components that were tracked to Precambrian to Triassic massifs in northern Colombia and Venezuela. These detrital components confirm previous hypothesis suggesting that Bonaire and the Leeward Antilles were attached to South American basement massifs (SABM). These are composed of different fragmented South American blocks (Paraguana, Falcon, Maracaibo, Guajira, Perija, and Santa Marta) representing an Eocene, right-laterally displaced tectonic piercing point along the southern Caribbean plate margin. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS from the metamorphic boulders of the Soebi Blanco Formation in Bonaire yield Grenvillian peaks ages (1000-1200 Ma), while detrital zircons recovered from the sandy matrix of the conglomerates contain populations with peaks of 1000 Ma-1200 Ma, 750-950 Ma, and 200-300 Ma. These populations match with geochronological data reported for the northern South American massifs. Thermochronological results from the metamorphic clasts yield Paleocene-middle Eocene ages (65-50 Ma) that confirm a regional-scale cooling event in this time. These data imply a land connection between the SABM and the Leeward Antilles in late Eocene times, followed by a significant strike slip right-lateral displacement and transtensional basin opening starting in latest Eocene times. The succession of Eocene tectonic events recorded by the Soebi Blanco Formation and adjacent basins is a major tracer of the oblique convergence of the Caribbean plate against the South American margin.

  18. Mineralized and Barren Tourmaline Breccia at Río Blanco-Los Bronces Copper Deposit, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohf, Michael; Seifert, Thomas; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Rabbia, Osvaldo; Krause, Joachim; Haser, Sabine; Cuadra, Patricio

    2014-05-01

    The Río Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper-molybdenum cluster (14.8-4.3 Ma) in central Chile is one of the largest mining districts of the world with more than 200 Mt of contained Cu; almost 30% of these resources are hosted by hydrothermal breccias. These breccia complexes are tourmaline-, biotite-, chlorite-, or iron oxide-cemented and are widespread in the Paleo-Eocene and Mio-Pliocene porphyry Cu-Mo belt of the central Andes. The ongoing research project aims to understand the time-space relationships between the different breccia bodies and the multiple porphyry intrusions. For this, two cross sections in the southern part of the deposit (Sur-Sur and La Americana areas) are studied. Most interesting from the economic/genetic point of view is the intermineral breccia (tourmaline- and biotite-cemented), which have high copper grades. It is under debate whether there is a vertical mineralogical zonation of the cement of the breccia body from tourmaline-rich at the top to biotite-dominated at the bottom, or there are two superimposed breccia formation events. Textural and mineralogical observations of benches- and tunnels-outcrops, drill cores, and polished-thin sections support the first hypothesis. Our work has been focused on tourmaline chemistry due to its high resistance to alteration and weathering, which allows this mineral to retain its original isotopic signature. Preliminary results of 127 microprobe measurements of tourmaline chemistry from the early mineralized breccia (BXT) and the late barren one (BXTTO) show that all the tourmalines belong to the alkali group and the composition ranges between the dravite-schorl end members. There is a pronounced negative correlation between Fe (ferric?) and Al, probably due to exchange at the Z octahedral position. The backscatter images of tourmaline show oscillatory and sector zonings, i.e., alternating light bands/zones (high CaO, FeO, Na2O) and darker ones (enriched in Al2O3 and MgO). There is no significant

  19. Distinct Carotenoid and Flavonoid Accumulation in a Spontaneous Mutant of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Results in Yellowish Fruit and Enhanced Postharvest Resistance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Xu, Kunyang; Luo, Yi; Chen, Jiajing; Sheng, Ling; Wang, Jinqiu; Han, Jingwen; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jianmin; Wu, Qun; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-09-30

    As the most important fresh fruit worldwide, citrus is often subjected to huge postharvest losses caused by abiotic and biotic stresses. As a promising strategy to reduce postharvest losses, enhancing natural defense by potential metabolism reprogramming in citrus mutants has rarely been reported. The yellowish spontaneous mutant of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) (YP) was used to investigate the influence of metabolism reprogramming on postharvest performance. Our results show that reduced xanthophyll accumulation is the cause of yellowish coloring of YP and might be attributed to the reduced carotenoid sequestration capacity and upregulated expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes. Constantly higher levels of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) during the infection and the storage stage might make significant contribution to the more strongly induced resistance against Penicillium digitatum and lower rotting rate. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of applying bud mutants to improve the postharvest performance of citrus fruits. PMID:26329679

  20. The Blanco Cosmology Survey: Data Reduction, Calibration and Photometric Redshift Estimation to Four Distant Galaxy Clusters Discovered by the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, Chow Choong; Mohr, J.; Zenteno, A.; Data Management, DES; BCS; SPT Collaborations

    2009-01-01

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) is designed to enable a study of the cosmic acceleration using multiple techniques. To date, BCS has acquired Sloan griz band imaging data from 60 nights (15 nights per year from 2005 to 2008) using the Blanco 4m Telescope located at CTIO. The astronomical imaging data taken from this survey have been processed on high performance computer TeraGrid platforms at NCSA, using the automated Dark Energy Survey (DES) data management (DM) system. The DES DM system includes (1) middlewares for controlling and managing the processing jobs, and serve as an application container encapsulating the scientific codes; and (2) DES archive, which includes filesystem nodes, a relational database and a data access framework, to support the pipeline processing, data storage and scientific analyzes. Photometric solution module (PSM) were run on photometric nights to determine the zeropoints (ZP) and other photometric solutions. We remapped and coadded the images that lie within the pre-defined coadd tiles in the sky. When running the coaddition pipeline, we determined the ZP for each images using the photometric ZP from PSM, the magnitude offsets between overlapping images, and the sky brightness ratio for CCDs within a given exposure. We also applied aperture correction and color-term correction to the coadded catalogs. Satisfactory photometric and astrometric precision were achieved. These enabled initial estimation of photometric redshifts using ANNz codes, trained from 5000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. RMS in the photometric redshifts ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 in sigma_z/(1+z) for redshift extended to z=1. We used the BCS data to optically confirm and estimate redshifts for four of the highest S/N galaxy clusters discovered with the South Pole Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect.

  1. Geologic and hydrostratigraphic map of the Anhalt, Fischer, and Spring Branch 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Robert R. Morris

    2015-01-01

    The hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers have been mapped and described herein using a classification system developed by Choquette and Pray (1970), which is based on porosity types being fabric or not-fabric selective. The naming of hydrostratigraphic units is also based on preexisting names and topographic or historical features that occur in outcrop. The only hydrostratigraphic unit of the Edwards aquifer present in the study area is VIII hydrostratigraphic unit. The mapped hydrostratigraphic units of the upper Trinity aquifer are, from top to bottom: the cavernous, Camp Bullis, upper evaporite, fossiliferous, and lower evaporite and they are interval equivalent to the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. The middle Trinity aquifer (interval equivalent to the lower member of the Glen Rose Limestone) contains, from top to bottom: the Bulverde, Little Blanco, Twin Sisters, Doeppenschmidt, Rust, and Honey Creek hydrostratigraphic units. The lower part of the middle Trinity aquifer is formed by the Hensell, Cow Creek, and Hammett hydrostratigraphic units which are interval equivalent to the Hensell Sand Member, the Cow Creek Limestone, and the Hammett Shale Member, respectively, of the Pearsall Formation.

  2. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of "Wuzishatangju". PMID:26370985

  3. Chemistry and age of groundwater in bedrock aquifers of the Piceance and Yellow Creek watersheds, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hunt, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells completed in the Uinta and Green River Formations in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek watersheds in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to provide information on the overall groundwater quality, the occurrence and distribution of chemicals that could be related to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs, and to better understand groundwater residence times in the flow system. Methane concentrations in groundwater ranged from less than 0.0005 to 387 milligrams per liter. The methane was predominantly biogenic in origin, although the biogenic methane was mixed with thermogenic methane in water from seven wells. Three BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) were detected in water from six of the wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards. The presence of thermogenic methane in the aquifers indicates a connection and vulnerability to chemicals in deeper geologic units. Helium-4 data indicate that groundwater had ages ranging from less than 1,000 years to greater than 50,000 years. The presence of old groundwater in parts of the aquifers indicates that these aquifers may not be useful for large-scale water supply because of low recharge rates.

  4. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of “Wuzishatangju” (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from “Wuzishatangju” (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of “Wuzishatangju”. PMID:26370985

  5. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

  6. 3_D modeling using TLS and GPR techniques to characterize above and below-ground wood distribution in pyroclastic deposits along the Blanco River (Chilean Patagonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdebenito, Galo; Tonon, Alessia; Iroume, Andrés; Alvarado, David; Fuentes, Carlos; Picco, Lorenzo; Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    To date, the study of in-stream wood in rivers has been focused mainly on quantifying wood pieces deposited above the ground. However, in some particular river systems, the presence of buried dead wood can also represent an important component of wood recruitment and budgeting dynamics. This is the case of the Blanco River (Southern Chile) severely affected by the eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred between 2008 and 2009. The high pyroclastic sediment deposition and transport affected the channel and the adjacent forest, burying wood logs and standing trees. The aim of this contribution is to assess the presence and distribution of wood in two study areas (483 m2 and 1989 m2, respectively) located along the lower streambank of the Blanco River, and covered by thick pyroclastic deposition up to 5 m. The study areas were surveyed using two different devices, a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The first was used to scan the above surface achieving a high point cloud density (≈ 2000 points m-2) which allowed us to identify and measure the wood volume. The second, was used to characterize the internal morphology of the volcanic deposits and to detect the presence and spatial distribution of buried wood up to a depth of 4 m. Preliminary results have demonstrated differences in the numerousness and volume of above wood between the two study areas. In the first one, there were 43 wood elements, 33 standing trees and 10 logs, with a total volume of 2.96 m3 (109.47 m3 km-1), whereas the second one was characterized by the presence of just 7 standing trees and 11 wood pieces, for a total amount of 0.77 m3 (7.73 m3 km-1). The dimensions of the wood elements vary greatly according to the typology, standing trees show the higher median values in diameter and length (0.15 m and 2.91 m, respectively), whereas the wood logs were smaller (0.06 m and 1.12 m, respectively). The low dimensions of deposited wood can be probably connected to their

  7. THE SERENDIPITOUS OBSERVATION OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXY AT z = 0.9057 FROM THE BLANCO COSMOLOGY SURVEY: THE ELLIOT ARC

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Drabek, E. R.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Frieman, J. A.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Desai, S.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Mohr, J. J.; Zenteno, A.; Lin, Y.-T.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Song, J.

    2011-11-20

    We report on the serendipitous discovery in the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) imaging data of a z = 0.9057 galaxy that is being strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster at a redshift of z = 0.3838. The lens (BCS J2352-5452) was discovered while examining i- and z-band images being acquired in 2006 October during a BCS observing run. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument on the Gemini-South 8 m telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. Using weak-plus-strong lensing, velocity dispersion, cluster richness N{sub 200}, and fitting to a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster mass density profile, we have made three independent estimates of the mass M{sub 200} which are all very consistent with each other. The combination of the results from the three methods gives M{sub 200} = (5.1 {+-} 1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }, which is fully consistent with the individual measurements. The final NFW concentration c{sub 200} from the combined fit is c{sub 200} = 5.4{sup +1.4}{sub -1.1}. We have compared our measurements of M{sub 200} and c{sub 200} with predictions for (1) clusters from {Lambda}CDM simulations, (2) lensing-selected clusters from simulations, and (3) a real sample of cluster lenses. We find that we are most compatible with the predictions for {Lambda}CDM simulations for lensing clusters, and we see no evidence based on this one system for an increased concentration compared to {Lambda}CDM. Finally, using the flux measured from the [O II]3727 line we have determined the star formation rate of the source galaxy and find it to be rather modest given the assumed lens magnification.

  8. The serendipitous observation of a gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 0.9057 from the Blanco Cosmology Survey: the Elliot Arc

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Drabek, E. R.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Desai, S.; et al

    2011-11-03

    We report on the serendipitous discovery in the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) imaging data of a z = 0.9057 galaxy that is being strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster at a redshift of z = 0.3838. The lens (BCS J2352-5452) was discovered while examining i- and z-band images being acquired in October 2006 during a BCS observing run. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the GMOS instrument on the Gemini South 8m telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. Using weak plus strong lensing, velocity dispersion, cluster richness N200, and fitting to an NFW cluster mass density profile, we havemore » made three independent estimates of the mass M200 which are all very consistent with each other. The combination of the results from the three methods gives M200 = (5.1 x 1.3) x 1014 circle_dot, which is fully consistent with the individual measurements. The final NFW concentration c200 from the combined fit is c200 = 5.4-1.1+1.4. We have compared our measurements of M200 and c200 with predictions for (a) clusters from λCDM simulations, (b) lensing selected clusters from simulations, and (c) a real sample of cluster lenses. We find that we are most compatible with the predictions for λCDM simulations for lensing clusters, and we see no evidence based on this one system for an increased concentration compared to λCDM. Finally, using the flux measured from the [OII]3727 line we have determined the star formation rate (SFR) of the source galaxy and find it to be rather modest given the assumed lens magnification.« less

  9. The serendipitous observation of a gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 0.9057 from the Blanco Cosmology Survey: the Elliot Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Drabek, E. R.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Desai, S.; Frieman, J. A.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Mohr, J. J.; Lin, Y. -T.; Ngeow, C. -C.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Song, J.; Zenteno, A.

    2011-11-03

    We report on the serendipitous discovery in the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) imaging data of a z = 0.9057 galaxy that is being strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster at a redshift of z = 0.3838. The lens (BCS J2352-5452) was discovered while examining i- and z-band images being acquired in October 2006 during a BCS observing run. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the GMOS instrument on the Gemini South 8m telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. Using weak plus strong lensing, velocity dispersion, cluster richness N200, and fitting to an NFW cluster mass density profile, we have made three independent estimates of the mass M200 which are all very consistent with each other. The combination of the results from the three methods gives M200 = (5.1 x 1.3) x 1014 circle_dot, which is fully consistent with the individual measurements. The final NFW concentration c200 from the combined fit is c200 = 5.4-1.1+1.4. We have compared our measurements of M200 and c200 with predictions for (a) clusters from λCDM simulations, (b) lensing selected clusters from simulations, and (c) a real sample of cluster lenses. We find that we are most compatible with the predictions for λCDM simulations for lensing clusters, and we see no evidence based on this one system for an increased concentration compared to λCDM. Finally, using the flux measured from the [OII]3727 line we have determined the star formation rate (SFR) of the source galaxy and find it to be rather modest given the assumed lens magnification.

  10. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  11. Searching Structural Control on the Evolution of the Reservoir Permeability in the Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum Rio Blanco - Los Bronces District: Structural Geology and Passive Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Vela, I.; Silva, W.

    2013-05-01

    Understand main factors that controls the crustal permeability related to giant ore deposits is a crucial goal for improving metallogenic models. Subsurface data at distrital scales, remains a key factor to reach that goal, however use of regional geophysical methodologies are still extremely expensive and poorly developed on ore exploration. We present the results associated to distrital structural analyses, combined with passive seismic tomography in a case study in Central Andes. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Rio Blanco-Los Bronces District (Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit) involves a complex interaction of different processes along the time which includes: Pre-Mesozoic structural inheritance, Oligo-Miocene extension, Mio-Pliocene orogenic shortening with the respective tectonic inversion associated to the uplift of the Andean western margin. Miocene volcano sedimentary units (Abanico Formation) and Pliocene syn-orogenic volcanic units form the deformed host distrital structure. These rocks are part of a trench-linked Andean deformation belt that accommodates EW shortening by NS- strike faults and NS-axes fault related folds. This structural belt controls the uplift of the western margin of the Andes by tectonic inversion of Miocene rift-type structural geometries. The reservoir structure is interpreted by the emplacement of a batholith in the core of the transfer zone between two NS-strike reverse faults, where the ore bodies are located in the center of an anticline general structure showing NW-SE mineralization trend. In turn, NE trending faults dislocate ore bodies in the transfer zone. The reservoir structure is interpreted by the emplacement of a Mio-Pliocene syntectonic batholith in the middle of a transfer zone between two NS-strike reverse faults, where the ore bodies are located in the axis of the anticlinal general structure. Passive seismic tomography results suggest a NNW-strike zone formed by fractured or/and hydrated rocks. This zone is spatially

  12. Preliminary report on the geology, geophysics and hydrology of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.; Carroll, R.D.; Welder, F.A.

    1967-01-01

    Approximately 1,400 feet of continuous core was taken .between 800-2,214 feet in depth from USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2. The drill, site is located in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. From ground surface the drill hole penetrated 1,120 feet of the Evacuation Creek Member and 1,094 feet of oil shale in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. Oil shale yielding more than 20 gallons per ton occurs between 1,260-2,214 feet in depth. A gas explosion near the bottom of the hole resulted in abandonment of the exploratory hole which was still in oil shale. The top of the nahcolite zone is at 1,693 feet. Below this depth the core contains common to abundant amounts of sodium bicarbonate salt intermixed with oil shale. The core is divided into seven structural zones that reflect changes in joint intensity, core loss and broken core due to natural causes. The zone of poor core recovery is in the Interval between 1,300-1,450 feet. Results of preliminary geophysical log analyses indicate that oil yields determined by Fischer assay compare favorably with yields determined by geophysical log analyses. There is strong evidence that analyses of complete core data from Colorado core holes No. 1 and No. 2 reveal a reliable relationship between geophysical log response and oil yield. The quality of the logs is poor in the rich shale section and the possibility of repeating the logging program should be considered. Observations during drilling, coring, and hydrologic testing of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2 reveal that the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation is the principal aquifer water in the Parachute Creek Member is under artesian pressure. The upper part of the aquifer has a higher hydrostatic head than, and is hydrologically separated from the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissibility of the aquifer is about 3500 gpd per foot. The maximum water yield of the core hole during testing was about 500 gpm. Chemical

  13. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  14. Rapid Polar Wander in North America During the Early Cambrian: Paleomagnetic and Magnetostratigraphic Constraints from the Peurto Blanco Volcanics from Caborca, and the Tapeats Sandstone of the Grand Canyon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Elston, D. P.; Petterson, R.; Hagadorn, J. W.; Raub, T. D.; Evans, D. A.; Rose, E. C.; Weiss, B. P.; Barr, T. D.

    2006-12-01

    We report paleomagnetic directions from a volcaniclastic unit in the Early Cambrian Puerto Blanco Formation near Caborca in Sonora, Mexico, and from a restudy of the Tapeats Sandstone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Volcaniclastics in Caborca are found above carbonates of La Cienega Formation, which bear the Ediacaran index fossil Cloudina, and are overlain by siliciclastics bearing the Early Cambrian fossil Treptichnus pedum. Thin basaltic flows within the sequence show evidence of early oxidation of magnetite to hematite yielding a strong and stable remnant magnetization, and characteristic NRM directions obtained during progressive alternating field and thermal demagnetization from the units fall in two antipodal easterly westerly groups with moderate inclination. Volcanic clasts from the Puerto Blanco Formation show statistically random dispersion of components carried both by magnetite and by hematite, indicating multiple episodes of erosion and redeposition, and provide a positive conglomerate test. After correction for offset by the Sonora/Mojave megashear in Mesozoic time, these data imply a North magnetic pole at ~21º S latitude, 142º E longitude, suggesting that North America was at moderate southerly latitudes during the first part of Early Cambrian time. In contrast, near-equatorial paleolatitude is indicated for the earliest Middle Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone in the Grand Canyon and vicinity. Our extensive dm-resolution magnetostratigraphic study of this unit, involving stable data from about 250 samples from 7 sections, confirms an earlier report of Elston & Bressler (1977) which demonstrated a low-latitude, two-polarity characteristic remanence with stratigraphically-bounded polarity reversals. We provide positive reversal and conglomerate tests for this characteristic magnetization. The paleogeographic shift toward the equator during the last portion of Early Cambrian time helps account for the earlier appearance and higher abundance of carbonate

  15. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  16. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  17. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  18. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  19. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  20. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  1. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  2. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  3. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there. PMID:27065035

  4. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology

  5. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  6. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Hjort, Christian; Björck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  7. Cape Blanco wind energy feasibility study. Terrestrial ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-04-01

    The project site is a series of grassland bench terraces on a bluff above the Pacific Ocean. Because the site has a long history of use for sheep grazing, the vegetation is mainly pasture grasses (64 percent of the site), with patches of mixed forest cover (26 percent), and wetlands (10 percent) in the ravine dividing the site. Because of the open nature of the site, the proposed arrangement of the wind turbines and relatively little need for site modification, there are few environmental concerns. The main concerns are the potential for bird collisions with the turbines and associated apparatus and threatened and endangered bird species. The expected impacts of the project on vegetation, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and fish have been determined to be minor. A series of calculations were made using formulas from the literature to estimate bird kills from collisions with the wind turbines and associated apparatus. Less than one-tenth of 1 percent of the vulnerable migrating bird population was determined to be subject to death by collision. Thus, impacts to birds were also determined to be insignificant. The other major concern is the potential impacts of the project on five species of birds from the area that are recognized as threatened or endangered. The site provides no unique or especially important habitat for any of the five species. The likelihood of project impacts to any of them is low.

  8. [Proposal for early detection of ethanol consumption in students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos].

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Sara; Erazo-Mijares, Miguel; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo D; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined through analytic techniques the quantification of some biomarkers that have been useful to detect early ethanol consumption in a college population. A group of 117 students of recent entry to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos was analyzed. The enzyme determination of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase as metabolic markers of ethanol, as well as the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) detected by high chromatographic liquid (up to 1.8% of CDT), allowed us to identify that 6% of the college population presented a potential risk of alcohol consumption. The use of the biochemical-analytical method overall with the psychological drug and a risk factor instrument established by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos permit us to identify students whose substance abuse consumption puts their terminal efficiency at risk as well as their academic level. The timely detection on admission to college can monitor and support a student consumer's substance abuse. PMID:27160612

  9. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  10. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  11. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  12. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  13. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  14. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the Río El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de

  15. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  16. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  17. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria. PMID:23032283

  18. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  19. 46 CFR 7.140 - Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extremity of the Coos Bay South Jetty to latitude 43°21.9′ N. longitude 124°21.7′ W. (Coos Bay Entrance... the lookout tower located in approximate position latitude 46°13.6′ N. longitude 124°00.7′ W. to latitude 46°12.8′ N. longitude 124°08.0′ W. (Columbia River Entrance Lighted Whistle Buoy “2”); thence...

  20. Cape Blanco Wind Energy Feasibility Study : Technical Report, No. 11. Terrestrial Ecology.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-04-01

    The project site is a series of grassland bench terraces on a bluff above the Pacific Ocean. Because the site has a long history of use for sheep grazing, the vegetation is mainly pasture grasses (64 percent of the site), with patches of mixed forest cover (26 percent), and wetlands (10 percent) in the ravine dividing the site. Because of the open nature of the site, the proposed arrangement of the wind turbines and relatively little need for site modification, there are few environmental concerns. The main concerns are the potential for bird collisions with the turbines and associated apparatus and threatened and endangered bird species. The expected impacts of the project on vegetation, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and fish have been determined to be minor. A series of calculations were made using formulas from the literature to estimate bird kills from collisions with the wind turbines and associated apparatus. Less than one-tenth of 1 percent of the vulnerable migrating bird population was determined to be subject to death by collision. Thus, impacts to birds were also determined to be insignificant. The other major concern is the potential impacts of the project on five species of birds from the area that are recognized as threatened or endangered. The site provides no unique or especially important habitat for any of the five species. The likelihood of project impacts to any of them is low. Impacts of the three alternative are compared and conclusions are drawn on the significance of the impacts. Since none of the alternatives appear to have significant impacts, mitigation measures are discussed more in terms of practices or actions which could or would reduce impacts.

  1. "Todos Somos Blancos"/We Are All White: Constructing Racial Identities through Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael-Luna, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research has revealed an underlying link between identity construction and academic success for adolescents (Nasir & Saxe, 2003); however, research has not addressed how students' identities are formed and negotiated in the cultural practices of elementary school. This article examines how early elementary Mexican-origin bilinguals' racial,…

  2. 75 FR 39275 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification; Rio Blanco County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    .... SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has examined and found suitable for classification for lease... regarding the proposed lease/conveyance or classification on or before August 23, 2010. ADDRESSES: Comments... classification for lease and subsequent conveyance under the provisions of the R&PP Act, as amended, (43...

  3. 46 CFR 7.140 - Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... latitude 46°12.8′ N. longitude 124°08.0′ W. (Columbia River Entrance Lighted Whistle Buoy “2”); thence to latitude 46°14.5′ N. longitude 124°09.5′ W. (Columbia River Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “1”); thence...

  4. 46 CFR 7.140 - Cape Blanco, OR to Cape Flattery, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... latitude 46°12.8′ N. longitude 124°08.0′ W. (Columbia River Entrance Lighted Whistle Buoy “2”); thence to latitude 46°14.5′ N. longitude 124°09.5′ W. (Columbia River Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “1”); thence...

  5. Degradation of a peptide in pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata Blanco.

    PubMed

    An, Chung-Il; Takekawa, Shoji; Okazawa, Atsushi; Fukusaki, Ei-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2002-07-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nitrogen from insects. The tropical carnivorous plant Nepenthes produces trapping organs called pitchers at the tips of tendrils elongated from leaf ends. Acidic fluid is secreted at the bottoms of the pitchers. The pitcher fluid includes several hydrolytic enzymes, and some, such as aspartic proteinase, are thought to be involved in nitrogen acquisition from insect proteins. To understand the nitrogen-acquisition process, it is essential to identify the protein-degradation products in the pitcher fluid. To gain insight into protein degradation in pitcher fluid, we used the oxidized B-chain of bovine insulin as a model substrate, and its degradation by the pitcher fluid of N. alata was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). LC-MS analysis of the degradation products revealed that the oxidized B-chain of bovine insulin was initially cleaved at aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrosine. These cleavage sites are similar to those of aspartic proteinases from other plants and animals. The presence of a series of peptide fragments as degradation products suggests that exopeptidase(s) is also present in the pitcher fluid. Amino acid analysis and peptide fragment analysis of the degradation products demonstrated that three amino acids plus small peptides were released from the oxidized B-chain of bovine insulin, suggesting that insect proteins are readily degraded to small peptides and amino acids in the pitcher fluid of N. alata. PMID:12111230

  6. Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-05-12

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

  7. Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (???2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ??V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 A??, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 ?? 10-14 mol biotite m-2 s-1. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 ??m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 ?? 10-13 mol hornblende m-2 s-1: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O2 at the bedrock-saprolite interface. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  9. Records of environmental changes during the Holocene from Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Fernandez, Marilen; Björck, Svante; Ljung, Karl; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    Southernmost Patagonia, located at the relatively narrow passage between Antarctica and South America, is a highly sensitive region for recording meridional and zonal changes in the pattern of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The island of Isla de los Estados, situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinean Tierra del Fuego, provides an exceptional possibility, to investigate terrestrial records of atmospheric conditions in an oceanic setting during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. Here we present geochemical and diatom analyses from 10 600 to c. 1500 cal BP of one sequence (LGB) with peat, lake sediments and lagoon deposits at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment sequence (CAS) 3 km further inland. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating on both cores. Diatom analysis of the CAS record complements the geochemical proxies. During the Holocene, our two sites have been impacted by two different forcings: changes in the regional climate regime largely influenced by the varying strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies (SHW), while relative sea-level changes affected the deposits of the coastal site. In concert with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum, our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation on the island c. 10 600 cal BP. Between 8500 and 4500 cal BP geochemistry and diatoms from the CAS record indicate stronger Westerlies at this latitude, which means higher wind speed or higher storm frequency and more precipitation, resulting in more pronounced surface run-off. After 4500 cal BP, the geochemical proxies and large changes in diatom assemblages indicate a decrease in precipitation, weaker winds and possibly cooler conditions, probably as an effect of weaker SHW and/or a latitudinal shift. The depositional environment of CAS changed from gyttja to peat around 1000

  10. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at Río El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ramírez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the

  11. In situ measurement of dust devil dynamics: toward a strategy for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Catling, D. C.; Samulon, E. C.; Smith, P. H.

    2003-01-01

    An intensive 3-day dust devil investigation was conducted near Eloy, Arizona, during June of 2001. The goal was to evaluate strategies for observing dust devils on Mars by studying the physics of terrestrial dust devils.

  12. Aquifer compaction and ground-water levels in south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Daniel W.; Pool, Donald R.

    2000-01-01

    As of 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey is monitoring water-level fluctuationa dn aquifer compaction at 19 wells that are fitted with borehole extensometers in the Eloy Basin, Stanfield Basin, Avra Valley, and Upper Santa Cruz Basin. Decreased ground-water pumping has resulted in water-level recoveries of more than 100 feet at a well near Eloy and almost 200 feet at a well in Avra Valley. Aquifer compaction has continued in both areas despite the large water-level recoveries in Eloy and the stable water levels in Avra Valley. Extensometer sites in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin have recorded as much as 50 feet of water-level decline and 0.2 feet of aquifer compaction during 1980 to 1996. Rates of compaction vary throughout the extensometer network, with the greater rates of compaction being associated with the more compressible sediments of Eloy and Stanfield Basins.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Runaway carbon stars of Blanco & McCarthy field 37 (Loup+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loup, C.; Delmotte, N.; Egret, D.; Cioni, M.-R.; Genova, F.

    2008-07-01

    We have been recently faced with the problem of cross-identifying stars recorded in historical catalogues with those extracted from recent fully digitized surveys (such as DENIS and 2MASS). Positions mentioned in the old catalogues are frequently of poor precision, but are generally accompanied by finding charts where the interesting objects are flagged. Those finding charts are sometimes our only link with the accumulated knowledge of past literature. While checking the identification of some of these objects in several catalogues, we had the surprise to discover a number of discrepancies in recent works.The main reason for these discrepancies was generally the blind application of the smallest difference in position as the criterion to identify sources from one historical catalogue to those in more recent surveys. In this paper we give examples of such mis-identifications, and show how we were able to find and correct them.We present modern procedures to discover and solve cross-identification problems, such as loading digitized images of the sky through the Aladin service at CDS, and overlaying entries from historical catalogues and modern surveys. We conclude that the use of good finding charts still remains the ultimate (though time-consuming) tool to ascertain cross-identifications in difficult cases. (2 data files).

  14. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at five surface-water sites in December 2010 that were sampled as part of a previous USGS study in 2000. Water-quality data collected during December 2010 showed no appreciable difference from water-quality data collected during December 2000 at the five sites.

  15. In vivo Induction of Tetraploid in Tangerine Citrus Plants (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Use of Colchicine.

    PubMed

    Surson, Suntaree; Sitthaphanit, Suphasit; Wongma, Nattapong

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings. PMID:26353415

  16. Preliminary assessment of the ground-water resources of the alluvial aquifer, White River valley, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Liew, W. P.; Gesink, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary study of the alluvial aquifer in the White River Valley was conducted to assess aquifer extent and the occurrence , availability, and chemical quality of water in the aquifer. The aquifer in the study area underlies 35 square miles. Aquifer width ranges from 0.1 to 1.5 miles and averages 0.5 miles. Saturated thickness ranges from zero to more than 140 feet and averages 22 feet. The aquifer is unconfined except west of the Grand Hogback, where artesian conditions were observed at several locations. Well yields usually are less than 25 gallons per minute. At the Meeker municipal well field in Agency Park, wells reportedly could yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute each. Based on nine aquifer tests, transmissivity ranges from 860 to 93,000 feet squared per day, and hydraulic conductivity ranges from 70 to 1,550 feet per day. The estimated total volume of water in storage in the aquifer in the study area is 103,000 acre-feet. Groundwater type in the eastern part of the study area is calcium bicarbonate; to the west, water type is sodium sulfate. Water in the aquifer is classified as very hard throughout the study area. Specific conductance generally increases from east to west. (USGS)

  17. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  18. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria. PMID:27384559

  19. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria. PMID:27384559

  20. Where Does It Take You? Using the Poetry of Paz, Pacheco, Guitierrez, Blanco, and Deltoro as Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Naomi Shihab

    1997-01-01

    Notes the importance of noticing details and the precious, weird little details of neighborhoods. Uses poetry by Latin American poets to teach children and adults how to write their own poetry. Starts with basic techniques--talking, reading, discussing, and notetaking. (PA)

  1. BIOGENIC HYDROCARBON CONTRIBUTION TO THE AMBIENT AIR OF SELECTED AREAS - TULSA; GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS; RIO BLANCO COUNTY, COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of volatile hydrocarbon emissions to the atmosphere indicate that biogenic sources are much greater on a global basis than anthropogenic sources. Many assumptions inherent in these estimates, however, introduce a large degree of uncertainty about both inventories. A cri...

  2. CONSTRUCTION OF A RYE CV. BLANCO BAC LIBRARY, AND PROGRESS TOWARDS CLONING THE RYE ALT3 ALUMINUM TOLERANCE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being an important cereal crop, rye (Secale cereale L.) provides valuable traits for other crops, as a parent of the amphidiploid triticale, and as a donor of translocated chromosome segments in wheat. Rye possesses excellent tolerance to many biotic and abiotic stresses that could p...

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Property of the Ethanol Extract of the Root and Rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Wen; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Su, Zu-Qing; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Li, Yu-Cui

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the ethanol extract of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (ERP). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema. Results indicated that oral administration of ERP (120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, inhibited carrageenan-induced neutrophils recruitment, and reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, ERP (480 mg/kg) abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that ERP decreased the level of MPO and MDA, increased the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of COX-2 and iNOS. This work demonstrates that ERP has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24385881

  4. Digital model of ground-water flow in the Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco and Garfield Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The digital model used to simulate ground-water flow in the aquifer system in the basin drained by Piceance and Yellow Creeks in northwestern Colorado is described in detail. The model is quasi three-dimensional in that it simulates ground-water flow in a multiaquifer system by assuming horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow through the confining layers separating the aquifers. The model uses the iterative alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve the finite-difference flow equations. The digital model is documented by a program listing and flow charts. Data used in the model and sample output are presented to document the simulation of steady-state flow in the aquifer system. The variables used in the computer program and program options are discussed in detail. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  6. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  7. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr

  8. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  9. Tense and Aspect in Mandarin Chinese and Spanish: Contrasts Manifested in the Mandarin Translation of Javier Marias' Corazón Tan Blanco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese and Spanish are both considered aspect languages for the simple reason that they both mark grammatical aspect morphologically: the former attaches a particle expressing only aspectual meaning to the root of a verb, while the latter attaches a suffix expressing both aspectual and tense meaning to the root of a verb. Since tense…

  10. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. Using leaf explants: bactericidal effect of leaf extracts and counteracting strategies.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anamika; Bakshi, Souvika; Sahoo, Debee Prasad; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2012-04-01

    An optimized protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of patchouli using leaf disk explants is reported. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of the plants revealed Agrobacterium sensitivity to the extracts. Fluorometric assay of bacterial cell viability indicated dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of callus extract against Agrobacterium cells. Addition of 0.1% Tween 20 and 2 g/l L-glutamine to Agrobacterium infection medium counteracted the bactericidal effect and significantly increased the T-DNA delivery to explants. A short preculture of explants for 2 days followed by infection with Agrobacterium in medium containing 150 μM of acetosyringone were found essential for efficient T-DNA delivery. Cocultivation for 3 days at 22 °C in conjunction with other optimized factors resulted in maximum T-DNA delivery. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf disk explants were found significantly related to physiological age of the explants, age and origin of the of the donor plant. Leaf explants from second node of the 3-month-old in vivo plants showed highest transformation efficiency (94.3%) revealed by transient GUS expression assay. Plants selected on medium containing 20 mg/l kanamycin showed stable GUS expression in leaves and stem. The elongated shoots readily developed roots on kanamycin-free rooting medium and on transfer to soil, plants were successfully established. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis in putative plants confirmed their transgenic nature. The established transformation method should provide new opportunities for the genetic improvement of patchouli for desirable trait. PMID:22434351

  12. Hydrologic analysis of the U.S. Bureau of Mines' underground oil-shale research-facility site, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, R.H.; Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines plans to develop an underground oil-shale research facility near the center of Piceance Creek basin in Colorado. The oil-shale zone, which is to be penetrated by a shaft, is overlain by 1,400 feet of sedimentary rocks, primarily sandstone and marlstone, consisting of two aquifers separated by a confining layer. Three test holes were drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to obtain samples of the oil shale, and to test the hydraulic properties of the two aquifers. The data collected during construction of the test holes were used to update an existing ground-water-flow computer model. The model was used to estimate the maximum amount of water that would have to be pumped to dewater the shaft during its construction. It is estimated that it would be necessary to pump as much as 3,080 gallons per minute to keep the shaft dry. Disposal of waste water and rock are the principal hydrologic problems associated with constructing the shaft. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. 75 FR 41449 - Procurement List Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/21/2010 (75 FR 28589-28590) and 5/28/2010 (75 FR 29994-29995), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published.... Adams Road, Eloy, AZ Papago Farms, FR 21, Sells, AZ Sonoita Checkpoint, Highway 83 MP 40.8, Sonoita,...

  14. Reaching Rural Communities: Videoconferencing in K-12 Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Mila

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study exploring the effects of using videoconferencing (VC) to deliver dance instruction to rural communities. The context of the study is a university community partnership run through blended live and VC instruction with elementary and middle school students in Eloy, Arizona. This research is part of a…

  15. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track VI: Information Delivery To Support the Institutional Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    The 1993 CAUSE Conference presented eight papers on the use of information technology to support the mission of colleges and universities. Papers include: (1) "Institutional Imaging: Sharing the Campus Image" (Carl Jacobson), which describes the University of Delaware's campus-wide information system; (2) "Electronic Paper Flow" (Eloy Areu and…

  16. Information Technology: Making It All Fit. Track V: Impact of Departmental Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1988 CAUSE conference's Track V, Impact of Departmental Computing, are presented. They include: "An Approach to Departmental Computing Support" (Cedric S. Bennett); "DEANS--A Fully Integrated Academic Network System" (Eloy Areu, Albert Klavon, and Robert Munn); "Departmental Systems for Administrative Functions" (Stephen…

  17. Observatorio Pierre Auger: motivación y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Etchegoyen, A.; García, B.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is aiming to understand the origin, nature and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic cosmic rays (E>10 E18 eV). It will consist of one hybrid detector in each hemisphere, giving a total acceptance of 14200 km2 sr. The southern observatory is being constructed in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina, and will be finished in 2006. No final statement can be made so far about any feature in the most energetic part of the spectrum. However, good candidate events were observed to have a primary energy of about 10 E20 eV.

  18. Reacciones de intercambio de carga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.

    Se discute la validez de diversas metodologías y su aplicación al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electrónico entre iones y blancos atómicos y moleculares. Para energías de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el método cuántico de la Coordenada de Reacción Común (CRC). A mayores energías, se utiliza el método semiclásico iconal con un desarrollo de la función de onda dinámica en estados moleculares adiabáticos, modificados con un factor de traslación común (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con cálculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionización compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusión de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simultáneamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra técnica utilizada es el método estadístico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones ión-molécula (diatómica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos métodos, desde la llamada aproximación Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibrónicos, pasando por la aproximación súbita vibro-rotacional, obteniéndose secciones eficaces de captura electrónica total y a estados individuales, así como secciones de excitación vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociación). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energía y los correspondientes acoplamientos dinámicos entre los estados. La aplicación de estos métodos permite determinar el grado de contaminación de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes isótopos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosión culombiana, todo ello con precisión comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de interés en distintos tipos de plasmas.

  19. El Estado de la Educacion para los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos (The Condition of Education for Hispanics in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; And Others

    Organized into 4 chapters, the report provides tabular data portraying the educational condition for about 12 million Hispanic Americans in the United States, and shows how Hispanics compare with the majority population on various measures of educational participation and achievement. Providing an overview of Hispanic Americans in the U.S.,…

  20. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  1. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  2. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  3. Estado y rendimiento del espectrógrafo infrarrojo criogénico F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Gomez, P.; Schirmer, M.; Navarrete, F.; Stephens, A.; Bosch, G.; Gaspar, G.; Camperi, J.; Gunthardt, G.

    First results related to the commissioning phase of Flamingos-2 spectrograph are reported. The available operation modes for observation and expected performance for 2014 are also presented. After the replacement of the first collimator lens; broken in 2012; a problem persisted in the optical alignment. The troubleshooting will require a new instrument refurbishing schedule; meanwhile; the available operation modes are limited to direct image and longslit spectroscopy. We found that the direct image () achieves its highest quality (0.4'') only in the inner 3' of the field and resolution drops toward the spectrum ends. The longslit mode provides for the / ranges; and for the R3k grism in the ranges ; or . We also determine the uncertainties for emission line kinematics; and study the relative flexion between the guiding system; the slit and the detector. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.…

  5. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the Spanish-Speaking Minority,"…

  6. Estado evolutivo de estrellas con fenómeno B[e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y. J.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.

    The B[e] phenomenon is related to certain peculiar features observed in the spectrum of some B stars, which are mainly linked to the physical conditions of their circumstellar medium. As these stars are embedded in dense and optically thick circumstellar media, the determination of the spectral type and luminosity class of the central objects is quite difficult. As a consequence, their evolutionary stage and distances present huge uncertainties. In this work we study 4 B[e] stars and discuss their stellar fundamental parameters and evolutionary stages using the BCD spectrophotometric system. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  8. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  9. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born…

  10. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  11. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  12. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Búsqueda de sitio en el Noroeste Argentino: estado de avance al 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Vrech, R.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    We report the activities corresponding to the site testing project that the IATE group in collaboration with ESO and IAR have developed during the last year. We report the installation of a weather station at 4600 meters over the sea level in the Macon mountain range near the small town of Tolar Grande. We discuss the adopted criteria for the election of this site as well as the future plans.

  14. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,…

  15. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  16. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  17. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  18. Rutinas para reducción de observaciones polarimétricas: evolución y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    I briefly review the evolution experimented by the software for reduction of observational data obtained with the CasProf photopolarimeter, ten years after its "first light" at the Jorge Sahade telescope. Our original routines for the calculation of Stokes parameters were complemented with new ones used to improve the quality of our results, and to adapt the software to different needs, in particular, to obtain polarimetric variability curves (applied to blazar studies). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  20. Geoquímica orgánica de los carbones de fila maestra, estado anzoátegui, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Martinezy, M.; Escobar, M.

    1995-04-01

    The vertical and lateral variability of organic geochemical parameters was established for the Seam 4 of the Fila Maestra coal deposit (Quebradon Formation, Oligocene-Early Miocene age) through the study of coals and carbonaceous shales collected in different outcrops of the coal seam. Chemical and physical analysis included moisture and ash contents, maceral groups, vitrinite reflectance, total carbon, bitumen and its fractions, as well as characterization of saturated hydrocarbons by gas chromatography ( n-alkane distributions and {pristane}/{phytane} ratios). A production sample, representative of the Seam 4, was further analyzed for S, Cl, C, H, O and its calorific value determined. The data collected allowed us to classify these samples as high-volatile bituminous coals, types B and C, according to ASTM classification. The results of the analysis showed little vertical or lateral variation in the properties studied. A gradual increase in ash content in the westward direction, together with a thinning of the coal seam, suggest a greater proximity of the basin border in this direction. High values in {pristane}/{phytane} ratio (4-7), predominance of heavy alkanes and high contents in vitrinites clearly indicates that primigenic organic matter was essentially continental in character. However, the bimodal n-alkane distribution, together with a nigh sulfur (2.7%) and chlorine (0.12%) contents suggest a marine-influenced environment. In consequence, it is proposed that these coals were formed in a transitional environment, as salt-marshs in coastal lagoons or in low deltaic plains. These results are in agreement with the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary unit.

  1. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  2. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  3. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…

  4. 78 FR 28701 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 12978 (60 FR 54579, October 24, 1995) (the ``Order''). In the Order..., Colombia; c/o COPSERVIR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o LABORATORIOS BLANCO PHARMA DE COLOMBIA S.A.,...

  5. Desert Voices: Southwestern Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polette, Keith

    1997-01-01

    Examines three books with different ways of writing about the desert. Discusses: "Here Is the Southwestern Desert" by Madeline Dunphy, "The Desert Is My Mother" by Pat Mora, and "The Desert Mermaid" by Alberto Blanco. (PA)

  6. FINDING THE SOMETHING IN NOTHING.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Formless Infinity: Clinical Explorations of Matte Blanco and Bion. By Riccardo Lombardi. Translated by Karen Christenfeld, Gina Atkinson, Andrea Sabbadini, and Philip Slotkin. London/New York: Routledge, 2016. 282 pp. PMID:27428588

  7. In situ measurement of dust devil dynamics: Toward a strategy for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, David M.; Hecht, Michael H.; Catling, David C.; Samulon, Eric C.; Smith, Peter H.

    2003-11-01

    An intensive 3-day dust devil investigation was conducted near Eloy, Arizona, during June of 2001. The goal was to evaluate strategies for observing dust devils on Mars by studying the physics of terrestrial dust devils. As part of this campaign, an instrumented vehicle outfitted with wind, temperature, and pressure sensors was used to intercept and penetrate numerous dust devils. Defined analysis of meteorological fields was only possible with knowledge of the whole body motion of a dust devil. One such data set analyzed revealed a dust devil structure characterized by a tangential wind proportional to radius, r, inside the warm, low-pressure core of a dust devil, and proportional to r-1/2 outside the core. We discuss the implications for optimum measurement strategies.

  8. From Tadpoles to Trout: Scale-invariant features of optimally efficient swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Alexander; Hosoi, Anette

    2015-11-01

    The Strouhal number (St) was thought to be an invariant feature of efficient inertial swimming, however, recent studies by Eloy and Gazzola have shown that St actually varies throughout nature based on animal size, shape, and speed. This finding leads us to ask whether there is any truly invariant property of efficient inertial swimming. Using Lighthill's large-amplitude elongated-body theory, we show that there is. Lighthill's model predicts that efficient swimmers must tune their gait such that the unsteady motions of their body generate uniform steady thrust. Mathematically, we show that this behavior can be fully quantified through a single variable which should be constant for all inertial swimmers. Comparison with data from existing literature shows that animals ranging in size from tadpoles to trout adhere to the optimum value predicted by Lighthill's model.

  9. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron

  10. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  11. El Mantenimiento o Desplazamiento Linguistico: El Futuro del Espanol en los Estados Unidos. (Linguistic Maintenance or Replacement: The Future of Spanish in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    What is the probability that Spanish, as a vernacular language, will survive in the U.S. with an increasing usage and prestige? Or will its usage, its speakers and its importance diminish rapidly in number and geographical extension? Can it be retained or will there be a shift into English? This article, written in Spanish, addresses these…

  12. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  13. A Transferencia do Controle da Educacao da Igreja para o Estado (The Transfer of Educational Control from the Church to the State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the principal phases in the historical process of the occidental world that resulted in the transfer of educational control from the church to the state, demonstrating some of the consequences of this historic turn. (BT)

  14. Queridos Padres: En Los Estados Unidos...La Escuela es Nuestra Tambien (Dear Parents: In the United States...It's Our School Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolau, Siobhan; Ramos, Carmen Lydia

    This guidebook for Hispanic parents advises that children's success in school may depend on the home environment during the formative years. Hispanic youth drop out of school at a rate of 40 percent; 25 percent of those who graduate are not qualified for good jobs. In Latin American countries, parents are expected to leave education to the…

  15. Estados unidos puede tomar la delantera en la educacion: 50 consejos utiles (The United States Can Take the Lead in Education: 50 Suggestions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Excellence Partnership, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish-language booklet lists ways that parents, employers, teachers, administrators, principals, and grandparents, neighbors, and concerned citizens can help America reach the National Educational Goals. First, the booklet summarizes the National Education Goals in the areas of school readiness; school completion; student achievement and…

  16. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and…

  17. The Assessment of the Intelligence of Latinos in the United States. (La Medicion de la Inteligencia de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana M.; And Others

    Most of the research on the assessment of the intelligence of Latinos in the United States appears to be based on some possibly erroneous or at least dubious assumptions. Among these are the following: (1) the assumption of bilinguality; (2) the assumption of equal proficiency in the English language; (3) the assumption of the equivalence of…

  18. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  19. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco años, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apuñalamientos y asaltos afectó a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorriqueño de Filadelfia, donde residíamos y conducíamos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narcóticos ha venido a llenar el vacío que dejó la desindustrialización, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narcóticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles más bajos a jóvenes puertorriqueños y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroinómanos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el éxito en la economía de las drogas, garantiza protección en las cárceles y le provee un ingreso mínimo a una población de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagnósticos médicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una dinámica de acumulación primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayoría de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados márgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta dinámica dependen de la violencia y la coerción. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la economía subterránea como si fuese un asunto de diversión. Estos miembros de los niveles más bajos de la industria del narcotráfico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas automáticas. Tras las drásticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnosticándolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Southern Cosmology Survey. II. (Menanteau+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menanteau, F.; Hughes, J. P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Deshpande, A. J.; Hilton, M.; Infante, L.; Jimenez, R.; Kosowsky, A.; Moodley, K.; Spergel, D.; Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    Our cluster analysis is based on all of the public unprocessed imaging data available for download at the time of writing from the observations carried out for the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) proposal. This was a NOAO Large Survey project (05B-0043, PI: Joe Mohr) that was awarded 45 nights between 2005 and 2007 to carry out intermediate depth g, r, i, z-band observations on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) Blanco 4m telescope using the 8192x8192pixel (0.36deg2^) MOSAIC-II camera. (5 data files).

  1. 'US Early Pride', a very low-seeded, early-maturing mandarin hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘US Early Pride’ is an irradiation-induced, very low-seeded mutant of the ‘Fallglo’ mandarin hybrid [‘Bower’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco x (C. paradisi Macf. X C. reticulata) x Temple’]. Mature ‘Fallglo’ budwood was irradiated in 1991 using 3 kRAD units of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source in ...

  2. A 3-year sensory fruit quality study in a group of new tangerine hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) production accounts for 40-50 % of the US production, and is the third largest of all citrus fruit, following oranges and grapefruits. A number of tangerine selections from the University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) breeding pro...

  3. Louisiana Eyes Plan to Let State Control New Orleans Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to grasp what she called a "golden opportunity for rebirth" out of the wreckage of Hurricane Katrina, Governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco asked the Louisiana legislature last week to embrace a plan that would give the state control of most New Orleans public schools. This article talks about the governor's plan to let the state take control…

  4. Eracing the Simple Certainty of Difference: A Psychoanalytic Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that racism, classism, and sexism are fostered not only through material conditions but also through the privileging of difference common to Western intellectual thought. Turns to the unconscious of psychoanalytic theory, especially the theories of Melanie Klein and Ignacio Matter Blanco, recommending an alternative discourse on race,…

  5. Working Hard in the Big Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2010-01-01

    In the spring of 2007, Sen. Mary Landrieu of Louisiana made the first call. Gov. Kathleen Blanco made the next call. And Louisiana's state superintendent of schools, Paul Pastorek, made the final pitch. The trio wanted to know if Paul Vallas, the renowned CEO of the School District of Philadelphia, would make a move to New Orleans to oversee the…

  6. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  7. Social Stratification, Power, and Educational Organization: The Peruvian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This report of a field study, conducted from 1966 to 1968, discusses the functional relationships between the class structure of Peruvian society and the structure and content of the country's educational system. Four educational subsystems are closely tied to each of the four main social groups: Blancos (upper class, comprising 0.1% of the total…

  8. Do the Contents of Working Memory Capture Attention? Yes, but Cognitive Control Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Suk Won; Kim, Min-Shik

    2009-01-01

    There has been a controversy on whether working memory can guide attentional selection. Some researchers have reported that the contents of working memory guide attention automatically in visual search (D. Soto, D. Heinke, G. W. Humphreys, & M. J. Blanco, 2005). On the other hand, G.F. Woodman and S. J. Luck (2007) reported that they could not…

  9. 76 FR 38680 - Notice of Invitation-Coal Exploration License Application COC-74817

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Invitation--Coal Exploration License Application COC- 74817 AGENCY... of coal deposits owned by the United States of America in lands located in Moffat and Rio Blanco... is to gain additional geologic knowledge of the coal underlying the exploration area for the...

  10. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analyses of volatiles produced by ‘Fallglo’ and ‘US Early Pride’ mandarins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Fallglo’ is a popular tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar with high eating quality. However, ‘Fallglo’ may contain as many as 30-40 seeds per fruit. ‘US Early Pride’ is a seedless mutation of ‘Fallglo’ with similar quality attributes. The objective of the current study was to determine i...

  11. Louisiana Business Education Journal, Volumes 1-3, 1991-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bettye W., Ed.; Redmann, Donna H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Volume 1 of this journal contains the following research papers in the field of business education: "Economics Education" (Bruce Stirewalt); "Information Systems Laboratory" (Michael Totaro et al.); "Utilizing Computers in the Teaching of Keyboarding" (Cynthia Bertrand); "Variations on a Business Theme" (Robert Gryder, Isabelle Blanco); "An…

  12. 5 CFR 532.285 - Special wage schedules for supervisors of negotiated rate Bureau of Reclamation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Washington: Yakima Oregon: Umatilla Beginning Month of Survey: September Colorado River Storage Project Area... survey: June Lower Colorado Dams Area Special Wage Survey Area (Counties) Nevada: Clark California: Los... Colorado: All counties except Moffat, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, Delta, Montrose, San Miguel,...

  13. 5 CFR 532.285 - Special wage schedules for supervisors of negotiated rate Bureau of Reclamation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Washington: Yakima Oregon: Umatilla Beginning Month of Survey: September Colorado River Storage Project Area... survey: June Lower Colorado Dams Area Special Wage Survey Area (Counties) Nevada: Clark California: Los... Colorado: All counties except Moffat, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, Delta, Montrose, San Miguel,...

  14. 5 CFR 532.285 - Special wage schedules for supervisors of negotiated rate Bureau of Reclamation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Washington: Yakima Oregon: Umatilla Beginning Month of Survey: September Colorado River Storage Project Area... survey: June Lower Colorado Dams Area Special Wage Survey Area (Counties) Nevada: Clark California: Los... Colorado: All counties except Moffat, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, Delta, Montrose, San Miguel,...

  15. 5 CFR 532.285 - Special wage schedules for supervisors of negotiated rate Bureau of Reclamation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Washington: Yakima Oregon: Umatilla Beginning Month of Survey: September Colorado River Storage Project Area... survey: June Lower Colorado Dams Area Special Wage Survey Area (Counties) Nevada: Clark California: Los... Colorado: All counties except Moffat, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, Delta, Montrose, San Miguel,...

  16. 5 CFR 532.285 - Special wage schedules for supervisors of negotiated rate Bureau of Reclamation employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Washington: Yakima Oregon: Umatilla Beginning Month of Survey: September Colorado River Storage Project Area... survey: June Lower Colorado Dams Area Special Wage Survey Area (Counties) Nevada: Clark California: Los... Colorado: All counties except Moffat, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, Delta, Montrose, San Miguel,...

  17. Fine QTL mapping of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit characters using high-throughput SNP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlessness, flavor, and color are top priorities for mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar improvement. Given long juvenility, large tree size, and high breeding cost, marker-assisted selection (MAS) may be an expeditious and economical approach to these challenges. The objectives of this s...

  18. 77 FR 43112 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease COC66018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease COC66018... of oil and gas lease COC66018 from Robert P. Kirgan, for lands in Rio Blanco, Colorado. The...

  19. AUTO-OXIDATION POTENTIAL OF RAW AND RETORTED OIL SHALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses an EPA sponsored study to assess the potential environmental impacts of leachates from raw mined western oil shales. The study was undertaken as a cooperative effort of the Environmental Protection Agency, Colorado State University, Rio Blanco Oil Shale Compa...

  20. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (H...

  1. Evaluation of aroma volatiles in a population of tangerine hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) production accounts for over 50 % of the US production, and is the third largest of all citrus fruit, following oranges and grapefruits. The tangerine fruit is well known for its pleasant aroma, flavor and ease of consumption. This study evaluated the aro...

  2. Outer scale and Monin-Obukhov flux relationships of atmospheric turbulence under dry convective conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, Henk; Hartogensis, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In this study we will investigate the assumption that in the atmospheric surface layer the outer scale (L0) is proportional to the height above the surface, under dry convective conditions. For this purpose we analyzed raw sonic anemometers data collected at 3.5 m and at 9 m in a field campaign at the Santa Cruz Flats (32040.3190'N, 111032.641'W, 526 m of elevation) near Eloy, Arizona. For simplicity, we define the L0 as that separation distance at which the spatial correlation coefficient of air temperature at two points in the surface layer is 0.5. Then, according to the 2/3-Kolmogorov scaling law in the inertial sub-range, L0 is determined by the variance and the structure parameter of T . It is found that L0 does not scale with height. Possible reasons for this negative result will be discussed, by considering the methodology to determine structure parameters, Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, effects of intermittency and Monin-Obukhov flux relationships for variance and structure parameter for T . The question is asked whether the concept of surface constant flux layer still holds under strong convective condition.

  3. 77 FR 14594 - Additions to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ..., Planta Baja, Colonia Lomas Country Club, Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52779, Mexico; Camino del..., No. 80 A, Planta Baja, Colonia Lomas Country Club, Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52779,...

  4. 76 FR 59483 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...; Camino del Remanso, No. 80 A, Planta Baja, Colonia Lomas Country Club, Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico C.P..., Estado de Mexico C.P. 52779, Mexico; Camino del Remanso, No. 80 A, Planta Baja, Colonia Lomas...

  5. Un Nuevo Convenio para el Aprendizaje: Una Sociedad para Mejorar los Resultados Educativos en el Estado de Nueva York (A New Compact for Learning: A Partnership To Improve Educational Results in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary, Middle and Secondary Education.

    This Spanish translation of the abridged version of "A New Compact for Learning" acknowledges the current U.S. education system's inadequacy to educate U.S. citizenry and introduces New York State's New Compact for Learning, intended as a plan to reorganize New York's own system. The compact's fundamental principles are: (1) recognizing that all…

  6. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students…

  7. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal…

  8. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  9. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  10. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  11. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  12. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  13. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Oportunidades en los colegios y universidades independientes en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los programas de oportunidad en educacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on programs that address special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who attend private colleges and universities in New York State is provided in separate English and Spanish reports. The Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) provides supportive services and financial aid. Information is provided on: eligibility for…

  14. CURRENT PEACH PRODUCTION PRACTICES INCLUDING NEX TRAINING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. PRACTICAS ACTUALES DE PRODUCCION DE DURAZNO, INCLUYENDO SISTEMAS DE FORMACION EN EL SURESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current production systems used commercially in the Southeastern United States are discussed in relation to their utility for commercial producers in Mexico. Standard southeastern cultural practices are discussed in detail. Topics covered include pre-plant land preparation, fumigation, nematod...

  15. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACION DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL - CULTIVANDO ASOCIACIONES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE LAS SELECCIONES DE TECNOLOGIAS AMBIENTALES A LOS SECTORES PUBLICO Y PRIVADO EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS Y EN EL EXTERIOR (EPA/600/F-97/005A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    La meta del ETV es verificar, a travs de una
    evaluacin de informacin objectiva y de calidad, las caracteristicas del desempeo de tecnologas
    comerciales ambientales. As el ETV proporciona a
    los compradores y los licenciadores potenciales una valoracin imparcial y creble d...

  16. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  17. Light Curves of 213 Type Ia Supernovae from the ESSENCE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, G.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Foley, R. J.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Challis, P.; Stubbs, C.; Kirshner, R. P.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A. C.; Blondin, S.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Damke, G.; Davis, T. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Garg, A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Hicken, M.; Jha, S. W.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Prieto, J. L.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.; Silverman, J. M.; Smith, R. C.; Sollerman, J.; Spyromilio, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Tonry, J. L.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-05-01

    The ESSENCE survey discovered 213 Type Ia supernovae at redshifts 0.1\\lt z\\lt 0.81 between 2002 and 2008. We present their R- and I-band photometry, measured from images obtained using the MOSAIC II camera at the CTIO Blanco, along with rapid-response spectroscopy for each object. We use our spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine an accurate, quantitative classification, and precise redshift. Through an extensive calibration program we have improved the precision of the CTIO Blanco natural photometric system. We use several empirical metrics to measure our internal photometric consistency and our absolute calibration of the survey. We assess the effect of various potential sources of systematic bias on our measured fluxes, and estimate the dominant term in the systematic error budget from the photometric calibration on our absolute fluxes is ∼1%.

  18. Stated and revealed inequality aversion in three subject pools

    PubMed Central

    Beranek, Benjamin; Cubitt, Robin; Gächter, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports data from three subject pools (n=717 subjects) using techniques based on those of Loewenstein, et al. (1989) and Blanco, et al. (2011) to obtain parameters, respectively, of stated and revealed inequality aversion. We provide a replication opportunity for those papers, with two innovations: (i) a design which allows stated and revealed preferences to be compared at the individual level; (ii) assessment of robustness of findings across subjects from a UK university, a Turkish university and Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our findings on stated aversion to inequality are qualitatively similar to those of Loewenstein, et al. in each of our subject pools, whereas there are notable differences between some of our findings on revealed preference and those of Blanco, et al. We find that revealed advantageous inequality aversion is often stronger than revealed dis-advantageous inequality aversion. In most subject pools, we find some (weak) correlation between corresponding parameters of stated and revealed inequality aversion. PMID:27069847

  19. Areas subject to inundation by the 100-year flood in Avra Valley, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeske, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Avra Valley in Pima County, Arizona, is sparsely populated and is used mainly for agriculture and cattle grazing; however, its proximity to Tucson makes it desirable for urban development. Administrators and planners concerned with future land development may use the map report to determine the approximate areas that are subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. Avra Valley is drained mainly by Brawley Wash; Blanco Wash drains the west side of the valley. Most of the natural drainage system consists of small braided channels bordered by narrow bands of dense vegetation, which cause floodwater to spread over wide areas of shallow depths. During the 100-year flood, the areas inundated by Brawley and Blanco Washes may join in several places. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. The Search for Light Echoes of Historic SNe in the Southern Hemisphere with DECam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Bianco, Federica; Chornock, Ryan; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Foley, Ryan J.; James, David; Matheson, Thomas; Narayan, Gautham; Olsen, Knut A.; Points, Sean; Prieto, Jose Luis; Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Nathan; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Welch, Douglas L.; Zenteno, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, light echoes of ancient SNe have been discovered with the Mosaic II cameras at the CTIO Blanco and KPNO Mayall telescopes. We have found light echoes in the LMC (Rest et al. 2005, 2008a) and near the historical Galactic events Cas A, Tycho, and Eta Car (Rest et al. 2008b, 2011a, 2012). However, searches for light echoes near the Kepler SN and SN 1006 have not yet been successful. We have started a search for light echoes in the southern hemisphere using DECam at the CTIO Blanco telescope. DECam is an excellent light echo detection system with its larger field of view and much faster read time compared to Mosaic II. This increases the efficiency of the search by more than a factor of 10, allowing us to cover significantly larger areas of the sky. We report on strategy, progress, current coverage, and first results of our project.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A K-selected catalog of the ECDFS from MUSYC (Taylor+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E. N.; Franx, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Quadri, R. F.; Gawiser, E.; Bell, E. F.; Barrientos, L. F.; Blanc, G. A.; Castander, F. J.; Damen, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, V.; Hall, P. B.; Herrera, D.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Lira, P.; Maza, J.; Rudnick, G.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Willis, J. P.; Wuyts, S.

    2010-01-01

    Hildebrandt et al. (2006A&A...452.1121H) have collected all (up until 2005 December) archival UU38BRVI imaging data taken using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO MPG 2.2m telescope. We have supplemented the WFI optical data with original z'-band imaging taken using Mosaic-II camera on the CTIO 4m Blanco telescope. The ECDFS data were taken in 2005 January. The new MUSYC NIR imaging consists of two mosaics in the J and K bands obtained using the Infrared Sideport Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. The data were taken over the course of 15 nights, in 4 separate observing runs between 2003 January and 2004 February. (3 data files).

  2. Long-term monitoring of the gamma Cassiopeiae star V 568 Cygni = HD 197419

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, C.; Mammamo, A.; Margoni, R.; Stagni, R.; Munari, U.; Baratta, G. B.; Coluzzi, R.; Croce, V.

    1990-04-01

    Results are presented of a long-term spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of V 568 Cyg, a Be formerly indicated by Blaauw (1961) to be a runaway star, a classification not coinciding with that by Gies and Bolton (1986). Analysis of the strong fading around JD 2446641.6, reported by Blanco et al. (1987), seems to exclude the suggested eclipse scenario. This photometric fading event occurred during a phase of maxima in the equivalent widths of metallic absorption lines. The periodicity predicted by Blanco et al. (1987) is not confirmed by the new data presented here. A few hundredths of magnitude modulation in the U light curve, and less in the B and V ones, appears correlated to a period P = 43.846 days, inferred by coupling nine new radial velocities with the 19 ones published by Gies and Bolton (1986).

  3. Targeted Cancer Therapy: pH-Switch Nanoprecipitation of Polymeric Nanoparticles for Multimodal Cancer Targeting and Intracellular Triggered Delivery of Doxorubicin (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Herranz-Blanco, Bárbara; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Correia, Alexandra R; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Kohout, Tomáš; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-08-01

    Targeted theranostic nanoparticles with dual pH and magnetic responsive properties for intracellular delivery are described by B. Herranz-Blanco, H. A. Santos, and co-workers on page 1904. Using a pH-switch nanoprecipitation method in organic-free solvents, a polymeric-drug conjugate solid nanoparticle containing encapsulated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and decorated with a tumor homing peptide, iRGD, are targeted to endothelial and metastatic cancer cells. PMID:27511949

  4. Precise relative locations for earthquakes in the northeast Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, K. Michael; VanDeMark, Thomas F.; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-10-09

    We report that double-difference methods applied to cross-correlation measured Rayleigh wave time shifts are an effective tool to improve epicentroid locations and relative origin time shifts in remote regions. We apply these methods to seismicity offshore of southwestern Canada and the U.S. Pacific Northwest, occurring along the boundaries of the Pacific and Juan de Fuca (including the Explorer Plate and Gorda Block) Plates. The Blanco, Mendocino, Revere-Dellwood, Nootka, and Sovanco fracture zones host the majority of this seismicity, largely consisting of strike-slip earthquakes. The Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda spreading ridges join these fracture zones and host normal faulting earthquakes. Our results show that at least the moderate-magnitude activity clusters along fault strike, supporting suggestions of large variations in seismic coupling along oceanic transform faults. Our improved relative locations corroborate earlier interpretations of the internal deformation in the Explorer and Gorda Plates. North of the Explorer Plate, improved locations support models that propose northern extension of the Revere-Dellwood fault. Relocations also support interpretations that favor multiple parallel active faults along the Blanco Transform Fault Zone. Seismicity of the western half of the Blanco appears more scattered and less collinear than the eastern half, possibly related to fault maturity. We use azimuthal variations in the Rayleigh wave cross-correlation amplitude to detect and model rupture directivity for a moderate size earthquake along the eastern Blanco Fault. Lastly, the observations constrain the seismogenic zone geometry and suggest a relatively narrow seismogenic zone width of 2 to 4 km.

  5. Precise relative locations for earthquakes in the northeast Pacific region

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cleveland, K. Michael; VanDeMark, Thomas F.; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-10-09

    We report that double-difference methods applied to cross-correlation measured Rayleigh wave time shifts are an effective tool to improve epicentroid locations and relative origin time shifts in remote regions. We apply these methods to seismicity offshore of southwestern Canada and the U.S. Pacific Northwest, occurring along the boundaries of the Pacific and Juan de Fuca (including the Explorer Plate and Gorda Block) Plates. The Blanco, Mendocino, Revere-Dellwood, Nootka, and Sovanco fracture zones host the majority of this seismicity, largely consisting of strike-slip earthquakes. The Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda spreading ridges join these fracture zones and host normal faultingmore » earthquakes. Our results show that at least the moderate-magnitude activity clusters along fault strike, supporting suggestions of large variations in seismic coupling along oceanic transform faults. Our improved relative locations corroborate earlier interpretations of the internal deformation in the Explorer and Gorda Plates. North of the Explorer Plate, improved locations support models that propose northern extension of the Revere-Dellwood fault. Relocations also support interpretations that favor multiple parallel active faults along the Blanco Transform Fault Zone. Seismicity of the western half of the Blanco appears more scattered and less collinear than the eastern half, possibly related to fault maturity. We use azimuthal variations in the Rayleigh wave cross-correlation amplitude to detect and model rupture directivity for a moderate size earthquake along the eastern Blanco Fault. Lastly, the observations constrain the seismogenic zone geometry and suggest a relatively narrow seismogenic zone width of 2 to 4 km.« less

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hydra I wide-field imaging and spectroscopy obs. (Hargis+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargis, J. R.; Kimmig, B.; Willman, B.; Caldwell, N.; Walker, M. G.; Strader, J.; Sand, D. J.; Grillmair, C. J.; Yoon, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Observations of Hydra I were obtained on 2014 March 20-23 using the DECam imager (ugri filters) installed on the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. We used MMT/Hectochelle to target stars throughout the Hydra I overdensity. Spectroscopic observations were obtained over 7 nights using the Hectochelle spectrograph on the 6.5m MMT (R~38000). We complemented our Hectochelle data with archival spectroscopy from SDSS/SEGUE. (3 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PN towards Galactic bulge. [OIII] fluxes (Kovacevic+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacevic, A. V.; Parker, Q. A.; Jacoby, G. H.; Sharp, R.; Miszalski, B.; Frew, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    We observed previously known and MASH PN in a 10°x10° region towards the Galactic bulge using the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4-m Blanco Telescope in Chile with the MOSAIC-II CCD Imager. A total of ~95h of photometric imaging was conducted, spread over two observing runs: six nights throughout 2008 June 9-14 and five nights from 2009 June 27 to July 2. (3 data files).

  8. Gas Phase Structure of Amino Acids: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, I. Pena S.; Sanz, M. E.; Vaquero, V.; Cabezas, C.; Perez, C.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Recent improvements in our laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectrometer such as using Laval-type nozzles and picoseconds Nd:YAG lasers (30 to 150 ps) have allowed a major step forward in the capabilities of this experimental technique as demonstrated by the last results in serine cysteine and threonine^a for which seven, six and seven conformers have been respectively identified. Taking advantage of these improvements we have investigated the natural amino acids metionine, aspartic and glutamic acids and the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the aim of identify and characterize their lower energy conformers. Searches in the rotational spectra have lead to the identification of seven conformers of metionine, six and five of aspartic and glutamic acids, respectively, and seven for the γ-aminobutyric. These conformers have been unambiguously identified by their spectroscopic constants. In particular the ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, that depend heavily on the orientation of the amino group with respect to the principal inertial axes of the molecule, prove to be a unique tool to distinguish unambigously between conformations with similar rotational constants. For the γ-aminobutyric acid two of the seven observed structures are stablized by an intramolecular interaction n-π*. Two new conformers of proline have been identified together with the two previously observed. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 2009, 11, 617. D. B. Atkinson, M. A. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1995, 66, 4434 S. Blanco, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA2007, 104, 20183. M. E. Sanz, S. Blanco, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,2008, 120, 6312. A. Lesarri, S. Mata, E. J. Cocinero, S. Blanco, J.C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. , 2002, 41, 4673

  9. Infinite sets and double binds.

    PubMed

    Arden, M

    1984-01-01

    There have been many attempts to bring psychoanalytical theory up to date. This paper approaches the problem by discussing the work of Gregory Bateson and Ignacio Matte-Blanco, with particular reference to the use made by these authors of Russell's theory of logical types. Bateson's theory of the double bind and Matte-Blanco's bilogic are both based on concepts of logical typing. It is argued that the two theories can be linked by the idea that neurotic symptoms are based on category errors in thinking. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a middle-aged woman. The intention is to demonstrate that the process of making interpretations can be thought of as revealing errors in thinking. Changes in the patient's inner world are then seen to be the result of clarifying childhood experiences based on category errors. Matte-Blanco's theory of bilogic and infinite experiences is a re-evaluation of the place of the primary process in mental life. It is suggested that a combination of bilogic and double bind theory provides a possibility of reformulating psychoanalytical theory. PMID:6544755

  10. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perrichot, Vincent; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime; McKellar, Ryan C.; Delclòs, Xavier; Azar, Dany; Nel, André; Tafforeau, Paul; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita) is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot & Engel, gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot & Engel, sp. n. and Iberomaimetsha nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs & Engel, sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel & Engel, gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar & Engel, gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family. PMID:22259291

  11. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco. PMID:23949756

  12. A Quantitative Assessment of the Size-Frequency Distribution of Terrestrial Dust Devils, Comparison with Qualitative Estimates, and Applications to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, A.; Balme, M. R.; Metzger, S.; Towner, M.; Spiga, A.; Renno, N. O.; Elliott, H. M.; Russell, P. S.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    Dust devils are particle-loaded vertical convective vortices commonly observed on Earth and especially Mars. Qualitative estimates of terrestrial dust devil frequency based upon visual field surveys have varied by several orders of magnitude. We will present the results of our quantitative characterization of the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of terrestrial dust devils, which utilizes stereo photography to calculate dust devil diameters via parallax displacement. In 2009, we conducted field campaigns in Eloy, Arizona and Eldorado Valley, Nevada to survey terrestrial dust devils: the latter site was revisited in 2010. During each survey period, at least two and usually three observers were positioned at spotter stations located approximately 100 m apart, thereby allowing triangular study areas (bounded by three meteorological masts) of A = 0.83 sq. km and A = 0.55 sq. km to be surveyed in Eloy and Eldorado Valley, respectively. Each spotter station was equipped with a tripod-mounted, weatherproof digital camera: whenever possible, any dust devils observed within the study area were photographed simultaneously by camera operators in radio contact. All dust devils observed within the survey sites were assigned a qualitative diameter estimate (i.e., Tiny/Small/Medium/Large) by a third spotter positioned near the center of the study area. Thus even if small dust devils occurred that existed too fleetingly to be photographed, they were still recorded. Methodology: The positions of both survey tripods were measured to ~ 0.5 m precision using GPS. In addition, a full 360-degree panorama was generated from each survey position, corrected for lens distortion, and then imported into a GIS. The photographs of dust devils from each camera are then also incorporated into the GIS and aligned against the corresponding background panorama. The width and center points of each dust devil are then digitized and its bearings and angular width outputted from the GIS, together with

  13. The three-dimensional instability of a strained vortex tube revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    We revisit the Moore Saffman Tsai Widnall instability, a parametric resonance between left- and right-handed bending waves of infinitesimal amplitude, on the Rankine vortex strained by a weak pure shear flow. The results of Tsai & Widnall (1976) and Eloy & Le Dizès (2001), as generalized to all pairs of Kelvin waves whose azimuthal wavenumbers m are separated by 2, are simplified by providing an explicit solution of the linearized Euler equations for the disturbance flow field. Given the wavenumber k_0 and the frequency omega_0 of an intersection point of dispersion curves, the growth rate is expressible solely in terms of the modified Bessel functions, and so is the unstable wavenumber range. Every intersection leads to instability. Most of the intersections correspond to weak instability that vanishes in the short-wave limit, and dominant modes are restricted to particular intersections. For helical waves m=± 1, the growth rate of non-rotating waves is far larger than that of rotating waves. The wavenumber width of stationary instability bands broadens linearly in k_0, while that of rotating instability bands is bounded. The growth rate of the stationary instability takes, in the long-wavelength limit, the value of varepsilon/2 for the two-dimensional displacement instability, and, in the short-wavelength limit, the value of 9varepsilon/16 for the elliptical instability, being larger at large but finite values of k_0. Here varepsilon is the strength of shear near the core centre. For resonance between higher azimuthal wavenumbers m and m+2, the same limiting value is approached as k_0 {->} infty, along sequences of specific crossing points whose frequency rapidly converges to m+1, in two ways, from above for a fixed m and from below for m {->} infty. The energy of the Kelvin waves is calculated by invoking Cairns' formula. The instability result is compatible with Krein's theory for Hamiltonian spectra.

  14. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  15. Spatial analysis of the impacts of the Chaitén volcano eruption (Chile) in three fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulloa, H.; Iroumé, A.; Picco, L.; Mohr, C. H.; Mazzorana, B.; Lenzi, M. A.; Mao, L.

    2016-08-01

    The eruption of the Chaitén volcano in May 2008 generated morphological and ecological disturbances in adjacent river basins, and the magnitude of these disturbances depended on the type of dominant volcanic process affecting each of them. The aim of this study is to analyse the morphological changes in different periods in river segments of the Blanco, El Amarillo and Rayas river basins located near the Chaitén volcano. These basins suffered disturbances of different intensity and spatial distribution caused by tephra fall, dome collapses and pyroclastic density currents that damaged hillslope forests, widened channels and destroyed island and floodplain vegetation. Changes continued to occur in the fluvial systems in the years following the eruption, as a consequence of the geomorphic processes indirectly induced by the eruption. Channel changes were analyzed by comparing remote images of pre and post-eruption conditions. Two periods were considered: the first from 2008 to 2009-2010 associated with the explosive and effusive phases of the eruption and the second that correspond to the post-eruption stage from 2009-2010 to 2013. Following the first phases channel segments widened 91% (38 m/yr), 6% (7 m/yr) and 7% (22 m/yr) for Blanco, Rayas and El Amarillo Rivers, respectively, compared to pre-eruption condition. In the second period, channel segments additionally widened 42% (8 m/yr), 2% (2 m/yr) and 5% (4 m/yr) for Blanco, Rayas and El Amarillo Rivers, respectively. In the Blanco River 62 and 82% of the islands disappeared in the first and second period, respectively, which is 6-8 times higher than in the El Amarillo approximately twice the Rayas. Sinuosity increased after the eruption only in the Blanco River but the three study channels showed a high braiding intensity mainly during the first post-eruption period. The major disturbances occurred during the eruptive and effusive phases of Chaitén volcano, and the intensity of these disturbances reflects the

  16. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    té utilisées pour mettre en évidence certains phénomènes hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en certains points de la région étudiée. L'analyse des réseaux de linéaments et de drainage a porté sur la densité de leurs longueurs et sur leur fréquence. La densité de longueur des linéaments s'étend de 0,04 à 1,52 et la fréquence des linéaments de 0,11 à 5,09 ; la densité des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fréquence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des différences dans la probabilité des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces résultats ont ensuite été utilisés pour délimiter les zones à potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les résultats de l'étude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corrélations entre les réseau de linéaments et de drainage, la lithologie, la température de l'eau, la conductivité de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivité, la conductance longitudinale et la présence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Precámbrico, así como rocas de edad entre Cretácica y Terciaria. La exploración hidrogeológica en esta área requiere una técnica sistemàtica para poder alcanzar resultados óptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente difícil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforación de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las áreas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeológico, se han usado imágenes de radar en blanco y negro y fotografías aéreas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos en partes del área de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de

  17. The region of the Piedra Berroqueña: A potencial Global Heritage Stone Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The Piedra Berroqueña region occupies an area of approximately 4000 km2 in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System, the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This region has provided most of the building granites used in Madrid and surrounding provinces. Traditional methods of cutting and carving stone have been preserved and it is easy to locate historic quarries in its landscape in addition to mechanized quarries with large reserves of this dimension stone that is exported worldwide in the form of blocks or slabs with different finishes. The Piedra Berroqueña has been used as a building stone since before the Romans. Petrophysical and durability characteristics have allowed to endure monuments as representative as The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial (1563-1584), del Sol Gate (1857-1862), Royal Palace (1738-1764), Alcalá Gate (1770-1778) or Prado Museum (1785-1808) in Madrid, Spain. Also the Piedra Berroqueña is part of most residential buildings and streets of this city, as well as modern buildings around the world, such as airport terminals in Athens, Cork, the British consulate in Hong Kong and headquarters of banks in Jakarta, among others. Piedra Berroqueña province is presented in this abstract, which has many granite quarries with common characteristics such as their grey tones and the presence of darker enclaves "Gabarros or negrones". In the Piedra Berroqueña province four main types of granite can be distinguish: Peraluminous granites; with biotite and occasional cordierite, whose most representative historic quarries are in Alpedrete, Colmenar Viejo, El Boalo, El Berrocal and Collado Mediano. Biotite granites with occasional amphibole are present in historic quarries in El Berrueco, Lozoyuela-Navas-Sieteiglesias and Pelayo de la Presa, among others. Currently exploited in Valdemanco and La Cabrera and marketed under the commercial names of Aurora Blanco, Blanco Berrocal, Crema Champagne, Blanco Castilla, Crema Cabrera, Blanco Perla

  18. Identifying block structure in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Wells, R. E.

    2015-11-01

    We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k = 2-14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in Northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block; its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco, the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block, extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block, north of Cape Blanco, coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.

  19. Identifying block structure in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified block structure in the Pacific Northwest (west of 116°W between 38°N and 49°N) by clustering GPS stations so that the same Euler vector approximates the velocity of each station in a cluster. Given the total number k of clusters desired, the clustering procedure finds the best assignment of stations to clusters. Clustering is calculated for k= 2 to 14. In geographic space, cluster boundaries that remain relatively stable as k is increased are tentatively identified as block boundaries. That identification is reinforced if the cluster boundary coincides with a geologic feature. Boundaries identified in northern California and Nevada are the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, the west side of the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Bartlett Springs Fault. Three blocks cover all of Oregon and Washington. The principal block boundary there extends west-northwest along the Brothers Fault Zone, then north and northwest along the eastern boundary of Siletzia, the accreted oceanic basement of the forearc. East of this boundary is the Intermountain block, its eastern boundary undefined. A cluster boundary at Cape Blanco subdivides the forearc along the faulted southern margin of Siletzia. South of Cape Blanco the Klamath Mountains-Basin and Range block extends east to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt and south to the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. The Siletzia block north of Cape Blanco coincides almost exactly with the accreted Siletz terrane. The cluster boundary in the eastern Olympic Peninsula may mark permanent shortening of Siletzia against the Intermountain block.

  20. The Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) have had a critical formative impact on the study of the Galactic bulge, much of the work being inspired and supported by Victor Blanco and collaborators, which is presented in a historical overview. Recent observations at CTIO include the Blanco 4m/Hydra Bulge Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA) that has mapped the Galactic bulge velocity field from -10Blanco DECam Bulge Survey (BDBS) will produce a multicolor ugrizY map of the bulge from -10< l<+10 and -10

  1. Separation of the Guajira-Bonaire pair in the southern margin of the Caribbean: 65-50 Ma exhumation followed by 300 km right-lateral transtensional deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata Henao, S.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Vervoort, J. D.; Reiners, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Middle to upper Eocene fluvial strata in the island of Bonaire contains detrital components that were tracked to the basement massifs of the Guajira Peninsula in northern Colombia. These detrital components confirm previous hypothesis that the Guajira-Bonaire pair constitute a tectonic piercing point along the southern Caribbean plate margin that was right-laterally displaced approximately 300 km after middle Eocene times. Other possible sources, the nearby Curacao and the far away Santa Marta massif, did not pass statistical similarity and overlap tests. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS from the metamorphic boulders of the Soebi Blanco Formation in Bonaire yield Grenvillian ages (1084 Ma, 1130 Ma and 1184 Ma), while the detrital zircons recovered from the sandy matrix of the conglomerates contains populations with peaks of 1000 Ma - 1200 Ma, 750 Ma - 950 Ma, and 200 Ma - 300 Ma. Overlap and Similarity tests run between these populations and published data from Guajira yield values of 0.750 and 0.680, which are significantly higher than the same comparison against the Santa Marta Massif (0.637 and 0.522), and the Curacao island (0.629 and 0.467). Thermochronological results from the metamorphic clasts yield Paleocene-middle Eocene ages (65 - 50 Ma) that confirm not only a regional-scale cooling event in this time period, but also help constrain the maximum depositional age (50 Ma) of the poorly dated Soebi Blanco Formation. Figure 6. U-Pb results from analyzed samples and other Caribbean provinces. (A), Detrital zircons from Soebi Blanco conglomerate matrix; (B), Zircon ages from metamorphic clasts (C), detrital zircons from late Cretaceous Etpana Formation in Guajira Peninsula (Weber et al., 2010); (D), detrital zircons from late Cretaceous Santa Marta San Lorenzo schists (Cardona et al., 2010a); (E), detrital zircons from late Cretaceous Knip Group (Wrigth and Wyld, 2010); (F), overlap and similarity values.

  2. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  3. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  4. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to…

  5. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National…

  6. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  7. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  8. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaraccion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York. Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Position Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Large numbers of Puerto Rican and other non-English-speaking students live in school districts throughout New York State. To enable these students to function in an English-speaking society while retaining their own culture, a policy to promote bilingual program planning was established by the Board of Regents of New York State in 1972. In this…

  9. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaracion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York (Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The primary goal of the Regents in their bilingual education program is to provide equal educational opportunity for non-English-speaking children through activities capitalizing on their proficiency in their native language and developing competency in English. Two complementary goals are inherent: (1) a vitally needed national resource, the…

  10. El Derecho de su Hijo(a) a Una Educacion: Una guia para los Padres de Ninos Impedidos en el Estado de Nueva York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Children with Handicapping Conditions in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Intended for parents of handicapped students, the guide (available in English, Spanish, or Chinese) sets forth the New York State policies for speical education. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings), referral, evaluation,…

  11. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies in X-ray clusters with DES. I. Stellar mass (Zhang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Mohr, J.; Wilcox, H.; Bermeo-Hernandez, A.; Jeltema, T.; Hollowood, D.; Bacon, D.; Capozzi, D.; Collins, C.; Das, R.; Gerdes, D.; Hennig, C.; Hilton, M.; Hoyle, B.; Kay, S.; Liddle, A.; Mann, R. G.; Mehrtens, N.; Nichol, R. C.; Papovich, C.; Sahlen, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Stott, J.; Viana, P. T.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Eifler, T. F.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.!; Vikram, V.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a ground-based optical survey that uses the wide-field DECam camera mounted on the 4m Blanco telescope to image 5000deg2 of the southern hemisphere sky (Sanchez et al. 2010JPhCS.259a2080S). The paper is based on 200deg2 DES Science Verification (SV) data. This data set was taken during the 2012B observing season before the main survey (Diehl et al. 2014SPIE.9149E..0VD) began. (1 data file).

  13. La-Mb Studies of Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozoya, M.; Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Recently, rotational studies of biomolecules have entered in a new stage with the LA-MB-FTMW experiment. It combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. This technique has been successfully applied to the study of monosaccarides. Three conformers of the prototype α-D-glucose and other three for β-D-glucose have been characterized for the first time in the gas phase. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11,617-627 (2009)and references therein.

  14. Dark energy survey and camera

    SciTech Connect

    William Wester

    2004-08-16

    The authors describe the Dark Energy Survey and Camera. The survey will image 5000 sq. deg. in the southern sky to collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. They expect to derive a value for the dark energy equation of state parameters, w, to a precision of 5% by combining four distinct measurement techniques. They describe the mosaic camera that will consist of CCDs with enhanced sensitivity in the near infrared. The camera will be mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope.

  15. Photometric Calibration of DECam Images of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brittany; Vivas, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on the variable star population of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy, we present here details on the photometric calibration of the data, which were obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at the Blanco 4mTelescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Since DECam is a relatively new instrument, we tested different calibration strategies including calibrating each chip individually and all together. Our results indicate that the color terms and zero points are constant across the camera, at least in the g, r and i bands. We present preliminary results on the location of variable stars in the Sextans dwarf galaxy.

  16. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the endemic shortfin silverside, Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes, 1835).

    PubMed

    Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A; De León, Francisco J García; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin silverside Chirostoma humboldtianum, is an endemic fish from the Mesa Central of Mexico, it is considered the "ancestral" species of the "peces blancos" and plays an important role as a potential species for aquaculture. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ921739), which has a total length of 16,447 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Atheriniformes. This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic, population and phylogeographic studies of this and other important atherinopsid species. PMID:25185796

  17. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data for precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel; Rosario-Torres, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea (18.2 °N, 66.3 °W), with the Atlantic Ocean on its northern coast. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program study area in which most of these data were collected comprises the El Yunque National Forest and surrounding area of eastern Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in two forested watersheds, the Rio Mameyes and the Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco, on opposite sides of a ridge in the Luquillo Mountains on the eastern end of the island (fig. 1). Elevation in both watersheds ranges from sea level to approximately 1,000 meters (m). Near sea level, land use is mixed pasture, moist forest, and residential, grading to completely forested within the boundaries of El Yunque National Forest. Forest type changes with elevation from tabonuco to palo colorado to sierra palm to cloud forest above approximately 950 m (Murphy and others, 2012). The Rio Mameyes watershed is oriented north-northeast, and the basin is underlain by volcaniclastic bedrock (basaltic to andesitic volcanic sandstone/mudstone/conglomerate/breccia). The Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco watershed is oriented south-southeast. The Rio Icacos is one of the headwaters of the Rio Blanco and is underlain by quartz diorite. The lower Rio Blanco basin is underlain by andesitic volcaniclastic bedrock. This report also contains a long-term rain isotope dataset from the San Agustin site, in north-central Puerto Rico (fig. 1). Puerto Rico has a tropical climate dominated by easterly trade winds, and seasonal climate patterns affect the hydrology of the study area. The summer wet season is characterized by convective precipitation from tropical easterly waves, troughs, and cyclonic low-pressure systems, including tropical storms and hurricanes; in contrast, the drier winter season is characterized by trade-wind showers and frontal systems. The highest single-event rainfall totals tend to be associated with tropical storms

  18. Design and status of the optical corrector for the DES survey instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, P.; Abbott, T.; Antonik, M.; Bernstein, R.; Bigelow, B.; Brooks, D.; Cease, H.; DePoy, D. L.; Flaugher, B.; Gladders, M.; Gutierrez, G.; Kent, S.; Stefanik, A.; Walker, A.; Worswick, S.

    2008-07-01

    The DECam instrument, for the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO, is a 5 lens element wide field camera giving a 2.2 degree diameter field of view. The lenses are large, with the biggest being 980mm in diameter, and this poses challenges in mounting and alignment. This paper reports the status of the production of the optics for the DECam wide field imager Also presented are the design and finite element modelling of the cell design for the 5 lenses of the imager along with the proposed alignment process.

  19. Supernovae in the First Two Years of the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Christopher; Dark Energy Survey

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN) is a five year, 30 square degree cadenced search for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using the Dark Energy Camera on the 4m Blanco Telescope. The goal of DES-SN is to accurately measure more than 3000 SNe Ia over a redshift range of 0.1 < z < 1.2 to derive the most precise constraints for cosmological parameters of any supernova survey. I will present an overview of the data from the full first two seasons of DES-SN and a preliminary analysis using both spectroscopically- and photometrically-classified SNe Ia.

  20. The Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, Brenna; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Dark Energy is the dominant constituent of the universe and they have little understanding of it. They describe a new project aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx} 5%, with four separate techniques. The survey will image 5000 deg{sup 2} in the southern sky and collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters, and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. The survey will be carried out using a new 3 deg{sup 2} mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO.

  1. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  2. Results of research to develop cost effective biomonitoring at oil shale lease tracts. Phase I. Fall sampling report

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J.R.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents the results of censuses conducted during October 1981 to estimate the fall abundance of small mammals and avifauna on replicate plots in the vicinity of Federal Tract C-a (Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company). The objectives of the fall censuses were to evaluate alternative census techniques, test assumptions vital to the use of indices and abundance estimators, determine cost-functions associated with monitoring efforts, and estimate variance components needed to devise optimal monitoring designs. Analyses of the fall census data on small mammal abundance were performed.

  3. Lichenometric Dating of Little Ice Age Moraines in the Cordillera Vilcabamba, Southern Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, J. R.; Licciardi, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Lateral and end moraines deposited by two valley glaciers were mapped on the south side of Nevado Tucarhuay (5910 m asl) and on the east side of Nevado Salcantay (6271 m asl) in the Cordillera Vilcabamba in the southern Peruvian Andes (~13°S latitude). The geomorphic expression of outer and inner moraine sequences in these two drainages mimics that of a previously studied pair of moraines in the upper Rio Blanco valley on the south side of Nevado Salcantay. Cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating has yielded ages of 9.0 ± 0.3 ka and 195 ± 24 years, respectively, for these outer and inner Rio Blanco moraines. In all three valleys, prominent outer moraines occur ~3-5 km from headwalls and inner moraine ridges are found ~2.5-3 km from headwalls. Recessional moraines found exclusively on the east side of Salcantay indicate multiple early- to late-Holocene glacier pauses, rather than continuous retreat, prior to the latest Holocene glacier readvance. Diameters of the lichen Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon were measured on moraine boulders from the inner moraines in all three valleys. Lichen diameters on the two undated inner moraines are consistent with diameters on the inner 10Be-dated Rio Blanco moraine, which signifies similar lichenometric ages and supports synchronous glacier culminations in all three drainages during the Little Ice Age. The new lichen measurements and age estimates provide a critical link between previous lichen studies in the Cordillera Blanca to the north and in the Cordillera Real to the south, thereby increasing spatial coverage of terrestrial paleoclimate information. Moreover, the extensive lichen measurements gathered on the inner 10Be-dated Rio Blanco moraine define a new control point for the Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon growth curve in the tropical Peruvian- Bolivian Andes, which will increase the accuracy of lichenometric age estimates in this region. 10Be exposure dating of the inner moraines in adjacent valleys is underway

  4. Status of the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Dark Energy Science Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is probing the origin of cosmic acceleration and the nature of dark energy by carrying out two interleaved, multi-band imaging surveys using the 570-megapixel Dark Energy Camera built by the collaboration for the NOAO Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. The survey began in August 2013 and has completed two of its five 105-night observing seasons, including grizY imaging of several thousand square degrees and time-domain griz imaging of 30 sq. deg. with a 6-night cadence. I will describe the status of the survey and highlight some of the science results.

  5. A comparison of volatile components of Setomi with its parent cultivars.

    PubMed

    Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Kusunoki, Aya; Tanaka, Rina; Kanetsune, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The citrus fruit Setomi is a hybrid of Yoshiura ponkan (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and Kiyomi (Citrus unshiu Mrcov. x Citrus sinensis Osbeck). The essential oils from the peel of Setomi and its parent cultivars were obtained by a simultaneous distillation extraction technique. Comparing the essential oils of Setomi and its parent cultivars, it was found that the oil in the peel of Setomi consisted of characteristic aroma components from each parent cultivar. The principal component analysis of data, obtained with an electronic nose, indicated that the odor quality of Setomi was different from those of the parent cultivars. PMID:20208376

  6. First SN Discoveries from the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F.; Achitouv, I.; Ahn, E.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Alonso, D.; Amara, A.; Annis, J.; Antonik, M.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Armstrong, R.; Ashall, C.; Asorey, J.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Barbary, K.; Barkhouse, W.; Baruah, L.; Bauer, A.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, M.; Bender, R.; Benoist, C.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernardi, M.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R.; Bertin, E.; Beynon, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Biswas, R.; Blake, C.; Bloom, J. S.; Bocquet, S.; Brandt, C.; Bridle, S.; Brooks, D.; Brown, P. J.; Brunner, R.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Burkert, A.; Busha, M.; Campa, J.; Campbell, H.; Cane, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, M.; Carrasco-Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Carter, M.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Chen, Y.; Chiu, I.; Chue, C.; Clampitt, J.; Clerkin, L.; Cohn, J.; Colless, M.; Copeland, E.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Crittenden, R.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C.; Costa, L. da; D, C.; #39; Andrea; Das, S.; Das, R.; Davis, T. M.; Deb, S.; DePoy, D.; Derylo, G.; Desai, S.; de Simoni, F.; Devlin, M.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Dolag, K.; Efstathiou, G.; Eifler, T.; Erickson, B.; Eriksen, M.; Estrada, J.; Etherington, J.; Evrard, A.; Farrens, S.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Ferreira, P. C.; Finley, D.; Fischer, J. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Furlanetto, C.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gelman, M.; Gerdes, D.; Giannantonio, T.; Gilhool, S.; Gill, M.; Gladders, M.; Gladney, L.; Glazebrook, K.; Gray, M.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R.; Gupta, R.; Gutierrez, G.; Habib, S.; Hall, E.; Hansen, S.; Hao, J.; Heitmann, K.; Helsby, J.; Henderson, R.; Hennig, C.; High, W.; Hirsch, M.; Hoffmann, K.; Holhjem, K.; Honscheid, K.; Host, O.; Hoyle, B.; Hu, W.; Huff, E.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; James, D.; Jarvis, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M.; Jouvel, S.; Kacprzak, T.; Karliner, I.; Katsaros, J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A.; Kim-Vy, T.; King, L.; Kirk, D.; Kochanek, C.; Kopp, M.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Kovacs, E.; Krause, E.; Kravtsov, A.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kunder, A.; Kuropatkin, N.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Leistedt, B.; Levi, M.; Lewis, P.; Liddle, A.; Lidman, C.; Lilly, S.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.; Lopez-Arenillas, C.; Lorenzon, W.; LoVerde, M.; Ma, Z.; Maartens, R.; Maccrann, N.; Macri, L.; Maia, M.; Makler, M.; Manera, M.; Maraston, C.; March, M.; Markovic, K.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J.; Marshall, S.; Martini, P.; Sanahuja, P. Marti; Mayers, J.; McKay, T.; McMahon, R.; Melchior, P.; Merritt, K. W.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Moore, T.; Mortonson, M.; Mosher, J.; Mould, J.; Mukherjee, P.; Neilsen, E.; Ngeow, C.; Nichol, R.; Nidever, D.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Old, L.; Olsen, J.; Ostrovski, F.; Paech, K.; Papadopoulos, A.; Papovich, C.; Patton, K.; Peacock, J.; Pellegrini, P. S. S.; Peoples, J.; Percival, W.; Perlmutter, S.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A.; Ponce, R.; Poole, G.; Pope, A.; Refregier, A.; Reyes, R.; Ricker, P.; Roe, N.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rooney, P.; Ross, A.; Rowe, B.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sabiu, C.; Saglia, R.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Santiago, B.; Saro, A.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schubnell, M.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Sheldon, E.; Sheth, R.; Smith, R. C.; Smith, M.; Snigula, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Song, J.; Soumagnac, M.; Spinka, H.; Stebbins, A.; Stoughton, C.; Suchyta, E.; Suhada, R.; Sullivan, M.; Sun, F.; Suntzeff, N.; Sutherland, W.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Sypniewski, A. J.; Szepietowski, R.; Talaga, R.; Tarle, G.; Tarrant, E.; Balan, S. Thaithara; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Ural, S.; Vikram, V.; Voigt, L.; Walker, A. R.; Walker, T.; Wechsler, R.; Weinberg, D.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wetzstein, M.; White, M.; Wilcox, H.; Wilman, D.; Yanny, B.; Young, J.; Zablocki, A.; Zenteno, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) report the discovery of the first set of supernovae (SN) from the project. Images were observed as part of the DES Science Verification phase using the newly-installed 570-Megapixel Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope by observers J. Annis, E. Buckley-Geer, and H. Lin. SN observations are planned throughout the observing campaign on a regular cadence of 4-6 days in each of the ten 3-deg2 fields in the DES griz filters.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC6656 spectroscopy of 71 blue HB stars (Salgado+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Catelan, M.

    2013-08-01

    Spectroscopically-derived parameters of 71 blue HB stars. The temperature, gravity, and surface helium abundance were derived fitting the Balmer and helium lines with synthetic spectra. Reddening and mass were estimated from these parameters. Spectra were obtained with the Hydra optical spectrograph mounted on the Blanco 4.0m telescope. It was used the grating KPGL1, coupled with the BG39 filter and the 200μ slit plate. The spectra were obtained on August 27, 2010 and cover the wavelength range of 3700-4900Å with a spectral resolution of 2.7Å. (2 data files).

  8. Electrical-analog analysis of ground-water depletion in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, T.W.

    1968-01-01

    The Salt River Valley and the lower Santa Cruz River basin are the two largest agricultural areas in Arizona. The extensive use of ground water for irrigation has resulted in the need for a thorough appraisal of the present and future ground-water resources. The ground-water reservoir provides 80 percent (3.2 million acre-feet) of the total annual water supply. The amount of water pumped greatly exceeds the rate at which the ground-water supply is being replenished and has resulted in water-level declines of as much as 20 feet per year in some places. The depletion problem is of economic importance because ground water will become more expensive as pumping lifts increase and well yields decrease. The use of electrical-analog modeling techniques has made it possible to predict future ground-water levels under conditions of continued withdrawal in excess of the rate of replenishment. The electrical system is a representation of the hydrologic system: resistors and capacitors represent transmissibility and storage coefficients. The analogy between the two systems is accepted when the data obtained from the model closely match the field data in this instance, measured water-level change since 1923. The prediction of future water-table conditions is accomplished by a simple extension of the pumping trends to determine the resultant effect on the regional water levels. The results of this study indicate the probable depths to water in central Arizona in 1974 and 1984 if the aquifer characteristics are accurately modeled and if withdrawal of ground water continues at the same rate and under the tame areal distribution as existed between 1958 and 1964. The greatest depths to water in 1984 will be more than 700 feet near Stanfield and more than 650 feet in Deer Valley and northeast of Gilbert. South of Eloy and northwest of Litchfield Park, a static water level of more than 550 feet is predicted. The total water-level decline in the 20-year period 1964-84 at the deepest

  9. Potential for aquifer compaction, land subsidence, and earth fissures in Avra Valley, Pima and Pinal counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Avra Valley is a large north-trending alluvial basin about 15 mi west of Tucson in Pima and Pinal Counties, Arizona. The climate of Avra Valley is semiarid, and the average annual precipitation ranges from 8 to 12 in. Two major ephemeral streams, the Santa Cruz River and Brawley Wash, drain the area. These streams and their tributaries provide a source of recharge to an extensive alluvial aquifer that underlies the valley floor. The aquifer consists of interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay and contains a vast quantity of groundwater. The physiography, fertile soil, and mild climate of Avra Valley make it an ideal environment for agriculture and urban development. Although the aquifer is replenished by natural recharge and underflow, rates of recharge and underflow have not kept pace with the rate of pumping. Pumping has exceeded recharge for several decades, resulting in a lowering of groundwater levels throughout most of the valley. In places, water level declines have resulted in small amounts of aquifer compaction and land subsidence. Earth fissures, some of which may be the result of localized differential subsidence, also have been observed in the valley. Geohydrologic characteristics of Avra Valley that may contribute to potential aquifer compaction, land subsidence, and earth fissures are described. The quantitative evaluation of potential land subsidence in this report is presented as an interim land- and water-use planning tool pending acquisition and study of additional data. Because of data limitations, the evaluation is made on the assumption that future rates of compaction and subsidence in Avra Valley will be similar to those in the Eloy-Picacho area. The evaluation also assumes that water level declines in the aquifer will continue. Several factors that may reduce groundwater withdrawals, and thus the potential for compaction and subsidence in Avra Valley, were not evaluated. These factors include the enactment of the 1980 Arizona Ground

  10. Monitoring Land Subsidence in Arizona Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Land subsidence due to excess groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona since the1940's. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in 1946 near Picacho, Arizona. In some areas of the State, groundwater declines of more than 400 feet have resulted in extensive earth fissuring and widespread land subsidence; land subsidence of more than 19 feet has been documented near Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona since 1997 using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data and Global Navigation Satellite System Data. The ADWR InSAR program has proven to be a critical resource in monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona, resulting in the identification of more than twenty-five individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 1,200 square miles. The majority of these land subsidence features are a direct result of groundwater declines attributed to groundwater overdraft. Using InSAR data in conjunction with both automated and manual groundwater level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor active land subsidence areas as well as identify other areas that may require additional InSAR monitoring. InSAR data have also proven to be extremely useful in monitoring land surface uplift associated with rising groundwater levels near groundwater recharge facilities. InSAR data can show the impact of the recharged groundwater as the area of uplift extends down gradient from the recharge facility. Some highlights of recent InSAR results include the identification of a new land subsidence feature in the eastern portion of Metropolitan Phoenix where groundwater levels have recently declined; the identification of changes to a floodplain that may be exacerbating recent flooding; seasonal land subsidence and uplift related to seasonal groundwater demands; and the identification of uplift

  11. Bird conservation would complement landslide prevention in the Central Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and restoration priorities often focus on separate ecosystem problems. Inspired by the November 11th (2011) landslide event near Manizales, and the current poor results of Colombia's Article 111 of Law 99 of 1993 as a conservation measure in this country, we set out to prioritize conservation and restoration areas where landslide prevention would complement bird conservation in the Central Andes. This area is one of the most biodiverse places on Earth, but also one of the most threatened. Using the case of the Rio Blanco Reserve, near Manizales, we identified areas for conservation where endemic and small-range bird diversity was high, and where landslide risk was also high. We further prioritized restoration areas by overlapping these conservation priorities with a forest cover map. Restoring forests in bare areas of high landslide risk and important bird diversity yields benefits for both biodiversity and people. We developed a simple landslide susceptibility model using slope, forest cover, aspect, and stream proximity. Using publicly available bird range maps, refined by elevation, we mapped concentrations of endemic and small-range bird species. We identified 1.54 km(2) of potential restoration areas in the Rio Blanco Reserve, and 886 km(2) in the Central Andes region. By prioritizing these areas, we facilitate the application of Article 111 which requires local and regional governments to invest in land purchases for the conservation of watersheds. PMID:25737819

  12. Alcohol: an alternate energy resource for community use. Final performance report. [Small-scale - 250 gal per year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-29

    The original purpose of the grant was to construct an alcohol producing facility for community use thereby demonstrating that small land owners could, through their initiative, produce fuel from a vegetable grown on small plots of land. The rationale for the program was predicated on increasing fuel costs, decreasing fuel supplies, and on information supplied by Tuskegee Institute about a high dry matter sweet potato (Rojo Blanco, reportedly 42% dry matter and an average yield of 750 bushels/acre) which theoretically would produce at least 1.42 gallons of ethyl alcohol/bushel. Two approaches were undertaken: the production of sweet potatoes and the production of alcohol. In the first year, Rojo Blanco did yield 700 bushels/acre, but in subsequent years, due to drought and inadequate knowledge of proper fertilizer and moisture regimes, that yield was never reached. In alcohol production, a long period of time with laboratory stills was devoted to testing sweet potato varieties to determine the alcohol/bushel ratios. The hypothetical 1.4 gallons/bushel was never attained - because the dry matter never approached 42%. In spite of the low alcohol per bushel results, a 250 gallon batch still was built (cost of over $3000). With cost of fuel for the digester and for the fermentation coupled with the market value of sweet potatoes, we determined that community operated stills using home-grown vegetable sources for alcohol production is not economically feasible at this time.

  13. Dark Energy Camera installation at CTIO: technical challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz A., Freddy; Montane, Andrés.; Tighe, Roberto; Warner, Michael; Abbott, Timothy M.

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is a new prime focus, wide-field imager for the V. M. Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. Instrumentation includes large, five-lens optical corrector mounted on hexapod mechanism for fine adjustment, filters, and a 519 Megapixel camera vessel; all integrated in a cage similar to the existing telescope prime focus structure. Currently Blanco allows a flip of this structure such that the f/8 secondary mirror, mounted on the back of the cage, points towards the primary mirror for Ritchey-Chretien observations. DECam will maintain this capability by attaching the existing F/8 mirror cell to the front of the new cage. Installation of this 8,600 kg instrument required the removal from the telescope of the primary mirror, the removal of the old prime focus assembly, and fine adjustment of large, over-constrained mechanisms followed by reassembly. A large facility shutdown was scheduled for this upgrade and several tools, fixtures, monitoring systems and procedures were developed in order to identify and then recover the optical alignment of the system, to control the distribution of stresses during tuning of the installation and to maintain the balance of the telescope with significant added mass. The final goal has been to maintain high performance of the telescope for both the existing f/8 Ritchey-Chretien focus mounted instruments and the new DECam instrument now in commissioning. The challenges presented in handling large elements, real-time monitoring, alignment, verification and feedback are described.

  14. The DECam NEO Survey: A sensitive, wide-field search for near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Lori; Trilling, David; Valdes, Frank; Fuentes, Cesar; James, David; Herrera, David; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Burt, Brian; Axelrod, Tim

    2014-11-01

    We report preliminary results from a survey for near-Earth asteroids with the Dark Energy Camera. DECam is a facility-class 520 Megapixel wide-field imager on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-american Observatory. It has a 3.2 square degree field of view, and a focal plane consisting of 62 2Kx4K red-optimized CCDs. In spite of its large number of pixels, DECam reads out in less than 30 seconds, making it possible to cover a large area of sky efficiently. Compared to the largest aperture of the currently most productive NEO searches, the Blanco has an aperture that is several times larger and a comparable field of view. Our goal is to measure the size distribution of NEOs well below 140m, and we have been allocated 30 nights through the NOAO Survey program to achieve it. Here we report on results from the first 10 nights of our survey.

  15. Extensive deposits on the Pacific plate from Late Pleistocene North American glacial lake outbursts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Reid, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major unresolved issues of the Late Pleistocene catastrophic-flood events in the northwestern United States (e.g., from glacial Lake Missoula) has been what happened when the flood discharge reached the ocean. This study compiles available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic reflection data, long-range sidescan sonar images, and sediment core data to define the distribution of flood sediment in deepwater areas of the Pacific Ocean. Upon reaching the ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River near the present-day upper continental slope, sediment from the catastrophic floods continued flowing downslope as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. The turbidity currents resulting from the Lake Missoula and other latest Pleistocene floods followed the Cascadia Channel into and through the Blanco Fracture Zone and then flowed west to the Tufts Abyssal Plain. A small part of the flood sediment, which was stripped off the main flow at a bend in the Cascadia Channel at its exit point from the Blanco Fracture Zone, continued flowing more than 400 km to the south and reached the Escanaba Trough, a rift valley of the southern Gorda Ridge. Understanding the development of the pathway for the Late Pleistocene flood sediment reaching Escanaba Trough provides insight for understanding the extent of catastrophic flood deposits on the Pacific plate.

  16. Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.-H.

    2015-05-01

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) has played vital roles in complementing space-based observatories to maximize their scientific yields. In the past three decades, I have used CTIO observations to aid in the interpretation of X-ray, ultraviolet, gamma-ray, and infrared observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In this presentation, I will show how CTIO observations made a difference in the analysis of Spitzer Space Telescope observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the LMC. With a higher angular resolution, CCD images taken with the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope can resolve nearby galaxies, small clusters, and compact HII regions that appear to be point sources in Spitzer images; furthermore, ISPI J and Ks images taken with the Blanco telescope reveal near-IR excesses that can be used to confirm YSO candidates identified from their mid-IR excesses. In the near future, CTIO's Dark Energy Camera will survey the LMC, and the data can be used to search for pre-main sequence stars, extending the study of on-going star formation to lower stellar masses.

  17. Comparative analysis of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles isolated from four shale oils. [Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles; thiophenes

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, C.; Pelroy, R.; Stewart, D.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the isolation of sulfur heterocycle fractions from four shale oils (Paraho, Geokinetics, Occidental, and Rio Blanco), the use of capillary column gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the identification of individual mixture components, and a reverse (Ames) and forward mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium to screen for possible health hazards. The major components of the Polycyclic Aromatic Sulfur Heterocycles (PASH) fractions for all four shale oils were found to be two- to three-ringed parent and alkylated thiophene compounds. In all cases the PASH fractions showed no more specific mutagenic response than the neutral PAC fractions from which they were isolated. The only mutagenic response which was detected in the PASH fractions was for the Rio Blanco shale oil and showed specific mutagenic response similar to the neutral PAC fraction from which it was isolated. Finally, the forward mutation 8-azaguanine test was apparently more sensitive than the Ames histidine reversion test in detecting mutagenic activity for the chemical fractions from the shale oils.

  18. Bird conservation would complement landslide prevention in the Central Andes of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and restoration priorities often focus on separate ecosystem problems. Inspired by the November 11th (2011) landslide event near Manizales, and the current poor results of Colombia’s Article 111 of Law 99 of 1993 as a conservation measure in this country, we set out to prioritize conservation and restoration areas where landslide prevention would complement bird conservation in the Central Andes. This area is one of the most biodiverse places on Earth, but also one of the most threatened. Using the case of the Rio Blanco Reserve, near Manizales, we identified areas for conservation where endemic and small-range bird diversity was high, and where landslide risk was also high. We further prioritized restoration areas by overlapping these conservation priorities with a forest cover map. Restoring forests in bare areas of high landslide risk and important bird diversity yields benefits for both biodiversity and people. We developed a simple landslide susceptibility model using slope, forest cover, aspect, and stream proximity. Using publicly available bird range maps, refined by elevation, we mapped concentrations of endemic and small-range bird species. We identified 1.54 km2 of potential restoration areas in the Rio Blanco Reserve, and 886 km2 in the Central Andes region. By prioritizing these areas, we facilitate the application of Article 111 which requires local and regional governments to invest in land purchases for the conservation of watersheds. PMID:25737819

  19. Imaging Spectrophotometry of the Jet/ISM Interaction in IC5063

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, G.; Schuft, B.; Morse, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2004-01-01

    IC5063 is a somewhat dusty z=0.0110 S0 galaxy with a Seyfert 2 nucleus. It has a triple radio source that spans 3 arcsec, mostly blueshifted H I absorption that spans 700 km/s, and ionization cones that extend for more than 2 arcmins. We obtained fully sampled [O III]\\lambda5007 grids at 0."9 and 70 km/s FWHM resolution using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot system on the Blanco 4m telescope. Complementary long-slit spectra using the RC spectrograph on the Blanco, and Taurus Tunable Filter spectral images in H\\alpha and [N II]\\lambda6583, were also obtained to assess gaseous ionization conditions. We present the results of our analysis, and correlate spectral structures to those visible in archival WFPC2 images. We find that, in the region near the radio triple, gaseous ionization and line velocity width is tightly correlated, in excellent quantitative agreement with the high-velocity shock regime in the diagnostic emission-line ratio diagrams of Dopita & Sutherland. We separate kinematically gas in normal disk rotation that is illuminated by the AGN in the ionization cones from that agitated mechanically by the jet, and assess the energy input from both processes.

  20. Geomorphic features of Oregon-Washington Project EEZ-SCAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; Kenyon, N.H.

    1985-02-01

    During Leg 4 of Project EEZ-SCAN, long-range side-scan sonographs and seismic-reflection profiles were collected off Oregon and Washington, from the edge of the continental shelf to the boundary of the US Exclusive Economic Zone (375 km from shore). The survey was extended seaward where necessary to include the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The project utilized the British GLORIA side-scan sonar system. The records were slant-range corrected and anamorphosed, and mosaics were constructed at a scale of 1:375,000. The sonographs display precise geometry of the major geomorphic features of the area: accretionary ridges, submarine canyons, and fan valleys on the continental slope; deep-sea fans and channels in Cascadia basin; and elongate volcanic ridges making up Gorda and Juan de Fuca Ridges. Canyons with gullied walls deeply incise the upper continental slope off Washington. On the lower slope, the regime apparently changes from one of downcutting to one of overbank deposition. Cascadia basin and Cascadia Channel record intricate and complex drainage histories. The channel is not evident as a major feature on Nitinat Fan but becomes more prominent to the south, especially where it crosses Blanco Fracture Zone and enters Tufts Abyssal Plain. Recent tectonic deformation of oceanic crust in the vicinity of Gorda Ridge is evident in the sonographs. For example, long, linear volcanic ridges flanking the spreading center are distorted and rotated westward at the north end where the Gorda Ridge meets the Blanco Fracture Zone.

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 748 - Authorities Administering Import Certificate/Delivery Verification (IC/DV) and End-User Statement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Services Plac Trzech Krzyzy 5, Room 358 00-507 Warsaw IC/DV Portugal Reparticao do Comercio Externo Direccao-Geral do Comercio Secretaria de Estado do Comercio Ministerio da Economia, Lisbon...

  2. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  3. Population and Star Formation Histories from the Outer Limits Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondel, Brian Joseph; Saha, Abhijit; Olszewski, Edward

    2015-08-01

    The Outer Limits Survey (OLS) is a deep survey of selected fields in the outlying areas of the Magellanic Clouds based on the MOSAIC-II instrument on the Blanco 4-meter Telescope at CTIO. OLS is designed to probe the outer disk and halo structures of Magellanic System. The survey comprises ~50 fields obtained in Landolt R, I and Washington C, M and DDO51 filters, extending to a depth of about 24th magnitude in I. While qualitative examination of the resulting data has yielded interesting published results, we report here on quantitative analysis through matching of Hess diagrams to theoretical isochrones. We present analysis based on techniques developed by Dolphin (e.g., 2002, MNRAS, 332, 91) for fields observed by OLS. Our results broadly match those found by qualitative examination of the CMDs, but interesting details emerge from isochrone fitting.

  4. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    PubMed

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. PMID:26499298

  5. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Theresa; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Chappa, Steve; de Vicente, Juan; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; Martinez, Gustavo; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The ATLBS Extended Source Sample (Saripalli+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Thorat, K.; Ekers, R. D.; Hunstead, R. W.; Johnston, H. M.; Sadler, E. M.

    2012-06-01

    The ATLBS radio images were made at 1388MHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) by mosaic observing 38 adjacent pointing positions covering about 8.4deg2 of sky area. ATLBS images made with the synthesized beam of 50 arcsec were used as the basic resource for compiling the ATLBS-ESS sample. In the two, 2deg mosaic images, only "islands" of image pixels with peaks exceeding five times the image rms noise were considered. As described in Subrahmanyan et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/402/2792), the integrated flux density in compact components within these source islands were computed from images made with 4 arcsec FWHM beam using exclusively interferometer baselines to the 6km antenna. The ATLBS survey regions were also observed in optical g, r, and z band with the MOSAICII imager on the CTIO NOAO 4m Blanco telescope. (2 data files).

  7. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin. PMID:26909987

  8. Prime focus wide-field corrector designs with lossless atmospheric dispersion correction

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Will; Gillingham, Peter; Smith, Greg; Kent, Steve; Doel, Peter

    2014-07-18

    Wide-Field Corrector designs are presented for the Blanco and Mayall telescopes, the CFHT and the AAT. The designs are Terezibh-style, with 5 or 6 lenses, and modest negative optical power. They have 2.2-3 degree fields of view, with curved and telecentric focal surfaces suitable for fiber spectroscopy. Some variants also allow wide-field imaging, by changing the last WFC element. Apart from the adaptation of the Terebizh design for spectroscopy, the key feature is a new concept for a 'Compensating Lateral Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector', with two of the lenses being movable laterally by small amounts. This provides excellent atmospheric dispersion correction, without any additional surfaces or absorption. A novel and simple mechanism for providing the required lens motions is proposed, which requires just 3 linear actuators for each of the two moving lenses.

  9. The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Isabel; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermúdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matías; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic α-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Peña, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.

  10. Identifying Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Triggers With DECam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave (GW) event is one of the great observational challenges in modern astronomy. We report on our work to overcome this challenge by investigating the theoretical and practical issues associated with optical follow-up of a GW event. This includes a systematic study of the potential contaminant population and their impact on counterpart detectability in simulated observations. Additionally, we utilize data taken with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. These data serve as a mock follow-up to a GW event and assist in the characterization of contamination not captured in simulations. P.S.C. is grateful for support provided by the NSF through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program, Grant DGE1144152.

  11. Fore-arc migration in Cascadia and its neotectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Ray E.; Weaver, Craig S.; Blakely, Richard J.

    1998-08-01

    Neogene deformation, paleomagnetic rotations, and sparse geodetic data suggest the Cascadia fore arc is migrating northward along the coast and breaking up into large rotating blocks. Deformation occurs mostly around the margins of a large, relatively aseismic Oregon coastal block composed of thick, accreted seamount crust. This 400-km-long block is moving slowly clockwise with respect to North America about a Euler pole in eastern Washington, thus increasing convergence rates along its leading edge near Cape Blanco, and creating an extensional volcanic arc on its trailing edge. Northward movement of the block breaks western Washington into smaller, seismically active blocks and compresses them against the Canadian Coast Mountains restraining bend. Arc-parallel transport of fore-arc blocks is calculated to be up to 9 mm/yr, sufficient to produce damaging earthquakes in a broad deformation zone along block margins.

  12. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco site for the LTHMP on May 16 and 17, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method, because the laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  13. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  14. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. PMID:25480969

  15. Early Cretaceous continental sedimentation in the Coastal Cordillera (Atajaña Formation), Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, G.; Garcia, M.; Sepulveda, F.; Vasquez, P.

    2013-12-01

    Early Cretaceous continental sedimentation development at the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile has been described in a broad sense. The Atajaña Formation represents this continental sedimentation, south of Arica (18°30S), where it exposes mostly as an elongated swath oriented N70°E, forming a 20 km long and 8 km wide area of outcrop. Northward, these deposits occur as isolated outcrops at the bottom of Chiza, Camarones, Vitor and Azapa valleys. The Atajaña succession was deposited in apparent angular unconformity over Cuya Formation (Middle-Late Jurassic) and Chiza Formation (Bajocian-Oxfordian). The Atajaña Formation is overlain, conformable and transitional, by the Blanco Formation (Aptian-Albian) and overlain in erosion unconformity by the Suca Formation (upper Early Cretaceous). Angular unconformity contact between Atajaña Formation and Cenozoic units (Azapa Formation and alluvial deposits) is exposed at previously named valleys. In the Camarones valley, the Atajaña Formation unconformably overlies Middle to Late Jurassic intrusive rocks. In this work, the Atajaña Formation is divided in three facies associations, exposed close to Atajaña hill and Chiza valley (Kia1, Kia2 y Kia2a). Reddish conglomerates and sedimentary breccias facies (Kia1) consists of an up to 850 m thick. These rocks are massive, polymictic and poorly-sorted, and form laterally extensive beds. Clasts are mostly composed by diorites, monzodiorites, grayish fine sandstones, fine calcareous sandstones, limestones, volcarenites and porphyric andesites. Facies Kia1 includes interbedded red calcareous sandstones and siltstones, some of them displaying low-angle cross bedding. Facies Kia2 consists of an up to 570 m thick of red sandstone and siltstone, interbedded with conglomerates. This well stratified succession, parallel bedded and minor cross bedded, form continuous beds with subrounded and well-sorted clasts. Previous authors described dessication cracks in the red siltstones

  16. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  17. A Wide-Field Corrector at the Prime Focus of a Ritchey--Chrétien Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebizh, V. Yu.

    2004-03-01

    We propose a form of a lens corrector at the prime focus of a hyperboloidal mirror that provides a flat field of view up to 3 deg in diameter at image quality D_{80} < 0.8 arcsec in integrated (0.32-1.1 microm) light. The corrector consists of five lenses made of fused silica. All lens surfaces are spherical in shape, so the system is capable of achieving better images, if necessary, by aspherizing the surfaces. The optical system of the corrector is stable in the sense that its principal features are retained when optimized after significant perturbations of its parameters. As an example, we calculated three versions of the corrector for the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory with 2.12 deg, 2.4 deg, and 3.0 deg fields of view.

  18. A MEASUREMENT OF THE CORRELATION OF GALAXY SURVEYS WITH CMB LENSING CONVERGENCE MAPS FROM THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bleem, L. E.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Van Engelen, A.; Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Aird, K. A.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Brodwin, M.; Busha, M. T.; Cho, H. M.; Desai, S.; Dore, O.; and others

    2012-07-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, WISE, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 deg{sup 2} of sky, we detect a correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4{sigma}, with zero correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JK photometry of 12 galactic globular clusters (Cohen+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. E.; Hempel, M.; Mauro, F.; Geisler, D.; Alonso-Garcia, J.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2016-04-01

    Observations of our 12 target clusters were obtained with the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) mounted on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The HAWAII-2 2048*2048 pixel detector has 0.305''/pixel, giving a field of view 10.25arcmin per side. Imaging was obtained in the J and KS filters over the course of three runs between 2008 and 2010 (NGC 104 and NGC 6496 on 2008 Aug 13; NGC 1851 and NGC 288 on 2009 Sep 30; NGC 362, NGC 1261, and NGC 7099 on 2009 Oct 01; NGC 2808 and NGC 6304 on 2010 Apr 28; NGC 4833 on 2010 Apr 29; NGC 5927 and NGC 6584 on 2010 Apr 30), with median seeing ranging between 0.8'' and 1.4''. (2 data files).

  20. Biogenic hydrocarbon contribution to the ambient air of selected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Meeks, Sarah A.

    In response to suggestions that biogenic emissions are responsible for high hydrocarbon concentrations described in several reports, a short-term sampling program was initiated in the reported areas to test this hypothesis. Limited numbers of whole-air samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection. Tulsa air was found to contain an average of 0.2% isoprene of the total nonmethane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) load. Rio Blanco County, Colorado, and Smoky Mountain air, respectively, averaged about 2 % and 4 % biogenic hydrocarbon of the total nonmethane hydrocarbon loads. Isoprene appears to be a dominant olefin in rural and remote areas. Although the tests were of short duration, results suggest monoterpenes and isoprene constitute only minor components in these areas relative to anthropogenic hydrocarbons.

  1. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  2. Investigation of Reddening in Fields of the SMASH Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juelfs, Elizabeth A.; Olsen, Knut A.; SMASH Team

    2016-01-01

    We present dust extinction maps derived from eight fields in the Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH), a survey that is imaging 480 deg^2 of the southern sky in DES-ugriz with the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope and the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). We derive the extinction due to dust using fits to the stellar locus of stars brighter than g=21 in color-color diagrams, and explore the spatial distribution of the extinction within each of the fields. We compare our results to the extinction map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (1998), and find generally good agreement. We describe plans to measure the three-dimensional distribution of extinction in these fields using fainter stars and background galaxies as tracers. Juelfs was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  3. Section of Morgan formation, Pennsylvanian, at Split Mountain in Dinosaur National Monument, Uintah County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCann, Franklin T.; Raman, Norman D.; Henbest, Lloyd G.

    1946-01-01

    Extension of the oil pool in the Weber sandstone (Pennsylvanian), in the Rangely oil field, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, subsequent to the completion of the filed work on which Preliminary Chart 16 is based, has stimulated special interest in the beds beneath that sandstone as potential oil reservoirs. In compliance with the demand for additional information concerning these beds, a detailed description of the sequence immediately underlying the Weber sandstone at Split Mountain, Utah, is here given. That part of Split Mountain where the section was measured is approximately 35 airline miles northwest of the town of Rangely. The section itself is shown graphically and somewhat generalized in column 8, sheet 2, Preliminary Chart 16. A more detailed graphic section is presented in the accompanying column section.

  4. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    PubMed

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain. PMID:8123711

  5. Note on the stability of axionic D-term s-strings

    SciTech Connect

    Achucarro, Ana; Sousa, Kepa

    2006-10-15

    We investigate the stability of a new class of BPS cosmic strings in N=1 supergravity with D-terms recently proposed by Blanco-Pillado, Dvali and Redi. These have been conjectured to be the low energy manifestation of D-strings that might form from tachyon condensation after D- anti-D-brane annihilation in type IIB superstring theory. There are three one-parameter families of cylindrically symmetric one-vortex solutions to the BPS equations (tachyonic, axionic and hybrid). We find evidence that the zero mode in the axionic case, or s-strings, can be excited. Its evolution leads to the decompactification of four-dimensional spacetime at late times, with a rate that decreases with decreasing brane tension.

  6. Observation of two new L4 Neptune Trojans in the Dark Energy Survey supernova fields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gerdes, D. W.

    2016-01-28

    We report the discovery of the eighth and ninth known Trojans in stable orbits around Neptune's leading Lagrange point, L4. The objects 2014 QO441 and 2014 QP441 were detected in data obtained during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 observing seasons by the Dark Energy Survey, using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory. Both are in high-inclination orbits (18.8° and 19.4° respectively). Furthermore, with an eccentricity of 0.104, 2014 QO441 has the most eccentric orbit of the eleven known stable Neptune Trojans. We describe the search procedure and investigate the objects' long-termmore » dynamical stability and physical properties.« less

  7. Geology of the lower Yellow Creek Area, Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The lower Yellow Creek area is located in Rio Blanco and Moffat Counties of northwestern Colorado, about midway between the towns of Rangely and Meeker. The study area is in the northwestern part of the Piceance Creek basin, a very deep structural and sedimentary basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny. Potentially important resources in the area are oil shale and related minerals, oil and gas, coal, and uranium. Topics discussed in the report include: Stratigraphy (Subsurface rocks, Cretaceous rocks, Tertiary rocks, and Quaternary deposits); Structure (Midland anticline, graben at Pinyon Ridge, and Crooked Wash syncline, Folds and faults in the vicinity of the White River, Red Wash syncline and central graben zone, Yellow Creek anticlinal nose); Economic geology (Oil shale and associated minerals, Coal, Oil and gas, Uranium, Gravel).

  8. BX in-situ oil shale project. Annual status report on environmental monitoring and analysis-SP No. 6, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    The objective of the BX In Situ Oil Shale Project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using superheated steam as a heat-carrying medium to retort in situ the oil shale in the Green River Formation leached zone and provide a mechanism for the recovery of this shale oil with a minimum impact on the environment. Utilizing primarily the natural porosity in the leached zone, approximately one trillion Btus of heat will be injected into a site over a two-year period to heat to retorting temperature a shale zone approximately 550 feet thick and covering about one acre. The field project is located at Equity's BX In Situ site in Rio Blanco County in northwestern Colorado. Environmental activities conducted from March 1, 1980 through February 28, 1981 were a continuation of operational monitoring initiated the previous year that included meteorology, water quality and aquatic ecology monitoring.

  9. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:22799453

  10. Selective separation of patchouli alcohol from the essential oil of Cablin potchouli by inclusion crystalline method.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jian; Yuan, Lei; Guo, Fang; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Jin, Lan; Guo, Wen-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we have focused on the application of non-traditional separation approach, the host-guest inclusion method, into the separation of the active component patchouli alcohol from the essential oil of Cablin potchouli Herb. The host molecule 1,1,6,6-tetraphenylhexa-2,4-diyne-1,6-diol (A) was used to selectively recognise the guest molecule patchouli alcohol (B) in the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth through two strong hydrogen bonding. The inclusion compound was structurally determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The separation effect was examined by gas chromatography for the whole essential oil and the inclusion compound, showing that the inclusion crystalline method is simple, rapid and effective for the separation of patchouli alcohol from the essential oil of C. potchouli Herb. PMID:22304229

  11. Volatile oil composition of Pogostemon heyneanus and comparison of its composition with patchouli oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Ramar; Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Padmashree, Kyathsandra Venkataramaiah; Rao, Ramachandra Raghavendra; Livingstone, Christus

    2010-12-01

    The volatile oil of the leaves of Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. (Lamiaceae) was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-six components representing 96.0% of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were acetophenone (51.0%), beta-pinene (5.3%), (E)-nerolidol (5.4%), and patchouli alcohol (14.0%). Comparison of the compositions of the oils of P. heyneanus and P. cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli oil) showed wide variation between them. Though 13 sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were detected in both oils, their concentrations in the oils differed widely. Acetophenone, benzoyl acetone and (E)-nerolidol present in the oil of P. heyneanus were not detected in patchouli oil. PMID:21299132

  12. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate. PMID:24259515

  13. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  14. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention. PMID:21241294

  15. Vertebrate-bearing eolian unit from the Ogallala Group (Miocene) in northwestern Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    The upper Couch Formation is part of the lower of two formations composing the Ogallala Group in Blanco and Yellowhouse canyons in northwestern Texas. An eolian origin for the upper Couch Formation is indicated by its mean grain size, pedogenic carbonate nodules, massive bedding, and blanketlike morphology. The unit conforms poorly to the usual eolian depositional models; it resulted from a combination of the processes involved in loess and sand-sheet formation. Grassland or savanna vegetation probably existed over the area and aided in sediment trapping. Vertebrates are unusual in eolian units, but the adaptations and mode of preservation of those in the upper Couch Formation also support an eolian interpretation. This and other widespread silty sand sheets in the Ogallala indicate major fluctuations in depositional style, possibly climatically controlled. Lateral continuity and preservation of vertebrates give silty sand sheets great potential as correlation tools.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Massive galaxy clusters lensing analyse (Richard+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, J.; Smith, G. P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ellis, R. S.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Pei, L.; Targett, T. A.; Sand, D. J.; Swinbank, A. M.; Dannerbauer, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Limousin, M.; Egami, E.; Jullo, E.; Hamilton-Morris, V.; Moran, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    High-resolution imaging data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) or Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) instrument on HST are available for each selected cluster in one or two bands, either through our dedicated LoCuSS programme (GO-DD 11312, PI: G.P. Smith) or from the archive. J- and KS-band data were obtained between 2003 March and 2007 April on the following near-infrared instruments: Wide Infrared Camera (WIRC) on the Palomar-200-inch telescope, Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope and Florida Infrared Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (FLAMINGOS) on the Kitt Peak (KPNO) 4-m telescope. We used the LRIS on the Keck-I telescope to perform long-slit and multislit observations of the clusters. The spectroscopic data used in the current paper are the outcome of six different observing runs between 2004 and 2008. (1 data file).

  17. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; Briones, Jorge; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Campa, Juila; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco; Castilla, Javier; Cease, Herman; Chappa, Steve; Chi, Edward C.; da Costa, Luis; DePoy, Darren L.; Derylo, Gregory; de Vincente, Juan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Estrada, Juan; Eiting, Jacob; Elliott, Anne E.; Finley, David A.; Flores, Rolando; Frieman, Josh; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gerdes, David; Gladders, Mike; Guarino, V.; Gutierrez, G.; Grudzinski, Jim; Hanlon, Bill; Hao, Jiangang; Holland, Steve; Honscheid, Klaus; Huffman, Dave; Jackson, Cheryl; Jonas, Michelle; Karliner, Inga; Kau, Daekwang; Kent, Steve; Kozlovsky, Mark; Krempetz, Kurt; Krider, John; Kubik, Donna; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve E.; Kuk, Kevin; Lahav, Ofer; Langellier, Nick; Lathrop, Andrew; Lewis, Peter M.; Lin, Huan; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gustavo; McKay, Timothy; Merritt, Wyatt; Meyer, Mark; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Jim; Moore, Peter; Moore, Todd; Neilsen, Eric; Nord, Brian; Ogando, Ricardo; Olson, Jamieson; Patton, Kenneth; Peoples, John; Plazas, Andres; Qian, Tao; Roe, Natalie; Roodman, Aaron; Rossetto, B.; Sanchez, E.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Scarpine, Vic; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Ricardo; Schmitt, Richard; Schubnell, Mike; Schultz, Kenneth; Selen, M.; Serrano, Santiago; Shaw, Terri; Simaitis, Vaidas; Slaughter, Jean; Smith, R. Christopher; Spinka, Hal; Stefanik, Andy; Stuermer, Walter; Sypniewski, Adam; Talaga, R.; Tarle, Greg; Thaler, Jon; Tucker, Doug; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wester, William; Woods, Robert J.; Worswick, Sue; Zhao, Allen

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  18. The Dark Energy Survey Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaugher, Brenna

    2012-03-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 520 Megapixel CCD camera which is being mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to carry out the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey, using 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. Construction of DECam is complete. The final components were shipped to Chile in Dec. 2011 and post-shipping checkout is in progress in Dec-Jan. Installation and commissioning on the telescope are taking place in 2012. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic, capillary electrophoretic and capillary electrophoretic-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of selected alkaloid groups.

    PubMed

    Stöckigt, Joachim; Sheludk, Yuri; Unger, Matthias; Gerasimenko, Irina; Warzecha, Heribert; Stöckigt, Detlef

    2002-08-16

    Systems for efficient separation of selected alkaloid groups by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) are described. The optimized HPLC system was applied for the separation of 23 standard indole alkaloids as well as for qualitative and quantitative analyses of crude alkaloid extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina X Rhazya stricta hybrid cell cultures. The developed conditions for CE analysis proved to be efficient for separation of mixtures of standard indole and beta-carboline alkaloids. The described buffer system is also applicable in the combination of CE with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. This analytical technique allowed the separation and identification of components of standard indole alkaloid mixture as well as crude extracts of R. serpentina roots, R. serpentina cell suspension cultures and cortex of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco. The influence of buffer composition and analyte structures on separation is discussed. PMID:12219932

  20. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part VI. Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of plants used by Isoceño-Guaraní Indians.

    PubMed

    Bourdy, G; Oporto, P; Gimenez, A; Deharo, E

    2004-08-01

    Seventy-seven plant extracts (corresponding to 62 different species) traditionally used by the Isoceño-Guaraní, a native community living in the Bolivian Chaco, were screened for antimalarial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine sensitive strain (F32), and on ferriprotoporphyrin (FP) IX biocrystallisation inhibition test (FBIT). Among these extracts, seven displayed strong in vitro antimalarial activity, and 25 were active in the FBIT test. Positive results on both tests were recorded for six extracts: Argemone subfusiformis aerial part, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco bark, Castela coccinea leaves and bark, Solanum argentinum leaves and Vallesia glabra bark. Results are discussed in relation with Isoceño-Guaraní traditional medicine. Further studies to be undertaken in relation with these results are also highlighted. PMID:15234764

  1. Evaluation of the reasons why freshly appearing citrus peel fluorescence during automatic inspection by fluorescent imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momin, Md. Abdul; Kondo, Naoshi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Shiigi, Tomoo; Ninomiya, Kazunori

    2011-07-01

    Defective unshu oranges (Citrus reticulate Blanco var. unshu) were sorted based on fluorescent imaging technique in a commercial packinghouse but fresh appearing unshu were rejected due to fluorescence appearing on their peel. We studied the various visible patterns based on colour, fluorescence and microscopic images, where even areas of the peel that are not obviously damaged can have fluorescence, to provide a categorization of fluorescence reasons. The categorization corresponded to: 1) hole and flow; 2) influenced by damaged or rotten fruits that have released peel oil onto it; 3) immature or poor peel quality; 4) whitish fluorescence due to agro-chemicals and 5) variation of the growing season. The identification of such patterns of fluorescence might be useful for citrus grading industry to take some initiatives to make the entire automated system more efficient.

  2. Remote alongshore winds drive variability of the California Undercurrent off the British Columbia-Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Krassovski, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    The California Undercurrent transports warm, salty, nutrient-rich, oxygen-depleted water along the continental slope from the equatorial Pacific to the Aleutian Islands. We use multiyear acoustic Doppler current profiler records collected simultaneously at two mooring sites off Vancouver Island to detail the regional structure of the undercurrent and to show that much of its variability is attributable to the passage of remotely forced, coastal-trapped waves. We also document two subsurface currents missed by earlier current measurements. The undercurrent becomes evident in spring, intensifies through summer and fall, and merges with the wind-driven poleward surface flow in winter. During intensification at the southern mooring site (A1), the undercurrent shoals from 250 ± 50 m in early summer to 150 ± 50 m depth in late fall. At the northern site (BP2), 225 km to the northwest of A1, the current is weaker and maintains a year-round depth of 150 ± 50 m. Temporal variability in the undercurrent velocity attains highest coherence with winds along the southern Oregon-northern California coast, with peak coherence occurring for "synoptic" (10-40 day period) alongshore winds off Cape Blanco in southern Oregon. The undercurrent lag of 3 ± 2 days relative to the Cape Blanco winds at synoptic periods is consistent with low mode, poleward propagating, coastally trapped waves. For periods >40 days, the wind-current coherence remains high for winds off the Oregon-California coast but lags are often negative, indicating possible forcing by alongshore baroclinic pressure gradients. At interannual time scales, the undercurrent variations have links to climate-scale processes in the equatorial Pacific.

  3. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  4. Storage conditions and eruptive dynamics of central versus flank eruptions in volcanic islands: The case of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andújar, Joan; Costa, Fidel; Scaillet, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of phase equilibrium experiments on a phonolite produced during one of the most voluminous flank eruptions (ca. 1 km3) of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife Island). Combined with previous experimental and volcanological data we address the factors that control the structure of the phonolitic plumbing system of Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes. The Roques Blancos phonolite erupted ca 1800 BP and contains ~ 14 wt.% phenocrysts, mainly anorthoclase, biotite, magnetite, diopside and lesser amounts of ilmenite. Crystallization experiments were performed at temperatures of 900 °C, 850 °C and 800 °C, in the pressure range 200 MPa to 50 MPa. The oxygen fugacity (fO2) was varied between NNO + 0.3 (0.3 log units above to the Ni-NiO solid buffer) to NNO-2, whilst dissolved water contents varied from 7 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%. The comparison between natural and experimental phase proportions and compositions, including glass, indicates that the phonolite magma was stored prior to eruption at 900 ± 15 °C, 50 ± 15 MPa, with about 2.2 wt.% H2O dissolved in the melt, at an oxygen fugacity of NNO-0.5 (± 0.5). The difference in composition between the rim and the cores of the natural anorthoclase phenocrysts suggests that the phonolite was heated by about 50 °C before the eruption, upon intrusion of a hotter tephriphonolitic magma. The comparison between the storage conditions of Roques Blancos and those inferred for other phonolites of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex shows that flank eruptions are fed by reservoirs located at relatively shallow depths (1-2 km) compared to those feeding Teide central eruptions (5 km).

  5. The Phase Curve Survey of the Irregular Saturnian Satellites: A Possible Method of Physical Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, James M.; Grav, Tommy; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    During its 2005 January opposition, the saturnian system could be viewed at an unusually low phase angle. We surveyed a subset of Saturn's irregular satellites to obtain their true opposition magnitudes, or nearly so, down to phase angle values of 0.01 deg. Combining our data taken at the Palomar 200-inch and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's 4-m Blanco telescope with those in the literature, we present the first phase curves for nearly half the irregular satellites originally reported by Gladman et al. [2001. Nature 412, 163-166], including Paaliaq (SXX), Siarnaq (SXXIX), Tarvos (SXXI), Ijiraq (SXXII), Albiorix (SXVI), and additionally Phoebe's narrowest angle brightness measured to date. We find centaur-like steepness in the phase curves or opposition surges in most cases with the notable exception of three, Albiorix and Tarvos, which are suspected to be of similar origin based on dynamical arguments, and Siarnaq.During its 2005 January opposition, the saturnian system could be viewed at an unusually low phase angle. We surveyed a subset of Saturn's irregular satellites to obtain their true opposition magnitudes, or nearly so, down to phase angle values of 0.01 deg. Combining our data taken at the Palomar 200-inch and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's 4-m Blanco telescope with those in the literature, we present the first phase curves for nearly half the irregular satellites originally reported by Gladman et al. [2001. Nature 412, 163-166], including Paaliaq (SXX), Siarnaq (SXXIX), Tarvos (SXXI), Ijiraq (SXXII), Albiorix (SXVI), and additionally Phoebe's narrowest angle brightness measured to date. We find centaur-like steepness in the phase curves or opposition surges in most cases with the notable exception of three, Albiorix and Tarvos, which are suspected to be of similar origin based on dynamical arguments, and Siarnaq.

  6. Evidence for the jumping of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, L.E.; Ford, D.P.; La Tourrette, T.Z.; Sutherland, H.T.; Walsh, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors predict that the Mendocino triple junction will jump from its present location to a more northerly position defined by the intersection of the Blanco fracture zone, the Hayward-Lake Mountain fault system, and the Gorda trench. A similar jump may have occurred in the mid-Miocene during the shift from the San Gregorio-Hosgri to the San Andreas fault. North of Hollister, California, a series of northwest trending faults, known as the Hayward-Lake Mountain fault system, branch from the San Andreas fault. This fault system better approximates the trace of the small circle that describes the transform motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Displacement and slip measurements indicate that this fault system is progressing northward and that transform motion is shifting from the San Andreas to the Hayward-Lake Mountain fault system. Deformation of the Gorda plate as a result of compression during subduction can be resolved by the connection of the emerging Hayward-Lake Mountain fault system and the Blanco fracture zone. The Humboldt block is defined by the San Andreas fault, the Hayward-Lake Mountain fault system and the Gorda trench. This block is being deformed as a result of transform motion on these two faults. Propagation of volcanics through Northern California shows a direct correlation with both the paleo-positions of the Mendocino triple junction and the paths of transform faults. Geometric constructions applied to the Mendocino triple junction reveal that it is unstable at its present position and that a more northward position represents a more stable configuration.

  7. Age estimates and uplift rates for late Pleistocene marine terraces: Southern Oregon portion of the Cascadia forearc

    SciTech Connect

    Muhs, D.R.; Whelan, J.F. ); Kelsey, H.M.; McInelly, G.W. ); Miller, G.H. ); Kennedy, G.L. )

    1990-05-10

    Interest in the Cascadia subduction zone has increased because recent investigations have suggested that slip along plates at certain types of convergent margins is characteristically accompanied by large earthquakes. In addition, other investigations have suggested that convergent margins can be broadly classified by the magnitude of their uplift rates. The authors generated new uranium series, amino acid, and stable isotope data for southern Oregon marine terrace fossils. These data, along with terrace elevations and two alternative estimates of sea level at the time of terrace formation, allow one to determine terrace ages and uplift rates. Uranium series analysis of fossil coral yields an age of 83 {plus minus} 5 ka for the Whisky Run terrace at Coquille Point in Bandon, Oregon. A combination of amino acid and oxygen isotope data suggest ages of about 80 and 105 ka for the lowest two terraces at Cape Blanco. These ages indicate uplift rates of 0.45-1.05 and 0.81-1.49 m/kyr for Coquille Point and Cape Blanco, respectively. In order to assess the utility of the southern Oregon uplift rates for predicting the behavior of the Cascadia subduction zone, the authors compared late Quaternary uplift rates derived from terrace data from subduction zones around the world. On the basis of this comparison the southern Oregon rates of vertical deformation are not usually high or low. Furthermore, late Quaternary uplift rates show little relationship to the type of convergent margin. In the case of the southern Oregon coast, variability in uplift rate probably reflects local structures in the overriding plate, and the rate of uplift cannot be used as a simple index of the potential for great earthquakes along the southern Cascadia subduction zone.

  8. [Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957].

    PubMed

    Martin Frechilla, J J

    1996-01-01

    The individuals and circumstances involved in the creation of the first graduate urban studies program in Venezuela are recalled, beginning with the odernization of Caracas under the impulse of President Antonio Guzman Blanco, elected in 1870. Guzman Blanco converted himself into Venezuela's first urbanist with the establishment of organizational frameworks and completion of massive public works projects, which were based largely on the urban models of the US and Europe. Engineering and public health were consolidated as the two most influential sources of professional competence for guiding urban development. By the mid-1930s, growth fueled by petroleum revenues was causing rapid urbanization, and it became apparent that trained professionals able to manage the increasingly complex tasks of urban planning were in short supply. A new surge of modernizing construction began in 1936 and led to a cooperative arrangement with a French firm, whose personnel were to be required to train Venezuelan engineers for future service in urban planning. An influx of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and the increasing influence of urban planning processes in the US were also observed. The National Commission on Urbanism was created in 1946 as a dependency of the Ministry of Planning to facilitate public administration of the development and control of cities. Throughout the period, a debate was underway on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to urban planning versus a primarily architectural or engineering approach. In 1957, some consensus was reached on the need for urban planning to be viewed as more than a speciality of architecture. A framework was developed for a graduate program in 1969 in the Central University of Venezuela. The National Commission on Urbanism was disbanded in 1957, largely because of its excessive focus on architecture to the exclusion of other disciplines relevant to the urbanization process. PMID:12321404

  9. Structure of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere System Beneath the Juan de Fuca Plate: Results of Body Wave Imaging Using Cascadia Initiative Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Toomey, D. R.; Hooft, E. E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The plate-scale deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) as part of the Cascadia Initiative (CI) of NSF provides a unique opportunity to study the structure and dynamics of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath an entire oceanic plate, from its birth at a spreading center to its subduction beneath a continent. Here we present tomographic images of the seismic structure of oceanic upper mantle beneath the Juan de Fuca (JdF) and Gorda plates derived from body wave delay times. The results constrain structural anomalies beneath the JdF and Gorda spreading centers, the Blanco and Mendocino transform faults, near ridge hotspots such as Axial Seamount, and the upper mantle structure beneath the subducting oceanic lithosphere. We measured delay times of teleseismic P and S wave phases for the first two years of the CI. Our tomographic analysis assumes both isotropic and anisotropic starting models and accounts for finite-frequency effects and three-dimensional ray bending. Preliminary results indicate that the upper mantle structure beneath the JdF spreading center is asymmetric, with lower shear wave velocities beneath the Pacific plate (also the direction of ridge migration). On a regional scale, regions of lower seismic velocities beneath the JdF and Gorda spreading centers correlate with shallower ridge depths. Beneath the southern Gorda plate a low velocity anomaly is detected, which is absent to the north; this anomaly is bounded to the south by the Mendocino transform. Ongoing work includes analysis of the third year of CI data, which will improve resolution of structure and allow better definition of anomalies in the vicinity of the Blanco transform. In addition, we will combine ocean and continental data to obtain images of the Cascadia subduction zone.

  10. Causes, Dynamics and Impacts of Lahars Generated by the April, 2015 Calbuco Eruption, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, A. J.; Dussaillant, A. R.; Meier, C. I.; Rivera, A.; Barra, M. M.; Urzua, N. G.; Hernandez, J. F.; Napoleoni, F.; Gonzalez, C.

    2015-12-01

    Calbuco is a 2015m high, glacier capped, stratovolcano in the heavily populated Los Lagos district of southern Chile with a history of large volcanic eruptions in 1893-95, 1906-7, 1911-12, 1917, 1932, 1945, 1961 and 1972. Calbuco experienced a powerful 90 minute eruption at 18:04h on 22 April, 2015 followed by additional major eruptions at 01:00h and 13:10h on 23 & 30 April, respectively, resulting in the evacuation of 6500 people and the imposition of a 20 km radius exclusion zone. Pyroclastic flows descended into several river catchments radiating from the volcano with lahars travelling distances of up to 14 km, reaching populated areas. We present preliminary findings regarding the causes, dynamics and impacts of lahars generated by the April 2015 eruption. Pyroclastic flows melted glacier ice and snow generating the largest lahars in the Rio Este and Rio Blanco Sur on the southern flanks of the volcano. Lahar deposits in the Rio Blanco Norte were buried by pyroclastic flow deposits with measured temperatures of up to 282°C three months after emplacement. Lahar erosional impacts included bedrock erosion, alluvial channel incision, erosion of surficial deposits and the felling of large areas of forest. Depositional landforms included boulder run-ups on the outsides of channel bends, boulder clusters and large woody debris jams. Lahars deposited up to 8m of sediment within distal reaches. Deposits on the southern flanks of Calbuco indicate the passage of multiple pulses of contrasting rheology. Lahar occurrence and magnitude was controlled by the pre-eruption distribution of snow and ice on the volcano. Pre-existing lahar channels controlled flows to lower piedmont zones where routing was determined by palaeo lahar geomorphology. Ongoing erosion of proximal pyroclastic flow and lahar deposits provides large volumes of sediment to distal portions of fluvial systems radiating from Calbuco.

  11. Variations in sulfur mineralization in the Parachute Creek member of Green River Formation, Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.L.; Cole, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation occurs primarily as pyrite, with lesser amounts of marcasite and pyrrhotite. In this study 222 samples were collected from the openlacustrine facies at Rio Blanco, the marginallacustrine facies at Douglas Pass, and a WOSCO oil shale core drilled in the Eastern Uinta Basin. One portion of each sample was crushed and analyzed for total-weight-percent sulfur (TWPS). Polished blocks were prepared from the remaining slabs. Iron-sulfide morphotypes in these blocks were characterized with a reflected light microscope. Total sulfur contents ranged from 0.0 to 4.6 wt %. Open-lacustrine oil shales in the Parachute Creek Member have much higher relative TWPS values than marginal-lacustrine rocks from the same member. In oil shale, increases in kerogen content are mirrored by increases in total-sulfur content. This correlation is most significant for moderate- to rich-grade oil shales which average between 0.42 and 0.98 TWPS. In oil shale with high relative total sulfur contents, megascopic pods and stringers and microscopic blades, compound-blade clusters and bands, and irregular massive blebs of iron sulfide are the most abundant morphotypes. Stratigraphic variations in sulfur mineralization are present at Rio Blanco. High TWPS values (more than 0.5) are found in the Mahogany ledge and R-8 zone. Rocks above and below this interval have TWPS values less than 0.5. Cyclical stratigraphic variations in TWPS values occur in the Mahogany and R-8 zones.

  12. EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution functions in real space from molecular wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    : 2.80 GHz Intel Pentium IV CPU Operating system: GNU/Linux RAM: 55 992 KB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 2.7 External routines: Netlib Nature of problem: Let us have an N-electron molecule and define an exhaustive partition of the physical space into m three-dimensional regions. The edf program computes the probabilities P(n,n,…,n)≡P({n}) of all possible allocations of n electrons to Ω, n electrons to Ω,…, and n electrons to Ω,{n} being integers. Solution method: Let us assume that the N-electron molecular wave function, Ψ(1,N), is a linear combination of M Slater determinants, Ψ(1,N)=∑rMCψ(1,N). Calling SΩrs the overlap matrix over the 3D region Ω between the (real) molecular spin-orbitals (MSO) in ψ(χ1r,…χNr) and the MSOs in ψ,(χ1s,…,χNs), edf finds all the P({n})'s by solving the linear system ∑{n}{∏kmtkn}P({n})=∑r,sMCCdet[∑kmtSΩrs], where t=1 and t,…,t are arbitrary real numbers. Restrictions: The number of {n} sets grows very fast with m and N, so that the dimension of the linear system (1) soon becomes very large. Moreover, the computer time required to obtain the determinants in the second member of Eq. (1) scales quadratically with M. These two facts limit the applicability of the method to relatively small molecules. Unusual features: Most of the real variables are of precision real*16. Running time: 0.030, 2.010, and 0.620 seconds for Test examples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. References: [1] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, Faraday Discuss. 135 (2007) 423-438. [2] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, J. Phys. Chem. A 111 (2007) 1084-1090. [3] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 1087-1092. [4] E. Francisco, A. Martín Pendás, M.A. Blanco, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 094102. [5] A. Martín Pendás, E. Francisco, M.A. Blanco, C. Gatti, Chemistry: A European Journal 113 (2007) 9362-9371.

  13. Assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the February 13, 2001, El Salvador earthquake; a report to the government of El Salvador and the U. S. Agency for International Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Crone, Anthony J.; Escobar, Demetreo; Harp, Edwin L.; Major, Jon J.; Martinez, Mauricio; Pullinger, Carlos; Smith, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    On February 13, 2001, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurred about 40 km eastsoutheast of the capital city of San Salvador in central El Salvador and triggered thousands of landslides in the area east of Lago de Ilopango. The landslides are concentrated in a 2,500-km2 area and are particularly abundant in areas underlain by thick deposits of poorly consolidated, late Pleistocene and Holocene Tierra Blanca rhyolitic tephras that were erupted from Ilopango caldera. Drainages in the tephra deposits are deeply incised, and steep valley walls failed during the strong shaking. Many drainages are clogged with landslide debris that locally buries the adjacent valley floor. The fine grain-size of the tephra facilitates its easy mobilization by rainfall runoff. The potential for remobilizing the landslide debris as debris flows and in floods is significant as this sediment is transported through the drainage systems during the upcoming rainy season. In addition to thousands of shallow failures, two very large landslides occurred that blocked the Rio El Desague and the Rio Jiboa. The Rio El Desague landslide has an estimated volume of 1.5 million m3, and the Rio Jiboa landslide has an estimated volume of 12 million m3. Field studies indicate that catastrophic draining of the Rio El Desague landslide-dammed lake would pose a minimal flooding hazard, whereas catastrophic draining of the Rio Jiboa lake would pose a serious hazard and warrants immediate action. Construction of a spillway across part of the dam could moderate the impact of catastrophic lake draining and the associated flood. Two major slope failures on the northern side of Volcan San Vicente occurred in the upper reaches of Quebrada Del Muerto and the Quebrada El Blanco. The landslide debris in the Quebrada Del Muerto consists dominantly of blocks of well-lithified andesite, whereas the debris in the Quebrada El Blanco consists of poorly consolidated pyroclastic sediment. The large blocks of lithified rock in

  14. Cetacean distributions relative to ocean processes in the northern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, Cynthia T.; Ainley, David G.; Barth, John A.; Cowles, Timothy J.; Pierce, Stephen D.; Spear, Larry B.

    2005-01-01

    Associations between cetacean distributions, oceanographic features, and bioacoustic backscatter were examined during two process cruises in the northern California Current System (CCS) during late spring and summer 2000. Line-transect surveys of cetaceans were conducted across the shelf and slope, out to 150 km offshore from Newport, Oregon (44.6°N) to Crescent City, California (41.9°N), in conjunction with multidisciplinary mesoscale and fine-scale surveys of ocean and ecosystem structure. Occurrence patterns (presence/absence) of cetaceans were compared with hydrographic and ecological variables (e.g., sea surface salinity, sea surface temperature, thermocline depth, halocline depth, chlorophyll maximum, distance to the center of the equatorward jet, distance to the shoreward edge of the upwelling front, and acoustic backscatter at 38, 120, 200 and 420 kHz) derived from a towed, undulating array and a bioacoustic system. Using a multiple logistic regression model, 60.2% and 94.4% of the variation in occurrence patterns of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae during late spring and summer, respectively, were explained. Sea surface temperature, depth, and distance to the alongshore upwelling front were the most important environmental variables during June, when humpbacks occurred over the slope (200-2000 m). During August, when humpbacks concentrated over a submarine bank (Heceta Bank) and off Cape Blanco, sea surface salinity was the most important variable, followed by latitude and depth. Humpbacks did not occur in the lowest salinity water of the Columbia River plume. For harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena, the model explained 79.2% and 70.1% of the variation in their occurrence patterns during June and August, respectively. During spring, latitude, sea surface salinity, and thermocline gradient were the most important predictors. During summer, latitude and distance to the inshore edge of the upwelling front were the most important variables. Typically a

  15. The Largest Holocene Eruption of the Central Andes Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J.; Esteban, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present new data and interpretation about a major eruption -spreading ˜110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in NW Argentina. This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. The environmental effects of this voluminous eruption are still noticeable, as evidenced by the high content of arsenic and other trace elements in the groundwaters of the Chacopampean Plain. The recognition of this significant volcanic event may shed new light on interpretations of critical changes observed in the mid-Holocene paleontological and archaeological records, and offers researchers an excellent, extensive regional chronostratigraphic marker for reconstructing mid-Holocene geological history over a wide geographical area of South America. More than 100 ashes were sampled in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay during different field campaigns. Ash samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), grain size distributions laser diffraction, and geochemically by electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation-HR-ICP-MS. New and published 14C ages were calibrated to calendar years BP. The age of the most recent CBVC eruption is 4407-4093 cal y BP, indirectly dated by 14C of associated organic sediment within the lower part of a proximal fall deposit of this event (26°53'16.05"S-67°44'48.68"W). This is the youngest record of a major volcanic event in the Southern Puna. This age is consistent with other radiocarbon dates of organic matter in palaeosols underlying or overlying distal ash fall deposits. Based on their products, all of rhyolitic composition, we have distinguished 8 main episodes during the evolution of the most recent CBVC eruption: 1) the eruption began with a white rhyolite lava dome extrusion; 2) followed by a Plinian

  16. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qué los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  17. The Educational Narrativity in the First Period of Oliveira Salazar's Government. Women's Voices in the National Assembly (1935-1945)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adao, Aurea; Remedios, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    Oliveira Salazar's accession to the government followed the military coup of 1926, which put an end to the period of democratic republican life. The Constitution approved in 1933 defined the new regime, which came to be known as "Estado Novo". Ideologically sustained by an anti-liberal concept of Catholicism, this political regime would grant…

  18. [Incidence pityriasis rosea of Gibert in the Dermatology Service of the Hospital do Servidor Público in the state of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    de Souza Sittart, J A; Tayah, M; Soares, Z

    1984-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective study on the incidence of Pitiriase Rosea in the Dermatology Department of the Hospital do Servidor Público do Estado de São Paulo, covering a 17 years span. Figures concerning race, sex, age, mensal and anual incidence as well the distribution in the seasons of the year are analysed. PMID:6392788

  19. 75 FR 22179 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance... Profit From Business. 1040 SCH D Capital Gains and Losses. 1040 SCH D-1 Continuation Sheet for Schedule D... Ingreso de los Estados Unidos. 2439 Notice to Shareholder of Undistributed Long-Term Capital Gains....

  20. Developing Students' Autonomy and Self-Regulation through a Co-Teaching Research Methods Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Gaeta González, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    The College of Human Sciences at Oklahoma State University (OSU) and Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP) decided to offer Pedagogy Doctoral students from Mexico a 3 week co-teaching research methods experience. Two professors, one from each institution (OSU and UPAEP), designed the syllabus to offer a co-teaching experience…

  1. Educational Discourse in Spain during the Early Franco Regime (1936-1943): Toward a Genealogy of Doctrine and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laudo, Xavier; Vilanou, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    In this article an analysis is undertaken of Spanish educational discourse during the early years of the Franco regime, from the Civil War (1936-1939) to the establishment of the "Nuevo Estado" or New State (1939-1943), employing Reinhart Koselleck's principles of conceptual history. Without totally spurning the totalitarian and fascist…

  2. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

  3. Supervivientes de cáncer en EE. UU. ascienden casi a 12 millones

    Cancer.gov

    El número de supervivientes de cáncer en Estados Unidos ascendió a 11,7 millones en 2007, de acuerdo a un informe publicado por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades, CDC, y el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, NCI, el cual forma parte

  4. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  5. Estudio de Salud Agrícola

    Cancer.gov

    En 1993, científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Ambientales y la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos iniciaron un estudio conocido como Estudio de Salud Agrícola (AHS).

  6. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  7. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  8. 77 FR 61051 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ..., Sinaloa, Mexico; Sevilla 1526 302 A, Fraccionamiento el Cid, Mazatlan, Sinaloa CP 82110, Mexico; Privada de San Jeronimo, San Jeronimo, Algodones, Baja California CP 21298, Mexico; Privada Puerta de Roble... Sayavedra, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico CP 52930, Mexico; DOB 24 Oct 1962; POB Culiacan,...

  9. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pueden darle a usted algunos derechos y hacer que el vendedor resuelva problemas graves que no fueron... implícitas” de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. EC29SE91.053 EC29SE91.054...

  10. Can this approach be useful to detect, to classify and to filter Large Wood from TLS data clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picco, Lorenzo; Iroumé, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    The calculation of differences between subsequent DEMs (difference of DEMs, DoD) is a commonly applied method to analyze and quantify morphological changes occurred along a riverine environment. The higher levels of uncertainty in the DoD computation are, typically, localized in area with low point density, steepest slopes and highest roughness values. A common source of roughness in riverine environment is the presence of Large Wood (LW). In turn, in certain conditions, the roughness map can help to detect the LW position. The aim of this research is to define a new approach to detect the LW into DEMs, as to permit its removal from TLS datasets. The study was carried out along the Blanco River (Southern Chile), a fourth order river un-impacted by human pressure. After the 2008 Chaiten volcanic eruption, and the subsequent floods, the Blanco River has been severely affected by sediment and LW input. Huge amount of tephra (up to 8 m) was deposited into the river channel and over 3.5 km2 of evergreen forest. This event generated considerable changes in geomorphological settings, and a considerable input of LW into the active channel (100 m3 /ha). Three TLS surveys were carried out along a 2.2 km-long study reach in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Thanks to the high point cloud density, has been possible to obtain high resolution DEMs with 0.07 x 0.07 m pixel size. The study area is characterized by consistent differences between grainsize characteristics (D16=0.007 m; D50=0.070 m; D84=0.156 m), and LW diameter (D) and length (L) (Dmax=1.20 m; Dmin= 0.10 m; Dmean= 0.25 m; Lmin=1.00 m; Lmean= 3.36 m). These differences in dimension permit us to define the distribution of LW from the roughness map. Using then, the "Select by Location" tool in ESRI ArcGIS environment has been possible to remove the LW from the DEMs. In fact, Select by Location tool permit to select features based on their location relative to features in another layers. Finally, to fill the empty

  11. Fluvial response to sudden input of pyroclastic sediments during the 2008-2009 eruption of the Chaitén Volcano (Chile): The role of logjams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umazano, Aldo M.; Melchor, Ricardo N.; Bedatou, Emilio; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Krause, Javier M.

    2014-10-01

    The rhyolitic Plinian eruption of the Chilean Chaitén Volcano, initiated on May 2, 2008, suddenly introduced abundant pyroclastic sediments in the Blanco River catchment area, which experienced important modifications. Before May 2, the river was characterised by gravelly and moderate to low-sinuosity channels crossing a vegetated and locally urbanised (Chaitén City) floodplain. This river, limited by steep and densely forested highlands, was connected with the Pacific Ocean via a tidally-influenced delta plain. After heavy rains in May 11-20, the river discharge increased and triggered several responses including logjam formation and breakage, crevassing, avulsion (and channel abandonment), changes in the pattern and dimensions of channels, and construction of a new delta plain area. In this context, the goals of this contribution were: i) to document the sedimentological processes within a detailed geomorphic framework and ii) to understand the influence of logjams on fluvial dynamics. Upstream of the logjam zone, the deposits are mostly composed of ash and lapilli with abundant palaeovolcanic (epiclastic) sediments, which were produced by dilute currents and debris flows. Downstream of the logjam zone, deposits are composed by ash and lapilli, both pumice-rich and lacking important participation of older (epiclastic) sediments. The abandoned and filled palaeochannel, and the proximal part of crevasse splays experienced transient dilute flows with variable sediment concentration and, subordinately, hyperconcentrated flows. The distal sectors of crevasse splays mostly record settling from suspension. At the delta plain, tephra transported by the Blanco River was mixed with older sediments by tide and wave action (dilute flows). We conclude that immediately after eruption, both geomorphic and sedimentary processes of the river were mainly controlled by a combination of high availability of incoherent pyroclastic sediments on steep slopes, abundant rains, large

  12. Watching Conformations of Biomolecules: a Microwave Spectroscopy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    The combination of laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets (LA-MB-FTMW) has made possible the gas-phase study of solid biomolecules with high melting points. In the experiment, solids are efficiently vaporized by a high-energy laser pulse, supersonically expanded into a evacuated Fabry-Perot cavity and characterised by their rotational spectra. Recent improvements such as the use of picosecond pulse lasers, new ablation nozzles and the extension of the range of the spectrometers to low frequecy have notably increased the sensitivity of our experimental setup. To date different α-, β- and γ-amino acids have been studied using this technique, making possible the characterization of their preferred conformations and gaining insight in the role of intramolecular interactions. Even in conformationally challenging systems the different rotamers of such biomolecules can be identified by rotational spectroscopy as can be illustrated by the assignment of six low-energy conformers in cysteine and aspartic acid, seven in serine and threonine,^a and nine in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). In all cases the low-energy conformers have been conclusive identified from their experimental rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling constants. The spectra of neurotransmitters and of the nucleic acid bases uracil, thymine, cytosine and guanine have also been studied and their preferred conformers or tautomeric forms determined. The complexes between amino acids and nucleic acid bases with water have also been investigated to obtain information on the possible changes induced in the conformational or tautomeric preferences by the addition of solvent molecules. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 617-627 (2009) and references therein M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 3573-3578 (2010) S. Blanco, J. C. López, S. Mata and J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9187

  13. Around 1500 near-Earth-asteroid orbits improved via EURONEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Hudin, L.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Tudorica, A.; Toma, R.

    2014-07-01

    Born in 2006 in Paris, the European Near Earth Asteroids Research project (EURONEAR, euronear.imcce.fr) aims ''to study NEAs and PHAs using existing telescopes available to its network and hopefully in the future some automated dedicated 1--2 m facilities''. Although we believe the first aim is fulfilled, the second was not achieved yet, requiring serious commitment from the European NEA researchers and funding agencies. Mainly using free labor by about 30 students and amateur astronomers (from Romania, Chile, UK, France, etc), the PI backed up by his associates M. Birlan (IMCCE Paris) and J. Licandro (IAC Tenerife) and a few other astronomers of the EURONEAR network having access to a few telescopes are approaching around 1,500 observed NEAs whose orbits were improved based on our astrometric contributions. To achive this milestone, we used two main resources and a total of 15 facilities: i) Observing time obtained at 11 professional 1--4 m class telescopes (Chile, La Palma, France, Germany) plus 3 smaller 30--50 cm educational/public outreach telescopes (Romania and Germany) adding about 1,000 observed NEAs; and ii) astrometry obtained from data mining of 4 major image archives (ESO/MPG WFI, INT WFC, CFHTLS Megacam and Subaru SuprimeCam) adding about 500 NEAs recovered in archival images. Among the highlights, about 100 NEAs, PHAs and VIs were observed, recovered or precovered in archives at their second opposition (up to about 15 years away from discovery) or have their orbital arc much extended, and a few VIs and PHAs were eliminated. Incidentally, about 15,000 positions of almost 2,000 known MBAs were reported (mostly in the INT, ESO/MPG and Blanco large fields). About 40 new (one night) NEO candidates and more than 2,000 (one night) unknown MBAs were reported, including about 150 MBAs credited as EURONEAR discoveries. Based on the INT and Blanco data we derived some statistics about the MBA and NEA population observable with 2m and 4m telescopes, proposing a

  14. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  15. Remote Imaging of Earthquake Characteristics Along Oceanic Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M.; Ammon, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Compared with subduction and continental transform systems, many characteristics of oceanic transform faults (OTF) are better defined (first-order structure and composition, thermal properties, etc.). Still, many aspects of earthquake behavior along OTFs remain poorly understood as a result of their relative remoteness. But the substantial aseismic deformation (averaging roughly 85%) that occurs along OTFs and the implied interaction of aseismic with seismic deformation is an opportunity to explore fundamental earthquake nucleation and rupture processes. However, the study of OTF earthquake properties is not easy because these faults are often located in remote regions, lacking nearby seismic networks. Thus, many standard network-based seismic approaches are infeasible, but some can be adapted to the effort. For example, double-difference methods applied to cross-correlation measured Rayleigh wave time shifts is an effective tool to provide greatly improved relative epicentroid locations, origin-time shifts, and relative event magnitudes for earthquakes in remote regions. The same comparative waveform measurements can provide insight into rupture directivity of the larger OTF events. In this study, we calculate improved relative earthquake locations and magnitudes of earthquakes along the Blanco Fracture Zone in the northeast Pacific Ocean and compare and contrast that work with a study of the more remote Menard Transform Fault (MTF), located in the southeast Pacific Ocean. For the Blanco, we work exclusively with Rayleigh (R1) observations exploiting the dense networks in the northern hemisphere. For the MTF, we combine R1 with Love (G1) observations to map and to analyze the distribution of strong asperities along this remote, 200-km-long fault. Specifically, we attempt to better define the relationship between observed near-transform normal and vertical strike-slip earthquakes in the vicinity of the MTF. We test our ability to use distant observations (the

  16. Cadalso de los Vidrios leucogranite: a worldwide building stone from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Cadalso de los Vidrios leucogranite is extracted from the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spanish Central System), about 75 kilometers southwest of Madrid. "Cadalso" means "high place", the topography of Cadalso de los Vidrios village is dominated by the Peña Muñana, where there is an eighth century Arab watchtower built with leucogranite. "Vidrios" refers to glass factories that existed in Cadaso de los Vidrios from the late twelfth century. Today there are no glass factories and quarrying is an important industry, Cadalso de los Vidrios has three quarry zones, and many processing and carving workshops. Cadalso de los Vidrios leucogranite is a fine-medium-grained, hypidiomorphic, equigranular leucogranite. There are many historical buildings built with thisstone, including the archeological site of "La Mezquita" whose original mosque was built between the years 950 and 1012 and the Villena Palace which dates from the fifteenth century. In 1534, this was rebuilt into a Renaissance-style castle In addition the "Arco de la Ermita de Santa Ana" was built between 1463 and 1492 and the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Church was built in 1498 with its façade being completed in Plateresque-style in 1547.as the "Casa de los Salvajes". The Cadalso de los Vidrios City Hall was built in 1992 also with leucogranite. The current annual production of the Cadalso de los Vidrios leucogranite is 8000 m3, of which 40% is exported primarily to France and Italy. Currently, under the trade name Blanco Cristal, it has been used in places such as Vieux-Port in Marseille, in France; Plaza Romagné Conflans in Ste Honorine (France); Cork International Airport, in Ireland; Terminal 4 of Adolfo Suarez Airport, in Madrid; shopping malls in Dortmund, Germany as well as in Guangzhou, China and the Puri EXIM Bank, in Jakarta. Thermal shock cycles were performed during 24 hours according to the European standard UNE-EN, 14066, 2003 in 7 cubes of Blanco Cristal. First, the samples were put in an oven at

  17. Topographic form of the Coast Ranges of the Cascadia Margin in relation ot coastal uplift rates and plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engebretson, David C.; Mitchell, Clifton E.; Ticknor, Robert L.

    1994-06-01

    The Coast Ranges of the Cascadia margin are overriding the subducted Juan de Fuca/Gorda plate. We investigate the extent to which the latitudinal change in attributes related to the subduction process. These attributes include the varibale age of the subducted slab that underlies the Coast Ranges and average vertical crustal velocities of the western margin of the Coast Rnages for two markedly different time periods, the last 45 years and the last 100 kyr. These vertical crustal velocities are computed from the resurveying of highway bech marks and from the present elevation of shore platforms that have been uplifted in the late Quaternary, respectively. Topogarphy of the Coast Ranges is in part a function of the age and bouyancy of the underlying subducted plate. This is evident in the fact that the two highest topographic elements of the Coast Rnages, the Klamath Mountains and the Olympic Mountains, are underlain by youngest subducted oceanic crust. The subducted Blanco Fracture Zone in southernmost Oregon is responsible for an age discontinuity of subducted crust under the Klamath Mountains. The norhtern terminus of hte topographically higher Klamaths is offset to the north relative to the position of the underlying Blanco Fracture Zone, teh offset being in the direction of migration of the farcture zone, as dictated by relative plate motions. Vertical crustal velocities at the coast, derived from becnh mark surveys, are as much as an order of magnitude greater than vertical crustal velocities derived from uplifted shore platforms. This uplift rate discrepancy indicates that strain is accumulating on the plate margin, to be released during the next interplate earthquake. In a latitudinal sense, average Coast Rnage topography is relatively high where bench mark-derived, short-term vertical crustal velocities are highest. Becuase the shore platform vertical crustal velocities reflect longer-term, premanent uplift, we infer that a small percentage of the

  18. Probing the Architecture of the Weathering Zone in a Tropical System in the Rio Icacos Watershed (Puerto Rico) With Drilling and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J.; Comas, X.; Mount, G. J.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Weathering processes in rapidly eroding systems such as humid tropical environments are complex and not well understood. The interface between weathered material (regolith) and non-weathered material (bedrock) is particularly important in these systems as it influences water infiltration and groundwater flow paths and movement. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of this interface is highly heterogeneous and difficult to image with conventional techniques such as direct coring and drilling. In this work we present results from a preliminary geophysical study in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) located in the rain forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico. The Luquillo Mountains are composed of volcaniclastic rocks which have been uplifted and metamorphosed by the Tertiary Rio Blanco quartz diorite intrusion. The Rio Blanco quartz diorite weathers spheroidally, creating corestones of relatively unweathered material that are surrounded by weathered rinds. A number of boreholes were drilled near the top of the Rio Icacos watershed, where the corestones are thought to be in the primary stages of formation, to constrain the regolith/bedrock interface and to provide an understanding of the depth to which corestones form. The depth of the water table was also a target goal in the project. Drilling reveals that corestones are forming in place, separated by fractures, even to depths of 10s of meters below ground surface. One borehole was drilled to a depth of about 25 meters and intersected up to 7 bedrock blocks (inferred to be incipient corestones) and the water table was measured at about 15 meters. Ground Penetrating Radar surveys were conducted in the same location to determine if GPR images variable thicknesses of saprolite overlying corestones. GPR common offset measurements and common midpoint surveys with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antenna frequencies were combined with borehole drillings in order to constrain geophysical results. We

  19. Causes, Dynamics and Impacts of Lahar Mass Flows due to the April 2015 Eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussaillant, Alejandro; Russell, Andy; Meier, Claudio; Rivera, Andres; Mella, Mauricio; Garrido, Natalia; Hernandez, Jorge; Napoleoni, Felipe; Gonzalez, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Calbuco is a 2015m high, glacier capped, stratovolcano in the heavily populated Los Lagos region of southern Chile with a history of large volcanic eruptions in 1893-95, 1906-7, 1911-12, 1917, 1932, 1945, 1961 and 1972. Calbuco volcano experienced a powerful 90 minute eruption at 18:04h on 22 April, 2015 followed by additional major eruptions at 01:00h and 13:10h on 23 & 30 April, respectively, resulting in the evacuation of 6500 people and the imposition of a 20 km radius exclusion zone. Pyroclastic flows descended into several river catchments radiating from the volcano with lahars travelling distances of up to 14 km, reaching populated areas. We present findings from detailed field observations from April and July 2015, and January 2016, regarding the causes, dynamics and impacts of lahars generated by the April 2015 eruption, supported by satellite imagery, LiDAR and detailed rtkGPS & TLS surveys, as well as sediment sampling. Pyroclastic flows melted glacier ice and snow generating the largest lahars in the Rio Este and Rio Blanco Sur on the southern flanks of the volcano. Lahar deposits in the Rio Blanco Norte were buried by pyroclastic flow deposits with measured temperatures of up to 282°C three months after emplacement. Lahar erosional impacts included bedrock erosion, alluvial channel incision, erosion of surficial deposits and the felling of large areas of forest. Depositional landforms included boulder run-ups on the outsides of channel bends, boulder clusters and large woody debris jams. Lahars deposited up to 8m of sediment within distal reaches. Deposits on the southern flanks of Calbuco indicate the passage of multiple pulses of contrasting rheology. Lahar occurrence and magnitude was controlled by the pre-eruption distribution of snow and ice on the volcano. Pre-existing lahar channels controlled flows to lower piedmont zones where routing was determined by palaeo-lahar geomorphology. Ongoing erosion of proximal pyroclastic flow and lahar deposits

  20. Late Jurassic Crustal Thickening in the Mesozoic Arc of Ecuador and Colombia: Implications on the Evolution of Continental Arcs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, J.; Cardona, A.; Blanco-Quintero, I.; Valencia, V.

    2014-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of South America during the Jurassic is related to the subduction of the Farallon plate and the formation of a series of continental arcs. In the northern Andes such arcs have been considered as controlled by extensional dominated tectonics. Paleomagnetic constraints have also suggested that between the Early and Late Jurassic several crustal domains were translate along the continental margin in association with strain partitioning in the convergent margin. A review of the character of the Salado terrane in the Cordillera Real of Ecuador indicates that it includes extensively deformed and metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks that have achieved a greenschist to amphibolite facies event with chloritoid and garnet. This rocks are tightly associated with a ca. 143 Ma syn-tectonic granodiorite to monzogranite batholith that is also extensively milonitized.A similar Late Jurassic crustal thickening event that apparently affected volcano-sedimentary rocks have been also recently suspected in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes in association with Jurassic plutonic rocks (Blanco-Quintero et al., 2013) It is therefore suggested that during the Late Jurassic the Northern Andes experienced significant contractional tectonics. Such crustal thickening may be related to either the active subduction setting were the crustal slivers formed in relation to oblique convergence are transfered and re-accreted to the margin and triggered the deformational event or to a collisional event associated to the arrival of an allocthonous terrane. New geochronological constraints on the metamorphic evolution and precise understanding on the relations between magmatism and deformation are going to be obtain in the Salado Terrane to appropriately test this hypothesis and contribute to the understanding of the extensional to compressional tectonic switching in continental arcs. Blanco-Quintero, I. F., García-Casco, A., Ruíz, E. C., Toro, L. M., Moreno, M

  1. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  2. Reporting on health-related research in two prestigious Brazilian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ricardo Afonso; Carlini, Marcela; de Carvalho Jatobá e Sousa, Arthur; Fernandes, Paula Teixeira; Camargo, Vera Regina Toledo; Vogt, Carlos; Li, Li Min

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The dissemination of health-related news through newspapers can influence the behavior of patients and of health care providers. We conducted a study to analyze the characteristics of health-related research published by two leading Brazilian newspapers. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated health-related news published in the electronic versions of the newspapers Folha de São Paulo and O Estado de São Paulo over a period of three months (July through September, 2009). Only articles mentioning medical research were included. The articles were categorized according to topic, source, study location and the nature of the headline. We also analyzed the presence of background information on the topic, citations of medical periodicals, national contextualization and references to products or companies. RESULTS: Scientific research articles corresponded to 57% and 20% of health-related articles published by Folha de São Paulo and O Estado de São Paulo, respectively. Folha de São Paulo published significantly more articles about national studies, and most articles were written by its own staff. In contrast, most articles in O Estado de São Paulo came from news agencies. Folha de São Paulo also better contextualized its reports for Brazilian society. O Estado de São Paulo tended to cite the name of the periodical in which the study was published more frequently, but their articles lacked national contextualization. CONCLUSION: The results showed a significant difference in the way in which the studied newspapers report on health-related research. Folha de São Paulo tends to write its own articles and more frequently publishes the results of national research, whereas O Estado de São Paulo publishes articles that originate in news agencies, most of which have little national contextualization. PMID:22473408

  3. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sellés, Sergio; Fernández-Sáez, José; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Cejuela, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El proceso de formación de futuros deportistas debe ser un trabajo estructurado y planificado para poder alcanzar el máximo nivel deportivo. Es fundamental en este periodo tener presentes los ritmos de desarrollo y maduración de los jóvenes deportistas para así adecuar las cargas de entrenamientos a sus estados evolutivos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar y analizar la edad morfológica en nadadores y triatletas adolescentes, estableciendo diferencias entre su edad cronológica, grupos y género. A través del método antropométrico se determinó el estado de maduración biológica en un grupo de 37 deportistas jóvenes tecnificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de la muestra (70,8%) se encuentra en un estado avanzado de desarrollo con respecto a su edad cronológica, siendo más notorio en el caso de los nadadores este estado de madurez avanzado. Tener una edad morfológica más avanzada respecto a su edad cronológica podría favorecer a los deportistas adolescentes a la hora de conseguir mejores marcas y resultados en las competiciones y de esta manera acceder con más facilidad a los programas de tecnificación. El índice de desarrollo corporal modificado (IDCm) se presenta como un método validado, fiable y no invasivo para tener presente el grado de desarrollo y maduración en la selección de talentos deportivos y adecuar las cargas de entrenamiento al estado evolutivo de los deportistas. PMID:27019253

  4. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. PMID:26912037

  5. Structural analysis of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, T. A.; Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.

    2016-04-01

    We present wide-field g and i band stellar photometry of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its surrounding area out to four times its half-light radius (rh = 695 pc), based on images obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at the 4-m Blanco telescope at CTIO. We find clear evidence of stellar substructure associated with the galaxy, extending to a distance of 82' (2 kpc) from its centre. We perform a statistical analysis of the over-densities and find three distinct features, as well as an extended halo-like structure, to be significant at the 99.7% confidence level or higher. Unlike the extremely elongated and extended substructures surrounding the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy, the over-densities seen around Sextans are distributed evenly about its centre, and do not appear to form noticeable tidal tails. Fitting a King model to the radial distribution of Sextans stars yields a tidal radius rt = 83.2' ± 7.1' (2.08±0.18 kpc), which implies the majority of detected substructure is gravitationally bound to the galaxy. This finding suggests that Sextans is not undergoing significant tidal disruption from the Milky Way, supporting the scenario in which the orbit of Sextans has a low eccentricity.

  6. SNAP Visible Detectors: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. J.; Bebek, C. J.; SNAP

    2004-12-01

    The SuperNova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure approximately 2000 type Ia supernovae from redshift z=0.3 to 1.7 in nine photometric bands and perform a wide area weak lensing survey. This requires radiation hard CCDs with high resolution, low noise, low dark current, and high quantum efficiency (QE) from blue to near-infrared wavelengths. On this poster we report the current status and recent progress of the SNAP CCD development using UCB/LBNL thick (200-300 μ m) fully depleted CCDs. These CCDs have QE > 80% from 450 to 950 nm and maintain QE 50% at 1000 nm. This CCD technology has been deployed on 4 telescopes and has been selected as the technology choice for DECam, a 520 megapixel camera planned for installation at the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. We describe the current performance, production, and packaging for these CCDs as well as future plans. This work has been supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  7. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  8. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  9. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  10. The Magellanic Cloud's Star Cluster Populations: The SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.

    2015-05-01

    We present results based on observations carried out with the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope and the attached MOSAIC II camera of a large sample of unstudied or poorly studied candidate star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We first cleaned the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the unavoidable stellar field contamination by taking advantage of a procedure that makes use of variable size CMD cells. In this way, stochastic effects in the cluster CMDs caused by the presence of isolated bright stars and numerous relatively faint field stars, have successfully been eliminated. Our results suggest that a percentage of the studied candidate star clusters do appear to be genuine physical systems. However, the ages previously derived for some of the studied candidate clusters mostly reflect those of the composite stellar populations of the SMC field. Finally, by using the spatial distribution in the SMC of possible non-clusters, we statistically decontaminated the SMC cluster system. We found that there is no clear difference between the expected and observed cluster spatial distributions, but a difference at a 2 sigma level in the central regions would become visible if non-clusters are assumed to be ≍ 20% of the cataloged sample.

  11. UTIG's Contributions to Seismology in K-12 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) conducts research in many areas of seismology, including the study of earthquakes, the structure of Earth's interior and targeted geologic settings, and the development of methods to monitor nuclear explosions. In addition, UTIG scientists engage in educational outreach that takes seismology and its applications into K-12 classrooms. Activities include (1) the development of standards-aligned, inquiry-based curriculum materials that use real seismic data to convey concepts in earthquake seismology and which introduce modern technologies based on the principles of seismology; (2) a year-long teacher professional development institute that incorporates seismology and teacher workshops at which scientists, GK-12 Fellows and teachers team up to deliver science content and learning activities; and (3) a "Teacher in the Field" program through which teachers have participated in marine geophysical cruises to study tectonic processes in the Bransfield Strait, Hess Deep, Terror Rift in the Ross Sea, the southeastern Caribbean, and the Blanco Fracture Zone. UTIG has supported these efforts through grants from the NSF and state agencies, and by partnering with other programs and organizations. For example, teacher workshops were organized around public lectures by IRIS/SSA Distinguished Speakers Roger Bilham (Global Death and Construction: Earthquakes on an Urban Planet) and David Wald (Rapid Earthquake Information: Citizen Science and New Tools for Emergency Response) and presented as part of The University of Texas Environmental Science Institute Outreach Lecture Series.

  12. Molecular and Ionized Hydrogen in 30 Doradus. I. Imaging Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first fully calibrated H2 1-0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H2-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H2, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H2 to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H2 emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2-3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <104 cm-3. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H2 emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  13. Commissioning COSMOS: Detection of Lithium in Young Stars in Lupus 3 through Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Kyle; Briceno, Cesar; Elias, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph and imager, is a new instrument on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In order to demonstrate the instrument's operations during commissioning, we used COSMOS, its red grism and three custom slit masks to conduct a spectroscopic survey of the star-forming core of the Lupus 3 dark cloud in an effort to detect the presence of Lithium in the T Tauri stars that have been previously identified in that region. We detected the Li I 6708 Angstrom resonance transition in several (but not all) stars that were observed, consistent with prior studies that have observed Lithium in other young stars at the center of the Lupus 3 dark cloud and in other star-forming regions. These results also demonstrate the ability of COSMOS to significantly reduce the time required to complete spectroscopic surveys, relative to single-object instruments.Lackey was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  14. Exploiting Microbeams for Membrane Protein Structure Determination.

    PubMed

    Warren, Anna J; Axford, Danny; Paterson, Neil G; Owen, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible, and sample independent means of predictably obtaining large, well-ordered crystals has proven elusive in macromolecular crystallography. In the structure determination pipeline, crystallisation often proves to be a rate-limiting step, and the process of obtaining even small or badly ordered crystals can prove time-consuming and laborious. This is particularly true in the field of membrane protein crystallography and this is reflected in the limited number of unique membrane protein structures deposited in the protein data bank (less than 650 by June 2016 - http://blanco.biomol.uci.edu/mpstruc ). Over recent years the requirement for, and time and cost associated with obtaining, large crystals has been partially alleviated through the development of beamline instrumentation allowing data collection, and structure solution, from ever-smaller crystals. Advances in several areas have led to a step change in what might be considered achievable during a synchrotron trip over the last decade. This chapter will briefly review the current status of the field, the tools available to ease data collection and processing, and give some examples of exploitation of these for membrane protein microfocus macromolecular crystallography. PMID:27553238

  15. Effect of the hot water extract of Artocarpus camansi leaves on 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Salonga, Reginald Bayani; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Nose, Mitsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants with reported anti-inflammatory activity could have the potential use as anti-allergens and inhibitors of allergic contact dermatitis reactions produced by allergens and chemicals. Some species from the genus Artocarpus were reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In the Philippines one local source is Artocarpus camansi BLANCO (Moraceae), which is utilized as an ingredient of their cuisine, and decoction of leaves is used for diabetes and baths of people with rheumatism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hot water extract of A. camansi leaves on contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice. Contact hypersensitivity was induced using 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB). The results showed that the A. camansi hot water extract exhibited significant activity against the swelling produced during 24 h and 48 h post-challenge. The same responses were observed from the mice that received the kamansi ethanol-precipitate (KEP) and kamansi ethanol precipitate water-soluble (KEPWS) fractions. Since the high molecular mass fraction showed the significant activity, we therefore speculate that the compound responsible might be a polysaccharide and/or glycoprotein. In conclusion, our results suggest that the hot water extract of A. camansi leaves might be an effective natural product to treat allergic contact dermatitis. However, further investigations are required to understand the mechanisms involved. PMID:24583870

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Westerlund 2 UBVIc photometry (Hur+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, H.; Park, B.-G.; Sung, H.; Bessell, M. S.; Lim, B.; Chun, M.-Y.; Sohn, S. T.

    2015-06-01

    Deep UBVIC observations were obtained on 2009 March 28 and 2 the 8kx8k Mosaic II CCD camera (0.268arcsec/pix) of the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We used the SDSS u filter for U-band photometry and the Harris BVI filter set for BVIC photometry. The exposure times were 7 and 150s in I, 10 and 300s in V, 20 and 300s in B, and 100 and 1200 s in u. The average seeing was ~0.9-arcsec. For the photometry of bright stars and for the standardization of U-B, we performed additional observations with the Y4KCam CCD camera and UBVIC filter set of the 1m telescope at CTIO on 2011 March 5. The exposure times were 5 and 180s in I, 5 and 180s in V, 10 and 300s in B, and 30 and 600s in U. (2 data files).

  17. Direct Observation of the Photodegradation of Anthracene and Pyrene Adsorbed onto Mangrove Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Tun-Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    An established synchronous fluorimetry method was used for in situ investigation of the photodegradation of pyrene (PYR) and anthracene (ANT) adsorbed onto fresh leaves of the seedlings of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco (Ac) and Kandelia obovata (Ko) in multicomponent mixtures (mixture of the ANT and PYR). Experimental results indicated that photodegradation was the main transformation pathway for both ANT and PYR in multicomponent mixtures. The amount of the PAHs volatilizing from the leaf surfaces and entering the inner leaf tissues was negligible. Over a certain period of irradiation time, the photodegradation of both PYR and ANT adsorbed onto the leaves of Ac and Ko followed first-order kinetics, with faster rates being observed on Ac leaves. In addition, the photodegradation rate of PYR on the leaves of the mangrove species in multicomponent mixtures was much slower than that of adsorbed ANT. Compared with the PAHs adsorbed as single component, the photodegradation rate of ANT adsorbed in multicomponent mixtures was slower, while that of PYR was faster. Moreover, the photodegradation of PYR and ANT dissolved in water in multicomponent mixtures was investigated for comparison. The photodegradation rate on leaves was much slower than in water. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the substrate may strongly influence the photodegradation rate of adsorbed PAHs. PMID:25144741

  18. De novo assembly of the transcriptome of Aegiceras corniculatum, a mangrove species in the Indo-West Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lu; Yang, Yuchen; Guo, Wuxia; Li, Jianfang; Zhong, Cairong; Huang, Yelin; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2016-08-01

    Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco is one of the most salt tolerant mangrove species and can thrive in 3% salinity at the seaward edge of mangrove forests. Here we sequenced the transcriptome of A. corniculatum used Illumina GA platform to develop its genomic resources for ecological and evolutionary studies. We obtained about 50 million high-quality paired-end reads with 75bp in length. Using the short read assembler Velvet, we yielded 49,437 contigs with the average length of 625bp. A total of 32,744 (66.23%) contigs showed significant similarity to the GenBank non-redundant (NR) protein database. 30,911 and 18,004 of these sequences were assigned to Gene Ontology and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG). A total of 4942 transcripts from our assemblies had significant similarity with KEGG Orthologs and were involved in 144 KEGG pathways, while 9899 unigenes had enzyme commission (EC) numbers. In addition, 9792 transcriptome-derived SSRs were identified from 7342 sequences. With our strict criteria, 4165 candidate SNPs were also identified from 2058 contigs. Some of these SNPs were further validated by Sanger sequencing. Genomic resources generated in this study should be valuable in ecological, evolutionary, and functional genomics studies for this mangrove species. PMID:27296448

  19. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  20. The Dark Energy Survey Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganson, Eric; Dark Energy Survey Data Management Team

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a large optical survey that is intended to study cosmology using Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, galaxy cluster counting and gravitational lensing. DES comprises two five year surveys (roughly 100 nights per year) on the Blanco 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The first is a 5,000 square degree survey of the high Galactic latitude Southern sky to roughly 24th magnitude in the g, r, i, z and Y filters. The second is a set of ten 3 square degree fields that are observed roughly once every five nights as a supernova survey. DES will be significantly deeper than and have superior image quality to previous wide field surveys like SDSS and Pan-STARRS1. Reduced DES images are made public at NOAO roughly one year after the images are taken. DES plans to release its first two years of data (images and catalogs) in 2017 and its entire dataset after it finishes taking data in 2018. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois is leading the DES data processing. I describe this data processing, the DES pipeline and the DES data in this poster.

  1. Conformational studies of the α-helical 28–43 fragment of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the α-helix in the B3 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G from group G Streptococcus has conformational stability as an isolated fragment, we carried out a CD and NMR study of the 16-residue peptide in solution corresponding to this α-helix. Based on 2D H-NMR spectra recorded at three different temperatures (283, 305, and 313 K), it was found that this peptide is mostly unstructured in water at these temperatures. Weak signals corresponding to i,i+3 or i,i+4 interactions, which are characteristic of formation of turn-like structures, were observed in the ROE spectra at all temperatures. The absence of a stable three-dimensional structure of the investigated peptide supports an earlier study [Blanco, F. J.; Serrano, L. Eur J Biochem 1995, 230, 634–649] of a possible mechanism for folding of other (B1 and B2) immunoglobulin binding domains of Protein G. PMID:18655142

  2. Stress origins and earthquake potentials in Cascadia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.

    1989-01-01

    Focal mechanism solutions for shallow earthquakes throughout the Cascadia plate system indicate that the primary regional stress is northerly compression, even though the Juan de Fuca plate generally is thought to be subducting N50??E. This compressional stress is pervasive throughout the Gorda-Juan de Fuca-Explorer plate system and much of the adjoining section of North American plate. Modeling, using a discrete element code, shows that this stress primarily is due to the Pacific plate being driven into the Gorda block and Juan de Fuca plate (at the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones). This plate collision causes compression of the offshore plate system northward through the 45??W trending Vancouver Island and leads to transfer of northerly compression into the overriding plate. The northerly compression in the Cascadia plate system has caused large, crustal earthquakes in the regions of Vancouver and northern California and may be capable of causing large earthquakes also in and offshore of Washington and Oregon. -from Author

  3. A historical perspective on precipitation, drought severity, and streamflow in Texas during 1951-56 and 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Annual mean streamflow and streamflow-duration curves for the 1951–56 and 2011 water years were assessed for 19 unregulated U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations. At eight of these streamflow-gaging stations, the annual mean streamflow was lower in 2011 than for any year during 1951–56; many of these stations are located in eastern Texas. Annual mean streamflows for streamflow-gaging stations in the Guadalupe, Blanco, and upper Frio River Basins were lower in 1956 than in 2011. The streamflow-duration curves for many streamflow-gaging stations indicate a lack of (or diminished) storm runoff during 2011. Low streamflows (those exceeded 90 to 95 percent of days) were lower for 1956 than for 2011 at seven streamflow-gaging stations. For most of these stations, the lowest of the low streamflows during 1951–56 occurred in 1956. During March to September 2011, record daily lows were measured at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08041500 Village Creek near Kountze, Tex., which has more than 70 years of record. Many other USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Texas started the 2011 water year with normal streamflow but by the end of the water year were flowing at near-record lows.

  4. Metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) uptake and tolerance by mangroves in relation to root anatomy and lignification/suberization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Liu, Yong; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Mei-Lin; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Fu-Lin; Fei, Jiao; Wang, You-Shao

    2014-06-01

    Metal pollution has been widely reported in mangrove wetlands; however, the mechanisms involved in metal detoxification by mangroves are still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of root anatomy and lignification/suberization on metal uptake and tolerance in seedlings of six species of mangroves. The results revealed that the three rhizophoraceous species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir, Kandelia obovata Sheue, Liu & Yong and Rhizophora stylosa Griff) consistently exhibited higher metal tolerances than the three pioneer species (Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco, Acanthus ilicifolius L. and Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Viern.). Moreover, metal-tolerant species often exhibited a thick exodermis with high lignification and suberization. The tolerance indices of the mangroves were found to be positively correlated with the amounts of lignin and suberin deposition within the exodermal cell walls. The observed metal uptake by the excised roots further illustrated that a lignified/suberized exodermis directly delayed the entry of metals into the roots, and thereby contributed to a higher tolerance to heavy metals. In summary, the present study proposes a barrier property of the lignified/suberized exodermis in dealing with the stresses of heavy metals, such that the mangroves which possessed more extensive lignification/suberization within the exodermis appeared to exhibit higher metal tolerance. PMID:24965807

  5. Cryogenic coefficient of thermal expansion measurements of type 440 and 630 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Flaugher, B.; Montes, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is now installed on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is cooled to 170K using a closed loop two-phase liquid nitrogen system. A submerged centrifugal pump is used to circulate the liquid from the base of the telescope to the camera in the prime focus cage. As part of the pump maintenance schedule, the rotor shaft bearings are periodically replaced. Common bearing and shaft materials are type 440 and 630 (17-4 PH) stainless steel. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials used is needed to predict the shaft and bearing housing dimensional changes at the 77K pump operating temperature. The thermal expansion from room temperature to 77K of type 440 and 630 stainless steel is presented . Measurements are performed using the ASTM E228 standard with a quartz push-rod dilatometer test stand. Aluminum 6061-T6 is used to calibrate the test stand.

  6. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  7. The role of the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament in ore deposit deformation in the Andes of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Carlos; Ramírez, Luis E.; Townley, Brian; Solari, Marcelo; Guerra, Nelson

    2007-02-01

    During the Late Jurassic-Early Oligocene interval, widespread hydrothermal copper mineralization events occurred in association with the geological evolution of the southern segment of the central Andes, giving rise to four NS-trending metallogenic belts of eastward-decreasing age: Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Paleocene-Early Eocene, and Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament (ACL) consists of an important dextral strike-slip NE-trending fault system. Deformation along the ACL system is evidenced by a right-lateral displacement of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene metallogenic belts. Furthermore, clockwise rotation of the Early Cretaceous Mantos Blancos copper deposit and the Late Paleocene Lomas Bayas porphyry copper occurred. In the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene metallogenic belt, a sigmoidal deflection and a clockwise rotation is observed in the ACL. The ACL is thought to have controlled the emplacement of Early Oligocene porphyry copper deposits (34-37 Ma; Toki, Genoveva, Quetena, and Opache), whereas it deflected the Late Eocene porphyry copper belt (41-44 Ma; Esperanza, Telégrafo, Centinela, and Polo Sur ore deposits). These observations suggest that right-lateral displacement of the ACL was active during the Early Oligocene. We propose that the described structural features need to be considered in future exploration programs within this extensively gravel-covered region of northern Chile.

  8. New A-DInSAR study of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. Results and interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escayo, Joaquín; Bru, Guadalupe; Camacho, Antonio; Prieto, Juan F.; Mallorquí, Jordi J.; Fernández, José

    2016-04-01

    We present new results on the deformation field for La Palma Island in the Canary Archipelago using the complete archive of Envisat (2004-2010). The recent volcanic activity registered in La Palma (at historical and subhistorical times, there have been seven eruptions, in ca. A.D. 1480, 1585, 1646, 1677, 1712, 1949 and 1971) and the absence of any geodetic monitoring system implemented in the Island at the 90's converts A-DInSAR studies in an basic information source for the study of surface displacements. From late 90's several geodetic studies using GNSS, gravimetry and InSAR techniques has been carried out in the island (see Fernández et al., 2015 for a summary). We improve previous radar satellite results by increasing the temporal coverage and using more images, which generates a greater interferogram set, and using a recently developed A-DInSAR processing technique which includes an error estimation for the LOS mean velocity and deformation time series ("Subsidence" software, developed by the "Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, see e.g., Blanco-Sánchez et al., 2008, and Centolanza, 2015). Our A-DInSAR results are compared with previous InSAR ones and with GNSS results obtained from campaigns. A discussion and interpretation of the results is also presented. Radar images have been provided by ESA through Cat.-1 13933 project.

  9. Microsatellite typing of ancient maize: insights into the history of agriculture in southern South America

    PubMed Central

    Lia, Verónica V; Confalonieri, Viviana A; Ratto, Norma; Hernández, Julián A. Cámara; Alzogaray, Ana M. Miante; Poggio, Lidia; Brown, Terence A

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological maize specimens from Andean sites of southern South America, dating from 400 to 1400 years before present, were tested for the presence of ancient DNA and three microsatellite loci were typed in the specimens that gave positive results. Genotypes were also obtained for 146 individuals corresponding to modern landraces currently cultivated in the same areas and for 21 plants from Argentinian lowland races. Sequence analysis of cloned ancient DNA products revealed a high incidence of substitutions appearing in only one clone, with transitions prevalent. In the archaeological specimens, there was no evidence of polymorphism at any one of the three microsatellite loci: each exhibited a single allelic variant, identical to the most frequent allele found in contemporary populations belonging to races Amarillo Chico, Amarillo Grande, Blanco and Altiplano. Affiliation between ancient specimens and a set of races from the Andean complex was further supported by assignment tests. The striking genetic uniformity displayed by the ancient specimens and their close relationship with the Andean complex suggest that the latter gene pool has predominated in the western regions of southern South America for at least the past 1400 years. The results support hypotheses suggesting that maize cultivation initially spread into South America via a highland route, rather than through the lowlands. PMID:17476775

  10. Using GIS technology to integrate remote sensing and field work data with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, G. ); Ellis, J.M.; Davis, H.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Field work for major projects is becoming more dependent upon contractors who have a variety of training, experience and methodology Contractor gaps in data collected, inconsistent methodology and terminology and out-of-context observations are minimized by using digital templates and remote sensing support. The digital templates utilize off-the-shelf PC software and portable hardware. Some field data can be customized to easily correlate with well logs utilizing computer-aided drafting (CAD) technology. Processed satellite images are georeferenced to a specific map projection, utilizing ground control points determined with Global Positioning System (GPS). Geographical Information System (GIS) technology is being evaluated as an integration tool to make complex tables of field data, CAD base maps, interpretation maps, and images more useful to Earth Scientists. The GIS enables users to: (1) examine their field data, maps, and images in a PC-based environment. (2) better understand spatial relationships between field observations, images and geologic maps. (3) interactively query field data while viewing associated images and maps. (4) ultimately improve database usage, database quality, and geological interpretations. The geologic interpretation of georeferenced images and field work in the Rio Blanco license of Colombia resulted in (1) an improved geologic map with better definition of source-reservoir rock from the hangingwall to the footwall of the main thrust and (2) better surface controlled balanced crossed-sections that led to play definition and to improve seismic planning/field parameters design for refining seismic acquisition.

  11. Using GIS technology to integrate remote sensing and field work data with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, G.; Ellis, J.M.; Davis, H.H.

    1996-12-31

    Field work for major projects is becoming more dependent upon contractors who have a variety of training, experience and methodology Contractor gaps in data collected, inconsistent methodology and terminology and out-of-context observations are minimized by using digital templates and remote sensing support. The digital templates utilize off-the-shelf PC software and portable hardware. Some field data can be customized to easily correlate with well logs utilizing computer-aided drafting (CAD) technology. Processed satellite images are georeferenced to a specific map projection, utilizing ground control points determined with Global Positioning System (GPS). Geographical Information System (GIS) technology is being evaluated as an integration tool to make complex tables of field data, CAD base maps, interpretation maps, and images more useful to Earth Scientists. The GIS enables users to: (1) examine their field data, maps, and images in a PC-based environment. (2) better understand spatial relationships between field observations, images and geologic maps. (3) interactively query field data while viewing associated images and maps. (4) ultimately improve database usage, database quality, and geological interpretations. The geologic interpretation of georeferenced images and field work in the Rio Blanco license of Colombia resulted in (1) an improved geologic map with better definition of source-reservoir rock from the hangingwall to the footwall of the main thrust and (2) better surface controlled balanced crossed-sections that led to play definition and to improve seismic planning/field parameters design for refining seismic acquisition.

  12. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    PubMed Central

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    policy. El Grano de los Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y también para proyectar el número total de rinocerontes con probabilidad de ser cazados ilegalmente desde 2014 hasta 2023. Las dinámicas poblacionales de los rinocerontes fueron entonces modeladas bajo ocho escenarios políticos diferentes que podrían implementarse para controlar la caza furtiva. También estimamos los costos económicos y los beneficios de cada escenario solamente bajo la ejecución aumentada del plan de manejo y el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte y usamos un marco de trabajo de apoyo a decisiones para ordenar los escenarios con el objetivo de mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual mientras se generan ganancias para los accionistas locales. Se predijo que la población de rinocerontes sureños blancos se extinguiría en menos de 20 años bajo el manejo actual. El escenario óptimo para mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual fue el de proporcionar un incremento mediano en el esfuerzo contra la caza furtiva e incrementar la multa monetaria de la condena. Sin legalizar el mercado, implementar tal escenario requeriría cubrir costo

  13. Transcriptional response of susceptible and tolerant citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2012-04-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in Florida. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus and no resistant cultivars have been identified to date, though tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids. This study compares transcriptional changes in tolerant US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and susceptible 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reticulata) seedlings in response to infection with Las using the Affymetrix GeneChip citrus array, with the main objective of identifying genes associated with tolerance to HLB. Microarray analysis identified 326 genes which were significantly upregulated by at least 4-fold in the susceptible genotype, compared with only 17 genes in US-897. Exclusively upregulated in US-897 was a gene for a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and Fe(II)-dependant oxygenase, an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. More than eight hundred genes were expressed at much higher levels in US-897 independent of infection with Las. Among these, genes for a constitutive disease resistance protein (CDR1) were notable. The possible involvement of these and other detected genes in tolerance to HLB and their possible use for biotechnology are discussed. PMID:22325873

  14. Transcriptional Analyses of Mandarins Seriously Infected by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meirong; Li, Ya; Zheng, Zheng; Dai, Zehan; Tao, Yang; Deng, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    A range of leaf symptoms, including blotchy mottle, yellowing, and small, upright leaves with a variety of chlorotic patterns resembling those induced by zinc deficiencies, are associated with huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a worldwide destructive citrus disease. HLB is presumably caused by the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic α-proteobacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' Previous studies focused on the proteome and transcriptome analyses of citrus 5 to 35 weeks after 'Ca. L. spp.' inoculation. In this study, gene expression profiles were analyzed from mandarin Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. jiaogan leaves after a 2 year infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. The Affymetrix microarray analysis explored 2,017 differentially expressed genes. Of the 1,364 genes had known functions, 938 (46.5%) were up-regulated. Genes related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolic, and structure were mostly down-regulated, with rates of 92.7%, 61.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. Genes associated with oxidation-reduction and transport were mostly up-regulated with the rates of 75.0% and 64.6%, respectively. Our data analyses implied that the infection of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' could alter hormone crosstalk, inducing the jasmine acid pathway and depressing the ethylene and salicylic acid pathways in the citrus host. This study provides an enhanced insight into the host response of citrus to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection at a two-years infection stage. PMID:26196297

  15. Transcriptional Analyses of Mandarins Seriously Infected by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Dai, Zehan; Tao, Yang; Deng, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    A range of leaf symptoms, including blotchy mottle, yellowing, and small, upright leaves with a variety of chlorotic patterns resembling those induced by zinc deficiencies, are associated with huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a worldwide destructive citrus disease. HLB is presumably caused by the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic α-proteobacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp.’ Previous studies focused on the proteome and transcriptome analyses of citrus 5 to 35 weeks after ‘Ca. L. spp.’ inoculation. In this study, gene expression profiles were analyzed from mandarin Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. jiaogan leaves after a 2 year infection with ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’. The Affymetrix microarray analysis explored 2,017 differentially expressed genes. Of the 1,364 genes had known functions, 938 (46.5%) were up-regulated. Genes related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolic, and structure were mostly down-regulated, with rates of 92.7%, 61.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. Genes associated with oxidation-reduction and transport were mostly up-regulated with the rates of 75.0% and 64.6%, respectively. Our data analyses implied that the infection of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ could alter hormone crosstalk, inducing the jasmine acid pathway and depressing the ethylene and salicylic acid pathways in the citrus host. This study provides an enhanced insight into the host response of citrus to ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ infection at a two-years infection stage. PMID:26196297

  16. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. Results An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Conclusion Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future. PMID:22897898

  17. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  18. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Pogostemon cablin Leaves and Its Constituents Against Blattella germanica (Blattodae: Blattelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Chen, Han; Liu, Qi Zhi; Jiang, Shi Yao; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of P. cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), α-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male B. germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 μg per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 μg per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50 = 339.90 μg per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of P. cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents. PMID:26336284

  19. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Main Components From the Essential Oil of Clausena anisum-olens Against Two Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    You, Chun Xue; Jiang, Hai Yan; Zhang, Wen Juan; Guo, Shan Shan; Yang, Kai; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Geng, Zhu Feng; Du, Shu Shan

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. showed strong contact toxicity and repellency against Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults. The components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that the main components were myristicin (36.87%), terpinolene (13.26%), p-cymene-8-ol (12.38%), and 3-carene (3.88%). Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol were separated by silica gel column chromatography, and their molecular structures were confirmed by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol showed strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne (LD50 = 18.96 and 39.68 μg per adult) and Li. bostrychophila (LD50 = 20.41 and 35.66 μg per adult). The essential oil acting against the two grain storage insects showed LD50 values of 12.44 and 74.46 μg per adult, respectively. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol have strong repellent toxicity to Li. bostrychophila. PMID:26136499

  20. The nature of the hydrogen bond: A synthesis from the interacting quantum atoms picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Pendás, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Francisco, E.

    2006-11-01

    The interacting quantum atoms approach [IQA, as presented by Blanco et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 1, 1096 (2005)] is applied to standard hydrogen bonded dimers. IQA is an interpretation tool based on a real space energy decomposition scheme fully consistent with the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. It provides a partition of every physical term present in the Hamiltonian into atomic and interatomic contributions. The procedure is orbital-free and self-contained, needing neither external references nor artificial intermediate states. Binding is the result of a competition between the destabilizing deformations suffered by the interacting fragments upon interaction and the stabilizing interaction energy itself. According to IQA, there is no incompatibility between the prevalent electrostatic image of hydrogen bonded systems and that favoring important covalent contributions. Depending on how we gather the different energetic terms, we may recover electrostatic or covalent pictures from the same underlying quantum mechanical description. Our results show that the nonclassical contributions to hydrogen bonding are spatially localized, involving only the H atom and its two nearest neighbors. IQA is well suited as a comparative tool. Its thin energetic decomposition allows us to recover exactly (or to a very good approximation) the quantities of the most widely used energy decomposition schemes. Such a comparison sheds light on the virtues and faults of the different methods and on the origin of the 50years old debate regarding the covalent/electrostatic nature of the hydrogen bond.

  1. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Salvatore, G; Mazzanti, G

    1999-12-01

    In this work we studied the local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., a medicinal plant traditionally used as an antispasmodic. We compared its activity to the essential oils obtained from two citrus fruits, Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f., which have no medical uses. Biological tests were also performed on the major pure components of L. angustifolia Mill. essential oil: linalol and linalyl acetate as determined by GC and confirmed by GC-MS. Anaesthetic activity was evaluated in vivo in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test, and in vitro in a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. The essential oil of L. angustifolia, linalyl acetate and linanol (0.01-10 micrograms/ml) but not the oils of Citrus reticulata and Citrus limon were able to drastically reduce, in a dose-dependent manner, the electrically evoked contractions of rat phrenic-hemidiaphragm. In the rabbit conjunctival reflex test treatment with a solution of essential oil of L. angustifolia, as well as linalyl acetate and linalol (30-2500 micrograms/ml administered in the conjunctival sac) allow a dose-dependent increase in the number of stimuli necessary to provoke the reflex, thus confirming in vivo the local anaesthetic activity observed in vitro. PMID:10630108

  2. PLANETARY NEBULAE IN FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES. II. PLANETARY NEBULA SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Ciardullo, Robin E-mail: rbc@astro.psu.ed

    2009-09-20

    As the second step in our investigation of the mass-to-light ratio of spiral disks, we present the results of a spectroscopic survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in five nearby, low-inclination galaxies: IC 342, M74 (NGC 628), M83 (NGC 5236), M94 (NGC 4736), and M101 (NGC 5457). Using 50 setups of the WIYN/Hydra and Blanco/Hydra spectrographs, and 25 observations with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's Medium Resolution Spectrograph, we determine the radial velocities of 99, 102, 162, 127, and 48 PNe, respectively, to a precision better than 15 km s{sup -1}. Although the main purpose of this data set is to facilitate dynamical mass measurements throughout the inner and outer disks of large spiral galaxies, our spectroscopy has other uses as well. Here, we co-add these spectra to show that, to first order, the [O III] and Balmer line ratios of PNe vary little over the top {approx}1.5 mag of the PN luminosity function. The only obvious spectral change occurs with [N II], which increases in strength as one proceeds down the luminosity function. We also show that typical [O III]-bright planetaries have E(B - V) {approx} 0.2 of circumstellar extinction, and that this value is virtually independent of [O III] luminosity. We discuss the implications this has for understanding the population of PN progenitors.

  3. An under-active or over-active internal world? An exploration of parallel dynamics within psyche and soma, and the difficulty of internal regulation, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Driver, Christine

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the dynamics brought into analytic work when there is a symmetric fusion between psyche and soma within the patient. It will consider how such a fusion may emerge from reverberations between physical constitution and a lack of maternal attunement, containment and reflective function. I will describe the work with a patient, Jane, who was diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) during the course of her analysis. The dynamic of her physical symptoms within the analytic work, and the impact of her internal affects and internal 'objects' within the transference and countertransference, indicated a difficulty in finding an homeostatic balance resulting in overactivity and underactivity at both somatic and psychological levels. Using the clinical work with Jane this paper will also examine the interrelationship between mother-infant attachment, an inadequate internalized maternal reflective function, affect dysregulation, unconscious fusion, the lack of psyche-soma differentiation and the impact of the latter in relation to internal regulation systems, or lack of, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). I will draw on similar work carried out by Holland (1997), Simpson (1997) and Simpson et al. (1997). The paper will also employ the concept of the reflective function (Fonagy 2001; Knox 2003), and consider Matte-Blanco's (1999) concepts of generalization and unconscious symmetry in relation to the patient's internal world. I go on to consider how analysis provides a point outside the 'fusion' that can enable the 'deadlock' to be broken. PMID:15817039

  4. Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

  5. Dwarf Novae in the Galactic Bulge Survey - Observational Constraints on X-ray/Recurrence Time Relations and Space Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, Christopher; Maccarone, T. J.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P.; Torres, M.; Galactic Bulge Survey Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey is a shallow, wide-field X-ray survey of the Galactic Bulge made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, covering 12 square degrees above and below the Galactic Plane, centered at |b|=1.5°. In 8 days of optical observations, made with the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m telescope at CTIO with the purpose of identifying variable optical counterparts to the 1216 unique X-ray sources in the GBS, 8 dwarf novae (DN) outbursts were identified. 4 of the X-ray detected systems undergoing DN outbursts are within the 100 brightest X-ray sources. It is thought that X-ray flux in DN systems traces mass accretion, which is correlated with recurrence rate. With these observations, we can place observational constraints on the relationship between X-ray flux and recurrence rates. In addition, there are DN outbursts in our data set for which no X-ray detection was made. We can use our observations to independently estimate the space density of systems undergoing DN outbursts in the Milky Way.

  6. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Jonker, P. G.; Nelemans, G.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T.; Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S.; Heinke, C.; Bassa, C. G.; Collazzi, A.; Villar, A.; Gabb, M.; Gossen, L.

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ~2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1889-2015 photometry of Stingray nebula (Schaefer+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Edwards, Z. I.

    2016-02-01

    To get broad-band magnitudes for the Stingray, we have pulled from a wide variety of sources --the Harvard photographic plate collection from 1889 to 1989, the visual magnitude estimates of Albert Jones as archived by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) from 1994 to 2007, the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) from 2001 to 2009, the AAVSO telescopes going into the AAVSO Photometric All-sky Survey (APASS) from 2011 to 2015, plus our own photometry from CCD images with DECam on the Cerro Tololo 4-m Blanco telescope from 2014. We have added 15 mag from the literature or derived by us from the literature, all on six nights from 1969 to 1996. At our request, A. Henden has put the Stingray in the queue for time series photometry on the 0.61-m Optical Craftsmen Telescope at the Mount John Observatory in New Zealand. The 1-minute CCD integrations were through a Johnson V filter on the nights of 2015 March 23, 26, and 27. (1 data file).

  8. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-08-11

    This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  9. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

  10. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Main Components From the Essential Oil of Clausena anisum-olens Against Two Stored Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    You, Chun Xue; Jiang, Hai Yan; Zhang, Wen Juan; Guo, Shan Shan; Yang, Kai; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Geng, Zhu Feng; Du, Shu Shan

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. showed strong contact toxicity and repellency against Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults. The components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that the main components were myristicin (36.87%), terpinolene (13.26%), p-cymene-8-ol (12.38%), and 3-carene (3.88%). Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol were separated by silica gel column chromatography, and their molecular structures were confirmed by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol showed strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne (LD50 = 18.96 and 39.68 μg per adult) and Li. bostrychophila (LD50 = 20.41 and 35.66 μg per adult). The essential oil acting against the two grain storage insects showed LD50 values of 12.44 and 74.46 μg per adult, respectively. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol have strong repellent toxicity to Li. bostrychophila. PMID:26136499

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer MIR AGN survey. I. (Lacy+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Nielsen, D. M.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    A wide range of optical facilities and instruments were used for spectroscopic follow-up of our AGN candidates. Most of the bright samples were followed up with 3-5m telescopes and longslit spectroscopy (Hale with COSMIC, SOAR with Goodman, and Shane with Kast), whereas the fainter samples were followed up with multifiber and/or 6-8m class telescopes (Blanco with Hydra, MMT with Hectospec, and Gemini-South with GMOS (program GS-2008B-C4)). We also obtained spectra of some of the bright candidates with a successful poor weather (scheduling band 4) program at Gemini-South (program GS-2008B-Q86). Some objects had spectra available in archives from the SDSS, 2dF, (Colless et al. 2001, Cat. VII/250) or 6dF (Jones et al. 2009, Cat. VII/259) surveys and some have redshifts and classifications in the literature, all found using the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). Table 2 gives details of the spectroscopic observations or literature references as appropriate. For some high-redshift candidates with ambiguous or low signal-to-noise optical spectra, we were able to obtain near-infrared spectra with the IRTF using SpeX (2007 June), Gemini with NIRI (program GN2009B-C-8), and Triplespec (2008 July and 2011 July) on Palomar. (5 data files).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of YSOs in eight bright-rimmed clouds (Sharma+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Borissova, J.; Ojha, D. K.; Ivanov, V. D.; Ogura, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Kurtev, R.; Gopinathan, M.; Yadav, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    Near-infrared (J, H, K') data for eight selected Bright-Rimmed Clouds (BRCs) along with two nearby field regions (see Table1) were collected with the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) camera (FOV~10.5*10.5arcmin2; scale 0.3arcsec/pixel) on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile, during the nights of 2010 March 03-04. The seeing was ~1arcsec. The individual exposure times were 60 s per frame for all filters. The total exposure time for the target fields was 540s for each J, H, and K' band. We also used the infrared archived data taken from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the space-based Spitzer telescope at the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0μm bands. We obtained Basic Calibrated Data (BCD) from the Spitzer data archive for all BRCs (except SFO 76, which has no Spitzer data). The exposure time of each BCD was 10.4s (4 data files).

  13. Novel synthesized 2, 4-DAPG analogues: antifungal activity, mechanism and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Tan, Haibo; Chen, Feng; Li, Taotao; Zhu, Jianyu; Jian, Qijie; Yuan, Debao; Xu, Liangxiong; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    2, 4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a natural phenolic compound, has been investigated in light of its biological activities against plant pathogens. To improve its potential application, fourteen 2,4-DAPG analogous were synthesized through the Friedel-Crafts reaction using acyl chlorides and phloroglucinol. Of the 2,4-DAPG derivatives, MP4 exhibited much higher antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, the major pathogenic fungi in citrus fruit, than 2, 4-DAPG in vitro, and significantly inhibited the development of decay in harvested mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shatang.) fruit in vivo. It was found that MP4 resulted in the wrinkle of the hyphae in both fungi with serious folds and breakage. In addition, the expression of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes were also modified in both fungi by MP4, which might be associated with the disorder of cell membrane formation. Furthermore, the toxicology of MP4 by evaluating the cell proliferation effect on human normal lung epithelial (16HBE) and kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, was significantly lower than that of albesilate, a widely used fungicide in harvested citrus fruit. In summary, the synthesized MP4 has shown a great potential as a novel fungicide that might be useful for control of postharvest decay in citrus fruit. PMID:27562341

  14. The Dark Energy Survey and Operations: Years 1 to 3

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an operating optical survey aimed at understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the 5000 sq-degree wide field and 30 sq-degree supernova surveys, the DES Collaboration built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square-degree, 570-Megapixel CCD camera that was installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DES has completed its third observing season out of a nominal five. This paper describes DES “Year 1” (Y1) to “Year 3” (Y3), the strategy, an outline of the survey operations procedures, the efficiency of operations and the causes of lost observing time. It provides details about the quality of the first three season's data, and describes how we are adjusting the survey strategy in the face of the El Niño Southern Oscillation

  15. THE SEARCH FOR SUPER-SATURATION IN CHROMOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Damian J.; Arias, Tersi; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Jess, David B.; Jardine, Moira

    2011-09-10

    We investigate if the super-saturation phenomenon observed at X-ray wavelengths for the corona exists in the chromosphere for rapidly rotating late-type stars. Moderate resolution optical spectra of fast-rotating EUV- and X-ray-selected late-type stars were obtained. Stars in {alpha} Per were observed in the northern hemisphere with the Isaac Newton 2.5 m telescope and Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph. Selected objects from IC 2391 and IC 2602 were observed in the southern hemisphere with the Blanco 4 m telescope and R-C spectrograph at CTIO. Ca II H and K fluxes were measured for all stars in our sample. We find the saturation level for Ca II K at log (L{sub CaK}/L{sub bol}) = -4.08. The Ca II K flux does not show a decrease as a function of increased rotational velocity or smaller Rossby number as observed in the X-ray. This lack of 'super-saturation' supports the idea of coronal stripping as the cause of saturation and super-saturation in stellar chromospheres and coronae, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still under investigation.

  16. The Dark Energy Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  17. Sonograph mosaic of U. S. west coast Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.

  18. Manipulating Representations.

    PubMed

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  19. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    PubMed

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation. PMID:27500705

  20. A "tale of two countries": Narratives of hearts, patients and doctors in the Spanish press.

    PubMed

    Danet, Alina; Medina-Doménech, Rosa M

    2015-08-01

    In this article we explore how the Spanish written press--ABC, La Vanguardia, and Blanco y Negro--and the official newsreel No-Do, created and disseminated a narrative about heart transplantations at the end of the 1960s. We consider how Franco's regime used Christiaan Barnard's heart transplants to legitimize the Spanish dictatorship and as a means of signifying scientific progress, modernization and national pride. The Spanish press created the plot of the first transplantations like that of a television series, presenting daily installments on the patients' progress, dramatizing the stories and ensuring the public's emotional attachment. The three main characters in the story: donors, patients and surgeons, formed a symbolic, indivisible narrative triangle endowed with singular meaning. This Spanish narrative of organ transplant technology was deployed through what we have called "a tale of two countries", that, emulating the South African's success, constructed in Martínez-Bordiú, Franco's son-in-law, a home-grown, masculine scientific personality capable of performing heart surgery and endorsing Franco's investment in scientific modernization. PMID:24164746

  1. Rocky Mountain Snowpack Physical and Chemical Data for Selected Sites, 1993-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Campbell, Donald H.; Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Turk, John T.

    2009-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Snowpack program established a network of snowpack-sampling sites in the Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico to Montana to monitor the chemical content of snow to help in the understanding of the effects of atmospheric deposition to this region. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, the USDA Forest Service, Teton County in Wyoming, Rio Blanco County in Colorado, Pitkin County in Colorado, and others, collected and analyzed snowpack samples annually for 48 or more sites in the Rocky Mountain region during 1993-2008. Forty-eight of the 162 snow-sampling sites have been sampled annually since 1993. Data include acid-neutralization capacity, specific conductance, pH, hydrogen ion concentrations, dissolved concentrations of major constituents (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate), dissolved organic carbon concentrations, snow/ water equivalent, snow depth, stable sulfur isotope ratios, total mercury concentrations (beginning in 2001), and ionic charge balance. Quality-assurance data for field and laboratory blanks and field replicates for individual years (1993-2008) also are included.

  2. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Johnson, C. I.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Lee, Y.; Rich, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundances and radial velocities for ~30 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 288. The results are based on moderate resolution (R≈18,000) and moderate signal-to-noise ratio 50-75) obtained with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Blanco 4m telescope. NGC 288 has been shown to exhibit two separate RGBs and we investigate possible differences in metallicity and/or light element abundances between stars on each branch. We present a new filter tracing for the CTIO Calcium HK narrow band filter and explore its effects on previous globular cluster color-magnitude diagrams. We also compare the light element abundance patterns of NGC 288 to those of other similar metallicity halo clusters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award No.AST-1003201 to C.I.J. C.A.P. gratefully acknowledges support from the Daniel Kirkwood Research Fund at Indiana University. R.M.R. acknowledges support from NSF grants AST-0709479 and AST-121120995.

  3. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 ± 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  4. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  5. Disentangling the effects of shrubs and herbivores on tree regeneration in a dry Chaco forest (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Tálamo, Andrés; Barchuk, Alicia H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Trucco, Carlos E; Cardozo, Silvana; Mohr, Federico

    2015-07-01

    Successful persistence of dry forests depends on tree regeneration, which depends on a balance of complex biotic interactions. In particular, the relative importance and interactive effects of shrubs and herbivores on tree regeneration are unclear. In a manipulative study, we investigated if thornless shrubs have a direct net effect, an indirect positive effect mediated by livestock, and/or an indirect negative effect mediated by small vertebrates on tree regeneration of two key species of Chaco forest (Argentina). In a spatial association study, we also explored the existence of net positive interactions from thorny and thornless shrubs. The number of Schinopsis lorentzii seedlings was highest under artificial shade with native herbivores and livestock excluded. Even excluding livestock, no seedlings were found with natural conditions (native herbivores present with natural shade or direct sunlight) at the end of the experiment. Surprisingly, seedling recruitment was not enhanced under thornless shrubs, because there was a complementary positive effect of shade and interference. Moreover, thornless shrubs had neither positive nor negative effects on regeneration of S. lorentzii. Regeneration of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco was minimal in all treatments. In agreement with the experiment, spatial distributions of saplings of both tree species were independent of thornless shrubs, but positively associated with thorny shrubs. Our results suggest that in general thornless shrubs may have a negligible effect and thorny shrubs a net positive effect on tree regeneration in dry forests. These findings provide a conceptual framework for testing the impact of biotic interactions on seedling recruitment in other dry forests. PMID:25707777

  6. Crustal and Upper Mantle Investigations Using Receiver Functions and Tomographic Inversion in the Southern Puna Plateau Region of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heit, B.; Yuan, X.; Bianchi, M.; Jakovlev, A.; Kumar, P.; Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Alonso, R.; Coira, B.; Comte, D.; Brown, L. D.; Kind, R.

    2011-12-01

    We present here the results obtained using the data form our passive seismic array in the southern Puna plateau between 25°S to 28°S latitude in Argentina and Chile. In first instance we have been able to calculate P and S receiver functions in order to investigate the Moho thickness and other seismic discontinuities in the study area. The RF data shows that the northern Puna plateau has a thicker crust and that the Moho topography is more irregular along strike. The seismic structure and thickness of the continental crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Puna plateau reveals that the LAB is deeper to the north of the array suggesting lithospheric removal towards the south. Later we performed a joint inversion of teleseismic and regional tomographic data in order to study the distribution of velocity anomalies that could help us to better understand the evolution of the Andean elevated plateau and the role of lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions in this region. Low velocities are observed in correlation with young volcanic centers (e.g. Ojos del Salado, Cerro Blanco, Galan) and agree very well with the position of crustal lineaments in the region. This is suggesting a close relationship between magmatism and lithospheric structures at crustal scale coniciding with the presence of hot asthenospheric material at the base of the crust probably induced by lithospheric foundering.

  7. Survey of the genome of Pogostemon cablin provides insights into its evolutionary history and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Xiao, Hongtao; Deng, Cao; Xiong, Liang; Nie, Hu; Peng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has both essential oil value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here we report the first de novo assembled 1.15-Gb draft genome sequence for P. cablin from next-generation sequencing technology. Our assembly, with a misassembly rate of <4 bp per 100 kb, is ~73% of the predicted genome size (1.57 Gb). Analysis of whole-genome sequences identified 3,147,333 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 490,407 insertions and deletions, giving an estimated heterozygosity rate of 0.274%. A comprehensive annotation pipeline indicated that repetitive sequences make up 58.55% of the assemblies, and that there are estimated 45,020 genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the Phrymaceae and Lamiaceae family split ~62.80 Mya, and the divergence between patchouli and sesame occurred ~52.42 Mya, implying a potentially shared recent whole-genome duplication event. Analysis of gene homologs involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis showed that patchouli contains key genes involved in more sesquiterpenoid types and has more copies of genes for each sesquiterpenoid type than several other related plant species. The patchouli genome will facilitate future research on secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation as well as potential selective breeding of patchouli. PMID:27198881

  8. SCABS: A Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Taylor, Matthew Alan

    2015-08-01

    First results of the "SCABS: A Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures" project will be presented. SCABS utilizes the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Victor Blanco telescope to image NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) in the optical u'g'r'i'z' bands to depths of u'=24.50, g'=23.72, r'=23.12, i'=22.95 and z'=22.75 AB mags out to the ~300 kpc virial radius for the first time at these depths. These observations identify >99% of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs, and low-surface brightness features (e.g. dwarf galaxies and tidal streams) associated with NGC 5128 down to ~25 mag/sq. arcsec in the g-band. These data will place strong constraints on the assembly/merger history of NGC 5128 by identifying GC spatial over-densities, low-surface brightness tidal features and unique GC age/metallicity distribution functions. SCABS will also present new near-field cosmological applications via the 10-100 new dwarf galaxies expected to be in the region. Additionally, new high redshift background targets will be identified for future follow-up studies, making SCABS applicable to many areas of research. This talk will summarize the data, present preliminary results from colour-colour diagrams and propose the myriad applications of SCABS for various astrophysical fields of study.

  9. The Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Honscheid, K.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Antonik, M.; Ballester, O.; Beaufore, L.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bigelow, B.; Bonati, M.; Boprie, D.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Campa, J.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; Cease, H.; Cela-Ruiz, J. M.; Chappa, S.; Chi, E.; Cooper, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Dede, E.; Derylo, G.; DePoy, D. L.; de Vicente, J.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eiting, J.; Elliott, A. E.; Emes, J.; Estrada, J.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flores, R.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gladders, M. D.; Gregory, B.; Gutierrez, G. R.; Hao, J.; Holland, S. E.; Holm, S.; Huffman, D.; Jackson, C.; James, D. J.; Jonas, M.; Karcher, A.; Karliner, I.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kron, R. G.; Kubik, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuk, K.; Lahav, O.; Lathrop, A.; Lee, J.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, P.; Li, T. S.; Mandrichenko, I.; Marshall, J. L.; Martinez, G.; Merritt, K. W.; Miquel, R.; Muñoz, F.; Neilsen, E. H.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Olsen, J.; Palaio, N.; Patton, K.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A. A.; Rauch, J.; Reil, K.; Rheault, J.-P.; Roe, N. A.; Rogers, H.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R.; Schubnell, M.; Schultz, K.; Schurter, P.; Scott, L.; Serrano, S.; Shaw, T. M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Stefanik, A.; Stuermer, W.; Suchyta, E.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tighe, R.; Tran, C.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, G.; Watson, M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Wester, W.; Woods, R.; Yanny, B.; DES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel-1. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6-9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  10. The DECam data acquisition and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honscheid, K.; Eiting, J.; Elliott, A.; Annis, J.; Bonati, M.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Castander, F.; da Costa, L.; Haney, M.; Hanlon, W.; Karliner, I.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Marshall, S.; Meyer, M.; Neilsen, E.; Ogando, R.; Roodman, A.; Schalk, T.; Schumacher, G.; Selen, M.; Serrano, S.; Thaler, J.; Wester, W.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we describe the data acquisition and control system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which will be the primary instrument used in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES is a high precision multibandpath wide area survey of 5000 square degrees of the southern sky. DECam currently under construction at Fermilab will be a 3 square degree mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). The DECam data acquisition system (SISPI) is implemented as a distributed multi-processor system with a software architecture built on the Client-Server and Publish-Subscribe design patterns. The underlying message passing protocol is based on PYRO, a powerful distributed object technology system written entirely in Python. A distributed shared variable system was added to support exchange of telemetry data and other information between different components of the system. In this paper we discuss the SISPI infrastructure software, the image pipeline, the observer interface and quality monitoring system, and the instrument control system.

  11. The readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honscheid, Klaus; Elliott, Ann; Annis, James; Bonati, Marco; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Castander, Francisco; daCosta, Luiz; Fausti, Angelo; Karliner, Inga; Kuhlmann, Steve; Neilsen, Eric; Patton, Kenneth; Reil, Kevin; Roodman, Aaron; Thaler, Jon; Serrano, Santiago; Soares Santos, Marcelle; Suchyta, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is a new 520 Mega Pixel CCD camera with a 3 square degree field of view designed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES is a high precision, multi-bandpass, photometric survey of 5000 square degrees of the southern sky. DECam is currently being installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-m telescope at the Cerro- Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). In this paper we describe SISPI, the data acquisition and control system of the Dark Energy Camera. SISPI is implemented as a distributed multi-processor system with a software architecture based on the Client-Server and Publish-Subscribe design patterns. The underlying message passing protocol is based on PYRO, a powerful distributed object technology system written entirely in Python. A distributed shared variable system was added to support exchange of telemetry data and other information between different components of the system. We discuss the SISPI infrastructure software, the image pipeline, the observer console and user interface architecture, image quality monitoring, the instrument control system, and the observation strategy tool.

  12. Purification and characterization of the extracellular laccase produced by Trametes polyzona WR710-1 under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chairin, Thanunchanok; Nitheranont, Thitinard; Watanabe, Akira; Asada, Yasuhiko; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Laccase from Trametes polyzona WR710-1 was produced under solid-state fermentation using the peel from the Tangerine orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as substrate, and purified to homogeneity. This laccase was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of about 71 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH was 2.0 for ABTS, 4.0 for L-DOPA, guaiacol, and catechol, and 5.0 for 2,6-DMP. The K(m) value of the enzyme for the substrate ABTS was 0.15 mM, its corresponding V(max) value was 1.84 mM min(-1), and the k(cat)/K(m) value was about 3960 s(-1)  mM(-1). The enzyme activity was stable between pH 6.0 and 8.0, at temperatures of up to 40 °C. The laccase was inhibited by more than 50% in the presence of 20 mM NaCl, by 95% at 5 mM of Fe(2+), and it was completely inhibited by 0.1 mM NaN(3). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this laccase is AVTPVADLQISNAGISPDTF, which is highly similar to those of laccases from other white-rot basidiomycetes. PMID:23775771

  13. Li sbnd δ 18O sbnd SiO 2 systematics in volcanic rocks and mafic lower crustal granulite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, K.; Hoefs, J.

    1990-11-01

    Li sbnd δ 18O sbnd SiO 2 relationships have been examined for suites of spilitized basaltic rocks (DSDP 504B; Xigaze Ophiolite; Blanco Fracture Zone; Greater Caucasus; Rhenohercynian Fold Belt) and intra-plate evolved tholeiites (Northern Hessian Depression and Vogelsberg, W Germany; Mount Falla, Transantarctic Mountains). Relative to unaltered MORB and intra-plate primary olivine tholeiites, both the spilitic rocks and the evolved tholeiites are characterized by Li and 18O enrichment. For the spilitic rocks, Li and 18O enrichment is accompanied by a loss of SiO 2 as a result of seawater hydrothermal alteration, whereas the evolved tholeiites have gained SiO 2, Li and 18O from fractionation of mafic phases and assimilation of crustal rocks. On Li vs. SiO 2 and δ 18O vs. SiO 2 diagrams, the two rock groups plot largely in distinct fields, suggesting the possibility of so distinguishing between such lithologies in the ancient rock record. Mafic granulite xenoliths from the Northern Hessian Depression have elevated Li and 18O abundances at low SiO 2 contents. Even after correction for extraction of felsic components, their Li sbnd δ 18O sbnd SiO 2 signatures plot within the field of spilitic protoliths, suggesting that the lower crust in this region contains relics of spilitic rocks from a former oceanic crust.

  14. Novel synthesized 2, 4-DAPG analogues: antifungal activity, mechanism and toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Liang; Tan, Haibo; Chen, Feng; Li, Taotao; Zhu, Jianyu; Jian, Qijie; Yuan, Debao; Xu, Liangxiong; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    2, 4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a natural phenolic compound, has been investigated in light of its biological activities against plant pathogens. To improve its potential application, fourteen 2,4-DAPG analogous were synthesized through the Friedel-Crafts reaction using acyl chlorides and phloroglucinol. Of the 2,4-DAPG derivatives, MP4 exhibited much higher antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, the major pathogenic fungi in citrus fruit, than 2, 4-DAPG in vitro, and significantly inhibited the development of decay in harvested mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shatang.) fruit in vivo. It was found that MP4 resulted in the wrinkle of the hyphae in both fungi with serious folds and breakage. In addition, the expression of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes were also modified in both fungi by MP4, which might be associated with the disorder of cell membrane formation. Furthermore, the toxicology of MP4 by evaluating the cell proliferation effect on human normal lung epithelial (16HBE) and kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, was significantly lower than that of albesilate, a widely used fungicide in harvested citrus fruit. In summary, the synthesized MP4 has shown a great potential as a novel fungicide that might be useful for control of postharvest decay in citrus fruit. PMID:27562341

  15. Recovering Spirit Sets Sight on Cake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These are the first images sent back from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since the rover experienced communications problems on the 18th sol, or martian day, of its mission. They were acquired at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 26 (Jan. 29, 2004), showing that the camera's health remained excellent during Spirit's recovery. Two of Spirit's potential target rocks, which are near the rock called Adirondack, can be seen on the lower left and right. The rock on the left has been named 'Cake,' and the white rock on the right has been named 'Blanco.'

    In the upper left is a color image of the panoramic camera calibration target, also known as the martian sundial. The color panel of the calibration target looks almost exactly like it did on Earth, indicating that the color shown of Mars, though approximated, is close to true color.

    The monochrome image in the upper right shows the sun, magnified five times. This image was acquired by the panoramic camera as part of a routine sequence of images designed to monitor the dust abundance in the martian atmosphere. The dust abundance appears to be decreasing slowly with time, consistent with the atmosphere continuing to clear after the large dust storm of last December.

  16. The Turn of the Millennium, CTIO and AURA-O, 1993-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. G.

    2015-05-01

    The decade 1993-2003 was a particularly exciting time to be at Cerro Tololo - for most staff members. Tough times at the beginning involved significant staff reductions - the worst moment of my professional career. In return, the observatory was granted a period of stability in which it was possible to rebuild morale, which in turn helped the research climate to recover rapidly. Emphasis was given to improving the image quality at the Blanco 4m (led by Jack Baldwin), while quietly supporting efficient operation of the smaller telescopes (led locally by Alistair Walker) via the development of the SMARTs consortium. In 1998 came the high point - the announcement of the discovery of Dark Energy that showed us all how much we still have to learn about the universe; this work depended crucially on the work of staff members at CTIO and staff and students from Chilean and Argentinian universities (as described elsewhere at this conference). The Inter-American nature of CTIO also laid the crucial groundwork (in which Joao Steiner was a key player) for Brazil's involvement in SOAR and Gemini. Work during the period to minimize the advance of light pollution over Cerro Tololo (and the rest of northern Chile) helped create a credible case for siting the LSST on Cerro Pachón.

  17. The Structure of the Nearby Giant Star-Forming Region 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Eric; Baldwin, Jack; Hanson, Margaret; Ferland, Gary; Troland, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The rates of star formation and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study of these processes in the two nearest giant star-forming regions, 30 Doradus and NGC 3603, as an aide in understanding the nature of Giant Extragalactic H II Regions, starbursts, and Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies. We recently completed our observations of NGC 3603. Here we request 2 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain a dense grid of optical long-slit spectra criss- crossing 30 Dor. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3800 different spots in the nebula. We also request 3 nights on SOAR to take K-band long slit spectra covering H^+ Br(gamma) and several H_2 lines across three representative edge-on ionization fronts in 30 Dor. The IR spectra will be taken in locations also covered by the optical spectra, and will tell us about the structure, pressure support and heating mechanisms in the photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) at these points. Either half of this project can stand on its own, but both parts together will permit the PI to complete his PhD thesis.

  18. Jules Verne's Journey to the centre of the Earth: the secret of counterdepressive narratives.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cardenas, Michel

    2005-12-01

    The author interprets Jules Verne's Journey to the centre of the Earth with the help of Matte Blanco's theoretical framework, which describes the principle of symmetry and the principle of generalization. The first states that, from the moment an element or a proposition becomes conscious, it coexists in the unconscious with its symmetrically opposite form. The second refers to the confusion of elements once they have been apprehended by thought as containing a common point; they are put into larger and larger groups which merge into an indivisible whole. Verne's novel is built on paired elements which become symmetrized (e.g. distinct minerals vs molten lava; scientific rationality vs madness; the living vs the dead, etc.). These elements in turn become confused with one another, thanks largely to the novel's atmosphere of oral incorporation. This allows the fusion between subject and object, and, in particular, between the orphaned hero and his dead (Earth) mother. The novel's narrative evolution through three stages (separation, fusion and de-fusion, which are paralleled by rational, irrational and rational thought) can thus be understood as a mourning process. Similar processes can be found in other literary works. PMID:16318945

  19. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P.; Nelemans, G.; Maccarone, T.; Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S.; Heinke, C.; Bassa, C. G.; Villar, A.; Gabb, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  20. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index. PMID:27570274

  1. [Effect of the vegetative cover on the biological activity of the soil of Chaco Arido].

    PubMed

    Abril, A; Acosta, M; Bachmeier, O; Rollan, A

    1993-01-01

    Vegetation plays a primal role in arid ecosystems, since it creates microclimate conditions that moderate the characteristics of the region whereby the rational use of vegetal resources is fundamental. Felling, clearing and overgrazing lead to decrease in organic contribution and stimulate soil compaction, causing an alteration of microbial activity, with losses in nutrient turnover. The global biological activity is a soil parameter easy to obtain and indicates the presence and diversity of soil life as well as substrate availability and is useful in order to characterize soil potential fertility. This work was carried out in Natural Forest Reserve Chancaní, Province of Córdoba (Argentina), which is representative of Argentine Dry Chaco. Dominant tree species are: Prosopis flexuosa and Aspidosperma quebracho blanco. The global biological activity (GBA) was measured along one year, under trees, under shrubs and in interspaces. Soil samples were taken monthly from plots with four management systems: 1) forest, ii) selective clearing (only dominant species remain), iii) bush (clearing invaded by Larrea sp) and iv) grazing (cleared area, neither trees nor shrubs). GBA was evaluated using the CO2 release method, after ten days of incubation. It is concluded that in the plots with grasses and under the trees GBA was higher than with other treatments. The lesser GBA was detected in bushes and interspaces. All differences were more prominent during extreme temperature months. No significant difference between both species of dominant trees was observed. PMID:8210407

  2. Acaricidal activity of DHEMH, derived from patchouli oil, against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Qiang; Li, Li; Li, Jing; He, Zhen-Dan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zeng, Qing-Qian; Wang, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the acaricidal activity of constituents of patchouli oil extracted from (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) BENTH) against the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. A new compound, 2-(1,3-dihydroxy-but-2-enylidene)-6-methyl-3-oxo-heptanoic acid (DHEMH), was isolated from patchouli oil and characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis (EA). This active component was identified as the hydrolysate of pogostone. Fifteen other constituents found in patchouli oil were also identified by GC-MS, including patchouli alcohol and pogostone. LD(50) studies carried out over 24 h using contact toxicity tests identified DHEMH as the most toxic compound to D. farinae (2.04 μg/cm(2)), followed by patchouli oil (6.11 μg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (BP) (9.31 μg/cm(2)) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (58.52 μg/cm(2)). In vapor phase toxicity tests, all of these compounds were more effective in closed than open containers, indicating that the most efficient mode of delivery for these compounds is the vapor phase. These results indicate that DHEMH and patchouli oil merit further study as potential agents for the control of D. farinae. PMID:22293476

  3. Structural analysis of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, T. A.; Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present wide-field g- and i-band stellar photometry of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its surrounding area out to four times its half-light radius (rh = 695 pc), based on images obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at the 4-m Blanco telescope at CTIO. We find clear evidence of stellar substructure associated with the galaxy, extending to a distance of 82 arcmin (2 kpc) from its centre. We perform a statistical analysis of the overdensities and find three distinct features, as well as an extended halo-like structure, to be significant at the 99.7 per cent confidence level or higher. Unlike the extremely elongated and extended substructures surrounding the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy, the overdensities seen around Sextans are distributed evenly about its centre, and do not appear to form noticeable tidal tails. Fitting a King model to the radial distribution of Sextans stars yields a tidal radius rt = 83.2 arcmin ± 7.1 arcmin (2.08 ± 0.18 kpc), which implies the majority of detected substructure is gravitationally bound to the galaxy. This finding suggests that Sextans is not undergoing significant tidal disruption from the Milky Way, supporting the scenario in which the orbit of Sextans has a low eccentricity.

  4. Secondary particle tracks generated by ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) procedure is a powerful complementary tool to include the effect of low energy electrons and positrons in medical applications of radiation. In particular, for ion-beam cancer treatments provides a detailed description of the role of the secondary electrons abundantly generated around the Bragg peak as well as the possibility of using transmuted positron emitters (C11, O15) as a complement for ion-beam dosimetry. In this study we present interaction probability data derived from IAM-SCAR corrective factors for liquid environments. Using these data, single electron and positron tracks in liquid water and pyrimidine have been simulated providing information about energy deposition as well as the number and type of interactions taking place in any selected ``nanovolume'' of the irradiated area. In collaboration with Francisco Blanco, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Antonio Mu noz, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas and Diogo Almeida, Filipe Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Lim ao-Vieira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Supported by the Spanish and Portuguese governments.

  5. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata) as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Jahangir, Muhammad; Qaisar, Muhammad; Khan, Sher Aslam; Mahmood, Talat; Saeed, Muhammad; Farid, Abid; Liaquat, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco) for a period of 120 days (85%-90% relative humidity) at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C. PMID:26694344

  6. The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

  7. Testing Dragonflies as Species Richness Indicators in a Fragmented Subtropical Atlantic Forest Environment.

    PubMed

    Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa. PMID:26686194

  8. OPTICAL REDSHIFT AND RICHNESS ESTIMATES FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS SELECTED WITH THE SUNYAEV-Zel'dovich EFFECT FROM 2008 SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    High, F. W.; Stalder, B.; Song, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Allam, S. S.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bertin, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Brodwin, M.; Challis, P.; De Haan, T.

    2010-11-10

    We present redshifts and optical richness properties of 21 galaxy clusters uniformly selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signature. These clusters, plus an additional, unconfirmed candidate, were detected in a 178 deg{sup 2} area surveyed by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) in 2008. Using griz imaging from the Blanco Cosmology Survey and from pointed Magellan telescope observations, as well as spectroscopy using Magellan facilities, we confirm the existence of clustered red-sequence galaxies, report red-sequence photometric redshifts, present spectroscopic redshifts for a subsample, and derive R{sub 200} radii and M{sub 200} masses from optical richness. The clusters span redshifts from 0.15 to greater than 1, with a median redshift of 0.74; three clusters are estimated to be at z>1. Redshifts inferred from mean red-sequence colors exhibit 2% rms scatter in {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) with respect to the spectroscopic subsample for z < 1. We show that the M{sub 200} cluster masses derived from optical richness correlate with masses derived from SPT data and agree with previously derived scaling relations to within the uncertainties. Optical and infrared imaging is an efficient means of cluster identification and redshift estimation in large SZ surveys, and exploiting the same data for richness measurements, as we have done, will be useful for constraining cluster masses and radii for large samples in cosmological analysis.

  9. Probing Vitamine C, Aspirin and Paracetamol in the Gas Phase: High Resolution Rotational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Pena, I.; Nino, A.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2011-06-01

    A solid sample of Vitamin C (m.p. 190°C) vaporized by laser ablation has been investigated in gas phase and characterized through their rotational spectra. Two spectroscopy techniques has been used to obtain the spectra: a new design of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with in-phase/quadrature-phase-modulation passage-acquired-coherence technique (IMPACT) and conventional laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW). Up to now, two low-energy conformer have been observed and their rotational constants determined. Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory predicted rotational constants which helped us to identify these conformers unequivocally. Among the molecules to benefit from the LA-MB-FTMW technique there are common important drugs never observed in the gas phase through rotational spectroscopy. We present here the results on acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (m.p. 136°C), commonly known as aspirin and paracetamol respectively. We have observed two stable conformers of aspirin and two for paracetamol. The internal rotation barrier of the methyl group in aspirin has been determined for both conformers from the analysis of the A-E splittings due to the coupling of internal and overall rotation. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11,617-627 (2009)and references therein

  10. Survey of the genome of Pogostemon cablin provides insights into its evolutionary history and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang; Xiao, Hongtao; Deng, Cao; Xiong, Liang; Nie, Hu; Peng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has both essential oil value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here we report the first de novo assembled 1.15-Gb draft genome sequence for P. cablin from next-generation sequencing technology. Our assembly, with a misassembly rate of <4 bp per 100 kb, is ~73% of the predicted genome size (1.57 Gb). Analysis of whole-genome sequences identified 3,147,333 heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 490,407 insertions and deletions, giving an estimated heterozygosity rate of 0.274%. A comprehensive annotation pipeline indicated that repetitive sequences make up 58.55% of the assemblies, and that there are estimated 45,020 genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the Phrymaceae and Lamiaceae family split ~62.80 Mya, and the divergence between patchouli and sesame occurred ~52.42 Mya, implying a potentially shared recent whole-genome duplication event. Analysis of gene homologs involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis showed that patchouli contains key genes involved in more sesquiterpenoid types and has more copies of genes for each sesquiterpenoid type than several other related plant species. The patchouli genome will facilitate future research on secondary metabolic pathways and their regulation as well as potential selective breeding of patchouli. PMID:27198881

  11. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  12. Oil shale plant siting methodology: A guide to permits and approvals

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Hill, S.; Barker, F.; Renk, R.; Dean, J.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a guide to the permits and approvals required to develop an oil shale resource. The permitting requirements of the federal government, six states (Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio), and selected county or local governments are reviewed. The permits and approvals are organized into nine categories: (1) mineral leases and rights-of-way, (2) acquisition of a water supply, (3) environmental impact statement, (4) environmental quality (air quality, water quality, waste disposal, and wildlife values), (5) historical and cultural protection, (6) land use and socioeconomics, (7) prospecting and mining, (8) safety and health, and (9) transportation and communication. This report also contains examples of the permitting process required for the startup of two hypothetical oil shale plants. The first example is for a hypothetical 50,000 barrel-per-day oil shale plant located near Rio Blanco, Colorado. This plant uses conventional open pit mining and surface (Lurgi) processing of the shale. The permitting costs for this plant, including baseline data acquisition and monitoring, exceed $2 million. The second example, a 5,000 barrel-per-day demonstration plant in eastern Montgomery County, Kentucky, is based on open pit mining and surface (Hytort) processing of the shale. Permitting costs for the demonstration plant, including an environmental impact statement, could approach $500,000. Several potential impediments to the development of an oil shale resource are identified and discussed. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. KOSMOS and COSMOS: new facility instruments for the NOAO 4-meter telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paul; Elias, J.; Points, S.; Sprayberry, D.; Derwent, Mark A.; Gonzalez, Raymond; Mason, J. A.; O'Brien, T. P.; Pappalardo, D. P.; Pogge, Richard W.; Stoll, R.; Zhelem, R.; Daly, Phil; Fitzpatrick, M.; George, J. R.; Hunten, M.; Marshall, R.; Poczulp, Gary; Rath, S.; Seaman, R.; Trueblood, M.; Zelaya, K.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the design, construction and measured performance of the Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) for the 4-m Mayall telescope and the Cerro Tololo Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (COSMOS) for the 4-m Blanco telescope. These nearly identical imaging spectrographs are modified versions of the OSMOS instrument; they provide a pair of new, high-efficiency instruments to the NOAO user community. KOSMOS and COSMOS may be used for imaging, long-slit, and multi-slit spectroscopy over a 100 square arcminute field of view with a pixel scale of 0.29 arcseconds. Each contains two VPH grisms that provide R~2500 with a one arcsecond slit and their wavelengths of peak diffraction efficiency are approximately 510nm and 750nm. Both may also be used with either a thin, blue-optimized CCD from e2v or a thick, fully depleted, red-optimized CCD from LBNL. These instruments were developed in response to the ReSTAR process. KOSMOS was commissioned in 2013B and COSMOS was commissioned in 2014A.

  14. Microsatellite typing of ancient maize: insights into the history of agriculture in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Lia, Verónica V; Confalonieri, Viviana A; Ratto, Norma; Hernández, Julián A Cámara; Alzogaray, Ana M Miante; Poggio, Lidia; Brown, Terence A

    2007-02-22

    Archaeological maize specimens from Andean sites of southern South America, dating from 400 to 1400 years before present, were tested for the presence of ancient DNA and three microsatellite loci were typed in the specimens that gave positive results. Genotypes were also obtained for 146 individuals corresponding to modern landraces currently cultivated in the same areas and for 21 plants from Argentinian lowland races. Sequence analysis of cloned ancient DNA products revealed a high incidence of substitutions appearing in only one clone, with transitions prevalent. In the archaeological specimens, there was no evidence of polymorphism at any one of the three microsatellite loci: each exhibited a single allelic variant, identical to the most frequent allele found in contemporary populations belonging to races Amarillo Chico, Amarillo Grande, Blanco and Altiplano. Affiliation between ancient specimens and a set of races from the Andean complex was further supported by assignment tests. The striking genetic uniformity displayed by the ancient specimens and their close relationship with the Andean complex suggest that the latter gene pool has predominated in the western regions of southern South America for at least the past 1400 years. The results support hypotheses suggesting that maize cultivation initially spread into South America via a highland route, rather than through the lowlands. PMID:17476775

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy clusters discovered in the SPT-SZ survey (Bleem+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-03-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10m diameter telescope located at the National Science Foundation Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. From 2008 to 2011 the telescope was used to conduct the SPT-SZ survey, a survey of ~2500deg2 of the southern sky at 95, 150, and 220GHz. The survey covers a contiguous region from 20h to 7h in right ascension (R.A.) and -65 to -40° in declination (see, e.g., Figure 1 in Story et al. 2013ApJ...779...86S) and was mapped to depths of approximately 40, 18, and 70uK-arcmin at 95, 150, and 220GHz respectively. We use optical and in some cases NIR imaging (Blanco Telescope, Magellan/Baade, Magellan/Clay, Swope, MPG/ESO, New Technology Telescope, Spitzer, WISE) to confirm candidates as clusters and to obtain redshifts for confirmed systems (see section 4). We have also used a variety of facilities to obtain spectroscopic observations of SPT clusters (including VLT/FORS2 & Gemini/GMOS-S). (3 data files).

  16. Preparing for the Kepler K2 Microlensing Survey: A Call to Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In 2016 the ninth campaign of K2 (the extended, two-wheel Kepler mission) will be targeted towards the Galactic bulge, where it will perform the first wide-field, space-based microlensing survey. This survey will discover tens of both bound and free-floating planets by itself, but its real value will come from simultaneous ground-based observations that will provide parallax measurements enabling both mass and distance measurements for the majority of these planets and their hosts. These will include the first ever measurements of free-floating planet masses.K2's immediate public data release policy offers a huge one-time-only opportunity to build up the US's expertise in exoplanetary microlensing surveys in preparation for the WFIRST mission. Unbeknownst to most astronomers at home and abroad, the US also owns the best instrument in the world for conducting ground-based microlensing surveys -- DECam on the Blanco 4m, whose etendue is a factor of 20 larger than OGLE's at equal resolution. A simultaneous survey using ~80 half nights on DECam (as part of a NOAO large survey program) could also make its data immediately public, catapulting US astronomers to the forefront of planetary microlensing surveys, measuring masses of and distances to microlensing exoplanets on a never-before-possible scale. This is an opportunity that should not be missed and I will outline ways in which you can get involved.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magellan/M2FS spectroscopy of Tucana 2 and Grus 1 (Walker+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. G.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E. W.; Koposov, S.; Belokurov, V.; Jethwa, P.; Nidever, D. L.; Bonnivard, V.; Bailey, J. I., III; Bell, E. F.; Loebman, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    We observed Tuc 2 and Gru 1 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) at the 6.5m Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, on the nights of July 17 (Tuc 2) and July 18 (Gru 1) 2015. We obtained repeat observations of the Tuc 2 field on 2015 September 12. We selected spectroscopic targets from the photometric catalogs that K15 (Koposov+ 2015ApJ...805..130K) generated from public images taken as part of the Dark Energy Survey (DES; Bechtol+, 2015ApJ...807...50B). DES is a wide-field optical imaging survey in the grizY bands performed with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) installed at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The full DES survey is scheduled for 525 nights distributed over 5 years. Uncertainties in the offsets between the DES photometric system and the AB system are estimated to be ~1%. (1 data file).

  18. Microwave Spectroscopy and Internal Dynamics of the Ne-NO2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Brian J.; Economides, George; Dyer, Lee

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the open-shell complex Ne-NO2 in the 6 - 18 GHz region is reported. Both fine and hyperfine structure are observed. However, the spectrum does not fit a semi-rigid model as well as the related species Ar-NO2, Kr-NO2 and Xe-NO2. This is almost certainly a result of the "floppy" nature of this species. In order to model the dynamics of the complex and to reproduce the observed spectrum, we have obtained an accurate intermolecular potential surface using the RCCSD(T) method and aug-cc-pV(D/T)Z basis sets (extrapolated to the complete basis set limit). Full quantum dynamics calculations were then performed on this surface to give the rotational energy levels and the effective fine and hyperfine structure constants. R.J. Low, M.D. Brooks, C.J. Whitham and B.J. Howard J. Chem. Phys., 105, 6756 (1996) S. Blanco, C.J. Whitham, H. Qian and B.J. Howard, PCCP., 3, 3895 (2001). C.J. Whitham, R.J. Low and B.J. Howard, Chem. Phys. Lett., 286, 408 (1998).

  19. The Reddening Law and Distance of the Highly Reddened Massive Young Open Cluster Westerlund 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, H.; Sung, H.; Lim, B.

    2014-08-01

    Westerlund 2 is one of the most reddened massive young open clusters observable in optical bands. There is large disagreement among previous distance determinations. The main cause of the disagreement seems to be due to the abnormal reddening law. We report the reddening law and distance of Westerlund 2 using the deep UBVIC photometry data obtained with the CTIO 4m Blanco telescope and MOSAIC II CCD camera. We estimated the reddening E(B-V) using the relation E(U-B)/E(B-V)=0.72+0.025E(B-V). The foreground reddening law is found to be fairly normal, E(V-I)/E(B-V)=1.31 (i.e. RV≡ AV/E(B-V)=3.2) for E(B-V)≤ 1.05. An abnormal reddening law of RV=4.3 is determined for E(B-V)>1.05 stars using the combined optical and published near-IR data. We also report the color excess ratio E(V-I)/E(B-V) for highly reddened OB stars may not follow the relation RV=2.45E(V-I)/E(B-V) by Guetter & Vrba. Finally, we determined the distance modulus of Westerlund 2 to be V0-MV=13.9±0.2 mag (d=6.0±0.6 kpc).

  20. Benchmark stars for cross-calibration of Galactic stellar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.; Gustafsson, B.; Thévenin, F.; Korn, A.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.

    2014-07-01

    Various Galactic stellar spectroscopic surveys are currently underway, and each is expected to achieve high internal accuracy in terms of stellar parameters and abundances. A number of questions related to the formation and evolution of the Galaxy may be addressed based on samples of stars observed within each survey. In addition, complementary samples of stars may be constructed by combining data from different surveys. The Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars provide the necessary link to bring the quantities measured from different spectra with different methods onto the same scale. We selected 28 FGK stars and 5 M giants with available angular diameter θ, bolometric flux Fbol, and distance. We used the fundamental relation Teff ∝ F/θ0.5 to determine a reference effective temperature. We used the fundamental relation g ∝ M/R2, where M is the mass and R the radius, to determine a reference surface gravity. A homogeneous analysis of a high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectral library provides a reference metallicity (Blanco-Cuaresma et al. 2014A&A...566A..98B, Jofré et al. 2014A&A...564A.133J). These stars serve as a reference for testing and homogenizing large stellar surveys such as the Gaia mission and the Gaia-ESO public spectroscopic survey and for improving models of FGK-star atmospheres. A detailed discussion of the fundamental Teff and logg values will be presented in Heiter et al. (to be submitted).

  1. A Variable Near-Infrared Counterpart to the Neutron-Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binary 4U 1705 - 440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Jeroen; Kaplan, David L.; van den Berg, Maureen; Young, Andrew J.

    2009-02-01

    We report the discovery of a near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to the persistent neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1705 - 440, at a location consistent with its recently determined Chandra X-ray position. The NIR source is highly variable, with Ks -band magnitudes varying between 15.2 and 17.3 and additional J- and H-band observations revealing color variations. A comparison with contemporaneous X-ray monitoring observations shows that the NIR brightness correlates well with X-ray flux and X-ray spectral state. We also find possible indications of a change in the slope of the NIR/X-ray flux relation among different X-ray states. We discuss and test various proposed mechanisms for the NIR emission from neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries and conclude that the NIR emission in 4U 1705 - 440 is most likely dominated by X-ray heating of the outer accretion disk and the secondary star. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Baade Telescope, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the 4 m Blanco Telescope, located at CTIO, Chile.

  2. Physically-based, Hydrologic Simulations Driven by Three Precipitation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintalapudi, S.; Sharif, H. O.; Yeggina, S.; El Hassan, A.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluates the model-simulated stream discharge over the Guadalupe River basin in central Texas driven by three precipitation products: the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA) rain gauge network, the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) Stage ΙΙΙ precipitation product, and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 product. Focus will be on results from the Upper Guadalupe River sub-basin. This sub-basin is more prone to flooding due to its geological properties (thin soils, exposed bedrock, and sparse vegetation) and the impact of Balcones Escarpment on the moisture coming from the Gulf of Mexico. The physically based, distributed-parameter Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) hydrologic model was used to simulate the June-2002 flooding event. Simulations driven by NEXRAD Stage ΙΙΙ 15 - min precipitation yielded better results with low RMSE (88.3%), high NSE (0.6), high R2 (0.73), low RSR (0.63) and low PBIAS (-17.3%) compared to simulations driven by the other products.

  3. Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata based on SSU rDNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10), all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus) accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices) accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards. PMID:25162057

  4. A Hero's Little Horse: Discovery of a Dissolving Star Cluster in Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon; Jerjen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint stellar system in the constellation of Pegasus. This concentration of stars was detected by applying our overdensity detection algorithm to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 and confirmed with deeper photometry from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at the 4 m Blanco telescope. The best-fitting model isochrone indicates that this stellar system, Kim 1, features an old (12 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.7) stellar population at a heliocentric distance of 19.8 ± 0.9 kpc. We measure a half-light radius of 6.9 ± 0.6 pc using a Plummer profile. The small physical size and the extremely low luminosity are comparable to the faintest known star clusters Segue 3, Koposov 1 and 2, and Muñoz 1. However, Kim 1 exhibits a lower star concentration and is lacking a well-defined center. It also has an unusually high ellipticity and irregular outer isophotes, which suggests that we are seeing an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. An extended search for evidence of an associated stellar stream within the 3 \\deg 2 DECam field remains inconclusive. The finding of Kim 1 is consistent with current overdensity detection limits and supports the hypothesis that there are still a substantial number of extreme low-luminosity star clusters undetected in the wider Milky Way halo.

  5. A Hero’s Dark Horse: Discovery of an Ultra-faint Milky Way Satellite in Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.; Milone, Antonino P.

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxy in the constellation of Pegasus. The concentration of stars was detected by applying our overdensity detection algorithm to the SDSS-DR 10 and confirmed with deeper photometry from the Dark Energy Camera at the 4 m Blanco telescope. Fitting model isochrones indicates that this object, Pegasus III, features an old and metal-poor stellar population ([Fe/H] ˜ -2.1) at a heliocentric distance of 205 ± 20 kpc. The new stellar system has an estimated half-light radius of {{r}h}=78-24+30 pc and a total luminosity of {{M}V}˜ -4.1+/- 0.5 that places it into the domain of dwarf galaxies on the size-luminosity plane. Pegasus III is spatially close to the MW satellite Pisces II. It is possible that the two might be physically associated, similar to the Leo IV and Leo V pair. Pegasus III is also well aligned with the Vast Polar Structure, which suggests a possible physical association.

  6. Heavy metals in the habitat and throughout the food chain of the Neotropical otter, Lontra longicaudis, in protected Mexican wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Rosas, Nadia N; Valdespino, Carolina; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P; Olguín, Eugenia J

    2013-02-01

    Top predators like the Neotropical otter, Lontra longicaudis annectens, are usually considered good bioindicators of habitat quality. In this study, we evaluated heavy metal contamination (Hg(tot), Pb, Cd) in the riverine habitat, prey (crustaceans and fish), and otter feces in two Ramsar wetlands with contrasting upstream contamination discharges: Río Blanco and Río Caño Grande in Veracruz, Mexico, during the dry, the wet, and the nortes seasons. Most comparisons revealed no differences between sites while seasonal differences were repeatedly detected for all of the compartments. Higher concentrations of Pb during the dry season and of Cd during the wet season in otter feces mirrored differences detected in the most seasonally consumed prey. Compared with fecal methylmercury values reported for the European otter (0.25-0.75 mg kg(-1)) in unprotected areas, the Hg(tot) levels that we measured were lower (0.02-0.17 mg kg(-1)). However, Pb (117.87 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (9.14 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were higher (Pb, 38.15 mg kg(-1) and Cd, 4.72 mg kg(-1)) in the two Ramsar wetlands. Protected areas may shelter species, but those with water-linked diets may suffer the effect of chemicals used upstream. PMID:22527458

  7. Radial velocities in the globular cluster ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, R. A.; Seitzer, P.; Arnold, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Ingerson, T.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the ARGUS multi-object spectrometer at the CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope to obtain 2756 radial velocity measurements for 1966 individual stars in the globular cluster ω Centauri brighter than blue photographic magnitude of about 16.5. Of these, 1589 stars are cluster members. A comparison with two independent radial velocity studies, carried out by Suntzeff & Kraft and by Mayor et al., demonstrates that the median error of our measurements is below 2 km s-1 for the stars brighter than B-magnitude 15, which constitute the bulk of the sample. The observed velocity dispersion decreases from about 15 km s-1 in the inner few arcmin to about 6 km s-1 at a radius of 25'. The cluster shows significant rotation, with a maximum amplitude of about 6 km s-1 in the radial zone between 6' and 10'. In a companion paper by van de Ven et al., we correct these radial velocities for the perspective rotation caused by the space motion of the cluster, and combine them with the internal proper motions of nearly 8000 cluster members measured by van Leeuwen et al., to construct a detailed dynamical model of ω Centauri and to measure its distance.

  8. First Report of Colonies of Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Paraguayan Chaco, Using a Trained Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rolón, Miriam; Vega, María Celeste; Román, Fabiola; Gómez, Ana; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    In the Gran Chaco region, control of Triatoma infestans has been limited by persistent domestic infestations despite the efforts of the Vector Control Services. In Paraguay, this region is the highest endemic area in the country, showing high levels of indoor and outdoor infestation. Although sylvatic T. infestans have been found in the Bolivian and Argentine Chaco, similar searches for sylvatic populations of this species in Paraguay had been unsuccessful over the last 20 years. Here we present a new approach to detecting sylvatic Triatominae, using a trained dog, which has successfully confirmed sylvatic populations of T. infestans and other triatomine species in Paraguay. A total of 22 specimens corresponding to dark morph forms of T. infestans were collected, and 14 were confirmed as T. infestans by the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene analysis. Through this analysis, one of which were previously reported and a second that was a new haplotype. Triatomines were captured from amongst vegetation such as dry branches and hollows trees of different species such Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Bulnesia sarmientoi and Stetsonia coryne. The colonies found have been small and without apparent infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. During the study, Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana have also been found in ecotopes close to those of T. infestans. PMID:21572522

  9. Four decades of structure determination by mass spectrometry: from alkaloids to heparin.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    The early (1950's and 1960's) use of mass spectrometry in natural products chemistry and its evolution to the present significance in biochemistry is recounted. This methodology allowed the facile and speedy determination of the structure of a number of indole alkaloids, such as sarpagine, quebrachamine, and two groups isolated from the roots of Aspidosperma quebracho blanco. At the same time, the first strategy for the sequencing of small peptides by mass spectrometry was demonstrated. It slowly advanced, over a period of two decades, to an important alternative of the ubiquitous automated Edman degradation. Further advances in methodology and instrumentation established mass spectrometry as today's indispensable tool for the characterization of proteins in biochemistry and biology. A new concept of the ionization of highly acidic compounds as the protonated complexes with basic peptides, which allows the accurate determination of the molecular weights of the former, a highly sensitive method for the sequencing of heparin fragments and related sulfated glycosaminoglycans was developed more recently. PMID:12443016

  10. Effects of oral phytoextract intake on phenolic concentration and redox homeostasis in murine encephalic regions.

    PubMed

    Cittadini, M C; Canalis, A M; Albrecht, C; Soria, E A

    2015-10-01

    Vegetable infusions (VI) are one of the main phenolic sources for humans. They may act as antioxidants in the central nervous system, but data about their effect are insufficient. The main objective of the study was to determinate the effects of oral VI of Argentinean plants on phenolic concentration and redox homeostasis in different murine encephalic regions. Redox changes (peroxides -HP-, anion superoxide -SO- and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity) and tissue phenolics were assessed in Balb/c mice of both sexes treated with the following VI extracts: Lantana grisebachii Seckt. var. grisebachii (Verbenaceae) (LG), Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. (Apocynaceae) (AQB), and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae) (IP). Brain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellum were studied (analysis of variance, P < 0.05). A redox homeostasis depending on an appropriate phenolic balance was detected after marker analysis. Under situations without exogenous challenges, the excessive or deficient levels were deleterious on each region. This finding was confirmed independently of the utilized phytoextracts. LG and AQB caused such phenolic imbalance and triggered oxidative stress. IP group showed region-specific differential redox effects. Overall, the last extract exhibited the best redox profile when the complete encephalon was analyzed. Since this plant has sanitary impact due to its high human intake, new studies about it are warranted. PMID:24840738

  11. First report of colonies of sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Paraguayan Chaco, using a trained dog.

    PubMed

    Rolón, Miriam; Vega, María Celeste; Román, Fabiola; Gómez, Ana; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    In the Gran Chaco region, control of Triatoma infestans has been limited by persistent domestic infestations despite the efforts of the Vector Control Services. In Paraguay, this region is the highest endemic area in the country, showing high levels of indoor and outdoor infestation. Although sylvatic T. infestans have been found in the Bolivian and Argentine Chaco, similar searches for sylvatic populations of this species in Paraguay had been unsuccessful over the last 20 years. Here we present a new approach to detecting sylvatic Triatominae, using a trained dog, which has successfully confirmed sylvatic populations of T. infestans and other triatomine species in Paraguay. A total of 22 specimens corresponding to dark morph forms of T. infestans were collected, and 14 were confirmed as T. infestans by the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene analysis. Through this analysis, one of which were previously reported and a second that was a new haplotype. Triatomines were captured from amongst vegetation such as dry branches and hollows trees of different species such Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Bulnesia sarmientoi and Stetsonia coryne. The colonies found have been small and without apparent infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. During the study, Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana have also been found in ecotopes close to those of T. infestans. PMID:21572522

  12. Primera determinacion de los parametros fundamentales de 41 cumulos estelares debiles de la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, T.; Clariá, J. J.; Geisler, D.; Ahumada, A. V.

    We present results obtained for 41 faint star clusters located in the bar and the disc of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The observations were carried out with the ``Victor Blanco'' 4m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory using the Washington and Kron-Cousins filters. Clusters' linear radii were determined from the stellar density radial profiles. Using theoretical isochrones; we derived ages and metallicities from extracted color-magnitude diagrams; previously cleaned from field star contamination. Whenever possible; we also derived ages using the parameter and estimated metallicities from the Standard Giant Branch procedure. We find that the two methods for both age and metallicitiy determination are in good agreement with each other. Since none of the observed clusters has been previously studied; the present fundamental parameter determinations turn out to be the first ones. Seventeen clusters were found to be intermediate-age clusters (1-2 Gyr); with [Fe/H] values ranging from -0.4 to -0.8. The remaining 24 clusters are aged between 125 and 900 Myr and their metallicities range between 0.0 and -0.4. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Cooling the dark energy camera instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.L.; Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Kuhlmann, S.; Onal, Birce; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    DECam, camera for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is undergoing general design and component testing. For an overview see DePoy, et al in these proceedings. For a description of the imager, see Cease, et al in these proceedings. The CCD instrument will be mounted at the prime focus of the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. The instrument temperature will be 173K with a heat load of 113W. In similar applications, cooling CCD instruments at the prime focus has been accomplished by three general methods. Liquid nitrogen reservoirs have been constructed to operate in any orientation, pulse tube cryocoolers have been used when tilt angles are limited and Joule-Thompson or Stirling cryocoolers have been used with smaller heat loads. Gifford-MacMahon cooling has been used at the Cassegrain but not at the prime focus. For DES, the combined requirements of high heat load, temperature stability, low vibration, operation in any orientation, liquid nitrogen cost and limited space available led to the design of a pumped, closed loop, circulating nitrogen system. At zenith the instrument will be twelve meters above the pump/cryocooler station. This cooling system expected to have a 10,000 hour maintenance interval. This paper will describe the engineering basis including the thermal model, unbalanced forces, cooldown time, the single and two-phase flow model.

  14. Determining the Mass of Black Holes in Soft X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelino, D. M.; Harrison, T. E.; McNamara, B. J.

    2000-12-01

    Soft X-ray Transients (SXTs) are binary systems that are believed to consist of a black hole, and a normal late type dwarf star which fills its Roche Lobe. As the distorted dwarf companion orbits the black hole, the observed flux rises and falls in a predictable manner, giving rise to "ellipsoidal variations". We observe these systems in the near infrared since the secondary star dominates the systemic luminosity and the contamination from the accretion disk is minimized. Observations in the near infrared are therefore better suited for detecting true ellipsoidal variations. By modeling these variations, we can determine the orbital period and inclination of the system. The inclination can be combined with the observed mass function to determine the mass, and therefore the nature, of the primary object. This thesis project will determine masses for five SXT primary objects. Here, we present results on GRS 1124-68 (GU Mus) and GS 2000\\+25 (QZ Vul). We have obtained data on these systems with the Victor M. Blanco 4 meter telescope at Cerro Tololo, and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope, respectvely. We have modeled the data with the WD98 light curve modeling program. This projet is supported by an American Fellowship from the American Assocition of University Women (AAUW).

  15. Comparing Stellar Populations of Galaxies across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali; Jansen, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    We propose to investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations within a statistically significant set of galaxies, representing the full range of luminosity and morphological type. By obtaining new, near-infrared images of these galaxies to complement existing optical and near-UV data, we can self-consistently probe the older stellar populations, dust extinction, and metallicity, and ultimately determine ages of and age variations within the stellar components of these galaxies. This information can then be used to compare stellar populations between luminous and faint galaxies of the same Hubble type, and between similar luminosity galaxies of different types. Galaxy candidates for this study were drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (Jansen 2000), which provides U, B, and R optical images and both nuclear and globally integrated spectra. Near- infrared J, H, and K_s surface photometry can break the age-dust- metallicity degeneracy in galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but existing 2MASS image data is not sufficiently deep for this purpose. We therefore request observing time on the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope to secure J, H, and K_s images reaching out to the optical radius for 19 NFGS galaxies observable from Cerro Tololo in 2014B. Specific results expected from this sample are the distributions of age, dust, and metallicity across galaxies of differing type and luminosity. These distributions will allow us to address systematic trends in assembly history that can confront simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation.

  16. Comparing Stellar Populations of Galaxies across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali; Jansen, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    We propose to investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations within a statistically significant set of galaxies, representing the full range of luminosity and morphological type. By obtaining new, near-infrared images of these galaxies to complement existing optical and near-UV data, we can self-consistently probe the older stellar populations, dust extinction, and metallicity, and ultimately determine ages of and age variations within the stellar components of these galaxies. This information can then be used to compare stellar populations between luminous and faint galaxies of the same Hubble type, and between similar luminosity galaxies of different types. Galaxy candidates for this study were drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (Jansen 2000), which provides U, B, and R optical images and both nuclear and globally integrated spectra. Near- infrared J, H, and K_s surface photometry can break the age-dust- metallicity degeneracy in galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but existing 2MASS image data is not sufficiently deep for this purpose. We therefore request observing time on the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope to secure J, H, and K_s images reaching out to the optical radius for 12 NFGS galaxies observable from Cerro Tololo in 2014A. Specific results expected from this sample are the distributions of age, dust, and metallicity across galaxies of differing type and luminosity. These distributions will allow us to address systematic trends in assembly history that can confront simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation.

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    López-López, Laura; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Díaz-Pelegrina, Ana; Merlos-Navarro, Silvia; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las alteraciones en el estado nutricional en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) son frecuentes. La sintomatología y la funcionalidad de estos enfermos pueden estar relacionadas con la nutrición, incrementando su gravedad en los sujetos con malnutrición. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta investigación fue profundizar sobre el perfil clínico del paciente con EPOC malnutrido y relacionar el estado nutricional con la funcionalidad y con los síntomas de estos pacientes. Métodos: se desarrolló un estudio observacional en pacientes con EPOC severo. Se valoró el estado de dependencia, la calidad de vida, las comorbilidades y la ansiedad y depresión. La función respiratoria se valoró con el volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo y la escala de Borg modificada y el estado nutricional, con el Mini Nutritional Assessment. La sintomatología fue evaluada mediante el Leicester Cough Questionnaire y el London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale. Resultados: 154 sujetos fueron incluidos en este estudio, 98 de ellos fueron varones. Un grupo de 71 sujetos mostraron malnutrición y un grupo de 83 sujetos un estado nutricional normal. La comparación entre los grupos mostró características clínicas significativamente diferen- tes (p < 0,05). El análisis mostró diferencias significativas en la disnea (p = 0,043), así como en las subescalas de funcionalidad relacionadas con sintomatología respiratoria autocuidado (p = 0,040), actividades de ocio (p = 0,019) y la puntuación total (p = 0,031), siendo peores en los sujetos malnutridos. Conclusión: los pacientes con EPOC malnutridos presentan más síntomas y peores niveles de funcionalidad que los pacientes con EPOC con estado nutricional normal. PMID:27238793

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Janusz; S Lefarska-Wasilewska, Marta; Kłek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad crónica, neurodegenerativa que genera malnutrición. El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la malnutrición en el curso de la enfermedad y la sobrevida a largo plazo.Materiales y métodos: se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de 48 pacientes (22 mujeres [45.83%] y 26 hombres [54.17%], con un promedio de edad de 66,2 [43-83]) del 2008 al 2014. El análisis del estado nutricional inicial se midió utilizando el índice de  masa corporal (IMC), el estado nutricional de acuerdo al NRS 2002, la valoración global subjetiva (VGS) y la concentración sérica de albúmina. Los pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos, dependiendo del estado nutricional en el que se encontraban: bien nutridos o malnutridos. Los grupos se crearon por  separado, lo que permitió un análisis comparativo adicional de las técnicas utilizadas para la evaluación del estado nutricional.Resultados: un estado nutricional adecuado se relaciona con mayor sobreviva a largo plazo (456 vs. 679 días, NRS 312 vs. 659 vs. 835 días, IMC respectivamente: 41, 541, 631 días, resultados estadísticamente significativos para NRS e IMC). Las concentraciones de albúmina no fueron un factor pronóstico, pero se observó mayor sobrevida si las concentraciones de albúmina incrementaban durante el tratamiento nutricional.Conclusiones: el estado nutricional inicial y la respuesta positiva a la alimentación enteral están asociados a mayor sobrevida en pacientes con ELA, razón por la cual, la terapia nutricional debe de iniciarse lo antes posible. PMID:27019234

  19. Implementation Of A Marine Altimeter Calibration Campaign In The Area Of Ibiza Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Bravo, Rogelio Lopez; Gomez, Begona Perez; Ripoll, Josep Gili; Gomez, Ana Tapia; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Conde, Mercedes Sanz; Gracia, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Sea level monitoring geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal Spanish sites as Ibiza harbour. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a radar MIROS tide gauge, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made in the last years. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es. The presentation is directed mainly to the description of the actual situation of the Ibiza site in preparation for a new altimeter calibration marine campaign of Jason-2 and Saral/AltiKa satellites to be made in September 2013. A description of the two geometric levelling campaigns made in June and September 2013 is included.

  20. ?`Es necesario calcular detalladamente funciones de partición atómicas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, L. A.; Merlo, D. C.

    Basándonos en extensos y precisos cómputos de funciones de partición realizados por nosotros para distintos átomos, se muestra que en el cálculo u obtención de ciertas magnitudes (notablemente la presión electrónica, la abundancia de un elemento deducida a partir de un estado fuertemente ionizado, etc.) el error porcentual que se comete es pequeño (inferior a 1 %) si se adopta, como valor de la función de partición, el peso estadístico del término correspondiente al estado fundamental del átomo. Esta notable simplificación acelera el cálculo, por ejemplo, de un modelo de atmósfera estelar, sin disminuir la precisión de los resultados.