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Sample records for els distillation down-select

  1. Results and Interpretation of the WFRD ELS Distillation Down-Select Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance Dean; Flynn, Michael; Carter, Layne; Long, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator was conducted in support of the Exploration Life Support Distillation Down-Select Test. The WFRD was constructed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) and tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The WFRD was delivered to MSFC in September 2009, and testing of solution #1 and solution #2 immediately following. Solution #1 was composed of humidity condensate and urine, including flush water and pretreatment chemicals. Solution #2 was composed of hygiene water, humidity condensate, and urine, including flush water and pretreatment chemicals. During the testing, the operational parameters of the WFRD were recorded and samples of the feed, brine, and product were collected and analyzed. The steady-state results of processing 414L of feed solution #1 and 1283L of feed solution #2 demonstrated that running the WFRD at a brine temperature of 50 C gave an average production rate of 16.7 L/hr. The specific energy consumption was 80.5W-hr/L. Data Analysis shows that the water recovery rates were 94% and 91%, respectively. The total mass of the WFRD as delivered to MSFC was 300 Kg. The volume of the tests stand rack was 1m width x 0.7m depth x 1.9m height or 1.5 cu m of which about half of the total volume is occupied by equipment. Chemical analysis of the distillate showed an average TOC of 20ppm, a pH of 3.5, and a conductivity of 98 mho/cm. The conductivity of the distillate, compared to the feed, decreased by 98.9%., the total ion concentration decreased by 99.6%, the total organics decreased 98.6%, and the metals were at or below detection limits

  2. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  3. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  4. Composite Interstage Structural Concept Down Select Process and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Thoma, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Technologies (ACT) project evaluated several composite construction options for the Ares V Interstage to support the Constellation Program's goal of reducing the mass of vehicle dry structures. In Phase 1 of the project, eight candidate construction concepts were evaluated for the Ares V Interstage design. Trade studies were performed using finite element analyses to determine weight estimates for the construction concepts. An evaluation process was then used to down select the construction concepts down to two concepts for further consideration in Phase 2 of the project. In Phase 2 of the project, additional trade studies were performed using detailed finite element analyses of the Interstage and a final down select process was used to choose the recommended Interstage construction concept. The results of the study showed that a honeycomb sandwich design was the most favorable Interstage construction concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost. Details of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 trade studies and down select process with final results are presented in the paper.

  5. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  10. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  11. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lin

    2009-11-30

    Technical report describing DOE's Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence investigation into various adsorbent and chemisorption materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage targets. The report presents a review of the material status as related to DOE hydrogen storage targets and explains the basis for the down select decisions.

  12. The evaluation of alternative thermochemical cycles-Part II the down selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M. A.; Masin, J. G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology is supporting an effort to reevaluate thermochemical cycles reported in the literature as having both promising efficiencies and proof-of-concept results. Nine cycles were identified. A group of universities was tasked with the evaluation of these cycles using the NHI consistent methodology for calculating efficiency and for recommending and conducting critical research needed to help in the down-selection process. Argonne National Laboratory coordinated these activities. This paper provides an overview of the program and summarizes the results of the down-selection process. Individual papers that contain the details of the research are provided by the universities.

  13. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  14. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  15. Hybrid nonlocality distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keng-Shuo; Hsu, Li-Yi

    2013-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the notion of hybrid nonlocality distillation, in which different nonlocal boxes are exploited for nonlocality distillation. Here, we quantify the nonlocality using the violation degree of either the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality or the I3322 inequality. Our study shows that hybrid nonlocality distillation can outperform nonlocality distillation using copies of single nonlocal boxes. In particular, more nonlocality of undistillable boxes can be activated with the assistance of distillable boxes. Equivalently, distillable boxes can achieve more nonlocality with the assistance of undistillable boxes.

  16. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  17. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  18. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  19. Comparison of simulated distillation to true boiling point distillation of H-Coal distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, M.D.; Malone, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of simulated distillation to true boiling point (TBP) from both actual TBP distillation and single theoretical plate distillations converted to TBP for various H-Coal distillates is presented. The TBP distillation data was obtained using a Todd distillation column having 15 theoretical plates and a 5:1 reflux ratio. The simulated data presented were obtained using a Hewlitt Packard 5731 gas chromatograph equipped with dual flame ionization detectors. Graphical comparisons of distillation curves obtained by direct weight % TBP distillation and simulated distillation for a full range H-Coal syncrude, of boiling point curves for H-Coal naphtha, H-Coal middle distillate, and H-Coal heavy distillate are included. From an examination of the distillation data, it was apparent that simulated distillation data compared favorable with weight % distillation data, whether derived from direct TBP distillation or single theoretical plate distillation data and converted to TBP data. (BLM)

  20. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  1. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  2. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  3. Sensor Acquisition for Water Utilities: Survey, Down Selection Process, and Technology List

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, M; Glascoe, L; Love, A; Johnson, M; Einfeld, W

    2005-06-29

    The early detection of the biological and chemical contamination of water distribution systems is a necessary capability for securing the nation's water supply. Current and emerging early-detection technology capabilities and shortcomings need to be identified and assessed to provide government agencies and water utilities with an improved methodology for assessing the value of installing these technologies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has tasked a multi-laboratory team to evaluate current and future needs to protect the nation's water distribution infrastructure by supporting an objective evaluation of current and new technologies. The LLNL deliverable from this Operational Technology Demonstration (OTD) was to assist the development of a technology acquisition process for a water distribution early warning system. The technology survey includes a review of previous sensor surveys and current test programs and a compiled database of relevant technologies. In the survey paper we discuss previous efforts by governmental agencies, research organizations, and private companies. We provide a survey of previous sensor studies with regard to the use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) that includes earlier surveys, testing programs, and response studies. The list of sensor technologies was ultimately developed to assist in the recommendation of candidate technologies for laboratory and field testing. A set of recommendations for future sensor selection efforts has been appended to this document, as has a down selection example for a hypothetical water utility.

  4. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  5. Analysis and Down Select of Flow Passages for Thermal Hydraulic Testing of a SNAP Derived Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, T. J.; Sadasivan, P.; Masterson, S.

    2007-01-01

    As past of the Vision for Space Exploration, man will return to the moon. To enable safe and productive time on the lunar surface will require adequate power resources. To provide the needed power and to give mission planners all landing site possibilities, including a permanently dark crater, a nuclear reactor provides the most options. Designed to be l00kWt providing approx. 25kWe this power plants would be very effective in delivering dependable, site non-specific power to crews or robotic missions on the lunar surface. An affordable reference reactor based upon the successful SNAP program of the 1960's and early 1970's has been designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory that will meet such a requirement. Considering current funding, environmental, and schedule limitations this lunar surface power reactor will be tested using non-nuclear simulators to simulate the heat from fission reactions. Currently a 25kWe surface power SNAP derivative reactor is in the early process of design and testing with collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Glenn Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Sandia National Laboratory to ensure that this new design is affordable and can be tested using non-nuclear methods as have proven so effective in the past. This paper will discuss the study and down selection of a flow passage concept for a approx. 25kWe lunar surface power reactor. Several different flow passages designs were evaluated using computational fluid dynamics to determine pressure drop and a structural assessment to consider thermal and stress of the passage walls. The reactor design basis conditions are discussed followed by passage problem setup and results for each concept. A recommendation for passage design is made with rationale for selection.

  6. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  7. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  8. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  9. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  10. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  11. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  12. Down-select ion specific media (ISM) utilization in upset and outage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a process that has been used to help nuclear power plant (NPP) clients resolve some of their more challenging waste water processing issues. These treatment issues may become even more evident during outage conditions, due (in part) to associated decontamination activities that may cause off-normal chemical conditions, which may subsequently change both the peak levels of activities for radionuclides introduced into the collected waste water and also the chemical forms in which they may exist (e.g., formation of colloids or soluble chelates). In one NPP waste processing example, a large proportion of soluble Co-58, which is normally present as a soluble cationic species or an uncharged colloidal solid, was found to behave like an anion; formation of an anionic chelation complex was implicated, possibly due to suspect EDTA, or similar additive, in a proprietary decontamination soap formulation. Antimony 125 (Sb{sup 125}), normally present as a weakly anionic (Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}) or even neutral (Sb(OH){sub 3}{sup 0}) species, was being displaced from previously-loaded media by other, more strongly bound species, causing an unacceptable peak activity in water intended for discharge. A quick resolution of the existing waste processing limitations was required, due to limited waste water holding capacity. Samples of the authentic NPP waste water containing the recalcitrant radionuclides were sent to our licensed off-site laboratory (MCLinc), where small-scale batch-equilibrium testing was used to down-select, from a large number (36) of candidate media (both commercially available and developed internally), those that were relatively effective and economical for use in achieving the required discharge criteria. Batch equilibrium testing is very efficient for use in screening the relative effectiveness of contaminant removal by candidate media in a select waste water composition, and can also provide an estimate of the ultimate contaminant loading

  13. Goal-Oriented Down-Selection Criteria for Fusion Space Propulsion Based on a Concept's Physical Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2000-11-01

    We propose that rational down-selection criteria for fusion space propulsion should be based on the goals for NASA's future missions, and in particular, on performance goals. Specifically, if the ultimate long-range performance for a certain fusion concept for a particular mission cannot exceed that expected for an economically and environmentally viable fission-propulsion system, which is obviously based on a more mature technology than the fusion system, NASA should not spend the time and resources required to develop that fusion system. We also propose consideration of inherent physical constraints for each space-propulsion concept, because the physical constraints can limit a concept's ultimate performance. Such constraints can thus make a concept subject to down-selection even though there are currently large uncertainties in a particular system's ultimate performance, projected cost of development, or even ''proof-of-principle'' status. One way to impose such goal-oriented criteria is to require all viable fusion concepts for a given mission to have an alpha (i.e., a ratio of dry mass to jet power) less than a maximum that corresponds to the performance of the fission systems. Specifically, using a Mars roundtrip as an example, we discuss how physical limitations in target gain and nozzle physics can preclude a concept achieving the required alpha. This goal-oriented approach for down-selection based on physical constraints can help NASA know up front where to wisely spend its R&D funds.

  14. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  15. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  16. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  17. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  18. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  19. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  20. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  1. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  2. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  3. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  4. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  5. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  6. Down Selection of Polymerized Bovine Hemoglobins for Use as Oxygen Releasing Therapeutics in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jin Hyen; Zhou, Yipin; Harris, David R.; Schaer, Dominik J.; Palmer, Andre F.; Buehler, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are being developed as resuscitative fluids for use in multiple medical applications and in lieu of blood transfusion. However, cardiovascular, central nervous system, and renal adverse events have largely impeded progress. This has prompted a need to evaluate novel down selection approaches for HBOCs prior to in-depth preclinical and clinical safety testing. In the present study, polymerized bovine Hbs (PolybHbs) were prepared with increasing ratios of glutaraldehyde to bovine Hb (10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 40:1). The optimal PolybHb candidate selection was based on a priori determined in vivo response to include a long circulating PolybHb with no measurable renal exposure, minimal cardiovascular response, limited oxidation to metHb in vitro, or in circulation and absence of acute end organ toxicity. Guinea pigs were dosed via a 50% blood for PolybHb exchange transfusion. Data suggested that the 30:1 preparation exhibited maximum circulatory exposure (AUC0–∞) with the lowest level of oxidation (plasma metHb formation) and minimal (< 10%) blood pressure elevation. Additionally, the 30:1 preparation was absent renal iron deposition as well as abnormal glomerular/tubular histopathology or serum creatinine elevation. Clearance pathways predominantly followed those consistent with endogenous Hb clearance based pathways. Therefore, data confirmed the ability to select a single PolybHb from a small library of HBOCs based on a priori determined characteristics. Moreover, the approach to down selection described could be applied to enhance the early predictability of human safety for this class of biological therapeutics to optimize for specific indications. PMID:22416071

  7. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    PubMed

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow. PMID:26824532

  8. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  9. Steam distillation of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J.H.; Hsueh, L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to generate crude oil steam distillation data for the prediction of phase behavior in steamflood simulation and to correlate the steam distillation yields for a variety of crude oils. Thirteen steam distillation tests were run on 10 crude oils ranging in gravity from 9.4 to 37/sup 0/API (1.004 to 0.840 g/cm/sup 3/). In each test the crude was steam distilled sequentially at about 220, 300, 400, and 500/sup 0/F (104, 149, 204, and 260/sup 0/C). The cumulative steam distillation yields at 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) ranged from about 20 to 55 vol%. Experimental results showed that crude oil steam distillation yields at steamflood conditions are significant, even for heavy oils. The effects of differences in steam volume throughput and steam temperature were taken into account when comparing yields for different crudes or repeat runs on the same crude. Steam distillation yields show a high correlation with crude oil API gravity and wax content.

  10. Quantum distillation of bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  11. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  12. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  13. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  14. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  15. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  16. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  17. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  18. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  19. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  20. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  1. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  2. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  3. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  4. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  5. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Davis, B.H.; Sagues, A.A.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1985-04-30

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or subatmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid:...

  7. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  8. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  9. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  10. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  11. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  12. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  13. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  14. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, E; Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2016-02-19

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed. PMID:26943512

  15. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  16. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  17. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  18. Small codes for magic state distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark; Dawkins, Hillary

    2016-03-01

    Magic state distillation is a critical component in leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Relatively little is known, however, about how to construct a magic state distillation routine or, more specifically, which stabilizer codes are suitable for the task. While transversality of a non-Clifford gate within a code often leads to efficient distillation routines, it appears to not be a necessary condition. Here we have examined a number of small stabilizer codes and highlight a handful of which displaying interesting, albeit inefficient, distillation behaviour. Many of these distill noisy states right up to the boundary of the known undististillable region, while some distill toward non-stabilizer states that have not previously been considered.

  19. Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

  20. Collocation methods for distillation design. 2: Applications for distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Huss, R.S.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present applications for a collocation method for modeling distillation columns that they developed in a companion paper. They discuss implementation of the model, including discussion of the ASCEND (Advanced System for Computations in ENgineering Design) system, which enables one to create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. They first investigate applying the model to compute minimum reflux for a given separation task, exactly solving nonsharp and approximately solving sharp split minimum reflux problems. They next illustrate the use of the collocation model to optimize the design a single column capable of carrying out a prescribed set of separation tasks. The optimization picks the best column diameter and total number of trays. It also picks the feed tray for each of the prescribed separations.

  1. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  2. 27 CFR 1.91 - Bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled distilled spirits..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.91 Bottled distilled spirits. The provisions of...

  3. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilling material. 24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded...

  4. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilling material. 24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded...

  5. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  6. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  7. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  8. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  9. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  10. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  11. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  12. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  13. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  14. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  15. Neural network modeling of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Baratti, R.; Vacca, G.; Servida, A.

    1995-06-01

    Neural network modeling (NNM) was implemented for monitoring and control applications on two actual distillation columns: the butane splitter tower and the gasoline stabilizer. The two distillation columns are in operation at the SARAS refinery. Results show that with proper implementation techniques NNM can significantly improve column operation. The common belief that neural networks can be used as black-box process models is not completely true. Effective implementation always requires a minimum degree of process knowledge to identify the relevant inputs to the net. After background and generalities on neural network modeling, the paper describes efforts on the development of neural networks for the two distillation units.

  16. Entanglement distillation using the exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Adrian; Schwonnek, René; Schoder, Christian; Dammeier, Lars; Werner, Reinhard F.; Burkard, Guido

    2016-03-01

    A key ingredient of quantum repeaters is entanglement distillation, i.e., the generation of high-fidelity entangled qubits from a larger set of pairs with lower fidelity. Here, we present entanglement distillation protocols based on qubit couplings that originate from exchange interaction. First, we make use of asymmetric bilateral two-qubit operations generated from anisotropic exchange interaction and show how to distill entanglement using two input pairs. We furthermore consider the case of three input pairs coupled through isotropic exchange. Here, we characterize a set of protocols which are optimizing the trade-off between the fidelity increase and the probability of a successful run.

  17. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  18. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  19. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  20. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  1. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  2. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  3. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  4. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  5. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  6. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  7. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  8. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  9. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits received in...

  10. 27 CFR 31.141 - Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 31.141 Section 31.141 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Purchases of Distilled Spirits § 31.141 Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits. (a) General. It is unlawful for any dealer to purchase distilled spirits for resale from any person other than: (1) A...

  11. 27 CFR 19.275 - Continuous distilling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous distilling... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.275 Continuous distilling system. The distilling system shall be continuous, and...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  17. Comparison of the volatile composition of Stachys pubescence oils obtained by hydro distillation and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmoud; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Shafiee, Abbas; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Salimpour, Fahimeh; Farjadmand, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    The oils obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation of the aerial part of Stachys pubescence Ten. was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Water distilled essential oil of the aerial part of S. pubescence, was rich in fatty acids like hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid and also benzaldehyde and spathulenol whereas the steam distilled oil of the plant contained hexadecanoic acid, spathulenol and eugenol. Both of oils were rich in fatty acids (36.6 and 27.9%, respectively). Moreover, the content of oxygenated mono and sesquiterpenss were defined higher in steam distilled oil than hydrodistiledd oil (24.5, 17.2 and 6.1, 15.5%, respectively). In conclusion it seems that oxygenated terpenoids were trended to steam distillation method more than hydrodistillation, respectively. PMID:26035946

  18. Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krovi, Hari; Devetak, Igor

    2007-07-01

    Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

  19. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-15

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  20. Distillation of local purity from quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Devetak, I.

    2005-06-15

    Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

  1. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-09-15

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  2. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessling, B.; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

  3. Temperature cascade control of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, E.A.; Skogestad, S.

    1996-02-01

    This paper examines how difficult control tasks are enhanced by introducing secondary measurements, creating control cascades. Temperature is much used as secondary measurement because of cheap implementation and quick and accurate response. Distillation is often operated in this manner due to slow or lacking composition measurements, although the benefits have hardly been investigated closely, especially for multivariable control applications. The authors therefore use distillation as the example when quantifying improvements in interaction and disturbance rejection. They also give analytical expressions for the secondary controller gain. The improvements are reached through simple cascade operation of the control system and require no complicated estimator function.

  4. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  5. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  6. Efficiencies of trays in cryogenic distillation columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddulph, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    This Paper considers the behaviour of the distillation trays in conventional use in cryogenic air separation plants. An earlier study showed that the trays should operate at higher efficiencies than plant experience would indicate. This conclusion was based on the assumption of uniform liquid flow across the trays. In practice, stagnant zones can occur which reduce the efficiency. A study of a small hole-size tray, rectangular in shape, providing uniform flow has confirmed the predictions of the theoretical model by producing high efficiencies. These results, together with those from the earlier study, provide an indication of the benefits of improving the flow behaviour of air separation distillation trays.

  7. Removal of water haze from distillate fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

  8. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  9. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  10. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  11. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." PMID:20082455

  12. Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization (Book)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization, brings together cutting edge information on many aspects of DDGS. It consists of six major sections, having 26 chapters in total. Section 1 has six chapters and covers introduction, perspectives, history, structure and compositio...

  13. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  14. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R.H.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to catalytic hydroconversion, and subjecting the distillation residue of the hydroconverted product to a combination of solvent deasphalting and thermal cracking.

  15. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwant, P.B.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-08-23

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to thermal cracking, and subjecting the distillation residue of the cracked product to a combination solvent deasphalting and catalytic hydroconversion.

  16. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded wine cellar shall be in accordance with the provisions of 27 CFR part 240. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85... therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  17. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  18. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  19. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  20. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  1. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits or wines are to be laden, the country for which the aircraft is to be cleared, the date of departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where...

  2. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  3. Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastin, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills eight one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

  4. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18... identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN P-96-897) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  9. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  10. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  11. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  12. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  13. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  14. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  16. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  17. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits...

  18. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits...

  19. 27 CFR 17.151 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.151 Use of distilled spirits....

  20. 27 CFR 19.565 - Shortages of bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 19.565 Section 19.565 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Losses and Shortages Shortages § 19.565 Shortages of bottled distilled spirits. (a) Determination of shortage. Unexplained...

  1. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled spirits. Containers of distilled spirits brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

  2. 27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of distilled... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Administrative and Miscellaneous § 19.830 Application of distilled spirits tax....

  3. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  4. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvajic, G.

    It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

  5. Temperature polarization coefficients in membrane distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Diez, L.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, M.I.; Florido-Diaz, F.J.

    1998-04-01

    Membrane distillation is a membrane process in which two liquid phases at different temperatures are separated by a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The membrane plays the role of a physical support for the vapor-liquid interface. The aim of this paper is to study pure water transport by membrane distillation through a PTFE flat membrane. The dependence of the phenomenon on average temperature and recirculation rate at the membrane sides is investigated. The influence of these operating conditions on water transport is discussed by taking into account mass and heat transfer within the membrane and the adjoining liquid phases. The concept of temperature polarization is introduced into the transport equations and shown to be important in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  6. [Filamentous fungi preservation in distilled water.].

    PubMed

    Bueno, L; Gallardo, R

    1998-09-01

    Some methods for keeping the fungal Culture Collection have been used. However, the choice of either one on the basis that must ensure the cultural genetic stability and its phenotipic characteristics. In this work the preservation method in distilled water recognized in the literature as a single, economic and certain method that guarantie the survival of fungus cultures for long periods was used. 26 strains of generus and species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus candidus, Fusarium sp., Fusarium moniliforme, Mucor griseocyanum, Syncephalastrum sp., Trichoderma sp., Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma koningii were preserved. Enough inoculum from well developed cultures (mainly spores and hyphae) poured in flasks with sterile distilled water warranted a 100% of survival of those microorganisms for two years. At the same time no apparent changes were observed in respect to morphology and macroscopic features. PMID:18473541

  7. Entanglement distillation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppliger, Markus; Heinsoo, Johannes; Salathe, Yves; Potocnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    Entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing, such as quantum error correction, quantum teleportation and quantum communication. Such algorithms perform optimally with maximally entangled states. In practice entangled quantum states are very fragile due to a wide range of decoherence mechanisms. When two parties share degraded entangled states they are still able to generate an entangled state with higher fidelity using local operations and classical communication. This process is commonly referred to as entanglement distillation. Here we demonstrate distillation of highly entangled Bell states from two copies of less entangled states on a four transmon qubit device realized in the circuit-QED architecture. We characterize the output state for different degrees of entanglement at the input with quantum state tomography. A clear improvement of the entanglement measures is observed at the output.

  8. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  9. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  10. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  11. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  12. Thermomechanically integrated distillation of ethylene from ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.G.; Haddad, H.; Manley, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    The separation of ethylene from ethane by distillation is normally the final step in the production of ethylene. The critical temperature of ethylene is about 50 F, therefore moderately low temperatures and moderately high pressures are typically used to provide optimum economic conditions. The optimum design can require thick walled and heavy pressure vessels which may be constructed of expensive alloy steels depending on the specific operating conditions. The required purity of ethylene usually exceeds 99.9%, and the economic level of recovery is approximately 99%. In addition, the relative volatility of ethylene to ethane is moderately small ranging from about 1.13 for high pressure mixtures rich in ethylene to 2.34 for low pressure mixtures rich in ethane. The relatively high purity and recovery and relatively low relative volatility dictate a large distillation column with more than 100 trays and a large diameter for world scale production levels of over a billion pounds per year of ethylene. The installed capital cost for a unit of this type and size can exceed twenty million dollars, and utility costs can exceed one million dollars per year. Consequently, there is a strong economic incentive to reduce costs through improved process designs for the distillation of ethylene from ethane, and the process is well studied in the literature. Thermomechanically integrated distillation provides an improved design which can reduce both capital and operating costs as compared to the best conventional designs. In this paper, the conventional designs for both vapor and liquid feeds are reviewed, the underlying thermodynamics characterizing the process is discussed, alternative thermomechanically integrated designs are presented, and utility and purchased equipment costs are compared.

  13. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard

    2010-07-15

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  14. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  15. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system. PMID:26920777

  16. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-05-15

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  17. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Howard, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault-tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols; yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d >2 . Here we focus on d =3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum negativity; i.e., it is maximally nonstablizer in a specific sense.

  18. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  19. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  20. Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2010-12-15

    Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  1. Ammonia removal by sweep gas membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongli; Duong, Tuan; Hoang, Manh; Nguyen, Cuong; Bolto, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Wastewater containing low levels of ammonia (100 mg/L) has been simulated in experiments with sweep gas membrane distillation at pH 11.5. The effects of feed temperature, gas flow rate and feed flow rate on ammonia removal, permeate flux and selectivity were investigated. The feed temperature is a crucial operating factor, with increasing feed temperature increasing the permeate flux significantly, but reducing the selectivity. The best-performing conditions of highest temperature and fastest gas flow rate resulted in 97% removal of the ammonia, to give a treated water containing only 3.3 mg/L of ammonia. PMID:19195677

  2. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  3. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-07-15

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

  4. Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

  5. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization.

    PubMed

    Ashida, A; Mitani, K; Ebara, K; Kurokawa, H; Sawada, I; Kashiwagi, H; Tsuji, T; Hayashi, S; Otsubo, K; Nitta, K

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied; one is an absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water. PMID:11537274

  6. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  7. Membrane distillation employed for separation of water isotopic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1995-04-01

    An attempt to apply membrane distillation (MD) for the enrichment of waste isotopic compounds was made. The process was conducted as a direct-contact MD with flat-sheet microporous, hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membranes in the temperature range 323-353K. The distillate condensation was carried out directly into a stream of cooling water. The comparison between calculated Rayleigh distillation curves and the results of permeation experiments demonstrated the MD process to be more efficient than simple distillation for enrichment of the heavy isotopes in water.

  8. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  9. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  10. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  11. 27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits... ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.80 Sales of distilled...

  12. 27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification, warehousing, or warehousing and..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.82 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits...

  13. Multiparty quantum protocols for assisted entanglement distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Nicolas

    Quantum information theory is a multidisciplinary field whose objective is to understand what happens when information is stored in the state of a quantum system. Quantum mechanics provides us with a new resource, called quantum entanglement, which can be exploited to achieve novel tasks such as teleportation and superdense coding. Current technologies allow the transmission of entangled photon pairs across distances up to roughly 100 kilometers. For longer distances, noise arising from various sources degrade the transmission of entanglement to the point that it becomes impossible to use the entanglement as a resource for future tasks. One strategy for dealing with this difficulty is to employ quantum repeaters, stations intermediate between the sender and receiver that can participate in the process of entanglement distillation, thereby improving on what the sender and receiver could do on their own. Motivated by the problem of designing quantum repeaters, we study entanglement distillation between two parties, Alice and Bob, starting from a mixed state and with the help of repeater stations. We extend the notion of entanglement of assistance to arbitrary tripartite states and exhibit a protocol, based on a random coding strategy, for extracting pure entanglement. We use these results to find achievable rates for the more general scenario, where many spatially separated repeaters help two recipients distill entanglement. We also study multiparty quantum communication protocols in a more general context. We give a new protocol for the task of multiparty state merging. The previous multiparty state merging protocol required the use of time-sharing, an impossible strategy when a single copy of the input state is available to the parties. Our protocol does not require time-sharing for distributed compression of two senders. In the one-shot regime, we can achieve multiparty state merging with entanglement costs not restricted to corner points of the entanglement cost

  14. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  15. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  16. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  17. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  18. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  19. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  20. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  1. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  2. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  3. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  4. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  5. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  6. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  7. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  8. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  9. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  10. Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2005-09-08

    We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

  11. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

  12. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  13. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

  14. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

    Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

  15. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  16. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  17. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  18. Microbial Characterization of Distillers Wet Grains: Results and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We have characterized the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG...

  19. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  20. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  1. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  2. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS...

  3. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  4. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  5. Kinetic azeotropy and design of reactive distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajani, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactive fixed points in the distillation maps of a reactive distillation column (RDC) with kinetically controlled reactions are identified and their role in deciding the design feasibility has been elucidated. The fixed points at which both reaction and distillation vectors have zero magnitudes correspond to the equilibrium fixed point. It is known that the relative positions of these points for the rectifying and stripping sections determine the value of the minimum reflux ratio. However, apart from these fixed points, there are certain fixed points in the distillation map at which, though the reaction and distillation vectors have nonzero magnitudes, they nullify the effects of each other. These points correspond to the kinetic fixed points and have a special significance. Their positions have direct influence on the feasible product composition. A simple example of an ideal ternary system undergoing a reaction 2B {longleftrightarrow} A + c has been illustrated to show the importance of kinetic azeotropy in the design aspects of RDC.

  6. The forms of azeotropic rule for multidimensional diagrams of equilibrium distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarenko, Yu. A.; Usol'tseva, O. O.; Cardona, C. A.; Gerard, O. T.

    2013-09-01

    Linear independent forms of the azeotropy rule applicable to diagrams of distillation (reaction distillation) and their fragments are established and presented as simple polyhedra of arbitrary dimensions.

  7. Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, T; Verhe, R; Garcia, L; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A; De Greyt, W

    2001-07-01

    Because of its complex nature, the analysis of deodorizer distillate is a challenging problem. Deodorizer distillate obtained from the deodorization process of vegetable oils consists of many components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of deodorizer distillate without saponification of the sample is described. After a concise sample preparation including derivatization and silylation, distillate samples were injected on column at 60 degrees C followed by a gradual increase of the oven temperature towards 340 degrees C. The temperature profile of the oven was optimized in order to obtain a baseline separation of the different distillate components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. Good recoveries for delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, stigmasterol and cholesteryl palmitate of 97, 94.4, 95.6 and 92%, respectively were obtained. Repeatability of the described gas chromatographic method was evaluated by analyzing five replicates of a soybean distillate. Tocopherols and sterols had low relative standard deviations ranging between 1.67 and 2.25%. Squalene, mono- and diacylglycerides had higher relative standard deviations ranging between 3.33 and 4.12%. Several industrial deodorizer distillates obtained from chemical and physical refining of corn, canola, sunflower and soybean have been analyzed for their composition. PMID:11471811

  8. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  9. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody

    2013-04-01

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ɛ→0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(ɛ2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin=0.01 to ɛout in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/ɛout)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  10. Novel adsorption distillation hybrid scheme for propane/propylene separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Golden, T.C.; White, T.R.; Rokicki, A. )

    1992-12-01

    A novel adsorption-distillation hybrid scheme is proposed for propane/propylene separation. The suggested scheme has potential for saving up to [approximately]50% energy and [approximately]15-30% in capital costs as compared with current technology. The key concept of the proposed scheme is to separate olefins from alkanes by adsorption and then separate individual olefins and alkanes by simple distillation, thereby eliminating energy intensive and expensive olefin-alkane distillation. A conceptual flow schematic for the proposed hybrid scheme and potential savings are outlined.s

  11. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  12. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  13. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  14. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  15. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  16. Intermediate reboiler and condenser arrangement for binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Herron, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    The most thermodynamically efficient configuration for adding or removing heat from an intermediate location of an ideal binary distillation column distilling pure products is derived. The optimal policy requires that preconditioning of the feed be part of the overall decision-making process. The optimal configuration can be determined through the use of two parameters, {alpha}{sub IR} and {alpha}{sub IC}, that are solely functions of feed composition. Simple and readily usable heuristics using these parameters are developed that help instantly identify the most efficient selection among (1) totally vaporizing and returning a side-draw liquid stream from an intermediate location of the distillation column, (2) partially or totally vaporizing a portion of the given saturated liquid feed, (3) partially or totally condensing a portion of the given saturated vapor feed, and (4) totally condensing and returning a side-draw vapor stream from an intermediate location of the distillation column.

  17. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  18. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P.

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  19. Propagating plasma discontinuity in a tube immersed in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian; Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren

    2016-04-01

    In a dielectric tube partially surrounded by distilled water, a propagating discontinuity is observed in a cold argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Through electrical and optical diagnostics, the mechanism of formation for this phenomenon is investigated. Results show that the strong polarization of the distilled water, the constraint from the electric field (or a sufficiently high electric field), and the transport of the active species are in combination responsible for the propagating plasma discontinuity. Indeed, smaller surface areas of the tube surrounded by distilled water, shorter distances between the distilled water and the ground electrodes, as well as larger gas flow rates can together make the discontinuous discharge channel appear more readily. In particular, when the flow switches from laminar to turbulent, the plasma behavior of the discontinuity no longer depends on the gas flow rate. This is mostly attributed to the extreme instability of turbulence which further suppresses the transport of active species.

  20. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  1. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  2. Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barduhn, Allen J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

  3. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  4. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  5. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  6. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  7. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  8. Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella dumoffii in distilled water.

    PubMed Central

    Joly, J R; Déry, P; Gauvreau, L; Coté, L; Trépanier, C

    1986-01-01

    Five cases of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella dumoffii were identified within an 11-month period in a hospital in the Quebec City area. In four cases bacterial isolates were obtained from clinical specimens, and in one case seroconversion was demonstrated. All the patients had been admitted to hospital within 10 days before diagnosis. Two of the patients were immunosuppressed children. Only 1 of the 40 hot water samples from the hospital yielded L. dumoffii; however, 6 of 11 distilled water samples contained the bacterium. All the patients had been exposed to distilled water, four through respiratory therapy equipment and one through a room humidifier. Following the use of sterile distilled water in the apparatus, no further cases were identified. This is the first reported outbreak of Legionnaires' disease caused by L. dumoffii, and it is the first time that nosocomial legionellosis has been linked to contaminated distilled water in Canada. PMID:3536052

  9. Entanglement distillation: Pick the best and ignore the rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachor, Hans-Albert

    2008-12-01

    Entanglement is precious, allowing us to perform all kinds of quantum tricks. But it is easily buried under technical noise. Two experiments show how to distil the 'good parts' from a data stream and recover high-quality entanglement.

  10. Correlations estimate volume distilled using gravity, boiling point

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.; Consuelo Perez de Alba, M. del; Manriquez, L.; Guardia Mendoz, P. de la

    1995-10-23

    Mathematical nd graphic correlations have been developed for estimating cumulative volume distilled as a function of crude API gravity and true boiling point (TBP). The correlations can be used for crudes with gravities of 21--34{degree} API and boiling points of 150--540 C. In distillation predictions for several mexican and Iraqi crude oils, the correlations have exhibited accuracy comparable to that of laboratory measurements. The paper discusses the need for such a correlation and the testing of the correlation.

  11. Design and minimum reflux calculations for multicomponent reactive distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, D.; Doherty, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    A new set of transformed composition variables is introduced to simplify the design equations for single-feed, multicomponent reactive distillation columns. Based on these equations, a general method of calculating minimum reflux ratios for reactive distillation columns is presented. The new composition variables are also used to derive simple relationships between the dependent design variables, which are not evident when the design equations are written in terms of mole fractions.

  12. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  13. Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Younghun

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.

  14. Feasibility of separations for distillation of nonideal ternary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fidkowski, Z.T.; Doherty, M.F.; Malone, M.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The product compositions in single-feed distillation columns can be specified only in certain regions of the composition space, which depend only on the pressure, feed, and vapor-liquid equilibrium for the mixture. In nonideal mixtures, even without azeotropes, the regions may allow unusual product distributions. For example, the distillate in a direct split is composed primarily of the lightest component. Intuition and experience with relatively ideal mixtures suggest that the next most plentiful component is the intermediate boiler. In nonideal mixtures, however, with or without azeotropes, the next most plentiful component may be the highest-boiling species with only trace amounts of the intermediate boiler. For azeotropic mixtures, distillation boundaries may give rise to additional restrictions on the product compositions. The authors describe how simple distillation boundaries deform into continuous distillation boundaries and, in a limited number of cases, how the simple distillation boundaries can be crossed in continuous columns for certain ranges of the design variables. Unfortunately, such designs may be quite sensitive to model uncertainties or to disturbances in the parameters.

  15. 27 CFR 1.81 - Importation of distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of distilled... ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.81 Importation of...

  16. 27 CFR 1.84 - Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition of distilled... THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and...

  17. 27 CFR 19.315 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling material. 19.315 Section 19.315 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.315 Removal or destruction of distilling material. Except as provided in this section, distilling material shall not...

  18. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. PMID:27451153

  19. Distillation of multipartite entanglement by local filtering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Sheng; Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study how to distill two typical multipartite entangled noisy states, the amplitude-damped W state and the amplitude-damped Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Unlike the currently existing multipartite entanglement purification schemes, our scheme is a single-copy-based scheme, i.e., only one noisy state is needed in each distillation round, and the complicated multilateral controlled-not (cnot) operations are replaced by measurements of local positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs). The results show that local POVM measurements on one copy of the noisy state can project the initial state onto a new state with higher entanglement and nonlocality. In this scheme, although the final state can violate the multipartite Bell inequality, the corresponding initial noisy state does not violate it, which means that this distillation scheme can reveal the hidden genuine multipartite nonlocality of these initial states. For the case of the amplitude-damped W state, if the POVM parameters are appropriately chosen, the fidelity of the output state can approach 1.0 for all the initial states with fidelity bigger than zero. So this single-copy-based multipartite entanglement distillation scheme has a wide range of distillable fidelities, and it is much simpler than the two-copy- or multiple-copy-based schemes. Furthermore, if the POVM measurement is carried out only on some member qubits rather than all of them, the distillation scheme can succeed too, which will greatly decrease the implementation complexity of the scheme. So this multipartite entanglement distillation scheme may be implementable in some physical system.

  20. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  1. Simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bossen, B.S.; Joergensen, S.B.; Gani, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The computational tools needed for simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations are described. These tools include simple methods to identify the existence of binary and ternary azeotropes and to classify ternary mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. The tools also include more complex methods to compute the phase diagram (or a heterogeneous liquid boiling surface), predict liquid-vapor phase equilibrium, and/or predict liquid-liquid-vapor phase equilibrium for simulations of batch and continuous distillation column operations. Important new features of these tools are the incorporation of a fast and efficient method for test of phase stability in simulation of distillation operations, the ability to handle a large range of mixtures (including mixtures with supercritical compounds), and the ability for computations covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure. On the basis of these tools, simple and consistent design algorithms are developed. The applicability of the design algorithms is verified through process simulation and analysis of the predicted behavior and data from the open literature. Conditions are given for examples illustrating (when and how possible distillation boundaries can be crossed) how multiple steady states can be obtained. Finally, the effect of changes in operating on the dynamic behavior of the azeotropic distillation columns and the sensitivity of design to the prediction of phase equilibria are presented.

  2. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  3. Structural definition of synthetic fuels: H-coal distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.E.; Perry, M.B.; White, C.M.; Gibbon, G.A.; Retcofsky, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This work describes the progress made on a Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center research project titled ''Structural Definition of Synthetic Fuels.'' An H-Coal product consisting of a blend of ''light'' and ''heavy'' oils was distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling cuts. Mid-boiling temperature, specific gravity, molecular weight by several techniques, refractive index, and viscosity were determined for each H-Coal distillate. Structural parameters for each 50/sup 0/F distillate cut were elucidated from nuclear magnetic resonance and low-voltage, high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses. Preparative liquid chromatography was used to obtain functionality enriched fractions of saturates, aromatics, acids, and bases from the H-Coal distillates. Several correlations have been found from these extensive data sets and are discussed and interpreted in terms of findings from previous investigations. The potential for developing mathematical models relating the aromaticity from nuclear magnetic resonance results and the structural parameter, Z, from mass spectrometry with the inspection properties of the H-Coal pseudocomponents is demonstrated. Average chemical structures for each distillate are proposed based on the analytical results. 25 refs., 17 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  5. A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

  6. Thermodynamic Losses in Multi-effect Distillation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The multi-effect distillation (MED) is one of desalination technologies. It is also applied in chemical engineering and other industries for evaporation, distillation, crystallization, etc. In a large multi-effect distillation plant, some tiny thermodynamic losses might have a great influence to the performance and design parameters. For the detailed analysis and design of a MED desalination plant, a series of experiments were carried out. The thermodynamic losses in a MED desalination plant is analyzed as an example to show its effect on the performance and structure parameters. The thermodynamics losses have a cumulative effect. With the increase of effect number and the concentration ratio, the thermodynamic losses shall be a dominant factor for the operation performance of a MED plant.

  7. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  8. Distillative self-sorting of dynamic ester libraries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Miljanić, Ognjen Š

    2013-12-20

    Metal alkoxides, such as NaOt-Bu or Ti(OBu)4, can initiate acyl exchange within complex ester libraries. Reactive distillation of such dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) isolates the most volatile ester at the expense of the less volatile library members that share a constituent with it. This process can be iteratively repeated to yield up to four industrially relevant esters as pure products from a single reaction setup. An algorithm has been developed to predict reactive distillation products in DCLs of as many as 121 members. PMID:24245808

  9. Teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soojoon; Joo, Jaewoo; Kim, Jaewan

    2007-07-15

    In this paper, we consider teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states. In order to investigate some relations among them, we first find the explicit formulas of the quantities about the maximal teleportation fidelity on three-qubit states. We show that if any three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation then the three-qubit state is distillable into a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and that if any three-qubit state violates a specific form of Mermin inequality then the three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation.

  10. Synthesis of crystallization-distillation hybrid separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.A.; Ng, K.M.

    1997-07-01

    A systematic method to synthesize crystallization-distillation hybrid separation processes is presented. Two classes of hybrids are identified for binary mixtures. The first bypasses azeotropes and tangent pinches, while the second bypasses eutectics. Guidelines for flow-sheet selection are proposed based on an analysis of simple eutectic, constant relative volatility systems. In addition, the hybrids are compared to both extractive and adductive crystallization in order to determine the conditions under which solvent-based crystallization techniques outperform the proposed hybrid configurations. The method is extended to ternary mixture. The use of stream combination and complex distillation columns is also considered.

  11. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang; Chen Lin

    2009-07-15

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  12. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

  13. Instrumentation for potentiostatic corrosion studies with distilled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loess, R. E.; Youngdahl, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Corrosion is studied potentiostatically in the corroding environment of distilled water with an instrument that measures the potential of the corroding specimen immediately after interruption of the polarizing current. No current is flowing. The process permits compensation for IR drops when potentiostatic control is used in high resistance systems.

  14. Distillation of cadmium from uranium plutonium cadmium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2005-04-01

    Uranium-plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U-Pu-Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9 wt% U and 8.7 wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10 g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser in a vacuum vessel. After distillation at 1073 K, the weight of the residue was in good agreement with that of the loaded actinides, where the content of Cd decreased to less than 0.05 wt%. The uranium-plutonium alloy product was recovered without adhering to the yttria crucible. The cross section of the product was observed using electron probe micro-analyzer and it was found to consist of a dense material. Almost all of the evaporated Cd was recovered in the condenser and so enclosed well in the apparatus.

  15. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  16. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond-driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodyanamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This model was used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  17. Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.

  18. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  19. A solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  20. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, Ali

    2010-07-15

    Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

  1. EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  2. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  3. Using Mathematica to Teach Process Units: A Distillation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasteiro, Maria G.; Bernardo, Fernando P.; Saraiva, Pedro M.

    2005-01-01

    The question addressed here is how to integrate computational tools, namely interactive general-purpose platforms, in the teaching of process units. Mathematica has been selected as a complementary tool to teach distillation processes, with the main objective of leading students to achieve a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved…

  4. Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

  5. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  6. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  7. Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

    2012-02-01

    A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes. PMID:22159042

  8. MODELING EXTRUSION PROCESSING OF AQUACULTURE FEED INCORPORATING DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), with a net protein adjusted to 28% were prepared. Extrusion studies were conducted at 3 levels of moisture content, 3 levels of barrel temperature profile, and 5 levels of screw speed in a single screw e...

  9. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  10. Effects of distillers grain on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) during the finishing phase on beef carcass quality and ribeye steak tenderness. Crossbred beef steers (n = 304) received finishing diets including 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a dry-matter basis. Steers...

  11. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  12. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  13. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  14. Stabilization of the Circulation Flow of the Cryogenic Distillation Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juromskiy, V. M.

    Two-circuit system of automatic stabilization of the hydrodynamics of the cryogenic distillation column is considered. Control system eliminates flooding/depletion of column in long-term mode of operation when the accuracy of stabilization of the circulation flow is better than 1%.

  15. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION...

  16. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION...

  17. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION...

  18. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION...

  19. FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES TO CONCENTRATE NUTRIENT STREAMS IN DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as li...

  20. Distillation of secret key and entanglement from quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devetak, Igor; Winter, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We study and solve the problem of distilling a secret key from quantum states representing correlation between two parties (Alice and Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve) via one-way public discussion: we prove a coding theorem to achieve the 'wire-tapper' bound, the difference of the mutual information Alice-Bob and that of Alice-Eve, for so-called classical-quantum-quantum-correlations, via one-way public communication. This result yields information-theoretic formulae for the distillable secret key, giving 'ultimate' key rate bounds if Eve is assumed to possess a purification of Alice and Bob's joint state. Specializing our protocol somewhat and making it coherent leads us to a protocol of entanglement distillation via one-way LOCC (local operations and classical communication) which is asymptotically optimal: in fact we prove the so-called 'hashing inequality', which says that the coherent information (i.e. the negative conditional von Neumann entropy) is an achievable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen rate. This result is known to imply a whole set of distillation and capacity formulae, which we briefly review.

  1. Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozzi, Jay C.

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column

  2. 27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.54 Use of distilled spirits plant... person may not use the general premises of a distilled spirits plant for any operation required under the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of distilled...

  3. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment...

  4. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  5. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit....

  6. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit....

  7. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  8. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  9. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  10. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  11. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  12. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  13. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  14. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  16. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  18. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by... substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

  3. Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman

    2007-11-15

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  5. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  6. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  7. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section 417.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by... substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  9. Method of enhancing distillate yield in a hydrocarbonaceous material thermocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1981-05-05

    A method for destructive distillation of hydrocarbonaceous distillant is disclosed wherein a dienophile is introduced into the vaporous phase to reduce the production of non-distillable polymeric product. Specifically dienophiles available economically in large amounts such as maleic anhydride are disclosed. The introduction of additional sulfide to further reduce production of asphaltenic polymeric product is also described.

  10. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  11. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  12. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  13. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  14. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  15. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  16. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines--Taxes on Distilled Spirits... imported distilled spirits in the Philippines. That request may be found at http://www.wto.org in a... with the Philippines over taxation of distilled spirits many times over the past several years,...

  17. 27 CFR 29.55 - Registry of stills and distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.55 Section 29.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Registry of stills and distilling apparatus. (a) General. Every person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up shall, immediately on its being set up, register...

  18. 27 CFR 29.55 - Registry of stills and distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.55 Section 29.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Registry of stills and distilling apparatus. (a) General. Every person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up shall, immediately on its being set up, register...

  19. 27 CFR 31.151 - General requirements as to distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 31.151 Section 31.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.151 General requirements as to distilled spirits. Except as otherwise... receipt and disposition of distilled spirits in accordance with §§ 31.155 and 31.156. When required...

  20. 77 FR 6038 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 19 RIN 1513-AB89 Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant... Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau is extending the comment period for Notice No. 124, Revisions to Distilled... Register on December 5, 2011. TTB is taking this action in response to a request from a distilled...

  1. 27 CFR 17.163 - Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 17.163 Section 17.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Records § 17.163 Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits. (a)...

  2. 27 CFR 19.780 - Record of distilled spirits shipped to manufacturers of nonbeverage products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of distilled... and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Records § 19.780 Record of distilled spirits shipped...

  3. 27 CFR 26.66 - Bond, TTB Form 5110.50-Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Distilled spirits. 26.66 Section 26.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.66 Bond, TTB Form 5110.50—Distilled spirits. (a) General. If any person intends to ship to the United States, distilled spirits products...

  4. 27 CFR 28.58 - Operations or unit bond-distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-distilled spirits. 28.58 Section 28.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... § 28.58 Operations or unit bond—distilled spirits. (a) Spirits. Where spirits are withdrawn without payment of tax, as authorized in § 28.91, from the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant...

  5. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  6. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790

  7. Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.

    2013-10-01

    Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.

  8. A geometric design method for side-stream distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Rooks, R.E.; Malone, M.F.; Doherty, M.F.

    1996-10-01

    A side-stream distillation column may replace two simple columns for some applications, sometimes at considerable savings in energy and investment. This paper describes a geometric method for the design of side-stream columns; the method provides rapid estimates of equipment size and utility requirements. Unlike previous approaches, the geometric method is applicable to nonideal and azeotropic mixtures. Several example problems for both ideal and nonideal mixtures, including azeotropic mixtures containing distillation boundaries, are given. The authors make use of the fact that azeotropes or pure components whose classification in the residue curve map is a saddle can be removed as side-stream products. Significant process simplifications are found among some alternatives in example problems, leading to flow sheets with fewer units and a substantial savings in vapor rate.

  9. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2010-10-15

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  10. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790

  11. Rearing of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, embryos in distilled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.

    1969-01-01

    Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.

  12. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation and noncommutative central limit theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Genoni, Marco G.; Eisert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Entanglement distillation transforms weakly entangled noisy states into highly entangled states, a primitive to be used in quantum repeater schemes and other protocols designed for quantum communication and key distribution. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for continuous-variable entanglement distillation schemes that convert noisy non-Gaussian states into Gaussian ones in many iterations of the protocol. Instances of these protocols include (a) the recursive-Gaussifier protocol, (b) the temporally reordered recursive-Gaussifier protocol, and (c) the pumping-Gaussifier protocol. The flexibility of these protocols gives rise to several beneficial trade-offs related to success probabilities or memory requirements, which can be adjusted to reflect experimental demands. Despite these protocols involving measurements, we relate the convergence in this protocol to new instances of noncommutative central limit theorems, in a formalism that we lay out in great detail. Implications of the findings for quantum repeater schemes are discussed.

  13. Process for producing cracked distillate and hydrogen from heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, S.; Fujimori, K.; Satomi, Y.; Suzuka, T.

    1980-09-23

    A process is disclosed for producing a cracked distillate and hydrogen from a heavy oil which comprises cracking the heavy oil in the presence of laterite or a laterite-containing catalyst while simultaneously depositing coke on said laterite or laterite-containing catalysts, reducing the laterite or laterote-containing catalyst on which the coke is deposited, and forming a hydrogen-rich gas by contacting the reduced laterite or laterite-containing catalyst with steam.

  14. Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

    2011-04-01

    Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests. PMID:21327250

  15. Water desalination using carbon-nanotube-enhanced membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Gethard, Ken; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced membrane distillation is presented for water desalination. It is demonstrated that the immobilization of the CNTs in the pores of a hydrophobic membrane favorably alters the water-membrane interactions to promote vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores. For a salt concentration of 34 000 mg L(-1) and at 80 °C, the nanotube incorporation led to 1.85 and 15 times increase in flux and salt reduction, respectively. PMID:21188976

  16. Automated synthesis of distillation sequences using fuzzy logic and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, T.L.; Harrison, B.K.; Niccolai, M.J. )

    1994-08-01

    An automated distillation sequencing system (DSEQSYS) is presented, which consists of three components: a control program, a fuzzy heuristic synthesis program, and a process simulator. DSEQSYS, when applied to problems previously reported in the literature, overcomes some of the disadvantages of using heuristics or mathematical programming alone. DSEQSYS can address problems involving nonsharp separations, nonideal chemical behavior, and conflicting heuristics. A simple approach for converting the traditional separation heuristics into corresponding fuzzy heuristics is also demonstrated.

  17. Simple, analytical criteria for the sequencing of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, M.F.; Douglas, J.M.; Glinos, K.; Marquez, F.E.

    1985-04-01

    A quantitative criterion for the selection of simple distillation sequences is derived for ideal mixtures. A simple cost model, along with a short-cut solution of Underwood's equations, gives an analytical form for the total vapor rate, which is the key design variable. The results for column sequencing that are based on the analytical criterion agree well with more exact solutions, but they indicate that in numerous situations the commonly accepted heuristics are incorrect.

  18. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  19. Automated sirulated distillation using an articulated laboratory robot system.

    PubMed

    Berry, W F; Giarrocco, V

    1994-01-01

    An automated method, based on the Hewlett-Packard ORCA (Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis) system, for sample preparation and analysis of petroleum samples by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) is described. Results obtained for the robotically prepared samples show excellent agreement with those obtained from the same samples prepared manually. The application, based on ASTM method D 2887, is the foundation for a more fully automated system that can perform a variety of SIMDIS samples and methods. PMID:18924992

  20. Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

  1. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  2. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2006-01-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

    The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  3. Dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Biles, R W; McKee, R H; Lewis, S C; Scala, R A; DePass, L R

    1988-12-30

    In general, the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials is related to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Thus it has been assumed that liquids which boil below the PAH distillation range (i.e., below approx. 370 degrees C (700 degrees F) would not be carcinogenic. Several early studies supported this conclusion but were of relatively short duration. Several recent and more rigorous studies have shown that repeated application of certain petroleum-derived materials boiling between approximately 177-370 degrees C (350-700 degrees F) (i.e., middle distillate fuels) can produce tumors in mouse skin. The current studies assessed the tumorigenic potential of a series of middle distillates which varied with respect to boiling range, composition, and source of blending stocks. All of the samples produced evidence of weak tumorigenic activity which was characterized by low tumor yields and long median latencies. However, the majority of the tumor yields were significantly different from the control. There were no apparent differences in response among the samples. Thus the various parameters examined did not substantially influence tumor outcome. In particular, there was no association of tumorigenic activity with aromatic carbon content; this finding, coupled with evidence that PAH levels were low, suggested that the tumorigenic responses were not PAH-dependent. In addition to the tumors, there was evidence of non-neoplastic dermal changes including hyperplasia. These may have contributed to the tumorigenic responses; however, the actual mechanism of tumor induction is unknown. PMID:3212789

  4. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kammel, P.; Kravtsov, P.; Petitjean, C.; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  5. Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in relativistic hadronic models

    SciTech Connect

    Avancini, S. S.; Menezes, D. P.; Brito, L.; Provide circumflex ncia, C.; Chomaz, Ph.

    2006-08-15

    Liquid-gas phase transitions in asymmetric nuclear matter give rise to a distillation effect that corresponds to the formation of droplets of high-density symmetric matter in a background of a neutron gas possibly with a very small fraction of protons. In the present work we test the model dependence of this effect. We study the spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter within six different mean-field relativistic models with both constant and density-dependent coupling parameters. We also consider the effects of introducing the {delta} meson and the nonlinear {omega}-{rho} coupling. It is shown that the distillation effect within density-dependent models is not so efficient and is comparable to results obtained for nonrelativistic models. Thermodynamical instabilities of nuclear matter neutralized by electrons as found in stellar matter are also investigated. The high Fermi energy of electrons completely erases the instability of density-dependent models. The other models still show a small region of instability but the distillation effect completely disappears because the electron presence freezes the proton fluctuations.

  6. Effect of kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Venimadhavan, G.; Buzad, G.; Doherty, M.F.; Malone, M.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    A class of models is derived for studying the effects of chemical kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation. Activity-based rate and phase equilibrium expressions provide an accurate and thermodynamically consistent description of composition changes in nonideal, reacting vapor-liquid mixtures. For certain strategies of operation, which dictate the rate of product removal, the model equations are nonautonomous, leading to unusual dynamic behavior. However, for a certain special product removal policy, the effects of kinetics can be described by a single parameter, the Damkoehler number, which measures the rate of reaction relative to product removal. For small values of the Damkoehler number, the nonreactive simple distillation residue curve map is recovered and the singular points are the pure components and azeotropes in the nonreactive mixture. A bifurcation analysis shows the deformation and, in some cases, the disappearance of these singular points as the Damkoehler number is increased until the equilibrium reactive residue curve map is recovered at large values. A model problem for the reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol is solved.

  7. Distillation column for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieguth, Alexander; XENON Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The XENON1T experiment will probe a new parameter space in the direct dark matter search. Besides the enlargement of target mass to the ton scale, a further background reduction with respect to its predecessor XENON100 is necessary. A major contribution to the intrinsic contamination is the β-decaying isotope 85Kr, which leads to the requirement of a concentration less than 0.2 ppt of natural krypton in xenon. Its removal from the xenon gas is achieved by cryogenic distillation. For the new experiment a custom-build distillation column with a separation factor larger than 105 and a throughput of 3kg/h has been designed and built at the University of Muenster. Furthermore its performance has been characterized using different trace gas detection techniques, e.g. a novel 83mKr-tracer method, and its functionality has been tested successfully. The distillation column, which is installed and commissioned at the XENON1T experiment, is ready to process the 3.5 tons of xenon.

  8. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kravtsov, P. Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Kammel, P.; Petitjean, C.

    2015-12-15

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  9. Particle heterogeneity of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Clementson, C L; Ileleji, K E

    2012-03-01

    In this study the physical, morphological and chemical characteristics of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced by mixing three levels of condensed distillers soluble (CDS) (0%, 3.69% and 7.39% volumetric basis, v.b.) with wet distillers grains and drying were characterized. Decreasing the CDS level from 7.39% to 0% v.b. resulted in a reduction of 13.9% in geometric mean particle size and 8.8% in bulk density while the compressibility of the material increased by 3%. As the CDS level increased, pore volume, particle porosity and effective bulk porosity decreased. Crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber and ash content showed distinct patterns for all three samples studied and suggest that US sieve no. 16 (1190 μm) may be an inflection point for the chemical characteristics of DDGS granules within a bulk. The observed heterogeneity could cause sampling errors and particle segregation, and as a consequence nutrient and bulk density variability. PMID:22226592

  10. 27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Classed...

  11. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. PMID:26222602

  12. Solar-driven membrane distillation demonstration in Leupp, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, Vishnu Arvind; Seaman, Robert; Mirchandani, Sera; Arnold, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The Navajo Nation is the largest and one of the driest Native American reservations in the US. The population in the Navajo Nation is sporadically distributed over a very large area making it extremely ineffective to connect homes to a centralized water supply system. Owing to this population distribution and the multi decadal drought prevailing in the region, over 40% of the 300,000 people living on Navajo Tribal Lands lack access to running potable water. For many people the only alternative is hauling water from filling stations, resulting in economic hardship and limited supply. A solution to this problem is a de-centralized off-grid water source. The University of Arizona and US Bureau of Reclamation's Solar Membrane Distillation (SMD), stand-alone, pilot desalination system on the Navajo Reservation will provide an off-grid source of potable water; the pilot will serve as a proximal water source, ease the financial hardships caused by the drought, and provide a model for low-cost water treatment systems in arid tribal lands. Bench-scale experiments and an earlier field prototype plant showed viable operation of a solar heated, membrane distillation (MD) system, but further optimization is required. The objectives of the Navajo pilot study are to i) demonstrate integration of solar collectors and membrane distillation, ii) optimize operational parameters, iii) demonstrate and monitor technology performance during extended duration operation, and iv) facilitate independent system operation by the Navajo Water Resources Department, including hand-over of a comprehensive operations manual for implementation of subsequent SMD systems. The Navajo SMD system is designed as a perennial installation that includes remote communication of research data and full automation for remote, unmanned operation. PMID:26812853

  13. Premium distillate products from direct liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.Z.; Winschel, R.A.; Klunder, E.B. |

    1994-08-01

    The net liquid products from modern coal liquefaction processes are lower boiling and have much lower end points (mostly under 400{degree}C) than crude petroleum. Coal liquids have very low concentrations of heteroatoms, particularly S, and metals, and are free of resids and asphaltenes. High yields of low-S (0.01--0.03 wt %) naphtha, kerosene, and diesel fuel fractions can be obtained simply by atmospheric distillation, with a total yield of light fuel fractions ranging from 68 to 82 LV% (W260D exclusive). The coal naphtha has a low aromatics content (5--13 LV%), readily meeting projected year-2000 requirements. Its low Reid vapor pressure allows light components from other sources to be blended. The coal light distillate of in appropriate boiling range will be a good low-S blending stock for the light diesel fuel pool. The heavy distillate can be refined into a low-S No. 4 diesel fuel/fuel oil. This fraction, along with the >343{degree}C atmospheric bottoms, can be catalytically cracked or hydrocracked to make light liquid fuels. Thus, modern coal liquids should no longer be envisioned as thick liquids (or even solids) with high concentrations of aromatics and asphaltenes. Products obtained from advanced coal liquefaction technologies are more like light naphthene-base petroleum, but with lower heteroatoms and metals contents, and they are free of resids. Coal liquids are likely to be co-refined in existing petroleum refineries; and hydroprocessing of various severities would be needed for different fractions to produce quality blending stocks for refinery fuel pools.

  14. Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

    2012-11-01

    A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD. PMID:22940345

  15. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  16. Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem

    2011-09-15

    We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

  17. Development of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The activities involved in the design, development, and test of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem are described. This subsystem, part of a larger regenerative life support evaluation system, is designed to recover usable water from urine, urinal rinse water, and concentrated shower and laundry brine collected from three space vehicle crewmen for a period of 180 days without resupply. Details of preliminary design and testing as well as component developments are included. Trade studies, considerations leading to concept selections, problems encountered, and test data are also presented. The rework of existing hardware, subsystem development including computer programs, assembly verification, and comprehensive baseline test results are discussed.

  18. Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

  19. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  20. Startup of distillation columns using profile position control based on nonlinear wave model

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.; Park, S. |

    1999-04-01

    Startup of distillation columns is a very challenging control problem because of its strong nonlinearity and a wide operating range during the transient period. A nonlinear wave model captures the essential dynamic behavior of the distillation process so that it is possible to deal with the difficulties encountered during startup operation. This paper is concerned with the startup of distillation systems using nonlinear wave model based control developed by Han and Park. This control scheme uses profile positions as controlled variables and is based on the nonlinear wave model by Hwang and generic model control scheme by Lee and Sullivan. It can be applied to a binary or a multicomponent distillation system that can be represented as a pseudobinary. The proposed control scheme is shown by simulation studies to provide a safe and economic startup operation not only for dual composition control of a simple distillation column but also for a complex distillation configuration.

  1. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    PubMed

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products. PMID:22688247

  2. Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

    2006-09-16

    In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

  3. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  4. Bronchoconstrictive effect of ultrasonic nebulized distilled water on asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Hayashida, M; Yasunami, J; Takamatsu, I; Adachi, K; Toyoshima, K

    1989-01-01

    We studied the airway responsiveness of asthmatic and normal children to ultrasonic nebulized distilled water (UNDW inhalation test). It was found that this stimulus induced a fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in asthmatic children, but little fall in normal children. This airway response was shown to be reproducible at about 2-week intervals. The more severe the asthma, the higher the percentage of the responders to the UNDW inhalation test, and the greater the fall in FEV1. The results of the UNDW inhalation test did not correlate with that of acetylcholine inhalation test or of exercise-induced asthma (EIA). UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction was inhibited by premedication with disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) (20 mg) or inhaled ipratropium bromide (40 micrograms). Jet-nebulized distilled water induced little fall in FEV1 in asthmatic children. These data suggest that UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction may involve the release of chemical mediators from the mast cells and cholinergic pathways. We conclude that UNDW inhalation test is a safe, less burdensome, and rather convenient method to evaluate clinically nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children. PMID:2534983

  5. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers. PMID:16042335

  6. Irresolvable complex mixture of hydrocarbons in soybean oil deodorizer distillate.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yi-Hsu; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Gunawan, Setiyo; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Kasim, Novy S

    2012-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) can be used as a fingerprint of a given seed oil. Only by characterization of aliphatic HCs could contamination by mineral oil in that seed oil be confirmed. During the isolation of squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, a significant amount of unknown HCs, ca. 44 wt%, was obtained. These seemingly-easy-to-identify HCs turned out to be much more difficult to elucidate due to the presence of an irresolvable complex mixture (ICM). The objective of this study was to purify and identify the unknown ICM of aliphatic HCs from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Purification of the ICM was successfully achieved by using modified Soxhlet extraction, followed by modified preparative column chromatography, and finally by classical preparative column chromatography. FT-IR, TLC, elemental analysis, GC/FID, NMR and GC-MS analyses were then performed on the purified HCs. The GC chromatogram detected the presence of ICM peaks comprising two major peaks and a number of minor peaks. Validation methods such as IR and NMR justified that the unknowns are saturated HCs. This work succeeded in tentatively identifying the two major peaks in the ICM as cycloalkane derivatives. PMID:22162261

  7. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.H.; Amoruso, M.A.; Freeman, J.J.; Przygoda, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum middle distillate (PMD) fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that distill between {approximately} 170-370{degrees}C. Commercial products that fall into this category include kerosine, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and home heating oil. These products contain both saturated (paraffins and cycloparaffins) and aromatic species, but because of the boiling range normally contain very small amounts of the 3-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents, which are considered to be carcinogenic. Nevertheless, there is evidence of weak tumorigenic activity when these materials are repeatedly applied to mouse skin. In the current studies representative products were tested in two commonly used, short-term assays for genetic toxicity, the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. All samples were inactive in the micronucleus assay, and three were clearly inactive in the Salmonella test. Of the remaining two, one was marginally active in the Salmonella assay, and one was equivocal. The marginally active sample contained detectable levels of PAH due to the use of catalytically cracked materials as blending stocks. The results indicated that PMDs that do not contain cracked material were not mutagenic. Thus they may produce tumors via nongenotoxic processes. Those products that do contain cracked stocks may have sufficient PAH to be mutagenic in the Salmonella assay, and in those cases the PAH might also contribute to tumor formation. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Amoruso, M A; Freeman, J J; Przygoda, R T

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum middle distillate (PMD) fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that distill between approximately 170-370 degrees C. Commercial products that fall into this category include kerosine, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and home heating oil. These products contain both saturated (paraffins and cycloparaffins) and aromatic species, but because of the boiling range normally contain very small amounts of the 3-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents, which are considered to be carcinogenic. Nevertheless, there is evidence of weak tumorigenic activity when these materials are repeatedly applied to mouse skin. In the current studies representative products were tested in two commonly used, short-term assays for genetic toxicity, the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. All samples were inactive in the micronucleus assay, and three were clearly inactive in the Salmonella test. Of the remaining two, one was marginally active in the Salmonella assay, and one was equivocal. The marginally active sample contained detectable levels of PAH due to the use of catalytically cracked materials as blending stocks. The results indicated that PMDs that do not contain cracked material were not mutagenic. Thus they may produce tumors via nongenotoxic processes. Those products that do contain cracked stocks may have sufficient PAH to be mutagenic in the Salmonella assay, and in those cases the PAH might also contribute to tumor formation. PMID:8162898

  9. Temperature sequences for categorizing all ternary distillation boundary maps

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.J.; Partin, L.R.

    1997-05-01

    Temperature sequences are formulated as a complete method of categorizing the feasible distillation boundary maps (DBMs) for ternary systems which commonly have unique binary and ternary azeotropes. DBMs are simplified versions of residue curve maps. The method requires the boiling temperatures at system pressure of pure components and azeotropes, if they exist. Seven position numbers are assigned to the pure components (three) and azeotropes (three binary, one ternary). The boiling temperatures are sorted to rank the position numbers. The temperature sequence is defined as the ranking of position numbers. The position numbers of missing azeotropes are excluded from the sequence. An algorithm searches all possible temperature sequences for feasible DBMs. The result is a complete listing of 125 DBMs, 307 temperature sequences, and 382 [temperature sequence, DBM] pairs. Lookup tables simplify the procedure for finding the DBM(s) for a temperature sequence or finding the temperature sequences for a DBM. Example applications are presented for applying the technique in the initial screening for distillation system synthesis.

  10. Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.

    2008-07-15

    Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

  11. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  12. Alcohol and dilution water characteristics in distilled anis (ouzo).

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Bekatorou, Argyro

    2014-05-28

    The authenticity of some mixed drinks such as vodka or rum was correlated to the conductivity of the dilution water. Authentic drinks demonstrated low conductivity, suggesting the use of treated water, whereas fraud drinks were mixed with regular tap water. The objective of the present study was to test if this criterion is valid for distilled anis, also known as ouzo. Several Greek distilled anis samples, mostly ouzo samples, were tested for different parameters including conductivity, pH, and percentage of different alcohol constituents. Because ouzo in Greece is commonly produced by small enterprises, no correlation between conductivity and the size of the producer was possible. Neither was it possible to correlate the price or high consumption with conductivity and, thus, prior water treatment. Alcohol quality in terms of undesirable constituents, such as methanol content, was good and comparable among samples. In ouzo, water is related to the producer quality goal for the final product and, thus, it is treated and used accordingly. PMID:24816147

  13. High-efficient entanglement distillation from photon loss and decoherence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-30

    We illustrate an entanglement distillation protocol (EDP) for a mixed photon-ensemble which composed of four kinds of entangled states and vacuum states. Exploiting the linear optics and local entanglement resource (four-qubit entangled GHZ state), we design the nondemolition parity-checking and qubit amplifying (PCQA) setup for photonic polarization degree of freedom which are the key device of our scheme. With the PCQA setup, a high-fidelity entangled photon-pair system can be achieved against the transmission losses and the decoherence in noisy channels. And in the available purification range for our EDP, the fidelity of this ensemble can be improved to the maximal value through iterated operations. Compared to the conventional entanglement purification schemes, our scheme largely reduces the initialization requirement of the distilled mixed quantum system, and overcomes the difficulties posed by inherent channel losses during photon transmission. All these advantages make this scheme more useful in the practical applications of long-distance quantum communication. PMID:26698778

  14. Experimental study of multiple steady states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Guettinger, T.E.; Dorn, C.; Morari, M.

    1997-03-01

    Bekiaris et al. (1993) explained the existence of multiple steady states in homogeneous ternary azeotropic distillation, on the basis of the analysis of the case of infinite reflux and infinite column length (infinite number of trays). They showed that the predictions of multiple steady states for such infinite columns have relevant implications for columns of finite length operated at finite reflux. In this article, experiments are described for the ternary homogeneous system methanol-methyl butyrate-toluene which demonstrate the existence of multiple steady states (output multiplicities) caused by the vapor-liquid-equilibrium. The experiments on an industrial pilot column show two stable steady states for the same feed flow rate and composition and the same set of operating parameters. The measurements are in excellent agreement with the predictions obtained for infinite columns using the {infinity}/{infinity} analysis tool as well as with stage-by-stage simulation results. These experiments represent the first published study reporting evidence for the predictions and simulations by various researchers showing that type of output multiplicities in distillation.

  15. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. PMID:25432400

  16. Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

    1999-10-01

    The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain. PMID:10552753

  17. Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

  18. Aquatic hazard and biodegradability of light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; Podhasky, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L(-1) for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1). PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L(-1) and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data. PMID:24875905

  19. Finishing performance of feedlot cattle fed condensed distillers solubles.

    PubMed

    Pesta, A C; Nuttelman, B L; Shreck, A L; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 250 crossbred steers (initial BW = 355 ± 18 kg) were fed 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% CDS (DM basis) which replaced a portion of urea and a 1:1 ratio of dry-rolled corn (DRC) and high-moisture corn (HMC). Steers were divided into 3 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 25 pens. Dietary fat increased from 3.7 to 9.4% as CDS inclusion increased from 0 to 36%. Intake decreased linearly ( < 0.01) as CDS increased. A quadratic response was observed for ADG ( = 0.01) and G:F ( < 0.01) with maximum gain calculated at 20.8% CDS and maximum G:F at 32.5% CDS inclusion, which was 12% more efficient than those fed 0% CDS. Experiment 2 was designed as a 2 × 4 factorial using 400 crossbred steers (initial BW = 339 ± 15 kg) evaluating 0, 7, 14, or 21% CDS (DM basis) in 2 base byproduct diets containing either 20% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) or 20% Synergy (a blend of wet corn gluten feed and MDGS). Steers were divided into 2 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 40 pens. A tendency for a base diet × CDS inclusion interaction was observed for ADG, HCW, and final BW ( < 0.10). Gain increased linearly ( = 0.01) and tended to increase quadratically ( = 0.09) in MDGS diets, with maximum calculated ADG at 16% CDS inclusion. Inclusion of CDS had no effect on ADG in Synergy-based diets. Increasing CDS resulted in a linear increase in G:F ( < 0.01) regardless of basal diet. Condensed distillers solubles may be included in the diet at greater than 30% (DM basis) without other byproducts and improve animal performance. Likewise, CDS can be fed in combination with other byproduct feeds but with less improvement in performance. PMID:26440335

  20. Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows: a refactoring approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scientific workflows management systems are increasingly used to specify and manage bioinformatics experiments. Their programming model appeals to bioinformaticians, who can use them to easily specify complex data processing pipelines. Such a model is underpinned by a graph structure, where nodes represent bioinformatics tasks and links represent the dataflow. The complexity of such graph structures is increasing over time, with possible impacts on scientific workflows reuse. In this work, we propose effective methods for workflow design, with a focus on the Taverna model. We argue that one of the contributing factors for the difficulties in reuse is the presence of "anti-patterns", a term broadly used in program design, to indicate the use of idiomatic forms that lead to over-complicated design. The main contribution of this work is a method for automatically detecting such anti-patterns, and replacing them with different patterns which result in a reduction in the workflow's overall structural complexity. Rewriting workflows in this way will be beneficial both in terms of user experience (easier design and maintenance), and in terms of operational efficiency (easier to manage, and sometimes to exploit the latent parallelism amongst the tasks). Results We have conducted a thorough study of the workflows structures available in Taverna, with the aim of finding out workflow fragments whose structure could be made simpler without altering the workflow semantics. We provide four contributions. Firstly, we identify a set of anti-patterns that contribute to the structural workflow complexity. Secondly, we design a series of refactoring transformations to replace each anti-pattern by a new semantically-equivalent pattern with less redundancy and simplified structure. Thirdly, we introduce a distilling algorithm that takes in a workflow and produces a distilled semantically-equivalent workflow. Lastly, we provide an implementation of our refactoring approach

  1. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

  2. Effectiveness of water desalination by membrane distillation process.

    PubMed

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  3. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  4. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  5. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II; Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.

    1996-10-01

    High-purity distillation columns are typically difficult to control because of their severely nonlinear behavior reflected by their sharp composition and temperature profiles. The dynamic behavior of such a column, as characterized by the movement of its sharp profile, was elucidated by a nonlinear wave theory established previously. With binary alcohol mixtures, this study provides an experimental observation of such wave-propagation dynamics of a 40-tray stripping column and a 50-tray fractionation column in response to step disturbances of feed composition, feed flow rate, and reboiler heat supply. These experimental results have verified that the sharp profile in a high-purity column moves as a constant-pattern wave and that the nonlinear wave theory predicts its velocity satisfactorily with very simple mathematics. Results also demonstrate the asymmetric dynamics of the transitions between two steady states.

  6. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  7. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible." To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) opted a development approach that explicitely incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 prelimnary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigative strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  8. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  9. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  10. Tests of blending and correlation of distillate fuel properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, J.; Bowden, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a fuel test matrix, results from tests of several blends of distillate aircraft fuels, and the use of correlations in formulation determination during a NASA-sponsored program to identify new aircraft fuels are described. The program was initiated in order to characterize fuel blends which are appropriate for different types of combustors in use and under development. The fuels were required to feature a specified range of properties. Attention is given to fuel volatility, hydrogen content, aromatic content, freezing point, kinematic viscosity, and naphthalene content. Paraffinic and naphtenic base stocks were employed, using alkyl benzene, naphthene benzenes, and naphthalenes to adjust the blend properties. Categories for the test fuels comprised source-controlled and composition controlled fuels. Test results and compositions of various fuels are provided.

  11. 27 CFR 19.133 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.133 Section 19.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Location and Use § 19.133...

  12. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... may not be withdrawn, used, sold, or disposed of for other than fuel use; (d) An alcohol fuel plant... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits...

  13. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits... Federal internal revenue taxes have been paid or deferred in Puerto Rico under provisions of this...

  14. Separation of fiber from distillers dried grains (DDG) using sieving and elutriation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently developed a new process that combined sieving and elutriation (upward air flow) to separate fiber from distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS). The current study was designed to evaluate the elusieve process for the first time using distillers dried grains (DDG) instead of DDGS. Be...

  15. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  16. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  17. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  18. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  19. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult. PMID:25778835

  20. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits...

  2. 77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Register on April 30, 2012, at 77 FR 25382, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) proposes to... of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade..., Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional 10 days. In...

  3. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of tax under this part and which are lost during transportation from the bonded premises of the...

  4. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of tax under this part and which are lost during transportation from the bonded premises of the...

  5. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  6. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of 19 CFR chapter I. Distilled spirits and wine transferred to customs bonded warehouses shall be... provisions of 19 CFR chapter I. Wine and bottled distilled spirits, originally transferred to customs bonded... in § 28.26 (a) or (b) and § 28.27 may, under the appropriate provisions of 19 CFR chapter I,...

  7. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 28.281, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and...

  8. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  9. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  10. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  11. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  12. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  13. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State of distillation may not be shown, except as part of the name and address required by 27 CFR 5.36(a... name and kind, as set out in 27 CFR part 5. (b) Alcohol content—(1) Mandatory statement. The label of... content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

  14. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  15. Arkose: A Prototype Mechanism and Tool for Collaborative Information Generation and Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Kevin Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this thesis have been to gain a better understanding of collaborative knowledge sharing and distilling and to build a prototype collaborative system that supports flexible knowledge generation and distillation. To reach these goals, I have conducted two user studies and built two systems. The first system, Arkose 1.0, is a…

  16. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. PMID:23401139

  17. Reduction in dietary wet distillers grains alters Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in feces of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fed finishing diets with distillers grains have been shown to more often have Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the feces and on the hides. The objectives of this study were to determine if pathogen levels and prevalence differ at higher level of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the d...

  18. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home production of... Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce distilled spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise provided by law,...

  19. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  20. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  1. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  2. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  3. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  4. 27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production, and used in the production of distilled spirits; (d) Receipt of beer from brewery premises without payment of tax, and receipt of beer removed from brewery premises upon determination of tax as... distillation, including residue of beer returned to the producing brewery; (f) The quantity of fusel oils...

  5. 27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production, and used in the production of distilled spirits; (d) Receipt of beer from brewery premises without payment of tax, and receipt of beer removed from brewery premises upon determination of tax as... distillation, including residue of beer returned to the producing brewery; (f) The quantity of fusel oils...

  6. 27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production, and used in the production of distilled spirits; (d) Receipt of beer from brewery premises without payment of tax, and receipt of beer removed from brewery premises upon determination of tax as... distillation, including residue of beer returned to the producing brewery; (f) The quantity of fusel oils...

  7. 27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production, and used in the production of distilled spirits; (d) Receipt of beer from brewery premises without payment of tax, and receipt of beer removed from brewery premises upon determination of tax as... distillation, including residue of beer returned to the producing brewery; (f) The quantity of fusel oils...

  8. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  9. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  10. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  11. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  12. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL..., written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  13. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Home production of... Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce distilled spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise provided by law,...

  14. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home production of... Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce distilled spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise provided by law,...

  15. Microbial Development in Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production from Corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distill...

  16. 27 CFR 17.186 - Transfer of distilled spirits to other containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of distilled... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.186 Transfer of...

  17. 75 FR 11147 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Distilled Solutions, LLC a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive license to practice in the United States, the Government- owned invention described in U.S. Patent No. 6,893,540, entitled ``High Temperature Peltier Effect Water Distiller,'' issued May 17, 2005, Navy Case No....

  18. Nutrient Transport in Runoff from Feedlots as Affected by Wet Distiller's Grain Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's byproducts can serve as valuable sources of protein and energy for beef cattle. When the characteristics of materials entering and exiting the plant are compared, the nutrients in distiller's byproducts are concentrated about three times. The objectives of this study were to: a) measure ...

  19. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of 19 CFR chapter I. Distilled spirits and wine transferred to customs bonded warehouses shall be... in § 28.26 (a) or (b) and § 28.27 may, under the appropriate provisions of 19 CFR chapter I, be... provisions of 19 CFR chapter I. Wine and bottled distilled spirits, originally transferred to customs...

  20. An artificial intelligence method for the synthesis of heat-integrated distillation flowsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Fang-Yu Han; Ben-Guang Rong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, a concept of Heat-Integrated Distillation Flowsheet (HIDF) is proposed. It refers to the multicomponent separation flowsheet which is composed of simple and complex columns and in which heat integration is considered so as to achieve minimum energy consumption. The HIDF is very different from the Heat-Integrated Distillation Sequences (HIDS) in the literature which only consists of simple columns. In this paper, an artificial intelligence method is proposed for the synthesis of HIDF. It is based on the Database, Simulator, Heat Exchanger Network, and four Knowledge Bases which are all developed by the authors and their coworkers. A strategy of eight steps which combines the knowledge-based and rigorous algorithms is adopted for the synthesis of HIDF. The illustrated examples for the conventional distillation and extractive distillation show that the practical minimum energy consumption distillation flowsheets; can be generated with this method.

  1. Coherent eavesdropping attacks in tomographic quantum cryptography: Nonequivalence of quantum and classical key distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-10-15

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks.

  2. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. PMID:27416511

  3. Calculation of high-temperature crude oil/water/vapor separations using simulated distillation data

    SciTech Connect

    Langhoff, J.A.; Wu, C.H.

    1984-09-01

    High-temperature crude oil-water-vapor separation takes place in steam flooding and in-situ combustion processes. It also takes place in hydrocarbon recovery from deep volatile oil reservoirs. A practical procedure using the Holland and Welch method and simulated distillation data was developed to calculate crude oil-water-vapor separations at 387/sup 0/F (197/sup 0/C) and 456/sup 0/F (235/sup 0/C). The overhead yields obtained from the calculations were expressed as a function of the steam distillation factor, V /SUB w/ /V /SUB oi/ . The results were compared with laboratory crude oil steam distillation data. The approach satisfactorily predicted the overhead yields of thirteen out of sixteen crude oils with an average error of 11%. This is within experimental error of crude oil steam distillation. Twelve pseudocomponents of crude oils were selected and characterized using simulated distillation data for the calculations. The physical properties of the pseudocomponents were determined from existing correlations and from matching laboratory steam distillation data. The use of simulated distillation data eliminates the uncertainty and assumptions normally involved in the selection of crude oil pseudocomponents using Bureau of Mines distillation data, and thus, improves the reliability of the proposed computational approach. The proposed approach has many advantages. It eliminates the need of conducting experimental steam distillation tests if crude oil simulated distillation data are available. It is easy and fast to calculate the overhead yields and densities without using the equation of state and uncertain pseudocomponent critical properties and interaction parameters. The proposed approach will provide useful information for designing and operating thermal recovery processes, and for predicting hydrocarbon recovery from high-temperature volatile oil reservoirs.

  4. Characterization of Physical, Chemical, and Flow Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and DDGS Extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct from dry grind ethanol manufacturing. Significant quantities of distillers grains are being produced due to the increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive. Marketing of distillers grains, however, is hampered by inconsistencies ...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10178 Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as distillates (Fischer-Tropsch),...

  6. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). (a... generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). (a... generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane...

  9. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  10. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  11. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  12. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  14. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  15. 27 CFR 26.36c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. 26.36c Section 26.36c Alcohol, Tobacco... Puerto Rico § 26.36c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought into the United States from Puerto Rico without payment of...

  16. 27 CFR 26.201c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. 26.201c Section 26.201c Alcohol, Tobacco... Virgin Islands § 26.201c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought into the United States from the Virgin Islands without payment...

  17. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. Βench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80˚C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt

  18. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. PMID:26295438

  19. Bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei from Madagascar: investigation of steam-distillation conditions.

    PubMed

    Rakotobe, Miarantsoa; Menut, Chantal; Andrianoelisoa, Hanitriniaina Sahondra; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Tsy, Jean Michel Leong Pock; Rakotoarimanana, Vonjison; Ramavovololona, Perle; Danthu, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    The effect of the distillation time on the yield and chemical composition of the bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. was investigated. Distillation kinetics were determined for three batches of bark sampled from two sites, i.e., Itampolo (batches IT1 and IT2) and Salary (SAL), located in a region in the south of Madagascar with characteristically large populations of C. grevei. The bark samples were subjected to steam distillation, and the essential oil was collected at 3-h intervals. The total yield (calculated after 14 h of distillation) varied from 0.9 to 1.7%, according to the batch tested. Moreover, the essential oils obtained were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. During the course of the distillation, the relative percentages of the most volatile components (monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) diminished progressively, whereas the least volatile ones (oxygenated derivatives) increased at a consistent rate. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (AHC) of the results, performed on 13 principal components, allowed distinguishing three chemical groups, corresponding to the three batches, irrespective of the distillation time. This indicated that the chemical variability currently observed with commercial samples is not mainly linked to the experimental conditions of the extraction process, as the distillation time did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:24591320

  20. Real-time monitoring of distillations by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Celio; Scafi, Sérgio H F

    2003-05-15

    A simple device is described to couple a fast-scanning acoustooptic tunable filter-based NIR spectrophotometer to a distillation apparatus for monitoring the condensed vapor in real time. The device consists of a small funnel whose glass neck (2-mm diameter) is bent into an "U" format to produce a flow cell of approximately 150-microL inner volume. A pair of optical fibers is used to deliver the monochromatic light and to collect the fraction passing through the glass tube. The end of the condenser of the distillation head touches the wall of the small funnel. The condensed liquid flows uncoupled from pressure changes in the interior of the distillation head. Absorbance spectra were obtained, during the distillation, as averages of 50 scans (4 s) every 5 s in the spectral range 950-1800 nm with nominal resolution of 2.0 nm. In the first experiments, the distillations were performed at constant power supplied to the sample (25 mL) in a microdistillation apparatus working without any type of reflux column. The usefulness of the real-time monitoring of distillation is demonstrated using some prepared binary mixtures and by comparing the distillation behavior of adulterated and regular gasoline samples. Data analysis and interpretation are facilitated by employing principal component analysis. The system accesses the composition of the condensate, which can separate and concentrate one or more compounds present in the original sample. PMID:12918966

  1. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  2. Effect of added atmospheric resid on process indexes in cat cracking of vacuum distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglova, L.E.; Khadzhiev, S.N.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Smidovich, E.V.; Fedoseeva, V.I.; Kapustin, V.M.

    1987-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of vacuum distillates with West Siberia atmospheric resids was investigated to determine the optimal ratio of components in the blend and to define the influence of the quantity of added resid on the product yield and quality. The feedstocks tested included a low-sulfur hydrotreated vacuum distillate and a medium-sulfur atmospheric resid. Data on the quality, hydrocarbon composition, viscosity, distillation behavior, vanadium and nickel content, and sulfur content were determined and compared against a resid from a Texas crude. Physicochemical properties were determined for the naphtha and diesel fuel cuts obtained. Coke yields are also assessed.

  3. Kinetic and reactor models for HDT of middle distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.M.; Filho, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of middle distillates over a commercial Ni-Mo/y-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied under wide operating conditions just as 340 to 380{degrees}C and 38 to 98 atm. A Power Law model was presented to each one of those reactions. The parameters of kinetic equations were estimated solving the ordinary differential equations by the 4 order Runge-Kutta-Gill algorithm and Marquardt method for searching of set of kinetic parameters (kinetic constants as well as the orders of reactions). An adiabatic diesel hydrotreating trickle-bed reactor packed with the same catalyst was simulated numerically in order to check up the behavior of this specific reaction system. One dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model was used in this work. For each feed, the mass and energy balance equations were integrated along the length of the catalytic bed using the 4th Runge-Kutta-Gill method. The performance of two industrial reactors was checked. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  5. Tuning the Model Predictive Control of a Crude Distillation Unit.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, André Shigueo; Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Odloak, Darci

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the parameters of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) of an industrial Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) is considered here. A realistic scenario is depicted where the inputs of the CDU system have optimizing targets, which are provided by the Real Time Optimization layer of the control structure. It is considered the nominal case, in which both the CDU model and the MPC model are the same. The process outputs are controlled inside zones instead of at fixed set points. Then, the tuning procedure has to define the weights that penalize the output error with respect to the control zone, the weights that penalize the deviation of the inputs from their targets, as well as the weights that penalize the input moves. A tuning approach based on multi-objective optimization is proposed and applied to the MPC of the CDU system. The performance of the controller tuned with the proposed approach is compared through simulation with the results of an existing approach also based on multi-objective optimization. The simulation results are similar, but the proposed approach has a computational load significantly lower than the existing method. The tuning effort is also much lower than in the conventional practical approaches that are usually based on ad-hoc procedures. PMID:26549567

  6. Desalination of brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Hou, D Y; Wang, J; Qu, D; Luan, Z K; Zhao, C W; Ren, X J

    2010-01-01

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for desalination of brackish groundwater with self-made polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes was presented in the paper. The PVDF membrane exhibited high rejection of non-volatile inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 24.5 kg m(-2) h(-1) was obtained with feed temperature at 70 degrees C. The DCMD experimental results indicated that the feed concentration had no significant influence on the permeate flux and the rejection of solute. When natural groundwater was used directly as the feed, the precipitation of CaCO(3) would be formed and clog the hollow fibre inlets with gradual concentration of the feed, which resulted in a rapid decline of the module efficiency. The negative influence of scaling could be eliminated by acidification of the feed. Finally, a 250 h DCMD continuous desalination experiment of acidified groundwater with the concentration factor at constant 4.0 was carried out. The permeate flux kept stable and the permeate conductivity was less than 7.0 microS cm(-1) during this process. Furthermore, there was no deposit observed on the membrane surface. All of these demonstrated that DCMD could be efficiently used for production of high-quality potable water from brackish groundwater with water recovery as high as 75%. PMID:20388998

  7. Biofouling and microbial communities in membrane distillation and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Giannetto, Michael J; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-11-18

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology that uses low-grade heat to drive water vapor across a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Currently, little is known about the biofilms that grow on MD membranes. In this study, we use estuarine water collected from Long Island Sound in a bench-scale direct contact MD system to investigate the initial stages of biofilm formation. For comparison, we studied biofilm formation in a bench-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system using the same feedwater. These two membrane desalination systems expose the natural microbial community to vastly different environmental conditions: high temperatures with no hydraulic pressure in MD and low temperature with hydraulic pressure in RO. Over the course of 4 days, we observed a steady decline in bacteria concentration (nearly 2 orders of magnitude) in the MD feed reservoir. Even with this drop in planktonic bacteria, significant biofilm formation was observed. Biofilm morphologies on MD and RO membranes were markedly different. MD membrane biofilms were heterogeneous and contained several colonies, while RO membrane biofilms, although thicker, were a homogeneous mat. Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. Bacteria representing the orders Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales were most abundant in the MD biofilms. On the basis of the results, we propose two different regimes for microbial community shifts and biofilm development in RO and MD systems. PMID:25295386

  8. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  9. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael; Papadopoulos, Christos G.; Logsdon, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Sinclair, Ian

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  10. Design guidelines for solid-catalyzed reactive distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Subawalla, H.; Fair, J.R.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper the authors discuss design guidelines for solid-catalyzed reactive distillation systems. The guidelines are used to generate initial estimates for column pressure, reactive zone location, catalyst mass, reactant feed location, reactant ratio, reflux ratio, column diameter, number of equilibrium stages, and packed height. They form a part of a methodical design procedure that makes extensive use of both nonequilibrium (rate-based) and equilibrium-stage simulation models. Important choices prior to design include selection of reliable thermodynamic and reaction kinetic models. The authors tested the guidelines for two etherification systems and validated them experimentally for a hydration reaction. The results from a case study, the manufacture of tert-amyl methyl ether, are shown here. Superimposing reaction on separation leads to unique design trade-offs. Thus, column diameter depends both on maximum vapor velocity and on packing catalyst density, reactant ratios are a function of conversion and azeotrope formation, the operating pressure affects the relative volatility, chemical equilibrium, and reaction rate (reactive zone temperature), and the reflux ratio impacts both separation and conversion. The guidelines and procedures presented here simplify the detailed reactive column design considerably.

  11. Comparison of ultrasonic distillation to sparging of liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Han Jung; Jung, Hye Yun; Calo, Joseph; Diebold, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    The application of intense ultrasound to a liquid-gas interface results in the formation of an ultrasonic fountain and generates both mist and vapor from the liquid. Here, the composition of the vapor and aerosol above an ultrasonic fountain is determined as a function of irradiation time and compared with the results of sparging for five different solutions. The experimental apparatus for determining the efficiency of separation consists of a glass vessel containing a piezoelectric transducer driven at either 1.65 or 2.40 MHz. Dry nitrogen is passed over the ultrasonic fountain to remove the vapor and aerosol. The compositions of the liquid solutions are recorded as a function of irradiation time using gas chromatography, refractive index measurement, nuclear magnetic resonance, or spectrophotometry. Data are presented for ethanol-water and ethyl acetate-ethanol solutions, cobalt chloride in water, colloidal silica, and colloidal gold. The experiments show that ultrasonic distillation produces separations that are somewhat less complete than what is obtained using sparging.

  12. Comparison of ultrasonic distillation to sparging of liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye Yun; Park, Han Jung; Calo, Joseph M; Diebold, Gerald J

    2010-12-15

    The application of intense ultrasound to a liquid-gas interface results in the formation of an ultrasonic fountain and generates both mist and vapor from the liquid. Here, the composition of the vapor and aerosol above an ultrasonic fountain is determined as a function of irradiation time and compared with the results of sparging for five different solutions. The experimental apparatus for determining the efficiency of separation consists of a glass vessel containing a piezoelectric transducer driven at either 1.65 or 2.40 MHz. Dry nitrogen is passed over the ultrasonic fountain to remove the vapor and aerosol. The composition of the liquid solutions are recorded as a function of irradiation time using gas chromatography, refractive index measurement, nuclear magnetic resonance, or spectrophotometry. Data are presented for ethanol-water and ethyl acetate-ethanol solutions, cobalt chloride in water, colloidal silica, and colloidal gold. The experiments show that ultrasonic distillation produces separations that are somewhat less complete than what is obtained using sparging. PMID:21073163

  13. Ignition modes of nanosecond discharge with bubbles in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-10-01

    Here, we present the microscopic physical characteristics of nanosecond discharges with an array of bubbles in distilled water. In particular, applying a single high-voltage pulse, four delayed intensified charge-coupled device cameras successfully visualized four successive images during a single discharge event. We identified three distinctive modes of ignition inside a bubble, depending on the relative location of the bubble with respect to pin-to-hollow needle electrodes when a single bubble was located in an inter-electrode gap of 1 mm: anode-driven ignition, cathode-driven ignition, and co-ignition near both electrodes. Anode- and cathode-driven ignitions evolved into either a complete propagation of the streamer or an incomplete propagation, which were limited in location by proximity to an ignition location, while co-ignitions consistently showed complete propagation. When we increased the gap to 2 mm to accommodate multiple bubbles in the gap, an ignited bubble near the cathode was able to cause the ignition of an upper adjacent bubble. Bubble-bubble interface zones can also be spots of ignition, such that we observed simultaneous co-ignitions in the zones of bubble-bubble interfaces and near electrodes with triple bubbles. We compared the experimental results of discharge propagation with different ignition modes between Ar, He, and N2 bubbles. In addition, numerical simulations for static electric fields reasonably supported observed ignition behavior such that field intensity was locally enhanced.

  14. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  15. Investigation of sources, properties and preparation of distillate test fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, J. N.; Erwin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Distillate test fuel blends were generated for prescribed variations in composition and physical properties. Fuels covering a wide range in properties and composition which would provide a matrix of fuels for possible use in future combustion research programs were identified. Except for tetralin the blending components were all from typical refinery streams. Property variation blends span a boiling range within 150 C to 335 C, freezing point -23 C to -43 C, aromatic content 20 to 50 volume percent, hydrogen content 11.8 to 14.2 mass percent, viscosity 4 and 11 cSt (-20 C), and naphthalenes 8 and 16 volume percent. Composition variation blends were made with two base stocks, one paraffinic and the other napthenic. To each base stock was added each of three aromatic type fuels (alkyl benzenes, tetralin, and naphthalenes) for assigned initial boiling point, final boiling point, and hydrogen content. The hydrogen content was 13.5 mass percent for the paraffinic base stock blends and 12.5 mass percent and 11.5 mass percent for the naphthenic base stock blends. Sample 5-gallon quantities of all blends were prepared and analyzed.

  16. Quantum distillation and confinement of vacancies in a doublon sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lin; Zundel, Laura A.; Carrasquilla, Juan; Reinhard, Aaron; Wilson, Joshua M.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.

    2015-04-01

    Ultracold atomic gases have revolutionized the study of non-equilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Many counterintuitive non-equilibrium effects have been observed, such as suppressed thermalization in a one-dimensional (1D) gas, the formation of repulsive self-bound dimers, and identical behaviours for attractive and repulsive interactions. Here, we observe the expansion of a bundle of ultracold 1D Bose gases in a flat-bottomed optical lattice potential. By combining in situ measurements with photoassociation, we follow the spatial dynamics of singly, doubly and triply occupied lattice sites. The system sheds interaction energy by dissolving some doublons and triplons. Some singlons quantum distil out of the doublon centre, whereas others remain confined. Our Gutzwiller mean-field model captures these experimental features in a physically clear way. These experiments might be used to study thermalization in systems with particle losses, the evolution of quantum entanglement or, if applied to fermions, to prepare very low entropy states.

  17. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  18. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  19. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  20. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.