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1

Epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases de desenvolvimento  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO São apresentados os dados anatômicos da epiderme dos segmentos foliares de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae) em três fases do desenvolvimento. Os segmentos foliares foram analisados em toda a extensão do limbo. As células intercostais da epiderme das faces adaxial e abaxial evidenciam-se com paredes sinuosas, retangulares e orientadas longitudinalmente em relação ao eixo do segmento foliar com acentuada

Mahedy Araújo Bastos Passos; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça

2006-01-01

2

Infecção natural por Trypanosoma evansi em cães  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes cases of natural infection by Trypanosoma evansi in dogs that eventually died in Uruguaiana, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The animals from the rural zone were admitted to the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS) Veterinary Hospital presenting the following clinical signs: apathy, fever and enlargement of

Cristina Braccini Colpo; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Daniel Roulim Stainki; Elida Teresita Braccini Colpo; Graciela Braccini Henriques

2005-01-01

3

Naturalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Things may be split into natural and non-natural. In turn, the natural things may exist either in nature or in society; and\\u000a the unnatural things may be artificial like books or supernatural like gods. Naturalism is the philosophical view, first advanced\\u000a by Thales of Miletus, that the universe and nature are the same, so that there is nothing supernatural and

Mario Bunge

4

Desenvolvimento de ímãs para sensor de velocidade para motor de arranque de avião  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de ímãs de ferrita a serem utilizados em sensor de velocidade para motor de arranque de um avião, fabricado pela empresa Aeromot de Canoas - RS. Dois tipos de ímãs foram solicitados pela empresa: na forma de cilindro e na forma de anel. Para a confecção dos ímãs, foi utilizada uma matéria-prima

Moisés de Mattos Dias; Lírio Schaeffer; Arão de Matos Dias; José Lesina Cezar; José Carlos; Krause de Verney

5

Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance, and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public. Nature publishes more articles than any other multidisciplinary journal, and retains its position as the most cited weekly science journal. The site provides free access to news stories in the latest issue; access to research articles, and to the Nature archive, is by subscription.

6

Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

Miloni, O. I.

2003-08-01

7

Selecao Natural E Fisica de Particulas: Uma Direcao de Pesquisa Em Inteligencia Artificial (Natural Selection and Particle Physics: A Thrust for Artificial Intelligence Research).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article presents a proposal for application of the principles of natural selection and particle physics to orient research in artificial intelligence. An elementary model developed in accordance with this proposal is also presented.

G. Bittencourt

1991-01-01

8

A influência dos captadores de vento na ventilação natural de habitações populares localizadas em climas quentes e úmidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm humid regions cover great part of the Brazilian territory. In those regions, natural ventilation associated to solar protection is the most efficient building design strategy to reach thermal comfort by passive means. One of the strategies to increase natural ventilation in buildings is the use of wind-catchers, which consist of shafts with openings located above the roof, designed to

Denise Gonçalves Ferreira Lôbo; Leonardo Salazar Bittencourt

9

As paixões naturais e as ações humanas voluntárias em Thomas Hobbes1 The natural passions and voluntary human actions in Thomas Hobbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo procuram-se examinar as razões pelas quais se originam e procedem as ações humanas em Hobbes. Primeiramente, evidencia-se que as ações humanas procedem dos movimentos voluntários, e que tais movimentos são responsáveis pelo processo de deliberação humana. Em seguida, discute-se o papel da vontade em relação às ações voluntárias, ressaltando, sobretudo, como essas ações constituem-se em ações livres, de

Delmo Mattos da Silva

10

Desenvolvimento local e agricultura familiar: o caso da produção de açúcar mascavo em Capanema - Paraná Local development and family agriculture: the brown sugar production case in Capanema city- Paraná state in Brazil Développement local et agriculture familiale: le cas de la production de sucre brun dans la ville de Capanema dans l'état du Paraná au Brésil Desarrollo local y la agricultura familiar: el caso de la producción de azúcar marrón en la ciudad de Capanema - estado de Paraná en Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Esse estudo analisa, por meio de um estudo exploratório, o aporte dos produtos derivados da cana-de- açúcar no contexto do desenvolvimento local no município de Capanema - Paraná. Essa atividade se apresenta como opção para a produção da agricultura familiar ao criar alternativa de renda nas unidades agroindustriais, além de possibilitar a diversificação da produção. Os resultados mostram que

Mariza Zeni de Castro; Jandir Ferrera de Lima; Pery Francisco Assis Shikida

2009-01-01

11

PROTECÇÃO PATRIMONIAL & DESENVOLVIMENTO TERRITORIAL. Três Casos Internacionais: Stonehenge, Dordonha, Aragão  

Microsoft Academic Search

** Resumo : Os Estados e as suas administrações públicas detêm um papel preponderante nos domínios da protecção patrimonial e do desenvolvimento territorial. Com efeito, se por um lado a intervenção dos agentes públicos se justifica pela necessidade de potenciar melhorias nas condições de vida das populações, por outro lado, vários são os desafios que se colocam na definição das

Fernando Pau-Preto

12

Abordagem do tema hipertensão arterial e suas relações com o tabagismo e a obesidade como forma de avaliação da aquisição e socialização de conhecimentos em Feiras de Ciências  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho apresenta a experiência vivenciada por um professor do Ensino Fundamental de Escola Pública do Paraná, na orientação de uma equipe de alunos de 8ª série, em 2008, visando o desenvolvimento de trabalhos em Feiras de Ciências. A temática da equipe enfoca a hipertensão arterial e seus fatores de risco, tabagismo e obesidade, no município de Floresta. Escolheu-se

Eduardo de Almeida Grenier; Celso Ivam Conegero

2008-01-01

13

ALIMENTOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS: AVALIAÇÃO DE SEGURANÇA E MELHORIAS DE QUALIDADE EM DESENVOLVIMENTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of toxicological animal models for the safety assessment of compounds such as pesticides and food additives is well established. In these cases, animals are directly fed such compounds at a range of doses some several orders of magnitude greater than the expected for human consumption and safe intake levels are estimated by the application of appropriate safety factors.

EDSON WATANABE; MARILIA REGINI NUTTI

2002-01-01

14

UM PROCEDIMENTO PARA SELEÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE PRODUÇÃO E INJEÇÃO DE UM CAMPO EM DESENVOLVIMENTO, LEVANDO EM CONSIDERAÇÃO INCERTEZAS GEOLÓGICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of the hydrocarbon's explotation in a field development project may be very complex, due to the uncertainties on the reservoir characterization. Different strategies may present great variations on fluid production (oil, water and gas) and on the costs and profits related to the explotation. A procedure to select strategies must consider the possibilities, compare them and choose the

Cristina C. Mezzomo; Álvaro F. Martini; Denis J. Schiozer

15

Desenvolvimento de circuitos reconfiguráveis que interagem com um monitor VGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este artigo descreve a implementação de circuitos reconfiguráveis que suportam interacção com monitores VGA. A visualização dos resultados e dos dados intermédios num monitor VGA facilita a depuração de circuitos realizados em FPGA e aumenta as potencialidades de interacção com o utilizador. O projecto desenvolvido foi utilizado no âmbito das disciplinas Computação Reconfigurável (4º ano de LECT) e

Iouliia Skliarova

2005-01-01

16

Natural resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural resources are resources that occur in nature. Humans use these resources, but many of these resources are nonrenewable. They will eventually run out. Fossil fuels are naturally occurring fuels that are nonrenewable.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-07

17

O desenvolvimento da habilidade da criança para narrar experiências pessoais: uma revisão da literatura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A participação dos pais no desenvolvimento de habilidades cognitivas e comunicacionais dos filhos vem sendo analisada, nos últimos quinze anos, especialmente a partir de uma perspectiva sociointeracionista. Pesquisas recentes indicam que as crianças aprendem a falar sobre suas memórias de eventos passados de uma maneira organizada, num contexto colaborativo de engajamento com seus pais. Alguns autores propõem que o

Lídia Macedo; Tania Mara Sperb

2007-01-01

18

7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the FSA Administrator to make a determination that a natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical...If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available...

2013-01-01

19

Structure of Matter, Forces, EM Waves, Spectroscopy, Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

20

It's Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces learners to Native Americans as people who depended upon nature in the past and continue to emphasize the importance of nature in the present. Learners go outside and use their senses to make observations about their environment. This experience inspires curiosity about nature, helps learners understand that we all need and use natural resources and helps them imagine what it would be like to depend entirely on the natural world. This introductory activity is featured on pp.10-11 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.

Indianapolis, The C.

2012-05-10

21

Natural fibers  

Treesearch

Description: The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, ... These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, ... One of the largest areas of recent growth in natural fiber plastic composites is the  ...

22

Natural Wonders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the interesting landmarks around the world are formed over time by natural processes familiar to us in our everyday lives. This still collage produced for Teachers' Domain features images of a variety of beautiful natural wonders.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

23

Natural gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

N/A N/A (None;)

2003-07-27

24

Natural Wonders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's surface is covered with natural features formed by weathering, erosion, and deposition. Although these forces are typically associated with destruction, they have also created many of the world's natural wonders. This interactive slide show presents images of natural features (glacial valleys, petrified forests, hot springs, and others) produced by these powerful forces. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

25

Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of June 8 there appears a letter from my friend Prof. Poulton in which he replies to my statement that `natural selection' affords no explanation of evolution. He quotes in extenso a letter from Darwin to the distinguished American botanist Asa Gray, in which Darwin endeavours to deal with the objection that natural selection is a truism and

E. W. MacBride

1929-01-01

26

Natural Pragmatics and Natural Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grice (1957) drew a famous distinction between natural(N) and non-natural(NN) meaning, where what is meant (NN) is broadly equivalent to what is intentionally communicated. This paper argues that Grice's dichotomy overlooks the fact that spontaneously occurring natural signs may be intentionally shown, and hence used in intentional communication. It also argues that some naturally occurring behaviours have a signalling function,

Tim Wharton

2003-01-01

27

Natural Polymers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Polymers that exist in nature, called biopolymers , include a large and diverse range of compounds. This chapter discusses the most important types of natural polymers--their chemical makeup, key properties, and where they are found. The focus will be more on the chemical and physical properties of natural polymers and less on their biological synthesis or physiological function. The references at the end of the chapter provide additional information.

Teegarden, David

2004-01-01

28

Natural cooling  

SciTech Connect

With natural cooling, a process or area is cooled by outdoor air when the weather permits, and dependency on mechanical equipment is reduced. It should be used whenever conditions permit, and mechanical equipment should be brought on-line only when natural cooling cannot be employed. The results are minimized costs without lowered comfort or production levels, reduced costs for maintenance associated with higher levels of mechanical chiller system operation, and decreased dependence on expensive, nonrenewable energy sources. This article reviews several methods of natural cooling and provides a detailed computer-based economic evaluation of each. It discusses the air-side economizer, water-side natural cooling, and combination systems.

Fenster, L.C.; Grantier, A.J.

1981-11-25

29

Natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) certification or approval process for natural gas pipeline construction. Natural gas is an abundant domestic energy resource that can be substituted for imported oil, and is the most environmentally benign fossil fuel. This review describes the time it takes FERC to process pipeline construction applications; the factors affecting

Rezendes

1991-01-01

30

Nature Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Richard Louv's Last Child in the Woods (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and ot

Harr, Natalie; Jr., Richard E.

2010-11-01

31

Natural fibers  

Treesearch

Description: The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, ... it usually refers to wood fiber and plant-based bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. ... One of the largest areas of recent growth in natural fiber plastic composites is ...

32

ABC's Naturally  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 4 of the PDF), learners enjoy the sensory experience of creating letters using natural materials after listening to a book about finding the alphabet in nature. Assemble the alphabet shapes onto pages to form an alphabet book.

Museum, Chicago C.

2009-01-01

33

Natural Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Maria Montessori's early learning "Casa" setting for young children and other models for educational programs for young children. Discusses the importance of setting in facilitating natural learning in young children and the five steps in the natural learning cycle--observation, participation, role-playing practice, eureka moment, and…

Rambusch, Nancy McCormick

1995-01-01

34

Matematica Natural.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

35

Nature's Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature is full of fractals, that is, things that have the same general shape from their tiniest details to their broadest form.This radio broadcast reports on the work of one scientist who is using mathematical equations to model the fractal nature of flowing water such as in river basins and streams. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

36

Nature Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

2010-01-01

37

Natural Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Maria Montessori's early learning "Casa" setting for young children and other models for educational programs for young children. Discusses the importance of setting in facilitating natural learning in young children and the five steps in the natural learning cycle--observation, participation, role-playing practice, eureka moment, and…

Rambusch, Nancy McCormick

1995-01-01

38

Natural Beauty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

Coy, Mary

2006-01-01

39

Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to a variety of natural hazards, emphasizing that when people understand these threats they are better able to avoid or reduce their potential impacts. First, the class discusses what they know about natural hazards and natural disasters. Then, working in pairs, they research particular hazards; the threats they pose and where and when those threats are most pronounced. Following this research period, the class assembles what they have learned into a general overview of natural hazards nationwide. Following the second class discussion, students work in pairs again to explore the hazards that affect particular towns, cities, or regions of the country. In doing so, they learn more about how and why certain natural hazards impact specific areas, as well as what people are doing to minimize the threats these hazards pose.

2006-01-01

40

Por que as firmas industriais dos países em desenvolvimento crescem após a estréia no mercado internacional? Evidências  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firstly, we show that innovative new-exporters in 2 001-2002 become larger and more productive than innovative non-exporters. However, our major contribution relies on the characterization o f the technological patterns behind the learning-by-exporting hypothesi s. Whilst innovative activities in general (but especially intramural R& D) were important to all firms, other sources of information were found to be very important

Bruno César Araújo; Sérgio Kannebley Jr; Beatriz Selan

41

Natural sesquiterpenoids.  

PubMed

This review covers the isolation, structural determination, synthesis and chemical and microbiological transformations of natural sesquiterpenoids. The literature from January to December 2012 is reviewed, and 471 references are cited. PMID:23884176

Fraga, Braulio M

2013-07-25

42

Natural England  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural England has a very comprehensive website which explains not only the goals of the environmental conservation organization, but also provides a slew of scientific data, maps, free downloadable publications, and images that have been produced from their research and work. As the amount of information available can be overwhelming, the website offers the option of viewing the information based on the category of visitor, such as farmer, teacher, volunteer, and so on. On the far left side of the page, under the "Information for..." section, visitors can click on links for information that is relevant to "Farmers and Land Managers", "Researchers, Students & Teachers", "Local Authorities and Policy Makers", "Countryside Visitors", and "Volunteers". In the center of the homepage, there are links to the nine environmental regions of England. Clicking on any of the region's links will take the visitor to a menu that includes links to a "Map of the Region", "Nature on the Map", an interactive feature that allows one to see the nature in any area in England, "State of the Natural Environment", and "National Nature Reserves In Your Area". Clicking on the "Publications, Data & Forms" link on the far left side of the page will take the visitor to the "Publications Catalogue" link that can be browsed or searched, and offers well-written, appealing, and free downloadable publications about a dozen environmental topics of England, including "Wildlife Species", "Farming", "Habitats", and "Coasts & Seas".

43

Nature Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners take an indoor nature walk and discover various objects that have been brought in from the outdoor environment. In preparation for the activity, an educator places natural and man-made items around a room for learners to discover. Learners examine what they find and make notes about what they see and smell, how they (the learners) feel, and what each item looks like (including sketches). Then the group addresses the topic of "Leave No Trace" as it applies to a real nature walk. This would be a great activity before a field trip to a park, arboretum, or other outdoor environment, and can be done with one learner, a class, or even a large group at a family science event.

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

44

Second Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Nature is a nonprofit organization designed to help colleges and universities make environmental sustainability a "foundation of learning and practice." A basic premise of Second Nature is that "moving society on a sustainable path will require major changes in the process and content of higher education." The newly updated site offers current EFS (Education for Sustainability) resources for teachers and educators, including dozens of examples of teaching methods and techniques, a bibliography of over 1800 educational resources, examples of 250 course syllabi, and a collection of essays and publications. The site also allows users to communicate with educators via the bulletin board or browse upcoming events on the Calendar.

1969-12-31

45

Natural restoration  

SciTech Connect

After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

Kamlet, K.S.

1993-02-01

46

Nature Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

Sterling, Donna R.

2010-01-01

47

Nature's pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diverse in both form and function, the fluid-forcing devices in organisms have many of the capabilities and limitations of pumps of human design. Nature's pumps certainly look quite different from those of our technology, but all of them perform the same task. The author examines a few of these with an eye toward technological parallels and the two functional

Steven Vogel

1994-01-01

48

Nature's Palette  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the

Mcbride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

2010-10-01

49

Natural Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of November 21, Prof. E. W. MacBride states that ``Ordinary fluctuating variations which can be graphically represented on a `curve of error' are certainly not inherited''. He bases this statement on the work of Johannsen on pure lines of beans, and of Agar and Jennings on clones of Simocephalus and Paramecium. He does not mention the fact that

J. B. S. Haldane

1936-01-01

50

Nature's Palette  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

2010-01-01

51

Complete-data spaces and generalized EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms have been applied extensively for computing maximum-likelihood and penalized-likelihood parameter estimates in signal processing applications. Intrinsic to each EM algorithm is a complete-data space (CDS)-a hypothetical set of random variables that is related to the parameters more naturally than the measurements are. The authors describe two generalizations of the EM paradigm: (i) allowing the relationship between the

J. A. Fessler; A. O. Hero

1993-01-01

52

MICRONUTRIENTS ACCUMULA TION AT DIFFERENT MAIZE DEVELOPMENT STAGES1 Acúmulo de micronutrientes em híbridos de milho em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of micronutrients accumulation as a function of plant development stage is of fundamental importance to subsidize strategies for fertilizer application and minimum amount to maintain soil fertility. This study evaluated micronutrient accumulation in two maize cultivars at different development stages. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications in split-plots, with two maize hybrids as the plots

Renzo Garcia Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade; Rezende Pereira

53

Nature Milestones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What were the most important advances in cutaneous biology of the past 100 years? The Nature Milestones website provides a detailed answer to that question, along with similar responses regarding light microscopy, cancer, and gene expression. All told there are ten special features on the site, and each feature includes an interactive timeline, scientific commentaries, and a selection of articles from Nature magazine and other peer-reviewed publications. Additionally, each feature includes a list of academic advisors, sponsors, and links to external resources on the subject. Visitors may wish to use these resources in the classroom setting, as they provide basic and advanced materials that can be used by a number of introductory courses. Finally, a number of the materials are also available in the pdf format for easy printing.

54

QUALIDADE DO CAFÉ NA TURAL E DESPOLP ADO APÓS SECAGEM EM TERREIRO E COM ALTAS TEMPERA TURAS Quality of natural and washed coffee after drying on ground and with high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work has the aim of verifying the quality of natural and washed coffee during its drying with air heated at 40º and 60ºC. The work was accomplished in the Engineering Department and in the Coffee Post-harvest Technology Pole at the Federal University of Lavras. The harvest of Topázio cultivar cultivar was selective. A part of the coffee was

Flávio Meira Borém; Paulo Carteri Coradi; Reni Saath; João Almir Oliveira

55

Isotope and trace element variations in lavas from Raivavae and Rapa, Cook–Austral islands: constraints on the nature of HIMU- and EM-mantle and the origin of mid-plate volcanism in French Polynesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the major and trace element and Sr–Nd–Hf–Pb–Os isotope variations in two suites of lavas from the islands of Raivavae and Rapa from the Cook–Austral chain to better constrain the nature and origin of the source(s) of these lavas. Combined with data from other Cook–Austral islands and seamounts, the Raivavae and Rapa samples reveal the presence of three

J. C Lassiter; J Blichert-Toft; E. H Hauri; H. G Barsczus

2003-01-01

56

Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This updated new edition presents a comprehensive, inter-disciplinary analysis of the complete range of natural hazards. Edward Bryant describes and explains how hazards occur, examines prediction methods, considers recent and historical hazard events and explores the social impact of such disasters. Supported by over 180 maps, diagrams and photographs, this standard text is an invaluable guide for students and professionals in the field. First Edition Hb (1991): 0-521-37295-X First Edition Pb (1991): 0-521-37889-3

Bryant, Edward

2005-02-01

57

Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is provided by ThinkQuest, a global network of students, teachers, parents, and technologists dedicated to youth-centered learning on the internet. This site highlights the following natural disasters: famine, cyclones, brushfires, drought, volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Information provided about these disasters includes where they occur, how they occur, and case studies of each type. A worksheet is included for students to fill out as they navigate the site.

58

ANÁLISE DO VIGOR E DA ATIVIDADE DA a-AMILASE EM SEMENTES DE CULTIVARES DE ARROZ SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMENTOS COM ÁCIDO ACÉTICO VIGOUR AND a-AMYLASE ANALISIS IN SEEDS OF RICE CULTIVARS SUBMITTED TO SEVERAL TREATMENTS WITH ACETIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Os ácidos orgânicos acumulados, devido a decomposição da matéria orgânica no solo sob irrigação, afetam o desenvolvimento de plântulas em lavouras de arroz. Por isso, a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz, submetidas à ação de ácidos orgânicos, deve ser estudada. Sementes de arroz das cultivares BR IRGA-410 e Epagri 111 foram submetidas a tratamentos com ácido acético nas

Luiz Augusto; Dario Munt de Moraes

59

Nature: Debates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Nature_, the prestigious international journal of science, has launched this 'Debates' site "to map out and define the landscape of international scientific controversy." More specifically, this site provides a forum for thinking about, and "discussing" (ex situ), several current scientific topics. The set-up of the site includes a list of monthly topics, moderated by selected experts (a short 'credentials' summary is provided for each), and contributions from select readers. The Current topic is entitled "Is the fossil record adequate?" The previous (first) topic was entitled "Benefits and Risks of Genetic Modification in Agriculture."

1998-01-01

60

Natural Selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners simulate the process of natural selection using a variety of beans and a bowl with a hole cut into it. The variety of beans represents the variation in a population of microbes, and the bowl with a hole represents an antibiotic or some other selective pressure on the population. Only the beans that survive (don't fall through the hole) are allowed to reproduce for the next generation. Learners record and plot the number of each kind of bean through multiple generations. This activity also addresses the process of scientific investigation as learners are encouraged to design their own method of experimentation, make a hypothesis, record data, and share their results.

Thiel-Cobbey, Heather

2012-01-01

61

Natural inflation  

SciTech Connect

A pseduo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, with a potential of the form V({phi}) = {Lambda}{sup 4}(1 {plus minus} cos({phi}/f)), can naturally give rise to an epoch of inflation in the early universe. Successful inflation can be achieved if f {approximately} m{sub pl} and {Lambda} {approximately} m{sub GUT}. Such mass scales arise in particle physics models with a gauge group that becomes strongly interacting a the GUT scale, e.g., as is expected to happen in the hidden sector of superstring theories. The density fluctuation spectrum is a non-scale-invariant power law, with extra power on large scales. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Frieman, J.A.

1991-02-01

62

Natural ingredients in atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory skin disease.  

PubMed

Active naturals in dermatology have been experiencing a renaissance. Many of the naturals that have been known for centuries to be effective for various skin conditions have now been scientifically validated with the unraveling of the pathophysiology behind their medicinal mechanism. This article seeks to present data on the clinical use of key dermatological active naturals such as oatmeal, feverfew, chamomile, aloe vera, licorice, and dexpanthenol, as well as on recent multicenter and international clinical studies that support their efficacy and safety profile for a variety of inflammatory skin conditions.

<em>J Drugs Dermatol.em> 2013;12(suppl 9):s128-s132. PMID:24002161

Dohil, Magdalene A

2013-09-01

63

EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available

1993-07-01

64

VETOR NATURAL DA DIROFILARIA IMMITIS (NEMATODA) EM MOSSORÓ-RN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dirofilariasis is an emergent zoonosis caused by the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis, having Culicidea mosquitoes as vectors of great epidemiological importance. The present work aimed to identify the fauna of Culicidea mosquitoes and the species responsible for the transmission of D. immitis in Mossoró-RN. Mosquitoes were captured in peridomiciliar environment using a human being as attractive, during the period of August

PAULO MOISÉS LIMA

65

MAXIMUM (EM) POWER: A FOUNDATION PRINCIPLE LINKING MAN AND NATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The fruitfulness of H.T. Odum?s commitment to a systems-based understanding of our biosphere, its dynamics, and the potential role of humans within it is indicated by his extensive and seminal contributions to the many branches of environmental science and socioeconomic policy st...

66

Is EM dead?  

PubMed

Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future. PMID:24124192

Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel

2013-10-15

67

The Nature of Nature as a Stakeholder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a longstanding debate in the stakeholder literature as to who and what really counts as the stakeholders of the firm.\\u000a Likewise, there have been discussions on whether nature should be considered a stakeholder of the firm. However, one seldom\\u000a encounters any definitions of the key concepts, that is of nature or the natural environment. We seek to contribute

Matias Laine

2010-01-01

68

Naming Natural Kinds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses whether it can be known a priori that a particular term, such as ‘water’, is a natural kind term, and how this problem relates to Putnam’s claim that natural kind terms require an externalist semantics. Two conceptions of natural kind terms are contrasted: The first holds that whether ‘water’ is a natural kind term depends on its

ÅSA maria wikforss

2005-01-01

69

Lessons from natural molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products have inspired chemists and physicians for millennia. Their rich structural diversity and complexity has prompted synthetic chemists to produce them in the laboratory, often with therapeutic applications in mind, and many drugs used today are natural products or natural-product derivatives. Recent years have seen considerable advances in our understanding of natural-product biosynthesis. Coupled with improvements in approaches for

Jon Clardy; Christopher Walsh

2004-01-01

70

Branching Art From Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use materials from nature to create original works of art. Learners go on a "natural-supply" hunt outside to find materials and then sort the found objects into groups by color, shape, size, or other characteristics. Learners can use their found objects to create patterns/designs, a natural rock garden, a nature collage, or sculptures.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

71

Environmental Media Services (EMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental Media Services (EMS) is a nonprofit communications clearinghouse committed to the expansion of media coverage on critical environmental and public health issues. True to their mission, EMS staff "build relationships with top scientists, physicians, and other experts to bring journalists the latest and most credible information." EMS's modest homepage is free of clutter but full of content. While several sections are under construction and updates (currently) appear irregular, a series of available articles provides useful summaries of important environmental news issues over the past six months. Current articles include "The impacts of global warming on the oceans" and "Cool companies," among others.

72

American Indian Perspectives: Nature, Natural Resources, and Natural Resources Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module from the Northwest Center for Sustainable Resources (NCSR) "provides information, both historical and contemporary, insights, and ideals about American Indians and natural resources in various contexts." The document is 117 pages long.

2011-03-23

73

Sketching in Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science students will discover the beauty of communing with nature by utilizing a Nature journal during field observations. Nature journaling is a useful skill, independent of whether students consider themselves artists. Sketching from nature is one way to provide open-ended, inquiry-based learning while also bringing art into the process of learning science. This article includes two exercises, contour drawing and an observation activity, to get teachers started in the process of "sketching nature" into the science curriculum.

Hobart, April

2005-01-01

74

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1998-01-01

75

Marine EM in GOM: Advances and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods provide valuable complementary information to conventional seismic exploration methods and success stories have been claimed by several oil companies: 1) as indicator of hydrocarbon presence derived from strong resistive anomalies 2) as complimentary tool in structural exploration. While 3D seismic identifies geological structures, it does not directly reveal the fluid content (hydrocarbons). Marine EM sounding exploits variations in electrical resistivity, and is directly sensitive to fluid saturation and thus resistive hydrocarbons. Under the right circumstances it can confirm the presence of hydrocarbons by identifying their resistive characteristics. This means that the possibility of drilling dry exploration wells is significantly reduced, as is the need for extensive appraisal drilling. EM data is used to resolve ambiguities in the structural interpretation of seismic data. For example, whereas the top of a diapiric salt body is often well constrained by seismic data, the position of the lower boundaries is often more elusive. Carbonate (or salt blankets, or resistive basalt) layers complicate the detection and characterization of deeper structure because of diffusive scattering in the layer. However, the resistivity contrast between these layers and the sediments below is an ideal target for EM sounding methods. Recently, two marine EM methods have become popular: The controlled source EM (CSEM) method and magnetotellurics (MT). The CSEM method uses an electric dipole source to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals to an array of receivers that measure the electromagnetic field at the seafloor. Variation in amplitude and phase of the received signal as the source is towed through the receiver array yield the resistivity structure of the sub-surface to depths of several kilometers. The MT method uses naturally occurring electromagnetic source fields to determine the resistivity of the sub-surface. Thus, by studying the variation in response as a function of frequency, the variation in resistivity as a function of depth may be determined. These methods give complementary information about the resistivity structure of the sub-seafloor. Whereas CSEM data are primarily sensitive to resistive structures, and in particular to layers that are thin compared to their depth of burial, MT data can constrain larger scale conductive structure. By combining natural and controlled source methods better constraints on the geometry and properties of the seafloor can be gained than from either data type alone. Several case histories with large salt structures in the section illustrate that the techniques are useful for future exploration in the GOM. We see the technology moving from its present focus of deep water to include shallower water depths (where CSEM sounding is presently restricted). In addition, we envision the integration of complimentary EM techniques to get a better constrained resistivity image of the subsurface.

MacGregor, L. M.; Strack, K. M.

2005-05-01

76

Asian natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Ohashi, T. (Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan))

1989-01-01

77

Sonar-Based Mapping With Mobile Robots Using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithms for learn- ing occupancy grid maps with mobile robots equipped with range finders, such as sonar sen- sors. Our approach employs the EM algorithm to solve the concurrent mapping and localization problem. To accommodate the spatial nature of range data, it relies on a two-layered representa- tion of maps, where global maps are composed from

Wolfram Burgard; Dieter Fox; Hauke Jans; Christian Matenar; Sebastian Thrun

78

The Nature of Haiku  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Haiku takes advantage of children's curiosity and interest in nature. The open-ended nature of haiku writing is motivational and student centered. Also, the simplicity of haiku allows children to have successful writing experiences. This article describes

Cleland, Joann V.; Conzelman, Karen A.; Rillero, Peter

1999-10-01

79

Nature of War Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today s advances in evolutionary biology are unifying competing theories of natural selection and serve as a timely call for a similar unification of competing theories of war. This paper explores the relationship between war and natural selection by firs...

P. B. Olsen

2011-01-01

80

Natural short sleeper  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep - natural short sleeper ... of 7 - 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do not ...

81

Colours From Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reference to American Indian ceremonial art, the importance of using natural pigments is emphasized, since the superior color values of natural dyes better reflect religious and philosophical depth and meaning. (JC)

Simon, Wilma

1974-01-01

82

Is "Natural" Always Healthy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Currently, the word "natural" is being used to imply health, safety, and wellness. However, many "natural" substances produce psychoactive or physiologic effects which are potentially toxic to the user. (CJ)|

Kaufman, M. Robert; Siek, Theodore

1980-01-01

83

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01

84

Natural gas annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1995-11-17

85

On Natural Based Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature has always been a source of great inspiration for engineers and mathematicians. Evolutionary Algorithms are the latest\\u000a in a line of natural-based innovations which have had a profound effect on the application of optimization in science and\\u000a engineering. Although based on nature, Evolutionary Algorithms are nonetheless distinctly different from natural evolution\\u000a in several areas. This paper outlines early and

Amin Nobakhti

2010-01-01

86

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

87

Diferenças sexuais no desenvolvimento da preocupação moral por outras pessoas: um estudo empírico da expressão de emoções morais em crianças1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated gender and age differences in children's feelings of guilt and personal responsibility towards other people's distress. Forty-eight children, aged between seven and eleven years, were randomly recruited from a state school in Kent, England. Children were presented with sets of cartoon stories depicting a variety of open-ended moral dilemmas. They were then asked to recount the story

Heliane de Almeida; Lins Leitão

88

Atuação de Alunos Universitários em Espaço Não Formal de Ensino: Estratégia Motivadora e Integradora Para o Desenvolvimento de Atividades Práticas e Assistenciais  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an extracurricular strategy to motivate undergraduate students in the health area to the study of human anatomy. In a science fair held in the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, we developed a study to evaluate the level of participants' knowledge of infectious diseases, using a stand of cadaveric and synthetic anatomical pieces in order to attract the public. The

MARCO AURÉLIO DE AZAMBUJA

89

A GESTÃO DE PESSOAS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PROJETO EDUCATIVO DE HORTA NA ESCOLA DE ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL SÃO FRANCISCO EM ARACATI\\/CE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The administration of People is a subject very discussed today and it understands the important function of menagement people in the organizations, be public or privates. For that, the objective of the present article is to verify which is the level of the effectiveness of the work of Administration of People with the servers in the accomplishment of the Educational

Maria Nilene Lima Silva; José Orlando; Costa Nunes

90

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de metodologia por cromatografia em camada delgada para determinação do perfil de alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos nas espécies sul-americanas do gênero Uncaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O gênero Uncaria (Rubiaceae) é representado na América do Sul e Central por duas espécies: U. tomentosa (Willd.) DC. e U. guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., conhecidas popularmente como unha-de-gato. Ambas são trepadeiras perenes, sendo empregadas na prevenção e cura de várias doenças. Nessas plantas são encontrados alcalóides oxindólicos e indólicos, triterpenos glicosilados, taninos e fl avonóides. Seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos,

Ligia M. M. Valente; Flaviane F. Alves; Giselle M. Bezerra; Maria Beatriz S. Almeida; Sandra L. Rosario; José L. Mazzei; Luiz A. d'Avila; Antonio C. Siani

2006-01-01

91

Artificial insemination in pigs, research and developments in The Netherlands, a review Inseminação artificial em suínos, pesquisa e desenvolvimento nos Países Baixos, uma revisão  

Microsoft Academic Search

highest worldwide. More than 98% of the sows in The Netherlands is mated through AI. Sow farmers put great trust in AI and are fully depending on the quality of the product. The Dutch cooperative pig AI centers put large efforts in producing high quality insemination doses as far as semen quality and genetic quality. In this paper the following

Hanneke Feitsma

92

MAPEAMENTO DE GENES DE RESISTÊNCIA PARCIAL À FERRUGEM DA FOLHA EM CULTIVARES BRASILEIRAS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puccinia triticina Erikss. the causal agent of the leaf rust fungal disease common in southern Brazil, is the widest distributed and regularly occurring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) pathogen. The knowledge of resistance genes is fundamental for a more effective protection against the fungus. Due to the dinamic nature of cereal-fungus relationship, the resistance stability is difficult to

Sandra Patussi Brammer; Maria Irene; Baggio de Moraes; Amarílis L. Barcellos; Sandra Cristina; K. Milach; Antony Worland; Greg Penner

93

Drawing From Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners draw natural objects to explore the details, differences, and similarities of natural objects. Learners investigate plants, seeds, pinecones, and other items from nature at two stations. At station one, learners trace plants on plexiglass. At station two, learners observe small items through magnifying glasses and draw what they see.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

94

Natural and Academic Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For centuries, there has been a raging debate over the origin of knowledge and the nature of learning. This paper describes the essence of that debate as it relates to understanding the current disjunction between natural learning and academic learning. Natural learning represents the wealth of learning that occurs outside of school, especially…

Collier, Sunya; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

95

Natural Hazards, Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction

Badaoui Rouhban

2005-01-01

96

Learning in Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper traces the evolution of a theory of learning in nature in order to explain how people learn in natural settings. The intellectual roots of the theory in informal learning, cognition, affective development, experiential and meaningful learning are described and the synthesis into a comprehensive theory of learning in nature are…

Brody, Michael

2005-01-01

97

Learning in Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the evolution of a theory of learning in nature in order to explain how people learn in natural settings. The intellectual roots of the theory in informal learning, cognition, affective development, experiential and meaningful learning are described and the synthesis into a comprehensive theory of learning in nature are…

Brody, Michael

2005-01-01

98

On nature's scaling effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches

Dick J. Wilkins

1994-01-01

99

Natural Gas Annual 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Natural Gas Annual_ provides information on the "supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States." It contains State level data for production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price of natural gas. Historical data at the national level are available from the 1930's.

100

Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

St Maurice, Henry

2006-01-01

101

Mediação Semiótica: Estudo de Caso de uma Criança Cega, com Alterações no Desenvolvimento Semiotic Mediation: a Case Study of a Blind Child with Developmental Alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo É relatado o caso de uma criança cega congênita de quatro anos, com alterações no desenvolvimento, analisado de acordo com as concepções de linguagem constitutiva (Franchi, 1977\\/1992) e mediação semiótica (Rodríguez & Moro, 1999). Sete sessões de intervenção, compreendendo um intervalo de dois anos, foram transcritas e analisadas. A adaptação da metodologia utilizada por Rodríguez e Moro permitiu que

Michelli Alessandra Silva; Cecília Guarnieri Batista

102

Natural gas sdtrategic plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s natural gas program is aimed at meeting simultaneously our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy The Natural Gas Strategic Plan for 1995 represents a Department-wide effort to articulate the key issues related to the expanded development and utilization of natural gas, and defines the roles of the federal government and US industry in partnering to accomplish the strategic goals defined. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Strategic Plan are to: foster the development of advanced natural gas technologies; encourage the adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets; support the removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets; and foster technologies and policies to maximize the environmental benefits of natural gas use. DOE`s proposed fiscal year (FY) 1996 budget represents a commitment to natural gas research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) from reservoir to end use. DOE has redirected and increased funding for its natural gas exploration, production, delivery and storage, processing, and utilization RD&D programs, shifting funds from other energy programs to programs that will enhance efficiency and advance the role of natural gas in our domestic energy resources portfolio.

NONE

1995-06-01

103

Novel natural food antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry. PMID:22385168

Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

2012-01-01

104

The nature of The Nature of Prejudice.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to establish the historical context for the development and publication of Gordon Allport's text, The Nature of Prejudice, and by so doing illustrate the importance of historicizing psychological social psychology. The Nature of Prejudice was, in part, the cumulative result of a decade of Gordon Allport's classroom teaching in a new interdisciplinary unit at Harvard, the Department of Social Relations. This paper chronicles key elements of Allport's course -"Prejudice and Intergroup Conflict"-from 1944 to the mid-1950s. PMID:11054740

Cherry, F

2000-01-01

105

Gestão curricular em Matemática 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. A gestão curricular realizada pelo professor implica uma (re)construção do currículo, tendo em conta os seus alunos e as suas condições de trabalho. Esta gestão curricular assenta, de modo central, em dois elementos. Um deles é a criação de tarefas, a partir das quais os alunos se possam envolver em actividades matematicamente ricas e produtivas. As tarefas podem ser

João Pedro da Ponte

106

by EM tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the in vitro reconstitution of sperm nuclei and small DNA templates to mitotic chroma- tin in Xenopus laevis egg extracts by three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy (EM) tomography. Using specif- ically developed software, the reconstituted chromatin was interpreted in terms of nucleosomal patterns and the overall chromatin connectivity. The condensed chromatin formed

Peter König; Michael B. Braunfeld; John W. Sedat; David A. Agard

107

Natural natural disasters and economic disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of natural calamities is not limited to direct capital losses. Economies in the wake of severe shocks experience important slowdowns. I construct an exhaustive dataset of objective measures on cyclones and earthquakes worldwide between 1980 and 2006 and complement existing reports on direct damages. I then estimate the amplitude of indirect economic losses in the aftermath of catastrophes.

Yanos Zylberberg

2010-01-01

108

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our

G. Swift; D. Gardner; M. Hayden; R. Radebaugh; J. Wollan

1996-01-01

109

Natural Form Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most engineering software has been designed and optimized for parametric shapes. Sophisticated modeling of natural objects\\u000a is free-form based, reflecting their inherent design. The merging of natural with parametric-based forms presents additional\\u000a challenges. While work is needed, there are solutions that enable natural form modeling and analysis. Our focus is to use\\u000a medical imaging and 3D modeling to analyze the

Douglas Robertson; Gulshan Sharma

110

A Natural Selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The high school science laboratory provides a natural environment for students to learn through scientist-teacher partnerships. A dynamic learning community, authentic inquiry, a deeper understanding of the nature of science, and learning about scientific careers are all benefits of scientist-teacher partnerships. This article focuses on the benefits of partnerships while describing how one specific partnership team developed a natural selection laboratory to integrate with a high school biology curriculum.

Nielsen, Katherine M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Mlynarczyk-Evans, Susanna; Brenner, Tamara J.

2005-10-01

111

Natural gas annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

112

Introduction to Exploring Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children are fascinated with the world of nature. From the tiniest of seeds to the highest of birds, they wonder "Why?" "How?" and "What can I do with it?" This paper provides intriguing nature activities that provide a solid starting point for expanding children's thinking and learning. Through these activities, children will be building skills…

Early Childhood Today, 2006

2006-01-01

113

Nature Foil Reliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her…

Lane, Shaw J.

2012-01-01

114

Natural shadow matting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of natural shadow matting: the removal or extraction of natural shadows from a single image. Because textures are maintained in the shadowless image after the extraction process, our approach produces some of the best results to date among shadow removal techniques. Using the image formation equation typical of computer vision, we advocate a new model

Tai-pang Wu; Chi-keung Tang; Michael S. Brown; Heung-yeung Shum

2007-01-01

115

Engineering Nature's Nanotech  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author discussed the possibilities and the advantages of natural nanotechnology over synthethic materials. Proteins for example, as nature's nanomachines is easily accessible and does not require fabrication. nanotechnology is set to open up numerous doors for the future, some of which we will likely not even be able to foresee today. As we begin to venture

Christopher M. Frenz

2008-01-01

116

NATURAL GAS COMMITTEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government activities relating to natural gas are reported by four subcommittees covering producers, pipelines, consumers, and legislation. Each subcommittee presents a summary of regulatory actions and court decisions relating to the development of reserves and the transport and sale of natural gas. Of particular concern was the need for rate and contract reforms and offshore-leasing procedures. Major legislation was enacted

William P. Diener; Donald R. Arnett; Alfred O. Holl; Keith R. McCrea; Frederick Moring; Frederick Ritts

1978-01-01

117

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

118

Nature's guiding light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded for research inspired by jellyfish. This is a reminder that the natural world continues to hint at solutions to modern technological dilemmas, and that when it comes to simple and effective solutions, nature is usually well ahead of man.

2008-11-01

119

Nature's Advice Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After months of exploring various ecosystems, a third grade teacher incorporates "Nature's Advice Book", a writing tool created to assess what her students had learned and to gain insight into their ideas about nature in a creative way. This writing activity helped students to refine their writing skills, while also providing a lesson which integrated science and language arts.

Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn

2005-02-01

120

Natural Language Competent Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why use natural language (NL) to communicate with computer systems? I have always thought the answer was obvious. Since NL is the most natural communica-tion language for people to use [1], it would make computer systems easiest to use if they understood and spoke NL. I often get resistance to this opinion, but the resistance almost always takes the form

Stuart C. Shapiro

2006-01-01

121

Naturally Occurring Anthracyclines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article gives an overview of the natural occurring anthracyclines and anthracyclinones reported from microorganisms. A general description, discussion of their physicochemical properties, including NMR increments, and their structural classification are reported. In addition to a compilation of their sugar moieties, an exhaustive list of naturally occurring anthracyclines and anthracyclinones has been added.

Laatsch, Hartmut; Fotso, Serge

122

Natural capital and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and rigorously analyses a model describing the optimal use of natural capital in a utilitarian framework. Natural capital is treated as an aggregate including exhaustibles, renewables and ‘environmentals’, performing several functions. It is found that it converges to a steady-state in which it is kept constant by simultaneous investments and use.

Jan van Geldrop; Cees Withagen

2000-01-01

123

Natural hazard mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic natural hazard mapping in Japan was started after WW II using aerial photographs. Analysing the interaction between disaster occurrence and land conditions is the most useful method for establishing the disaster prediction system for three types of disaster, flood disaster, mass-movement disaster, and earthquake disaster, which are strongly related to land conditions. A series of maps on natural hazards

T. Kanakubo; S. Tanioka

1980-01-01

124

``Evolution without Natural Selection''  

Microsoft Academic Search

BELIEVING as I do that the words of a reviewer should be final, it is with no small amount of hesitation that I pen the following few remarks on the review of my little work entitled ``Evolution without Natural Selection,'' which appeared in NATURE of November 12 (p. 26). The curious way in which my book has been misunderstood, and

Charles Dixon

1885-01-01

125

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost...

G. W. Swift

1995-01-01

126

Design Inspired by Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover how engineers can use biomimicry to enhance their designs. They learn how careful observation of nature â becoming a nature detective, so to speak â can lead to new innovations and products. In this activity, students reverse engineer a flower to glean design ideas for new products.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

127

PREDICTION OF NATURAL DISASTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 30 plus years, we have been dealing with several fundamental problems in prediction science. We believe that “the science of human natural disasters” (natural disasters affecting mankind) is not well addressed by the classical theory of dynamical systems. It is argued that there exist problems, when the theory of dynamic systems is used, related to (1) measurement

OuYANG SHOUCHENG; YI LIN; WU YONG

2000-01-01

128

Sketching in Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nature journaling is a useful skill for science students, independent of whether they also consider themselves artists. A pencil and sketchbook can be carried anywhere to record ecological information in many ways. A traditional page in a nature journal may consist of quick studies of plant and animal life sketched out as rudimentary line drawings…

Hobart, April

2005-01-01

129

Solidification with natural circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification of a superheated liquid gives rise to buoyancy forces which cause motion of the remaining liquid, or natural circulation. The natural circulation can affect the rate of solidification as well as the shape of the solidified mass. This paper presents a numerical model to solve a set of conservation of mass momentum, and energy equations as a boundary

H. M. Domanus; W. T. Sha

1988-01-01

130

Modeling Natural Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their research, scientists generate, test, and modify scientific models. These models can be shared with others and demonstrate a scientist's understanding of how the natural world works. Similarly, students can generate and modify models to gain a better understanding of the content, process, and nature of science (Kenyon, Schwarz, and Hug…

Bogiages, Christopher A.; Lotter, Christine

2011-01-01

131

Nature of Science Is...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The phrase "nature of science" refers to the characteristics of scientific knowledge that necessarily result from the scientific investigations that scientists conduct to develop knowledge. Yet, these characteristics are assumed by many to be "difficult" to teach. Not so. Many important aspects of nature of science can be directly linked to…

Lederman, Judith Sweeney; Lederman, Norman G.

2005-01-01

132

Rhetoric: Its Natural Enemies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every art and discipline must accept competition as a natural condition of life growing from the variant interests and aptitudes of different kinds of men. This competition may lead to the identification of "natural enemies" and, for the discipline of rhetoric, some of these are (1) the business man, who debases rhetoric by using fear and false…

Aly, Bower

1968-01-01

133

The nature of Prozac  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the relations between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ (and those characteristics associated with ‘the natural’ and ‘the cultural’) in the context of the debates about Prozac. Following Marilyn Strathern, I focus specifically on the contested issue of enablement - that is, on what Prozac does or does not enable, and on the relation between enablement and enhancement, normality and

Mariam Fraser

2001-01-01

134

Natural Science Centers: Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nature center is defined as an organized and permanent nonprofit institution which is essentially educational, scientific, and cultural in purpose with professional staff, and open to the public on some regular schedule. A nature center manages and interprets its lands, native plants and animals and facilities to promote an understanding of…

Natural Science for Youth Foundation, Roswell, GA.

135

Clathrate Hydrates in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO2.

Keith C. Hester; Peter G. Brewer

2009-01-01

136

Nature as Second Nature: Plasticity and Habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will begin where Stephen Erickson ends “Reflections on Secular Foundationalism and Our Human Future,” with the grape (Erickson,\\u000a 2009). His speculations concerning the moral issues that will likely arise in light of the development of new biotechnologies\\u000a draws into question the very possibility of clearly dividing human nature from cultural artifice. They draw into question\\u000a the possibility of distinguishing

Peter Wake

137

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

1996-07-01

138

Natural History Museum: British Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although some might fear that limited land resources and the usual development pressures are working to reduce Britain's natural history to footnote status, this website from the Natural History Museum in London effectively documents the UK's impressive biological and geological diversity. The site consists of interactive database features as well as videos (in both Windows Media and Quicktime formats). Exploring Biodiversity, an interactive introduction for students to UK biodiversity, allows users to compare the flora of different UK postal districts and also to download a version of WORLDMAP, the Museum's innovative distribution analysis software. The Earth Lab Datasite is a searchable database of fossils, rocks and minerals organized in part by geographic distribution. The Postcode Plants Database allows users to generate local lists of UK plants and/or animals. The British Natural History video, produced by the Museum's Darwin Centre, presents an online tour of the UK's wildlife scene, while Ornithology of the Orkney Islands looks at the work of bird researcher on these Scottish isles and also includes a discussion of migration studies with Museum ornithologist Douglas Russell. The site is best viewed with Netscape Communicator versions 4.5 to 4.8 and Microsoft Internet Explorer version 5 and later.

139

Application of fluorescence spectroscopy in the studies of natural organic matter fractions reactivity with chlorine dioxide and ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of natural organic matter (NOM) fractions before and after the reaction with chlorine dioxide as well as ozone was studied by means of total luminescence spectroscopy (TLS) and synchronous scanning fluorescence measurements. The excitation–emission matrices spectra (EEMs) of natural as well as oxidised NOM fractions revealed two well-resolved bands with maxima at Ex\\/Em of 250–265\\/422–452nm and at Ex\\/Em

Joanna ?wietlik; Ewa Sikorska

2004-01-01

140

Natural resources - constitutional law  

SciTech Connect

New England Power Co. reaffirms Congressional authority under the commerce clause to regulate interstate trade in natural resources. The Supreme Court has consistently held that states cannot restrict to their own citizens the benefits of natural resources located within state boundaries. As a result, a state's control over such resources is largely limited to taxing their generation or extraction. New England Power Co. reiterates the Court's adamant stand against economic protectionism, especially when natural resources are concerned. Secondarily, this case establishes that Congressional consent to otherwise impermissible state regulation of interstate commerce must be express; the Court will not infer such consent. 29 references.

Jorgensen, C.L.

1983-10-01

141

Drawing on Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Awaken and sharpen your students' powers of observation by using art, particulary drawing, in your science classroom. There is a commonality between methods that artists employ in portraying their subjects and the methods that those studying nature employ in learning about the world, and this similarity can provide encouragement in leading science students to study nature via art. One way to achieve this objective is to have students create a Naturalist's Journal, as described in this article, where drawing is an essential part of a process to gather information from the natural world and to synthesize the field and lab experiences from class.

Dirnberger, Joe

2006-07-01

142

Against human nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against human nature\\u000a \\u000a Tim Ingold12 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (12) \\u000a Department of Anthropology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Abstract\\u000a Are cultural differences superimposed upon a universal human nature? The appeal to an essentialist concept of human nature\\u000a is a defensive reaction to the legacy of racist science left by Darwin’s argument in The Descent of Man. Humans are made to appear different in degree

Tim Ingold

143

On nature's scaling effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

Wilkins, Dick J.

1994-07-01

144

Natural Resources Conservation Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service(NRCS)provides leadership in a partnership effort to help people conserve, maintain, and improve our natural resources and environment. This site offers an overview of the agency's goals, history, and organization as well as information on the latest news involving or affecting natural resources and/or NRCS. Topics found on this site may include a plants database, farming and ranching information, widespread conservation information, and practical backyard conservation. More specific topics are covered in greater detail through government reports, conservation tips & techniques, and reports from NRCS research projects.

145

Compressed Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The suitability of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel has been conclusively demonstrated, both overseas and in New Zealand. In addition, CNG has a number of operational advantages of great social, economic and environmental benefit. The ma...

J. P. West L. G. Brown

1979-01-01

146

Nature in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides three, inquiry-based activities that help urban students learn about nature. In the first activity students observe coloration patterns of pigeons; in the second activity students measure local rainfall and compare it to other areas;

Melber, Leah W.

2000-04-01

147

Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... Associated Hazards Chapter 2 - Scuba Diving Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards Josephine Malilay, Dahna Batts, Armin Ansari, Charles W. ... cautions about unique hazards in the affected area. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS Air Air pollution may be found in large ...

148

Properties of Natural Zeolites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of the naturally occuring zeolites phillipsote, clinoptilolite, erionite, and chabazite have been surveyed for their gas adsorption, ion exchange, and other characteristics. Chabazite and erionite, which are generally more stable, also have higher...

R. A. Munson

1973-01-01

149

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

150

Natural Hazards Term Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students apply the concepts learned in the class by preparing two (2) term projects discussing two natural hazards and how they impact the area where the student lives (or an area the student might like to live in).

Phillips, Michael

151

Nature limits filarial transmission  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies.

Chandra, Goutam

2008-01-01

152

Natural family planning.  

PubMed

Natural family planning methods provide a unique option for committed couples. Advantages include the lack of medical adverse effects and the opportunity for participants to learn about reproduction. Modern methods of natural family planning involve observation of biologic markers to identify fertile days in a woman's reproductive cycle. The timing of intercourse can be planned to achieve or avoid pregnancy based on the identified fertile period. The current evidence for effectiveness of natural family planning methods is limited to lower-quality clinical trials without control groups. Nevertheless, perfect use of these methods is reported to be at least 95 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. The effectiveness of typical use is 76 percent, which demonstrates that motivation and commitment to the method are essential for success. Depending on the method, couples can learn about natural family planning methods in a single office visit, through online instruction, or from certified instructors. PMID:23157145

Smoley, Brian A; Robinson, Christa M

2012-11-15

153

Natural flavor conservation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the fiats of natural flavor conservation for an arbitrary U(1)-unbroken gauge theory require that all quarks of a given charge and helicity transform identically under the gauge group.

Rothman, A.C.; Kang, K.

1981-06-01

154

Natural flavor conservation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the fiats of Natural Flavor Conservation for an arbitrary U(1)-unbroken gauge theory require that all quarks of a given charge and helicity transform identically under the gauge group.

Rothman, A.C.; Kang, K.

1980-01-01

155

Natural Resources Defense Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Natural Resources Defense Council, this website has the latest news from the Hill, plus information everyone needs on the state of our air, water, land and health. Initial contents include "State of Nature," a regular bulletin on environmental legislation; action guidelines; and findings on subjects ranging from children and environmental carcinogens to the pollution of U.S. coastal waters. Features in development include action alerts; consumer-oriented facts and FAQs; environmental multimedia clips; research tips; and more. The Natural Resources Defense Council is a national organization working in courtrooms, legislative chambers, regulatory agencies and the public arena to protect the world's natural resources and ensure a healthy environment for all.

1998-01-01

156

Nature Picture Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While a commercial enterprise, the Nature Picture Library offers viewers free online access to thousands of high-resolution photographs in its database. Containing fantastic shots of flora and fauna in settings of every variety, the Nature Picture Library is a great graphic resource for those in search of images of the natural world. Images can be purchased for direct downloads or can be stored online for free by registered users in lightboxes of their own design. The picture library allows registrants to create and store as many as fifty lightboxes for online consultation. A great way to see the world and all its creatures, the Nature Picture Library is sure to provoke awe, admiration, and devotion from users of every age.

2002-01-01

157

Chemical Nature of Citrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a previous note (Rusznyák et al.) one of us reported on the isolation and physiological activity (vitamin nature) of the crystalline flavone fraction of lemon juice. The substance, being different from other known flavones, was termed `citrin'.

V. Bruckner; A. Szent-Györgyi

1936-01-01

158

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

NONE

1996-05-01

159

Mutualistic relationships in nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many organisms depend on other organisms for survival. Mutualism is when two organisms have a relationship in nature and each benefits from the relationship. Pollination and lichens are the best examples of mutualism.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2006-12-30

160

Comparative study of microtubule inhibitors - Estramustine and natural podophyllotoxin conjugated PAMAM dendrimer on glioma cell proliferation.  

PubMed

The synthetic estramustine (EM) and natural podophyllotoxin (PODO) anti-mitotic agents that inhibit tubulin polymerization are known anticancer agents. As low bioavailability limits their anticancer properties, we investigated whether conjugation with PAMAM dendrimer (D) could enhance the activity of D-EM and D-PODO by altering their release pattern. Release kinetics indicated synthesized conjugates to be stable against hydrolytic cleavage and showed sustained release characteristics. However, release of D-EM was slow compared to D-PODO conjugate. Antitumor effect of these conjugates on glioma cells revealed (i) increased cell death and cell cycle arrest (ii) decreased migration and (iii) increased tubulin depolymerization as compared to free drug. Importantly, the effects of natural PODO conjugate on glioma cell survival and migration is more pronounced than D-EM. PMID:23954240

Sk, Ugir Hossain; Dixit, Deobrat; Sen, Ellora

2013-07-27

161

[Natural toxin poisoning].  

PubMed

Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan. PMID:22894079

Tsunematsu, Satoshi

2012-08-01

162

Natural strategies for search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a considerable amount of natural computing research has been undertaken to exploit the analogy between, say,\\u000a searching a given problem space for an optimal solution and the natural process of foraging for food. Such analogies have\\u000a led to useful solutions in areas such as optimisation, prominent examples being ant colony systems and particle swarm optimisation.\\u000a However, these

Alec Banks; Jonathan Vincent; Keith Phalp

2009-01-01

163

Lesson "Balance in Nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human? nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

Chapanova, V.

2012-04-01

164

Adsorbed Natural Gas Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of adsorbed natural gas technology for the vehicle fueling sector is reviewed. It is shown that there are\\u000a solutions to the all of the problems associated to adsorption storage, and that it is possible to build a light, compact,\\u000a and efficient system for storage, distribution, and dispensing of natural gas. The practical achievement of this objective\\u000a is

José Paulo Mota

165

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

166

Natural Resource Technician DACUM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this DACUM, or curriculum development tool, for natural resources technician training programs. The document includes a general occupation description and required areas of competence like conducting natural resource inventories, conducting land potential assessment activities and delineating property boundaries. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The document is available in PDF file format.

2012-11-14

167

NatureWorks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by New Hampshire Public Television and the Squam Lakes Natural Science Center, NatureWorks offers teachers an excellent resource for biologically related subjects geared for students grades 3-6. Sixteen topics are included, ranging from species diversity to fresh water communities. Each subject has a one page description for students to read and a short quiz for them to take. A teacher's guide offers additional vocabulary, hands-on activities, teaching tips, and external links.

2000-01-01

168

Nature Tables: Stimulating Children's Interest in Natural Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary school pupils in the UK today may be less familiar with natural objects, less exposed to formal natural history teaching and have less time given to school-based observation and discussion of natural objects. This study of children's responses to a "Nature Table" of displayed natural objects was designed to assess pupils' knowledge of…

Tomkins, Stephen; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2007-01-01

169

Natural Hazards, Second Edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

Rouhban, Badaoui

170

Natural Resources and Economic Growth: Theory and Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a one-sector endogenous growth model in which renewable nat- ural resources are both a factor of production and measure of environmental quality. Along the balanced growth path, sustained economic growth and a non-deteriorating environment are shown to coexist. Moreover, steady-state economic growth and natural-resource utilization are positively related. Em- pirically, a cross-country growth regression that includes a broad

Dustin Chambers; Jang-Ting Guo

171

Blackouts and natural risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Blackout" has become the common definition for the situation when electricity supply and demand are not balanced and security of supply fails. These failures have many impacts besides the lights going out, but this term is used commonly. Blackouts have drastic impacts for the society on whole and its citizens and some of them can influence big areas and last for long period, so the consequences are catastrophic. Even if at the European scale, the large extend blackouts are supposed to be exceptional, real frequency is relatively high, approximately once per two years. According to statistics, blackouts are often caused by natural causes, especially lightning. An example of lightning caused blackout is New York blackout 1977, leading to the stand-by of nuclear power plant Indian Point and with overall cost more than 300 mil. USD. There is a clear a distinction between those blackouts caused by nature and those that were caused by other faults. Usually, the nature-caused disturbances as Canada 1988, Sweden 2005 and France 1999, stay inside one country. However, their duration can extend to several weeks, and thus the costs of the interruptions and social impacts are high. Blackouts of only technologic and/or anthropogenic origin are frequently shorter, but may concern more end-users, when cascading from one country to another. Lightning is not the only natural event causing blackouts. Eighteen various case studies of blackout caused by natural events different then lightning were studied and following natural phenomenon found as a root causes: 1x forest fire, 1x snow calamity, 1x ice storm, 1x landslide, 1x high temperature, 1x geomagnetic storm, 2x earthquake, 2x inundation, 2x contact of line with trees, 6x storm (wind, hurricane…). We can conclude, that natural event are frequent cause of blackout of medium or large extend and this phenomena should be studied more in details. This contribution was supported by Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic.

Danihelka, P.; Paldusová, E.; Dobeš, P.

2009-04-01

172

Enhance Nature Exploration with Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Kids and nature seem like a natural combination, but what was natural a generation ago is different today. Children are spending less time outdoors but continue to need nature for their physical, emotional, and mental development. This fact has led author Richard Louv to suggest that today's children are suffering from "nature-deficit disorder"…

Holloway, Patricia; Mahan, Carol

2012-01-01

173

The Human Nature Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While attempting to cover one area of scholarly discipline in a Web site may be a formidable task, the editors of the Human Nature Review are concerned with any substantive scholarship or research dealing with human nature in its entirety. As the Web site notes: "Our goal is to bring into communication the variety of approaches to the understanding of human nature which have a regrettable tendency to be less in touch with one another than they might." The site is edited by Dr. Ian Pitchford of the Creighton University School of Medicine and Professor Robert M. Young. Prominent features of the site include an online dictionary of mental health, a daily review (sent as an email, if users so desire) of updates on ongoing scholarship in the fields of psychology and psychotherapy, and a number of complete online texts. Finally, the site also houses hundreds of book reviews, contributed by scholars from a diverse set of fields, on works of topical importance.

1998-01-01

174

Natural photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

2012-10-01

175

USDA: Natural Inquirer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Inquirer offers a fun way to learn about the research conducted by scientists with the USDA Forest Service. Online since 1998, The Natural Inquirer is written with middle school students in mind. Each issue may be downloaded or ordered free of charge and includes discussion questions and learning activities that help students and teachers make the most of the articles. The Web site also includes a section just for teachers filled with related Web resources and tips on how to use The Natural Inquirer in the classroom. The most recent issue of the journal covers wildland fire management and is available in English or Spanish. Visitors should note that some issues are available as downloads only (printed issues are out of stock).

176

Reinventing Natural Selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many research studies report students’ Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15 16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is based on the idea of guided reinvention, rather than on the conceptual change strategy. In guided reinvention, students reinvent the concept of natural selection by answering a sequence of questions based on the logical nature of Darwin’s theory. The results show that few Lamarckian explanations for evolution were recorded in the study and that the majority of the students developed a Darwinian or neo-Darwinian conception. The status of Lamarckian misconceptions is challenged.

Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

2006-06-01

177

Down with natural selection?  

PubMed

Biologists are increasingly reexamining the conceptual structure of evolutionary theory, which dates back to the so-called Modern Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. Calls for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) cite a number of empirical and theoretical advances that need to be accounted for, including evolvability, evolutionary novelties, capacitors of phenotypic evolution, developmental plasticity, and phenotypic attractors. In Biological Emergences, however, Robert Reid outlines a theory of evolution in which natural selection plays no role or-worse-actually impedes evolution by what Reid calls "natural experimentation." For Reid, biological complexity emerges because of intrinsic mechanisms that work in opposition to natural selection, a view that would reopen old questions of orthogenesis and Lamarckism. This review outlines why we do need an EES, but also why it is unlikely to take the shape that Reid advocates. PMID:19271349

Pigliucci, Massimo

2009-01-01

178

Monitored Natural Attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is an in situ remediation technology that relies on naturally occurring and demonstrable processes in soil and groundwater which reduce the mass and concentration of the contaminants. Natural attenuation (NA) involves both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of the contaminants due to the fact that oxygen is used up near the core of the contaminant plume. The aerobic and anaerobic microbial processes can be assessed by microbial activity measurements and molecular biology methods in combination with chemical analyses. The sampling and knowledge on the site conditions are of major importance for the linkage of the results obtained to the conditions in situ. Rates obtained from activity measurements can, with certain limitations, be used in modeling of the fate of contaminants whereas most molecular methods mainly give qualitative information on the microbial community and gene abundances. However, molecular biology methods are fast and describe the in situ communities and avoid the biases inherent to activity assays requiring laboratory incubations.

Jørgensen, Kirsten S.; Salminen, Jani M.; Björklöf, Katarina

179

Monitored natural attenuation.  

PubMed

Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is an in situ remediation technology that relies on naturally occurring and demonstrable processes in soil and groundwater which reduce the mass and concentration of the contaminants. Natural attenuation (NA) involves both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of the contaminants due to the fact that oxygen is used up near the core of the contaminant plume. The aerobic and anaerobic microbial processes can be assessed by microbial activity measurements and molecular biology methods in combination with chemical analyses. The sampling and knowledge on the site conditions are of major importance for the linkage of the results obtained to the conditions in situ. Rates obtained from activity measurements can, with certain limitations, be used in modeling of the fate of contaminants whereas most molecular methods mainly give qualitative information on the microbial community and gene abundances. However, molecular biology methods are fast and describe the in situ communities and avoid the biases inherent to activity assays requiring laboratory incubations. PMID:19882289

Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Salminen, Jani M; Björklöf, Katarina

2010-01-01

180

Natural Freedom and Wilderness Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "naturalism" of Jean Jacques Rousseau offers a philosophical base for wilderness survival: the renewal of participants in nature so that they can reenter civilization with a proper balance of natural and civil liberty. (MJB)|

Welton, George E.

1978-01-01

181

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2009-01-01

182

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2013-01-01

183

SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

184

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2011-01-01

185

Natural Gas Monthly, June 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2009-01-01

186

Lost Forest Research Natural Area,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research natural area is a part of a federal system of such tracts established for research and educational purposes. Each of these constitutes a site where some natural features are preserved for scientific purposes and natural processes are allowed ...

W. H. Moir J. F. Franklin C. Maser

1973-01-01

187

Natural Gas Monthly, February 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates of natural gas data through November 2002 for many data series at the national level. National-level natural gas prices are available through October 2002 (electric utilities), or November (resident...

2003-01-01

188

Natural Gas Monthly, March 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2010-01-01

189

Internet for Nature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains a free tutorial on how to effectively mine the Internet for natural sciences info. This interactive tutorial is one of many created by the University of Bristol's Resource Discover Network (RDN). The tutorial starts with a tour of the types of Internet resources available for researching the natural world, followed by a lesson on tools used to locate these resources (like search engines and Web portals). The tutorial also includes a helpful section on how to critically evaluate Web content. Users can follow a link to access a number of other science-related tutorials -- part of the RDN Virtual Training Suite.

190

Nature: The Human Genome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special Web Focus from the journal Nature presents research papers that "serve as the definitive historical record for the sequences and analyses of human chromosomes -- the ultimate results of the Human Genome Project." Papers are available for chromosomes 6, 7, 14, 20, 21, 22, and Y, which readers can access (no subscription required) by clicking on the image of the corresponding chromosome. The papers for chromosome 6 are the most recent, published in the October 23, 2003 issue of Nature. The website also offers free feature articles on the subject.

2008-07-31

191

Natural History Notebooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Museum of Nature (CMN) offers an online version of its Natural History Notebook series originally published in 1977-81. Interesting facts and attractive black-and-white sketches are provided for each of the nearly 250 animal species (mostly vertebrates) featured in the Web site. All illustrations are by Charles Douglas, former chief illustrator at CMN. The notebook collection includes one each for mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, endangered or extinct species, prehistoric life, and another that allows users to search for animals by geographical region.

1969-12-31

192

Measuring natural resource scarcity  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions concerning trends in natural resource scarcity may depend critically on the choice of scarcity index. Unfortunately, the prevalence of vertical integration in natural resource industries has hindered the use of some otherwise desirable scarcity measures. In this paper duality theory is used to derive an econometric procedure for estimating one such measure, the shadow price of the resource in situ. Empirical results for the Canadian metal mining industry indicate that resource scarcity as measured by this shadow price has decreased substantially over time. 23 refernces, 1 table.

Halvorsen, R.; Smith, T.R.

1984-10-01

193

Riboswitches: natural SELEXion.  

PubMed

Advances in our knowledge of the structure and chemistry of RNA have been harnessed in the process known as SELEX to develop artificial RNA-based molecules that can act as enzymes and ligand binders performing a wide variety of functions. The discovery of riboswitches, natural RNA aptamers involved in genetic regulation, offers a basis of comparison between the artificial selection and the natural selection of structured RNAs for small-molecule recognition. The guanine riboswitch structural determination allows us to draw conclusions regarding the apparent increased complexity of the riboswitch aptamers compared to their in-vitro-selected cousins. PMID:16231083

Gilbert, S D; Batey, R T

2005-11-01

194

Nature: The Mouse Genome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the journal Nature offers a one-stop online resource for information on the mouse genome -- "the experimental key to the human genome." Visitors have free access to all content from the journal's special mouse genome issue. Web features include an interactive timeline detailing the history of the mouse in genetics, related news articles and commentary, Web links, and more. Scientific papers and letters to Nature are also available for those who would like to delve into the subject at depth. Additionally, the site provides a selection of classic research papers free to registered users until March 5, 2003.

2003-01-01

195

Naturally split supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonobservation of superparticles till date, new Higgs mass limits from the CMS and ATLAS experiments, WMAP constraints on relic density, various other low energy data, and the naturalness consideration, all considered simultaneously imply a paradigm shift of supersymmetric model building. In this paper we perform, for the first time, a detailed numerical study of brane-world induced supersymmetry breaking for both minimal and next-to-minimal scenarios. We observe that a naturally hierarchical spectrum emerges through an interplay of bulk, brane-localized and quasi-localized fields, which can gain more relevance in the subsequent phases of the LHC run.

Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Ray, Tirtha Sankar

2012-05-01

196

Natural Hazards Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Hazards Center of the University of Colorado Boulder offers a free online professional hazards publication called the Natural Hazards Observer. Readers will find information on current disaster issues; new international, national, and local disaster management, mitigation, and education programs; hazards research; political and policy developments; new information sources; upcoming conferences; and recent publications. The January 2003 issue (the latest of the bimonthly publication, which dates back to 1996) includes reports with titles such as Congress Passes Inland Flood Warning Bill and Dam Safety Act Passed. Those interested can view the issues online, download and view them, and even search their content by various parameters.

1996-01-01

197

Natural Sciences Image Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection specializes in New Zealand natural science images that are of scientific and/or 'technological' interest and importance. The images are searchable by taxonomy or by theme.This library is growing and the breadth of coverage increasing. To ensure the collection remains dynamic and relevant, images are being added and retired weekly.

Library, Natural S.

2010-02-16

198

Natural rubber: leather composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the

K. Ravichandran; N. Natchimuthu

2005-01-01

199

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book summarizes recent developments in the general area of natural gas liquefaction and use. Treatment is technical rather than theoretical and thermodynamics, economic evaluations, and statistical data are relegated to the appendixes. The main part of the review consists of an introduction dealing with the historical development of cryogenics and gas liquefaction and their application in the gas industry.

Lom

1974-01-01

200

Natural fracture systems studies  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are (1) to develop a basinal-analysis methodology for natural fracture exploration and exploitation, and (2) to determine the important characteristics of natural fracture systems for use in completion, stimulation, and production operations. Natural-fracture basinal analysis begins with studies of fractures in outcrop, core and logs in order to determine the type of fracturing and the relationship of the fractures to the lithologic environment. Of particular interest are the regional fracture systems that are pervasive in western US tight sand basins. A Methodology for applying this analysis is being developed, with the goal of providing a structure for rationally characterizing natural fracture systems basin-wide. Such basin-wide characterizations can then be expanded and supplemented locally, at sites where production may be favorable. Initial application of this analysis is to the Piceance basin where there is a wealth of data from the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), DOE cooperative wells, and other basin studies conducted by Sandia, CER Corporation, and the USGS (Lorenz and Finley, 1989, Lorenz et aI., 1989, and Spencer and Keighin, 1984). Such a basinal approach has been capable of explaining the fracture characteristics found throughout the southern part of the Piceance basin and along the Grand Hogback.

Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

1992-09-01

201

Natural Organization and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this presentation the outlines of a general systems model for education which may be of value in the areas of curriculum development, course design and teaching are offered. It is based on what is called the "Principle of Natural Organization" which is defined as follows: every form tends to articulate its elements into functional structures;…

Braham, Mark

202

Picturing the Natural World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How is the natural environment in the neighborhood representative of the larger biosphere in which people live? Studying the local birds and flora of the Pacific Northwest in the context of the local parks and ponds provided a rich opportunity for third-grade students at St. Thomas School in Medina, Washington, to explore and learn about…

Salia, Hannah

2011-01-01

203

Nature in the City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three science activities targeted to help urban students learn about nature: (1) observing coloration patterns of pigeons; (2) measuring local rainfall and comparing it to other areas; and (3) conducting a biodiversity study by observing a patch of lawn. (YDS)

Melber, Leah W.

2000-01-01

204

Geothermal - Nature's Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows how natural heat energy stored in and under the earth's crust can be put to work, just as the geysers now supply half the electricity for San Francisco's needs. These reservoirs may heat, cool, and light homes and factories across the country.

1994-01-01

205

A Biospheric Natural History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

Thomashow, Mitchell

2001-01-01

206

Natural Language Interface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study, by David M. Lane of Rice University, assesses the question, "Is it easier to learn to use computer software that uses natural language commands?" Main concepts are analysis of covariance, adjusted means, and boxplots. The experimental design, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and raw data are all given.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-05

207

Natural Resource Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of our time reveal a world where people are more able than ever before to exploit their environment. There are questions about when and how to use resources and about the ability of current institutions to make the appropriate decisions concerning their allocation. Natural Resource Economics explores the positive contribution that economics can make to resolving issues of

Philip A. Neher

208

Annatto: a natural choice.  

PubMed

Annatto is a pigment derived from the seeds of Bixa orellana. It has been used from antiquity in South America and for over 100 years in Europe. It is now an important safe additive for a wide range of food, partly finding favour due to its natural origin. PMID:11153116

Evans, W C

2000-09-01

209

Synthesizing natural textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple texture synthesis algorithm that is well-suited for a specific class of naturally occurring textures. This class in- cludes quasi-repeating patterns consisting of small objects of fa- miliar but irregular size, such as flower fields, pebbles, forest un- dergrowth, bushes and tree branches. The algorithm starts from a sample image and generates a new image of arbitrary

Michael Ashikhmin

2001-01-01

210

``Evolution without Natural Selection''  

Microsoft Academic Search

I FREELY admit that the impression left upon my mind after reading Mr. Dixon's essay was the same as that which was first conveyed by its title-viz, that the author supposed his work to be, if not ``antagonistic to Darwin's theory of Natural Selection,'' at all events, as I expressed it, ``an important emendation of Darwinism.'' My object, therefore, while

George J. Romanes

1885-01-01

211

``Evolution without Natural Selection''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two or three points in Mr. Romanes's letter in your issue of December 3 (p. 100), leave me no other alternative than to again ask you to insert the following few remarks. I beg to inform Mr. Romanes that with Darwinism my book has very little to do. It neither attempts to refute nor confirm the Darwinian hypothesis of Natural

Charles Dixon

1885-01-01

212

Natural Resources Education Notebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

Weber, Eldon C.

213

Renewable Natural Resources Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following remarks were made at a press conference on May 21, 1973, at the Grosvenor estate, the proposed site for the complex of association headquarters to be built by the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation (RNRF). The American Geophysical Union is one of the 11 member societies of RNRF; the others are the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta,

Athelstan Spilhaus

1973-01-01

214

Kinds of Natural Enemies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful biological control requires knowledge of the organisms used and their biology. Growers, scouts, and consultants can use such information to choose which natural enemy to use for a particular situation and to predict the level of control possible to achieve. A variety of predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and entomopathogenic nematodes are used to manage pest arthropods. In this chapter, we

L. S. Osborne; K. Bolckmans; Z. Landa; J. Peña

215

Riboswitches: natural SELEXion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in our knowledge of the structure and chemistry of RNA have been harnessed in the process known as SELEX to develop artificial RNA-based molecules that can act as enzymes and ligand binders performing a wide variety of functions. The discovery of riboswitches, natural RNA aptamers involved in genetic regulation, offers a basis of comparison between the artificial selection and

S. D. Gilbert; R. T. Batey

2005-01-01

216

Nature in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature in the City is a project of the Earth Island Institute, and is "wholly dedicated to ecological conservation, restoration and stewardship of the [San] Franciscan bioregion." Their website's "About" section gives a thorough explanation of not only their goals, as well as a definition of nature. Furthermore, this section provides some philosophical insight into what exactly "urban nature" happens to be. Those visitors interested in a more visceral tour of San Francisco should check out the "Photo Gallery" link, and they should be sure to check out the "Natural Areas" album to view some eerie-looking oak woodlands in Golden Gate Park. Additionally, visitors to the site who are interested in the life that teems on Alcatraz Island will enjoy file number fourteen which includes an image of roosting double-crested cormorants on a dramatic hillside. Finally the "Local Ecology" link has an explanation of the "Biodiversity Crisis" in San Francisco, which can be attributed to ecological, political, institutional, social and cultural factors.

217

Natural SUSY endures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first 1 fb-1 of LHC searches have set impressive limits on new colored particles decaying to missing energy. We address the implication of these searches for naturalness in supersymmetry (SUSY). General bottom-up considerations of natural electroweak symmetry breaking show that higgsinos, stops, and the gluino should not be too far above the weak scale. The rest of the spectrum, including the squarks of the first two generations, can be heavier and beyond the current LHC reach. We have used collider simulations to determine the limits that all of the 1 fb-1 searches pose on higgsinos, stops, and the gluino. We find that stops and the left-handed sbottom are starting to be constrained and must be heavier than about 200-300 GeV when decaying to higgsinos. The gluino must be heavier than about 600-800 GeV when it decays to stops and sbottoms. While these findings point toward scenarios with a lighter third generation split from the other squarks, we do find that moderately-tuned regions remain, where the gluino is just above 1 TeV and all the squarks are degenerate and light. Among all the searches, jets plus missing energy and same-sign dileptons often provide the most powerful probes of natural SUSY. Overall, our results indicate that natural SUSY has survived the first 1 fb-1 of data. The LHC is now on the brink of exploring the most interesting region of SUSY parameter space.

Papucci, Michele; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Weiler, Andreas

2012-09-01

218

Bodies of Nature: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of Body & Society was assembled to extend the interest in the embodied nature of people's experiences in, and of, the physical world. It thus seeks to develop further the emergent sociology of the body that has provided extensive insight into the embodied character of human experience. Such a sociology has, though, dealt less systematically with the various

PHIL MACNAGHTEN; JOHN URRY

2000-01-01

219

Landscape, Live Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enjoy summer throughout the whole year, surrounded by abundant vegetation, with exotic plants and flowers that make the landscape even more beautiful; a really delightful landscape that closely unites us with Nature and its generous profusion of marvels; Switzerland is a fairy-tale country (...); it distinguishes itself above all for its impressive landscapes: high, green mountains, lakes, waterfalls, plentiful streams...

Pedro Azara

220

Picturing the Natural World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is the natural environment in the neighborhood representative of the larger biosphere in which people live? Studying the local birds and flora of the Pacific Northwest in the context of the local parks and ponds provided a rich opportunity for third-grade students at St. Thomas School in Medina, Washington, to explore and learn about…

Salia, Hannah

2011-01-01

221

Nature and Nurture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students begin to develop an understanding of the role played by nature (our genes) and nurture (the environment in which we live and the things that happen to us) in defining who we are and what it means to be human.

Science Netlinks;

2002-05-15

222

Storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides about one-third of our energy. The primary method of storing it is in underground reservoirs, most of which are partially depleted gas pools. Storage is needed to permit high load factor operation of gas transmission lines and provide additional volumes near major markets during winter months. Geologically favorable conditions are necessary in establishing a storage facility. It

Grow; G. C. Jr

1976-01-01

223

THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION IS DEFINED AND CLARIFIED. THE LITERATURE IS SURVEYED TO SHOW THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IS IMPORTANT IN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT CONCEPTS ARE BUILT FROM PERCEPTS, IMAGES, SENSATION, AND MEMORIES, AND THAT THE STEPS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED AS CONCEPTS ARE BUILT AND REFINED AND INCLUDE PERCEIVING,…

CLELAND, DONALD L.

224

Designing Nature's Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the case of cars and other engineered objects, humans go about the design process in a very intentional way. They pretty much know what they are aiming for. The activity described in this article demonstrates how a computer can simulate biological evolution and the laws of natural selection. The article is divided into the following sections:…

Fisher, Diane

2005-01-01

225

The Nature of Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of evolution, the historical change in the universe, and the change that is caused by the workings of the dynamic processes at the smallest and largest scales are studied. It is viewed that the cumulative change in the historical systems is caused by evolution, which is a type of causal relationship and evolutionary processes could be…

Alles, David L.

2005-01-01

226

Picturing the Natural Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

Johnson, Phyllis Scott

2011-01-01

227

A new look at the nature of linear momentum and the energy of electromagnetic radiation inside negative refractive media  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a century has passed since the concept of wave-particle duality was introduced, where electromagnetic (EM) radiation in a dispersionless free space vacuum is represented by a photon that exhibits both corpuscular and wave natures. Historically, discussions have concentrated on the nature of a photon inside a medium that exhibits dispersion in the refraction property, other than free space.

Shantanu Das; Sougata Chaterjee; Amitesh Kumar; Paulami Sarkar; Arijit Mazumder; Ananta Lal Das; Subal Kar

2011-01-01

228

Why Is Nature Beneficial?: The Role of Connectedness to Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three studies examine the effects of exposure to nature on positive affect and ability to reflect on a life problem. Participants spent 15 min walking in a natural setting (Studies 1, 2, & 3), an urban setting (Study 1), or watching videos of natural and urban settings (Studies 2 & 3). In all three studies, exposure to nature increased…

Mayer, F. Stephan; Frants, Cynthia McPherson; Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Dolliver, Kyffin

2009-01-01

229

Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan  

SciTech Connect

This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

NONE

1995-09-01

230

Tackling with Natural Monopoly in Electricity and Natural Gas Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter attempts to provide a theoretical work on natural monopoly versus perfect markets through concentrating on the\\u000a energy sector. In specific we discuss the natural monopolistic structure of Turkish natural gas and electricity markets by\\u000a comparing those of various countries in Europe. In this vein, our chapter starts with the introduction of natural monopoly\\u000a in both electricity and natural

Özgür Arslan; Hasan Kazdagùli

231

Design, science and naturalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Design Argument is the proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God. The Argument dates at least to the presocratic Greek philosophers, and is largely based on analogical reasoning. Following the appearance of Aquinas' Summa Theologica in the 13th century, the Christian Church in Europe embraced a Natural Theology based on observation and reason that allowed it to dominate the entire world of knowledge. Science in turn advanced itself by demonstrating that it could be of service to theology, the recognized queen of the sciences. During the heyday of British Natural Theology in the 17th and 18th centuries, the watchmaker, shipbuilder, and architect analogies were invoked reflexively by philosophers, theologians, and scientists. The Design Argument was not systematically and analytically criticized until David Hume wrote Dialogues on Natural Religion in the 1750s. After Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, Design withered on the vine. But in recent years, the Argument has been resurrected under the appellation "intelligent design," and been the subject of political and legal controversy in the United States. Design advocates have argued that intelligent design can be formulated as a scientific hypothesis, that new scientific discoveries validate a design inference, and that naturalism must be removed as a methodological requirement in science. If science is defined by a model of concentric epistemological zonation, design cannot be construed as a scientific hypothesis because it is inconsistent with the core aspects of scientific methodology: naturalism, uniformity, induction, and efficient causation. An analytical examination of claims by design advocates finds no evidence of any type to support either scientific or philosophical claims that design can be unambiguously inferred from nature. The apparent irreducible complexity of biological mechanisms may be explained by exaptation or scaffolding. The argument that design is indicated by the fine-tuning of the universe as a habitat suitable for life is based on an intellectual fallacy of assigning probability to a unique event. Construing the Design Argument as an "inference to the best explanation," rather than analogical reasoning is essentially an equivocation fallacy that does not rescue the Argument from Hume's criticisms. The intelligent design movement is a threat to the unity of science, as its confessed goal is to restore Christian theology as the queen of the sciences.

Deming, David

2008-09-01

232

China's expanding natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern development of China's natural gas industry is portrayed against a background of historical information dating back to the 11th century. Modern Chinese governments have vigorously pushed the exploration and development of natural gas resources. At the same time that exploration and development of China's largest natural gas site (Szechwan Basin) has been taking place, discoveries of natural gas

1979-01-01

233

What Drives Natural Gas Prices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past seven years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yucel

2008-01-01

234

Nature, culture, and civil society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil societies are related in complex ways with the nature that surrounds them. Drawing upon ecological principles, social, economic, and political theories, and empirical evidence from environmental psychology, we explore the ongoing dialectic between nature and culture—how humans alter nature and nature alters humans, their cultures and associations—with particular reference to civil society. In our view, civil society scholars overlook

Julianne Lutz Newton; William C. Sullivan

2005-01-01

235

Natural Gas Expanders-Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas expanders-compressors serve a variety of natural gas plants, ranging from primary treatment at the well (installations for comprehensive treatment of natural gas) to liquefaction for separation, storage, and transport. Natural gas expanders-compressors take on particular importance for wells with throttling cold. The growing demand for this equipment has been satisfied by imports until recently. The most popular was

V. M. Kulakov; V. V. Kulakov; A. V. Kulakov

2002-01-01

236

Responses to natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

Maggs, William Ward

237

Illinois Natural History Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is responsible for the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), whose mission is "to investigate and document the biological resources of Illinois...and to acquire and provide natural history information...to promote the common understanding, conservation, and management of these resources." Along the top of the page visitors can find headings that include "Research", "Data", "Publications", and "Events". The "Research" portion of the website includes seven areas of research from which to choose including "Entomology", "Invasive Species", "Wildlife Ecology", and "Human Interactions". The "Data" section provides ecological monitoring data, GIS data, a clearinghouse of wildlife ecology software, and collection databases which allow visitors to search for specimens of plants and animals. The "Publications" include educational materials, annual reports, manuals, a bulletin, and a circular. For those interested in events at the INHS, the "Events" link provides a nice calendar of upcoming seminars.

238

Woodland Trust: Nature Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the United Kingdom-based Woodland Trust, this Nature Detectives website contains information and activities for budding young naturalists. For elementary-aged children, the site contains an assortment of downloadable games, activity materials, and examples of nature art sure to guide and inspire students in their own artistic endeavors. The site also hosts a News section which currently links to a variety of articles and reports about the potential effects of global climate change. In addition, site visitors will find brief information entries and photos for a number of Amphibians, Birds, Insects, Trees, Flowers, and Fungi. The site also offers information about topics like seasonal color changes in leaves; and basic instructions for both primary and secondary-aged youth for keeping phenological records.

239

Genetics@nature.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nature website brings together important findings and discoveries from the world of science, with a particular focus placed on biology, genetics, and related fields. To celebrate their findings and materials related to genetics, they created the genetics@nature website. Here visitors can make their way through featured articles from a range of journals, including Cell Research, Genes and Immunity, and Gene Therapy. Some of the articles only contain an abstract, but full bibliographic details are always made available. Further down the site, visitors will find a selection of "gateways", including thematic sections on cell migration and neuroscience. Along the right-hand side of the page, visitors will find related job postings and information about collaborative open innovation challenges from a range of scientific organizations.

240

Nature's Greatest Puzzles  

SciTech Connect

It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.

Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

2005-02-01

241

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-05-01

242

Number patterns in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibonacci phyllotaxis is one of many examples that demonstrate the relationship of biological growth patterns with the golden mean and self-similar symmetry, also observed in scale–rotational crystal growth. An equivalent relationship of natural-number patterns with the structure and periodicity of atomic matter is demonstrated. A generalized, closed periodic law that reveals the hidden symmetry in the periodicity of atomic matter

Jan C. A. Boeyens

2003-01-01

243

Building natural gas locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of

OConner

1994-01-01

244

Markets for Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduces the specific features of the natural gas market and shows why the industry has developed in a different\\u000a way than the oil industry. It then indicates the efforts being made in transforming the regional markets into a global market.\\u000a The economics of the gas market relevant to the developed and the developing countries is also presented.

Subhes C. Bhattacharyya

245

Introduction to Natural Selection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is an introduction to natural selection and is suited to any student who is just beginning his or her discovery of evolution. The motivation introduces a species of bird that became (over millions of years) numerous species, through adaptation. The development is a hands-on activity that demonstrates how populations change little by little, generation by generation, due to survival of species that have traits that are beneficial in an environment.

Science Netlinks;

2002-03-28

246

Natural and Technological Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disasters are very common. Worldwide, earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, technological accidents, and urban fires\\u000a occur daily. They tend to occur suddenly, without much warning, and cause massive destruction, sometimes killing or injuring\\u000a large numbers of people within a short time. In 1999 alone, natural disasters killed over 60,000 people in Turkey, 10,000\\u000a people in India, and 25,000 people in Venezuela

Daya Somasundaram; Fran H. Norris; Nozomu Asukai; R. Srinivasa Murthy

247

“Diseases and Natural Kinds”  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized,\\u000a however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is\\u000a to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form\\u000a of essentialism that can serve

Daniel P. Sulmasy

2005-01-01

248

Natural Attenuation Tool Kit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Julie Crosby, this site provides information and links to agencies and companies concerned with environmental remediation, in particular by natural attenuation. Although some sections are still under construction, Products provides interested parties with links to software and field applications. The Papers section contains four technical papers and six regulatory papers plus two publication metasites maintained by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Other areas of interest at the site include links to government agencies and a list of conferences, updated regularly.

249

Zion Natural History Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Zion Natural History Association (ZNHA) is a non-profit organization established in 1931 to support education, research, publication and other programs for the benefit of Zion National Park, Cedar Breaks National Monument, and Pipe Spring National Monument. Visitors to this site can acess information about the scientific, educational, historical, and interpretive activities of the Association and its sister organization, the Zion Canyon Field Institute.

250

Natural Family Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Natural Family Planning (NFP) is one of the oldest practiced methods of birth control. Also known by the names Periodic Abstinence,\\u000a Rhythm Method, and Fertility Awareness Method, it can be used either for pregnancy prevention or planning and is acceptable\\u000a to all major religious groups. Although it is not a popular method of birth control, there are couples who still

Dawn Brink-Cymerman

251

Natural Underwater Adhesives  

PubMed Central

The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent curing.

Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

2011-01-01

252

Natural disasters online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires, severe storms, floods, volcanic eruptions, and major air pollution events are types of major natural hazards that NASA will track on a new Web site unveiled on 16 January.The site, part of the agency's Earth Observatory, will track these hazards in near-real time with imagery acquired from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and Earth Observing System satellite missions, along with related descriptive information.

Showstack, Randy

253

Nature of the  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the singular behavior pointed out by Griffiths for H=0 in dilute magnets is investigated. It is argued that for concentration p less than that for formation of an infinite cluster, all derivatives of M(H) are finite. The nonanalyticity in M(H) is due to a branch cut along the imaginary H axis having weight exp[-(const)|H|] for |H|-->0, and

A. Brooks Harris

1975-01-01

254

PBS NATURE: Flight School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Flight School is a PBS NATURE companion website for a video production about the amazing recovery of the Whooping Crane. The site includes an interview with Operation Migration's Joseph Duff, information about bird flyways, imprinting, and more. The website links to a downloadable Teacher's Guide, a list of relevant links and books, and desktop images. A short video clip of the whooping cranes in flight is provided as well.

255

eNature.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A website devoted to online photographic nature guides including guides to select butterflies, spiders, insects, and many other groups of organisms. Care is given to proper classification. Each species page has a comprehensive description including range, flight, and habitat associations. Links to games, screen savers, and ringtones are also included. The links to photographs of species are good, however the site is not comprehensive. For example, only 36 kinds of beetle are presented.

0002-11-30

256

Future natural gas supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

257

3D Inversion of Natural Source Electromagnetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superior depth of investigation of natural source electromagnetic techniques makes these methods excellent candidates for crustal studies as well as for mining and hydrocarbon exploration. The traditional natural source method, the magnetotelluric (MT) technique, has practical limitations because the surveys are costly and time consuming due to the labor intensive nature of ground based surveys. In an effort to continue to use the penetration advantage of natural sources, it has long been recognized that tipper data, the ratio of the local vertical magnetic field to the horizontal magnetic field, provide information about 3D electrical conductivity structure. It was this understanding that prompted the development of AFMAG (Audio Frequency Magnetics) and recently the new airborne Z-Axis Tipper Electromagnetic Technique (ZTEM). In ZTEM, the vertical component of the magnetic field is recorded above the entire survey area, while the horizontal fields are recorded at a ground-based reference station. MT processing techniques yield frequency domain transfer functions typically between 30-720 Hz that relate the vertical fields over the survey area to the horizontal fields at the reference station. The result is a cost effective procedure for collecting natural source EM data and for finding large scale targets at moderate depths. It is well known however that 1D layered structures produce zero vertical magnetic fields and thus ZTEM data cannot recover such background conductivities. This is in sharp contrast to the MT technique where electric fields are measured and a 1D background conductivity can be recovered from the off diagonal elements of the impedance tensor. While 1D models produce no vertical fields, two and three dimensional structures will produce anomalous currents and a ZTEM response. For such models the background conductivity structure does affect the data. In general however, the ZTEM data have weak sensitivity to the background conductivity and while we show that it is possible to obtain the background structure by inverting the ZTEM data alone, it is desirable to obtain robust background conductivity information from other sources. This information could come from a priori geologic and petrophysical information or from additional geophysical data such as MT. To counter the costly nature of large MT surveys and the limited sensitivity of the ZTEM technique to the background conductivity we show that an effective method is to collect and invert both MT and ZTEM data. A sparse MT survey grid can gather information about the background conductivity and deep structures while keeping the survey costs affordable. Higher spatial resolution at moderate depths can be obtained by flying multiple lines of ZTEM data.

Holtham, E. M.; Oldenburg, D. W.

2010-12-01

258

Nature of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: The Nature of Light SciPack explains the concept of light as electromagnetic radiation and as waves. It covers the electromagnetic spectrum and the effects of wavelength on the interaction of light with different materials, including some examples of phenomena that can be explained by differences in wavelength. It also covers electromagnetic waves as a form of energy. It does not address the ray model of light or optics. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components: Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards". Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts. Learning Outcomes: Nature of Light: Characteristics of Light Trace a light ray as it hits a smooth reflecting surface, or, choose the correct path among given options. Predict the path of a light ray as it passes through a series of transparent materials (given the index of refraction of each material). Describe the behavior of light waves as they are diffract (or bend) around corners. Recognize examples of phenomena in your environment that are caused by the diffraction or interference of waves (the fact that you can hear someone around a corner, the behavior of water waves, light through diffraction grating). Nature of Light: Light As Waves Provide examples of energy transfer by light (such as tanning, light warming a surface, solar cells, etc.) Describe the characteristics of transverse waves and explain how waves transfer energy from place to place. Describe the relationship between the wavelength and frequency of light waves. Explain how electromagnetic waves are produced either in nature or by humans. Identify the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and place them in order of increasing or decreasing wavelength. Determine the behavior of two light waves that interfere with one another. Nature of Light: Light and Color Describe the relationship of color as perceived by the human eye and the wavelength of light waves. Describe the relationship of the colors in the visible spectrum (as perceived by the human eye) to the electromagnetic spectrum. Describe how the color of a beam of light is affected by scattering. Summarize the interaction of the molecules of greenhouse gases and different wavelengths of light, and how that results in heat being trapped in the troposphere. Nature of Light: So, What Is Light? Describe the circumstances (experiments, real world situations) in which the behavior of light is best described as a wave or a particle. Describe the relationship between the frequency of a photon and its energy. Explain how a unique series of spectral lines are formed for an element (an atom or a group of free atoms of that element). Describe how spectra can be used to identify substances.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-05-01

259

Is disease a natural kind?  

PubMed

In The Nature of Disease, Lawrie Reznek argues that disease is not a natural kind term. I raise objections to Reznek's two central arguments for establishing that disease is not a natural kind. In criticizing his a priori, conceptual argument against naturalism, I argue that his conclusion rests on a weaker argument that appeals to the empirical diversity in the symptoms and manifestations of disease. I also raise questions about the account of natural kinds which Reznek utilizes and his point that conventions for classification are excluded by there being natural kinds. PMID:8830107

D'Amico, R

1995-10-01

260

Natural gas monthly, April 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-06

261

Natural Analogue Synthesis Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere, and potentially disruptive events. Results of these studies will be used to corroborate estimates of the magnitude and limitation of operative processes in order to build realism into conceptual and numerical process models used as a foundation for PA in the representative case of postclosure safety.

A. M. Simmons

2002-05-01

262

Lands and natural resources  

SciTech Connect

The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals decided a surprisingly small number of controversies involving lands and natural resources during the time period covered by the Tenth Annual Tenth Circuit Survey. The subject matter of the few land and resource decisions was also limited. Whereas in recent years the court has considered a wide variety of resource and land issues, the past year is distinguished by its lack of variety. Of the eight land and resource decisions published by the court, six concerned public lands, one involved Indian lands, and one resolved an environmental law question. This survey highlights the issues resolved in each of these cases.

Crane, J.

1984-01-01

263

Natural remedies for scleroderma.  

PubMed

Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue characterized by fibrosis and thickening of various tissues. It can be limited to the skin or affect multiple organs, and its course ranges from slowly to rapidly progressive. Penicillamine, glucocorticoids, and other drugs are used to treat scleroderma, but none of these treatments has a high degree of efficacy. This article reviews several promising natural treatments for scleroderma, including para-aminobenzoic acid, vitamin E, vitamin D, evening primrose oil, estriol, N-acetylcysteine, bromelain, and an avocado/soybean extract. PMID:17217320

Gaby, Alan R

2006-09-01

264

Natural Selection Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity introduces the concept of natural selection and how it relates to evolution. Students will use a variety of utensils including clothespins, tweezers and spoons to mimic animals with differently shaped mouths. The class will go through several trials, picking up at least twenty beans in one minute with their assigned utensil. If they fail to do so, their creature has died, demonstrating what happens to animals that cannot compete in the wild. Several discussion questions are included along with the activity.

2012-05-29

265

"Naturally occurring asbestos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos is commonly located within fractures, shear-bands or shear-planes, developed during late retrograde metamorphic history, 3. Tremolite-actinolite-type asbestos is abundant both in ultramafic and mafic rocks, 4. Natural asbestos occur in few places within the external zones of the Alps, especially within hercynian ophiolitic massifs or concentrated in late Alpine fractures affecting leptyno-amphibolic lithologies.

Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

2012-04-01

266

Nature: Science Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now updated daily, this current awareness resource from Nature will appeal to professional and armchair scientists alike. Each day's offering usually consists of two or three new articles, identified by field (ecology, space, biotechnology, etc.) and introduced with a one-sentence summary. The concise and generally well-written articles offer useful and quick accounts of some of the latest discoveries and policy decisions affecting the scientific community. An archive of past stories organized by date (to January 1999) or category is also available.

267

Nature: Extraordinary Birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Extraordinary Birds, a recent documentary from PBS's Nature. "From Kundha Kulam's vibrant monsoon marshes to the rugged American Rockies," Extraordinary Birds explores the "intimate links that people have forged with birds." This is a great site to visit whether you've seen the program or not. Users will find video clips, an interview with the editor of American Falconry magazine, a short quiz, and other engaging features. The Web site also provides links and other resources for further exploring this fascinating subject. This site is also reviewed in the September 5, 2003 NSDL Life Sciences Report.

268

Naturally light leptoquarks  

SciTech Connect

Light first generation leptoquarks are being hunted for at the DESY [ital ep] collider HERA and at Fermilab and there are various proposals for further searches in future machines. Such leptoquarks are, however, problematic from a theoretical point of view: Low energy precision measurements imply strong constraints on the couplings of the leptoquarks, and up until now the fulfillment of these constraints seemed extremely unnatural. Here we show that horizontal symmetries, which are very conventional and widely used in the literature for completely different purposes, can suppress the unwanted couplings. Therefore light first generation leptoquarks can be natural.

Baver, E.; Leurer, M. (Department of Particle Physics, The Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100 (Israel))

1995-01-01

269

Does Mother Nature Corrupt? Natural Resources, Corruption, and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that natural resource abundance creates opportunities for rent-seeking behavior and is an important factor in determining a country's level of corruption. In a simple growth model, we illustrate the interrelationships between natural resources, corruption, and economic growth, and discuss potential anti-corruption policies. We show that the extent of corruption depends on natural resource abundance, government policies, and

Carlos Leite; Jens Weidmann

1999-01-01

270

Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics. PMID:18251769

Racine, Eric

2008-02-01

271

Situating nature: On doing cultural geographies of Australian nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concentrates on the practices and possibilities of doing poststructural cultural geographies of nature. The paper begins with an overview of the ways in which nature is being reconceptualised in social thought. It charts a middle territory between strong social constructivism and realist approaches, arguing for a relational understanding of nature and culture, and the extension of agency to

Lesley Instone

2004-01-01

272

2o CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE P&D EM PETRÓLEO & GÁS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A escassez do petróleo e a crescente pressão dos organismos ambientais têm contribuído significativamente para o aumento da utilização mundial do gás natural, nos diversos setores, em substituição aos combustíveis fósseis. Porém, no Brasil, o governo pretende utilizar o combustível para alimentar várias termelétricas a fim de suprir o déficit energético. O estudo mostra que esta opção acarreta

Eduardo Rocha Praça; Ernesto Ferreira; Nobre Júnior; João Bosco; Furtado Arruda

273

Effect of EM on Soil Properties and Nutrient Cycling in a Citrus Agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on soil and on natural cycling of nutrients, a field investigation was conducted with citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. A Typic Hapludox soil predominates as a deep, well-drained, clay soil with high hydrogen and aluminum contents and low base saturation, The organic matter content of the soil is moderate,

D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; M. J. A. Jorge; M. C. S. Nogueira

274

Descrição morfológica e fenologia floral em alfavaca do campo (Ocimum campechianum Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Ocimum campechianum Mill, conhecida no nordeste brasileiro como alfavaca do campo, é uma importante fonte de óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas, inflorescências e sementes da planta adulta, cujas propriedades medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares são reconhecidas e empregadas na medicina natural e culinária regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo da morfologia floral e fenologia da floração em

Anderson Brito da Silva; Marcela Fonseca Souza; Alisson Harley; Brito da Silva

275

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

276

Nature against depression.  

PubMed

Depression is a major health problem currently recognized as a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. In the United States alone, depression affects approximately 20% of the population. With current medications suffering from major shortcomings that include slow onset of action, poor efficacy, and unwanted side effects, the search for new and improved antidepressants is ever increasing. In an effort to evade side effects, people have been resorting to popular traditional herbal medicines to relieve the symptoms of depression, and there is a need for more empirical knowledge about their use and effectiveness. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge state regarding a variety of natural plant products commonly used in depression. Herbal medicines discussed that have been used in clinical trials for the treatment of mild to moderate depression states include the popular St. John's wort, saffron, Rhodiola, lavender, Echium, and the Chinese formula banxia houpu. In addition, new emerging herbal products that have been studied in different animal models are discussed including Polygala tenuifolia, the traditional Chinese herbal SYJN formula, gan mai da zao, and Cannabis sativa constituents. A comprehensive review of the chemical, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of each of the reviewed products is provided. Finally, recent preclinical studies reporting the antidepressant action of marine-derived natural products are discussed at the end of the review. PMID:22414105

El-Alfy, A T; Abourashed, E A; Matsumoto, R R

2012-01-01

277

Lands and natural resources  

SciTech Connect

The Tenth Circuit has historically played a major role in the development of Indian law. Among the court's numerous decisions affecting Indians were those involving the standard of proof in cases seeking to disestablish Indian reservations, the duty owed by the Secretary of the Interior to the Indians in the administration of oil and gas leasing on Indian lands, the effect of state gas price control acts on Indian royalties, the necessary standard of compliance with acts allowing non-Indians to obtain interests in Indian real property, the conflict between Indian sovereign immunity and the Federal Rule of Civil Procedure requiring joinder of all necessary parties to an action, and the Indians' power to tax non-Indians who develop the Indians' natural resources. Additionally, this article discusses the enforcement power of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission under the Natural Gas Act; the construction of oil and gas operating agreements as to deep geologic horizons; and finally, the consequences of conveyancing real property when a predecessor in interest has suffered due process violations in the form of defective tax sales or condemnation proceedings.

Sorensen, A.K.

1985-01-01

278

Aquatic Natural Areas in Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Project objectives included classification of surface water features, identification of potential aquatic natural areas, and the development of an objective methodology for selection of natural areas. A preliminary classification system for streams, lakes...

F. W. Rabe N. L. Savage

1977-01-01

279

Technology Characterization: Liquified Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categor...

1976-01-01

280

Suzanne's Natural Foods Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... November 9, 2005 Suzanne Charron Suzanne's Natural Foods 3106 S. Connecticut Ave. ... Page 2 – Suzanne's Natural Foods Warning Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

281

Natural Gas Monthly, November 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and ...

2002-01-01

282

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

283

Natural gas regulation and its effect on natural gas supply  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is an environmentally benign, domestically abundand, and competitively priced fossil fuel. Despite these advantages, natural gas consumption in the industrial and electric-generation sectors has fallen significantly over the past two decades. The primary obstruction has been a regulatory morass that has created an atmosphere not condusive to the investment decisions necessary to expand the market for producers, transporters, and consumers of natural gas. This article discusses the following related topics: the public utility approach to implementation of regulation of natural gas pipelines; the creation of FERC; the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978; and order No. 436 by FERC in 1985.

Tyson, R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

284

The Nonmarket Benefits of Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Green gross domestic product (green GDP) is meant to account for nature’s value on an equal footing with the market economy. Several problems bedevil green GDP, however. One is that nature does not come prepackaged in units like cars, houses,and bread. Even worse, green GDP requires measurement,of the benefits arising from public goods provided by nature for which there

James Body; James Boyd

285

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

286

Adsorbent storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural-gas vehicle represents a cost-competitive, lower-emission alternative to the gasoline-fueled vehicle. The immediate challenge that confronts the natural-gas vehicle is extension of its driving range. This paper addresses the question of driving range by reviewing the storage technologies for natural gas. Technical comparisons are made between storage systems for adsorbent, liquefied and compressed natural gas, and estimates are made

M. Gurevich

1996-01-01

287

Natural gas monthly, September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-09-27

288

Natural gas monthly, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-06-22

289

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

290

Natural gas monthly, June 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

291

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

292

Natural gas monthly, November 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-11-29

293

Natural gas monthly, June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-06-01

294

Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-25

295

Natural gas monthly, May 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-01

296

Natural gas monthly, June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-06-01

297

Natural gas monthly, October 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

298

Natural gas monthly, July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1998-07-01

299

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

300

Natural gas monthly: September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-09-01

301

Origin of the Natural Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the wave theory of matter natural laws were observed, but not predicted by a physical cause. Their existence was faith in Nature, a God. Now, using a spherical wave structure of the electron-positron, natural laws are predicted exactly as observed - not God-given, but a consequence of the wave structure of matter. The prediction of laws, of electron spin,

Milo Wolff; Geoff Haselhurst

2000-01-01

302

Advances in the Natural transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature review of the Natural transform and the existing definitions and connections to the Laplace and Sumudu transforms are discussed in this communication. Along with the complex inverse Natural transform and Heaviside's expansion formula, the relation of Bessel's function to Natural transform (and hence Laplace and Sumudu transforms) are defined.

Belgacem, F. B. M.; Silambarasan, R.

2012-11-01

303

Natural gas pipeline technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern

S. M. Folga

2007-01-01

304

Natural products as antiviral agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the ancient times, natural products have served as a majorsource of drugs. About fifty percent of today's pharmaceutical drugs are derived from natural origin. Interest in natural products as a source of new drugs is growing due to many factors that will be discussed in this article. Viruses have been resistant to therapy or prophylaxis longer than any other

Khalid A. El Sayed

2000-01-01

305

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in

Steinhaeusler Friedrich; Zaitseva Lyudmila

2008-01-01

306

Natural Fiber Reinforced PLA Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the physical properties of natural fiber reinforced PLA composites, which were prepared by using PLA films and fibers. The impact, tensile, and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were observed to examine the reinforcing effect of natural fibers. In addition, numerical analysis was carried out to more clarify the experimental results. The natural fibers\\/PLA composites shows a good

Young Seok Song; Jung Tae Lee; Jae Ryoun Youn

2010-01-01

307

Natural Fiber Reinforced PLA Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the physical properties of natural fiber reinforced PLA composites, which were prepared by using PLA films and fibers. The impact, tensile, and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were observed to examine the reinforcing effect of natural fibers. In addition, numerical analysis was carried out to more clarify the experimental results. The natural fibers?PLA composites shows a good

Young Seok Song; Jung Tae Lee; Jae Ryoun Youn

2010-01-01

308

Material flows vs. `natural capital'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discourse about sustainable development, `constant natural capital' is frequently referred to as a criterion for ecological sustainability. But what is `natural capital'? The concept will be analyzed by presenting arguments in favour of using the term and different versions of sustainability (strong and weak). Subsequently, a critique of the `natural capital' concept is brought forward, from an ecological

Friedrich Hinterberger; Fred Luks; Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek

1997-01-01

309

Natural Hazards In Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human

M. Torres-Vera

2001-01-01

310

Performing Nature at World's Ends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In introducing this special edition, we argue that a shift in emphasis from positionality and representation to performativity and ontology offers a new approach to thinking about nature categories. Rather than criticising dualisms, we focus on how nature categories are produced and reproduced. The article addresses contexts of settler societies and industrial modernity, where concepts of wilderness and nature are

Simone Abram; Marianne Elisabeth Lien

2011-01-01

311

Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

Schnack, Karsten

2009-01-01

312

Children's Moral Relationships with Nature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…

Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann

313

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of

P. V. Silva; N. Hernandez

1988-01-01

314

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive

J. H. Hackworth; R. W. Koch

1995-01-01

315

FINDING FUNGICIDES FROM NATURAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Discovery of natural product fungicides is largely dependent upon the availability of high quality miniaturized antifungal bioassays. As part of a program to discover natural product-based fungicides, two sensitive assay systems were developed for evaluation of naturally occurring antifungal agents...

316

Natural gas monthly, November 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-11-01

317

Natural gas monthly, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

318

Natural gas monthly, February 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

319

Natural Attrition: The Preferred Option?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within official and academic discourse natural attrition has been taken as the preferred way of dealing with redundancies, in part because it appears as equivalent to normal labour turnover and hence as a natural and normal process. The paper seeks to cast some doubt on this assumption by presenting a case study of natural attrition in a central Queensland open

Kathy Turner

1988-01-01

320

X-Ray, Optical, and Radio Observations of the Type II Supernovae 1999em and 1998S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Type II-P (plateau) supernova SN 1999em and Type IIn (narrow emission line) SN 1998S have enabled estimation of the profile of the SN ejecta, the structure of the circumstellar medium (CSM) established by the pre-SN stellar wind, and the nature of the shock interaction. SN 1999em is the first Type II-P detected at both X-ray and radio

David Pooley; Walter H. G. Lewin; Derek W. Fox; Jon M. Miller; Christina K. Lacey; Schuyler D. Van Dyk; Kurt W. Weiler; Richard A. Sramek; Alexei V. Filippenko; Douglas C. Leonard; Stefan Immler; Roger A. Chevalier; Andrew C. Fabian; Claes Fransson; Ken'ichi Nomoto

2002-01-01

321

Natural resources and economy  

SciTech Connect

Studies during the 1970s concluded that there is a limit to the ecosphere's capacity to permanently support human society as presently structured, but economic theorists have tried to prove that natural resources are more abundant than the available data would indicate. Using soil, ores, and energy to determine if it is possible to estimate the reserves with any precision, the author examines use practices, limiting factors, and the history of technological development to show that current consumption patterns in developed countries do not extrapolate to either developing countries or to the future. He emphasizes that economics is the science of values, which makes it different from other branches of science. In order to make economics compatible with the basic sciences there would have to be a drastic increase in the value of primary goods, both mineral and biologic. While this approach seems utopian, it may be required for future existence. 11 references, 2 tables.

Fonseca, F.F.A.

1986-01-01

322

New Probe of Naturalness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any new scalar fields that perturbatively solve the hierarchy problem by stabilizing the Higgs boson mass also generate new contributions to the Higgs boson field-strength renormalization, irrespective of their gauge representation. These new contributions are physical, and in explicit models their magnitude can be inferred from the requirement of quadratic divergence cancellation; hence, they are directly related to the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Upon canonically normalizing the Higgs field, these new contributions lead to modifications of Higgs couplings that are typically great enough that the hierarchy problem and the concept of electroweak naturalness can be probed thoroughly within a precision Higgs boson program. Specifically, at a lepton collider this can be achieved through precision measurements of the Higgs boson associated production cross section. This would lead to indirect constraints on perturbative solutions to the hierarchy problem in the broadest sense, even if the relevant new fields are gauge singlets.

Craig, Nathaniel; Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew

2013-09-01

323

New probe of naturalness.  

PubMed

Any new scalar fields that perturbatively solve the hierarchy problem by stabilizing the Higgs boson mass also generate new contributions to the Higgs boson field-strength renormalization, irrespective of their gauge representation. These new contributions are physical, and in explicit models their magnitude can be inferred from the requirement of quadratic divergence cancellation; hence, they are directly related to the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Upon canonically normalizing the Higgs field, these new contributions lead to modifications of Higgs couplings that are typically great enough that the hierarchy problem and the concept of electroweak naturalness can be probed thoroughly within a precision Higgs boson program. Specifically, at a lepton collider this can be achieved through precision measurements of the Higgs boson associated production cross section. This would lead to indirect constraints on perturbative solutions to the hierarchy problem in the broadest sense, even if the relevant new fields are gauge singlets. PMID:24093250

Craig, Nathaniel; Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew

2013-09-20

324

Nature: Katrina's Animal Rescue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There have been many stories that have come out in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and most of them have dealt with the human tragedies involved in this traumatic set of events. The people at the long-running PBS series, Nature, have created this website to complement a recent edition of the show that offered some insights into the effects the hurricane had on the animal population of Louisiana. On the site, visitors can take advantage of a number of special interactive features. These features allow visitors to ask questions of those involved in the animal rescue efforts and learn about the psychological and physical effects on animals. The site also contains a section where visitors can learn about other web-based resources, such as the homepages for Animal Rescue New Orleans and the Best Friends Animal Society.

2005-01-01

325

Nature of Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is light? Our experience with light is that which we can see. Our eyes contain two different types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Rods are extremely sensitive to light but can't distinguish color. Cones which are less sensitive than rods, respond to light of different wavelengths, producing color vision. Instruction for understanding light begins with an understanding of mechanical waves and the properties of those waves. However, light also has particle-like properties, and exhibits a wave-particle duality. This SciGuide breaks down the complexity of teaching the nature of light into manageable chunks arranged in a logical sequence for learning. You may choose specific Themes or Keywords appropriate to your students and teaching objectives. Individual Themes and Keywords identify misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. Many web resources provide simulations and data to enhance understanding and engage students in inquiry.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

1900-01-01

326

Natural flexible dermal armor.  

PubMed

Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

2012-11-15

327

An Evaluation of DOE-EM Public Participation Programs  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the scope and effectiveness of the public participation pr ograms, including Site-Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs), at seven U.S. Departmen t of Energy (DOE) sites: Fernald, Hanford, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Paduc ah, and Savannah River. The primary purpose of the study is to assist both DOE Field and Headquarters managers in reviewing and understanding lessons learned o ver the past decade concerning public participation programs administered by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The evaluation provides a snapsh ot of selected EM public participation programs at a particular point of time. It is based on interviews and site visits conducted between January and June 200 2- a time of change within the program. The study focuses on public participati on programs that incorporate a variety of activities and address a wide range of individual site activities and decisions. It uses the Acceptability Diamond as an evaluative framework to answer questions about stakeholders' experiences wit h, and assessment of, DOE-EM's public participation programs. The Acceptability Diamond, which was developed by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in previous research, identifies four program dimensions - substanti ve issues, decision-making process, relationships, and accountability - that det ermine the effectiveness of an agency's interactions with local communities. Es sentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimens ions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and s ituation. This framework provides a guide for agencies to 1) set objectives, 2) design public participation and oversight programs, and 3) set criteria for eva luating program effectiveness. In the current study, where the framework is use d as a means of assessing program effectiveness, the focus is on stakeholders' p erspectives of public participation: on the nature of DOE-EM's public disclosure and the four interrelated dimensions of DOE-EM's interactions with its neighbor ing communities

Bradbury, Judith A.; Branch, Kristi M.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

2003-02-28

328

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

329

Natural gas monthly, September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-09-27

330

Natural gas monthly, August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-08-25

331

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

332

Natural gas monthly, December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

333

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

334

Natural gas monthly: April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1996-04-01

335

Natural gas monthly, October 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

336

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

337

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

338

Natural gas monthly, October 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-10-01

339

Natural gas monthly, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

340

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

341

Natural gas monthly, June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-06-21

342

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

343

How natural is a nature reserve?: an ideological study of British nature conservation landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas set apart for nature conservation in Britain are broadly categorised according to their cultural purpose, and names are assigned to these in this paper. Nature reserves may be similar to zoos and botanic gardens in aiming to maintain the diversity of species and if so are termed ‘biodiversity reserves’. This tradition understands nature as a static collection of entities

Nigel S. Cooper

2000-01-01

344

Natural gas monthly, April 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-04-01

345

Natural hazard losses and acceptable risk criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The criteria for the definition of acceptable risk to the lives of members of a society (commonly called societal risk) resulting from exposure to natural hazards are based in most countries on the frequency and characteristics of industrial accidents, e.g., nuclear power plants. However, historical records indicate that the frequency of natural hazard events is much higher than those involved in industrial hazards and their consequences are far greater. We find that the risk from natural hazards is unacceptable in the current risk criteria framework, i.e., they are an unacceptable risk with respect to the acceptable risk criteria based on the frequency and consequences of industrial accidents. According to a definition of risk, there are two main components; first, the probability of occurrence of the hazard and second, the consequence of the hazard. The occurrence of industrial accident events (hazard) can be controlled to a large extent in contrast to that of natural hazards. However, we can control natural hazard risk, in some cases by engineering solutions to control hazard and by reducing the consequences of the events by mitigating, risk management, warning and monitoring techniques. With reference to natural hazards reducing risk is mainly effected by reducing consequences. The FN-curve is a tool commonly used in societal risk assessment. It is built on a series of frequency-loss data associated with a particular process in a given period of time. It is also used to set acceptable risk criteria for countries or sub-national jurisdictions, by defining slopes and intercepts for plots of a particular (or group of) processes. The intercept of the acceptable risk curve is usually arbitrarily defined in the order of 10-7-10-1 deaths per year, and the slope criteria is based on an adopted aversion factor of the society to accident and disaster losses.The imposed slope criteria is usually between -1 and -2 whereas the slope of FN-curves based on real natural disaster data is <-1. Efforts have been made to make FN-curves more practical since there have been persistent difficulties in interpreting the curves dating back to their initial use in the 1960s. To this end we introduce a normalization procedure to the consequence part of the FN-curve. This involves taking N, number of fatalities and dividing N by the population exposed to the event. Since the population of regions are different, different societal risk results from differential exposure. We illustrate the use of the normalized consequence approach by analyzing losses from natural hazards in 32 European countries derived from the EM-DAT database. We examine historical losses in relation to acceptable risk criteria and find that risks defined in the modified FN curves far exceed those defined in industrial-accident-based acceptable risk criteria in current European use.

Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Nadim, F.; Lacasse, S.

2009-12-01

346

Naturalized philosophy of science and natural science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major controversy in contemporary philosophy of science concerns the possibility and desirability of its ‘naturalization.’ In this paper I review the philosophical controversy concerning naturalism, and investigate the role it might play in the science classroom. I argue that science students can benefit from explicit study of this controversy, and from explicit consideration of the extent to which philosophy of science can be studied naturalistically. More specifically, I suggest that such consideration can enhance students' understanding of the nature of ‘natural’ science, of the nature and importance of philosophy of science, and of the relationship between the two — and that these benefits accrue to science education whichever philosophical view concerning naturalization proves to be correct. My hope is that the paper demonstrates the benefits to be gained from explicit consideration in the science classroom of an important issue in the philosophy of science.

Siegel, Harvey

1993-03-01

347

Nature of Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I have examined entire spectrum of the issues concerning reality. We need to make two fundamental changes in our understanding of how nature manages universe. We must give up the idea that FTL communication is not possible. Second major change is that an object remains unmanifested till it finds a medium through which it can manifest itself. How the reality is revealed does not depend only on the properties of the reality itself but also depends on the properties of the medium through which the object is manifested. Light and heat are manifested information and therefore cannot carry information. Nothing exists that has illumination as its inherent property; photon is energy particle (not light particle). Matter is manifested energy; matter does not distort space, matter is distorted space. Light and heat remain unmanifested till energy finds matter to manifest itself. Light does not travel; each particle illuminates as it receives energy from previous particle and acts as a `light bulb' and hence illusion of forward motion. All communication in the universe takes place through radiation and radiation emitted by the object is directly proportionate to the energy incident upon it. Two experiments provide experimental evidence to this theory.

Thakur, Sunil

2008-04-01

348

World Natural Gas, 1978  

SciTech Connect

World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

Not Available

1980-07-01

349

Visualizing natural image statistics.  

PubMed

Natural image statistics is an important area of research in cognitive sciences and computer vision. Visualization of statistical results can help identify clusters and anomalies as well as analyze deviation, distribution, and correlation. Furthermore, they can provide visual abstractions and symbolism for categorized data. In this paper, we begin our study of visualization of image statistics by considering visual representations of power spectra, which are commonly used to visualize different categories of images. We show that they convey a limited amount of statistical information about image categories and their support for analytical tasks is ineffective. We then introduce several new visual representations, which convey different or more information about image statistics. We apply ANOVA to the image statistics to help select statistically more meaningful measurements in our design process. A task-based user evaluation was carried out to compare the new visual representations with the conventional power spectra plots. Based on the results of the evaluation, we made further improvement of visualizations by introducing composite visual representations of image statistics. PMID:23661013

Fang, Hui; Tam, Gary Kwok-Leung; Borgo, Rita; Aubrey, Andrew J; Grant, Philip W; Rosin, Paul L; Wallraven, Christian; Cunningham, Douglas; Marshall, David; Chen, Min

2013-07-01

350

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

351

Naturalness and supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, the author argues that the supersymmetric Standard Model, while avoiding the fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking, requires unnaturalness/fine tuning in some (other) sector of the theory. For example, Baryon and Lepton number violating operators are allowed which lead to proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. He studies some of the constraints from the latter in this thesis. He has to impose an R-parity for the theory to be both natural and viable. In the absence of flavor symmetries, the supersymmetry breaking masses for the squarks and sleptons lead to too large flavor changing neutral currents. He shows that two of the solutions to this problem, gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and making the scalars of the first two generations heavier than a few TeV, reintroduce fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking. He also constructs a model of low energy gauge mediation with a non-minimal messenger sector which improves the fine tuning and also generates required Higgs mass terms. He shows that this model can be derived from a Grand Unified Theory despite the non-minimal spectrum.

Agashe, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1998-05-01

352

Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typical supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system or an energy management system (EMS) has an installed life of only 10 to 15 years. Because it can take five years or more to implement a new EMS or SCADA system, managing such projects is becoming a way of life for utilities. Project planning for EMS and SCADA systems is

Charles T. Lindeberg; Wayne R. Block

1993-01-01

353

Triple Jump Acceleration for the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the triple jump framework for ac- celerating the EM algorithm and other bound optimization methods. The idea is to extrapolate the third search point based on the previous two search points found by regu- lar EM. As the convergence rate of regular EM becomes slower, the distance of the triple jump will be longer, and thus provide

Han-shen Huang; Bou-ho Yang; Chun-nan Hsu

2005-01-01

354

Heat distribution by natural convection  

SciTech Connect

Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others. Natural convection can also be used to reduce the number of auxiliary heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures are predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Experimental results are summarized based on the monitoring of 15 passive solar buildings which employ a wide variety of geometrical configurations including natural convective loops.

Balcomb, J.D.

1985-01-01

355

NASA Earth Observatory: Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The specific focus of this Earth Observatory website is natural hazards. Earth scientists around the world use NASA satellite imagery to better understand the causes and effects of natural hazards. The goal in sharing these images is to help people visualize where and when natural hazards occur, and to help mitigate their effects. Natural hazards that are emphasized include dust and smoke, wildfires, floods, severe storms, and volcanoes. In addition, each week the site highlights major natural hazard events occurring around the globe. Links to satellite imagery and informational text concerning the natural hazard and image interpretation are included. The site also offers a link to unique imagery, such as earthquakes, droughts, and landslides, and features the latest unique imagery events around the globe.

356

Diffusion in natural ilmenite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion rates in natural ilmenite of composition Fe0.842+ Fe0.163+Mn0.07Mg0.01Ti 0.92O3 from the Vishnevye Mountains (Urals, Russia) have been measured at 1000° C. Experiments were carried out in a one atmosphere furnace with oxygen fugacity controlled by flow of a CO-CO2 gas mixture, over a period of four hours. The diffusant source was a synthetic ilmenite (FeTiO3) powder doped with trace amounts of Mg, Co, Ni, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Al, Cr, Ga and Y. Since, the natural ilmenite crystal contained Mn it was also possible to study diffusion of Mn from the ilmenite crystal. The experiments were analysed using the electron microprobe and scanning laser ablation ICP-MS. Diffusion profiles were measured for Al, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, and Y. Diffusion of Cr, Hf, Zr, V, Nb and Ta was too slow to allow diffusion profiles to be accurately measured for the times and temperatures studied so far. The preliminary results show that diffusion in ilmenite is fast, with the diffusivity determined in this study on the order of 10-13 to 10-16 m2s-1. For comparison, Chakraborty (1997) found interdiffusion of Fe and Mg in olivine at 1000° C on the order of 10-17 to 10-18m2s-1 and Dieckmann (1998) found diffusivity of Fe, Mg, Co in magnetite at 1200° C to be on the order of 10-13 to 10-14 m2s-1. The order in which the diffusivity of the elements decreases is Mn > Co > Mg ? Ni > Al ? Y ? Ga, that is to say that Mn diffuses the fastest and Ga the slowest. Overall, this study intends to determine diffusion parameters such as frequency factor, activation energy and activation volume as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. This research is taking place in the context of a larger study focusing on the use of the garnet-ilmenite system as a geospeedometer. Examination of the consequences of simultaneous diffusion of multiple elements is a necessity if we are to develop an understanding of the crystal-chemical controls on diffusion (cf Spandler & O'Neill, in press). Chakraborty, S. (1997). Rates and mechanisms of Fe-Mg interdiffusion in olivine at 980° C -1300° C. Journal of geophysical research 102 (B6) p.12317-12331. Dieckmann, R. (1998). Point defects and transport in non-stoichiometric oxides: solved and unsolved problems. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 59 (4) p. 507-525. Spandler, C., O'Neill, H. St. C. (in press). Diffusion and partition coefficients of minor and trace elements in San Carlos olivine at 1300° C with some geochemical implications. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology doi: 10.1007/s00410-009-0456-8.

Stenhouse, Iona; O'Neill, Hugh; Lister, Gordon

2010-05-01

357

Nature of Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nothing, not even energy, is endowed with the powers of self-manifestation and needs a medium to manifest itself. Energy and matter remain unmanifested in the absence of each other. Even visible light manifests itself only for the moment it interacts with the matter. Since every physical entity needs a medium to manifest itself therefore its manifested form depends not just on its own properties but also on the properties of the observer, frame of reference of the observer, and method of observation. At any given time, properties of a physical entity are observer-independent and hence are absolute but manifested form of the entity is observer dependent and hence is always relative. Apparently, what is perceivable is relative. Relativity appears to be an inherent feature of the perceptible universe but only till we view space and time separately or measure space and time in different frames of reference. Distortion of space (or length contraction of Lorentz transformation) and time dilation are directly proportionate i.e. when space contracts, so does time in the same proportion and when space expands, time also expands in the same proportion and hence speed of energy reflected through speed of light must remain constant in all frames of reference. Relativity appears only when we measure space and time in different frames of reference; absolute emerges when we view objects as space-time structures. What is relative cannot be real and what is real is unperceivable. In this paper, I have explored nature of reality through fundamental concepts of physics.

Thakur, Sunil

2009-05-01

358

Submicroscopic Nature Needs Megascience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of ``submicroscopic nature,'' that is, the history of particle physics, begins in the early 1950's and builds on the construction of a post WWII series of particle accelerators developed to study nuclear physics had been applied to the collisions, in the earth's atmosphere, of cosmic rays. These were high energy particles generated in cosmological events and colliding with oxygen and nitrogen in our atmosphere to create new particles. These studies discovered muons, pions, kaons and lambdas---the beginnings of a vast ``zoo.'' Clearly, studies of the inhabitants of the zoo required energetic collisions, the higher the energy of the accelerator, the more extensive was the range of masses that could be produced and studied. Our paper will review the developments over the past 50 years. As accelerators grew, so did the particle detectors and the sizes of the experimental groups. This will bring us to Fermilab in 2005. Finally, we will describe the ˜900 physicist groups that are cheerfully collaborating, building particle detectors designed to peer deeply into the structure of matter, based upon the ``Large Hadron Collider'' (LHC), an accelerator of unprecedented size, cost, and complexity. The story then takes us from the 100 MeV (10^8 eV) ``atom smashers'' of 1950, to the ˜10 TeV (10^13 eV) behemoth now under construction in Europe. Thus, we move from dozens of machines often on University campuses around the world, to one single megascience device shared by physicists around the world. The motivation for this evolution is physics, as we shall attempt to explain.

Lederman, Leon

2005-04-01

359

Natural selection maximizes Fisher information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biology, information flows from the environment to the genome by the\\u000aprocess of natural selection. But it has not been clear precisely what sort of\\u000ainformation metric properly describes natural selection. Here, I show that\\u000aFisher information arises as the intrinsic metric of natural selection and\\u000aevolutionary dynamics. Maximizing the amount of Fisher information about the\\u000aenvironment captured by

Steven A. Frank

2009-01-01

360

Natural gas monthly, May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-05-24

361

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

362

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

363

Natural gas monthly, March 1998  

SciTech Connect

The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

364

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

365

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

366

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.

1988-01-01

367

Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

2002-01-01

368

Natural Resources and Economic Development The curse of natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and extends previous research that has shown evidence of acurse of natural resourcesa } countries withgreat natural resource wealthtend nevertheless to grow more slowly than resource-poor countries. This result is not easily explained by other variables, or by alternative ways to measure resource abundance. This paper shows that there is little direct evidence that omitted geographical or

D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

2001-01-01

369

Naturalized philosophy of science and natural science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major controversy in contemporary philosophy of science concerns the possibility and desirability of its ‘naturalization.’ In this paper I review the philosophical controversy concerning naturalism, and investigate the role it might play in the science classroom. I argue that science students can benefit from explicit study of this controversy, and from explicit consideration of the extent to which philosophy

Harvey Siegel

1993-01-01

370

Natural antibodies to glycans.  

PubMed

A wide variety of so-called natural antibodies (nAbs), i.e. immunoglobulins generated by B-1 cells, are directed to glycans. nAbs to glycans can be divided in three groups: 1) conservative nAbs, i.e. practically the same in all healthy donors with respect to their epitope specificity and level in blood; 2) allo-antibodies to blood group antigens; 3) plastic antibodies related to the first or the second group but discussed separately because their level changes considerably during diseases and some temporary conditions, in particular inflammation and pregnancy. Antibodies from the third group proved to be prospective markers of a number of diseases, whereas their unusual level (below or above the norm) is not necessarily the consequence of disease/state. Modern microarrays allowed the determination of the human repertoire, which proved to be unexpectedly broad. It was observed that the content of some nAbs reaches about 0.1% of total immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins of M class dominate for most nAbs, constituting up to 80-90%. Their affinity (to a monovalent glycan, in KD terms) were found to be within the range 10(-4)-10(-6) M. Antibodies to Gal?1-3GlcNAc (Le(C)), 4-HSO3Gal?1-4GalNAc (4'-O-SuLN), Fuc?1-3GlcNAc, Fuc?1-4GlcNAc, GalNAc?1-3Gal (Adi), Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Glc (P(k)), Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc (P1), GlcNAc?-terminated glycans, and hyaluronic acid should be noted among the nAbs revealed and studied during the last decade. At the same time, a kind of "taboo" is observed for a number of glycans: antibodies to Le(X) and Le(Y), and almost all gangliosides have not been observed in healthy persons. Many of the revealed nAbs were directed to constrained inner (core) part of glycan, directly adjoined to lipid of cell membrane or protein. The biological function of these nAbs remains unclear; for anti-core antibodies, a role of surveillance on appearance of aberrant, especially cancer, antigens is supposed. The first data related to oncodiagnostics based on quantitation of anti-glycan nAbs are reported. PMID:24010841

Bovin, N V

2013-07-01

371

Nature of deleterious mutation load in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Much population genetics and evolution theory depends on knowledge of genomic mutation rates and distributions of mutation effects for fitness, but most information comes from a few mutation accumulation experiments in Drosophila in which replicated chromosomes are sheltered from natural selection by a balancer chromosome. I show here that data from these experiments imply the existence of a large class of minor viability mutations with approximately equivalent effects. However, analysis of the distribution of viabilities of chromosomes exposed to EMS mutagenesis reveals a qualitatively different distribution of effects lacking such a minor effects class. A possible explanation for this difference is that transposable element insertions, a common class of spontaneous mutation event in Drosophila frequently generate minor viability effects. This explanation would imply that current estimates of deleterious mutation rates are not generally applicable in evolutionary models, as transposition rates vary widely. Alternatively, much of the apparent decline in viability under spontaneous mutation accumulation could have been nonmutational, perhaps due to selective improvement of balancer chromosomes. This explanation accords well with the data and implies a spontaneous mutation rate for viability two orders of magnitude lower than previously assumed, with most mutation load attributable to major effects. PMID:8978082

Keightley, P D

1996-12-01

372

The J.M. Smucker Company Announces a Limited Voluntary Recall on Two Specific Best-If-Used-By Dates of 16 oz. Smucker’s&tm; Natural Peanut Butter Chunky Due to Possible Health Risk  

NASA Website

The J.M. Smucker Company today announced a limited voluntary recall on two specific Best-If-Used-By dates of 16 oz. <em>Smucker’s>®® Natural Peanut Butter Chunky because it may be contaminated with Salmonella, an organism that can ...

373

34 CFR 303.26 - Natural environments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural environments. 303.26 Section 303.26 Education...Definitions Used in This Part § 303.26 Natural environments. Natural environments means settings that are natural or...

2013-07-01

374

Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

Taylor, Affrica

2011-01-01

375

Natural Numbers in Transclassic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reason why natural numbers follow the unilinear sequence prescribed by the Peano axioms is that these axioms presuppose that natural numbers are mapped unto the classic two-valued system of logic. If the same numbers are mapped unto transclassic syste...

G. Gunther

1970-01-01

376

The curse of natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes and extends previous research that has shown evidence of a “curse of natural resources” – countries with great natural resource wealth tend nevertheless to grow more slowly than resource-poor countries. This result is not easily explained by other variables, or by alternative ways to measure resource abundance. This paper shows that there is little direct evidence that

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew M. Warner

2001-01-01

377

The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)|

Sullivan, Arthur

2000-01-01

378

Natural Way to Stay Sweet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A revolutionary, low-calorie sugar is now available to the food and beverage market, offering an all-natural alternative to table sugar and artificial sweeteners. Tagatose, a sugar that appears in nature in small quantities, began its unusual journey to t...

2004-01-01

379

Backpocket: Activities for Nature Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leading naturalist-teachers share outdoor learning activities and techniques, including using binoculars as magnifiers, scavenger hunts, games such as "what's it called" and "I spy," insect study, guessing the age of trees by examining the bark, leading bird walks, exploring nature in the community, and enhancing nature hikes with props. (LP)

Hendry, Ian; And Others

1995-01-01

380

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

381

Radical economics and natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market prices will not ensure the optimal allocation of natural resources through time. Not only is there likely to be “market failure,” but also one must consider the nature of technical progress and the requirements of the wider social and political system. These discourage collective action and encourage unrestrained exploitation of resources. No complete radical or Marxist analysis exists, but

Anthony Harris

1983-01-01

382

Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

383

Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to

1984-01-01

384

Natural mechanisms protecting against cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinogenesis is a multistage process. At each step of this process, there are natural mechanisms protecting against development of cancer. The majority of cancers in humans is induced by carcinogenic factors present in our environment including our food. However, some natural substances present in our diet or synthesized in our cells are able to block, trap or decompose reactive oxygen

Marek Jakóbisiak; Witold Lasek; Jakub Go?

2003-01-01

385

Automated First Order Natural Deduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a proof-searching algorithm for the classical first order natural deduction calculus and prove its correctness. For any given task (if this task is indeed solvable), a searching algorithm terminates, either finding a corresponding natural deduction proof or giving a set of constraints, from which a counter-example can be extracted. Proofs of the properties which characterize correctness of the

Alexander Bolotov; Vyacheslav Bocharov; Alexander Gorchakov; Vasilyi Shangin

2005-01-01

386

Discovering Nature with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children's curiosity about nature and their need to make sense of the world presents an opportunity to incorporate science as a natural and critical part of children's early learning. This guide, part of a preschool science curriculum, uses an inquiry approach to encourage young naturalists to observe life more closely, build an…

Chalufour, Ingrid; Worth, Karen

387

Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

Taylor, Affrica

2011-01-01

388

Natural Gas Industry and Markets  

EIA Publications

This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

Information Center

2006-03-03

389

Natural radioactivity in Spanish soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program of studies and surveys of natural radiation and radioactivity in Spain organized by our research group at the end of the 1980s included a 4-y national survey to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Results obtained from measurements of soil samples collected nationwide at >900 sampling sites are reported and discussed in this paper. Correlations between

L. S. Quindos; P. L. Fernandez; J. Soto; C. Rodenas; J. Gomez

1994-01-01

390

The Natural Rate of Unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the natural rate of unemployment—the unemployment rate that arises from all sources other than fluctuations in demand associated with business cycles. The natural rate is determined by the rate at which jobs are simultaneously created and destroyed, the rate of turnover in particular jobs, and how quickly unemployed workers are matched with vacant positions. Those factors in

David Brauer

2007-01-01

391

Natural gas monthly, July 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-03

392

On Measuring Natural Resource Scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions concerning trends in natural resource scarcity may depend critically on the choice of scarcity index. Unfortunately, the prevalence of vertical integration in natural resource industries has hindered the use of some otherwise desirable scarcity measures. In this paper duality theory is used to derive an econometric procedure for estimating one such measure, the shadow price of the resource in

Robert Halvorsen; Tim R. Smith

1984-01-01

393

Cooperating Partners: Investigating Natural Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of better adapted intelligent systems can benefit from a better knowledge of the natural cooperative behavior between humans. Two studies of natural situations of cooperation are presented, focusing on the type of intervention of each partner in the dialogue. Specific attention is paid to the methodology of analysis. Implications for system design are stressed.

Françoise Darses; Pierre Falzon; Jean-marc Robert

1993-01-01

394

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

395

Underground storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing natural gas underground was first introduced in 1915 in Welland County, Ontario, Canada. In the US currently about 8 trillion standard cubic feet of gas is in storage in over 400 pools distributed in 26 states. The largest additional supply of natural gas for peak demands comes from these underground storage reservoirs. Details of many new operational procedures and

Tek

1987-01-01

396

Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

Rowe, Andy

2012-01-01

397

The greening of American naturalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we conceive of American naturalism as a literature about appetite and environment, then why have so few critical conversations about food, waste, water, and land emerged in connection with these early twentieth-century texts? Critics of American literary naturalism have long been preoccupied with hunger, framed almost entirely by a discussion about the animalistic appetites of socially determined human beings

Cara Elana Erdheim

2010-01-01

398

Commentary: Biochemistry Re-Natured  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his last commentary on "Biochemistry Denatured," this author dealt with his perception that college students today have spent too little of their childhood years playing outside in nature and as a consequence have not learned basic things about the world from personal experience. This "nature-deficit disorder" removes many opportunities for…

White, Harold B.

2010-01-01

399

Collaborating with Forms in Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Taking students outside is a great opportunity to make art. In this article, the author describes how her students collaborated with forms in nature to create their own visual structures to communicate ideas. This lesson can be done on the beach, in a sand box on the school playground, in grassy areas, or nature can even be brought into the…

Castro, Aileen Pugliese

2011-01-01

400

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

401

Nature versus Nurture in Longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the contribution of nature and nurture to the variance of longevity in a cross section of individuals. Our approach differs from that used in the genetics and biological literature in that we develop a simple model of longevity determination and use it to bound the contribution of nature to longevity. Using estimates of the key model parameters

Avi Simhon

2010-01-01

402

Natural gas in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all natural gas produced in North Dakota is casinghead gas from oil pools in the Madison group along the Nesson anticline and from pools in Burke County. Relatively minor quantities of dry gas are produced from the gas fields of North Dakota part of the Cedar Creek anticline. Only the natural gas from these areas is used commercially; the

S. B. Anderson; W. P. Eastwood

1968-01-01

403

Discovering Nature with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young children's curiosity about nature and their need to make sense of the world presents an opportunity to incorporate science as a natural and critical part of children's early learning. This guide, part of a preschool science curriculum, uses an inquiry approach to encourage young naturalists to observe life more closely, build an…

Chalufour, Ingrid; Worth, Karen

404

Multicellular microorganisms: laboratory versus nature  

PubMed Central

Our present in-depth knowledge of the physiology and regulatory mechanisms of microorganisms has arisen from our ability to remove them from their natural, complex ecosystems into pure liquid cultures. These cultures are grown under optimized laboratory conditions and allow us to study microorganisms as individuals. However, microorganisms naturally grow in conditions that are far from optimal, which causes them to become organized into multicellular communities that are better protected against the harmful environment. Moreover, this multicellular existence allows individual cells to differentiate and acquire specific properties, such as forming resistant spores, which benefit the whole population. The relocation of natural microorganisms to the laboratory can result in their adaptation to these favourable conditions, which is accompanied by complex changes that include the repression of some protective mechanisms that are essential in nature. Laboratory microorganisms that have been cultured for long periods under optimized conditions might therefore differ markedly from those that exist in natural ecosystems.

Palkova, Zdena

2004-01-01

405

Revised position on natural hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 2000 Fall Meeting in December, the AGU Council reaffirmed a revised version of AGU's position statement, “Meeting the Challenges of Natural Hazards.” This position was first adopted in 1996. The revised version (see accompanying text box) contains the same message as the original, but in concise language more easily understood by policy-makers and other non-scientists.The statement calls for more research in the geophysical processes to help understand the nature of natural hazards. However, it also clearly indicates that research alone will not improve the ability of society to withstand a natural disaster. Multidisciplinary approaches involving groups as disparate as builders, insurers, and relief organizations are required to improve mitigation efforts worldwide. The policy statement also emphasizes the need to communicate the results of scientific research to the public, especially those communities situated in areas particularly susceptible to extreme natural hazards.

Folger, Peter

406

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

407

Farm dependence on natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to explore the impacts of natural gas price increases and supply contraints on agricultural production in order to indicate the types of adjustments farmers would need to make, and to provide state and federal policymakers with an awareness of the crop, state, and regional dependence on natural gas for farm production. A qualitative analysis involving collection of information, summarization and analysis of current operational use of natural gas on farms, and calculation of farm dependence on natural gas, by crop, state, and region was undertaken. An econometric anlaysis involving estimation of consumption functions for natural gas used for irrigation and crop drying was also undertaken. The econometric analysis conducted in this study was less successful than the qualitative analysis, most probably a result of data constraints leading to a very small sample size. The qualitative analysis showed that farmers in the Southern Plains region are most dependent on natural gas for irrigation, followed by farmers in the Northern Plains. Production of rice, cotton and grain sorghum is most dependent on natural gas for irrigation. Dependence on natural gas for crop drying is most marked in the Delta States and Northern Plains regions. Rice, peanuts and grain sorghum depend most heavily among crops on natural gas for drying. The variables which seem to have the greatest impact on the consumption of natural gas for irrigation based on the econometric estimation include the quality of land (represented by its market value), the price of fertilizer, and the price of diesel fuel (a substitute). The estimated crop drying equations did not provide useful results.

Devlin, P.J.

1981-01-01

408

Natural Disasters: Acts of God Nature or Society? On the Social Relation to Natural Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Natural disasters are characterised by complex ,relationships and ,interactions between physical hazards and society. These, as well as local context, cultural aspects, social and political activities, and economic concerns, present diffi- culties in practical application of mitigation concepts and models. This paper outlines general approaches ,in natural risk assessment ,and ,gives aninsight,into the contextual dynamics ,surrounding ,a hazard ,event.

Juergen Weichselgartner; Jurjen Bertens

2000-01-01

409

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

410

Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate scientists: each jurisdiction must cap and begin reducing total GHG emissions within the decade and continue reduction until they reach 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The trust framework positions all nations of the world in a logical relationship that can guide international diplomacy. The atmosphere, oceans and the global hydrologic cycle are commonly held assets shared as property among all nations on Earth. Thus, all Nations are sovereign co-tenant trustees, each holding the fiduciary responsibility to not degrade the common asset and to accomplish proportionate carbon reduction.

Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

2007-12-01

411

New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.  

PubMed

In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

2013-07-26

412

The Nature of US Natural Hazards Research, 1988-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous academic disciplines have contributed to the body of published research on natural hazards and disasters. Geologists, engineers, geographers, and sociologists have participated since the topic first emerged as a formal research agenda in the early 1950s. In more recent decades, psychologists, political scientists, economists, historians, archeologists, anthropologists, architects, computer scientists, and artists have added to our understanding of environmental risk, hazard, and disaster. When examined in-print, what are the discipline-demographics of natural hazards? Who contributes and who tends to have the greater influence on scholarly discourse related to the topic? Are there clear trends in methods, techniques, or paradigmatic approaches? To what degree does this inherently interdisciplinary topic render interdisciplinary research? This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. We will describe the discipline-demographics of natural hazards scholarship by examining college-level texts, peer-reviewed journal publications, federally-funded reports, and federally-funded research grants relating to natural hazards or disasters from 1988 to 2008. The citation frequency of sampled references will also be examined as a surrogate for influence on the scholarly discourse of natural hazards. In this paper, we will focus attention on the contributions of social scientists during this period, including an assessment of temporal trends relative to specific disaster events.

Hagelman, R., III

2009-04-01

413

Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of genetic markers, the phenotyping of quantitative traits, and, finally, QTL analyses. The focus of the chapter is on the use and development of recombinant inbred lines, but other types of segregating populations, including genome-wide association mapping in natural populations, are also discussed. PMID:24057363

Molenaar, Johanna A; Keurentjes, Joost J B

2014-01-01

414

Induction Conductivity and Natural Gamma Logs Collected in 15 Wells at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document electromagnetic (EM) induction conductivity and natural gamma log data collected in wells (table 1) during March 28-30, 2005, at various depths below land surface to calibrate the recently surveyed HEM data. CSSA ...

G. P. Stanton

2005-01-01

415

Natural Resources: For the Birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than ticking off a checklist (though that is fun, too), birding fosters an appreciation for nature. The following citizen science opportunities connect children to the scientific community. The websites listed here include tips on feeding and observi

Mayes, Valynda

2009-10-01

416

Energy as a Natural Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly discusses energy consumption per capita as an index of technical progress, a historical review of concepts related to energy conservation, energy conversion, natural sources, man-made sources, and social implications. (PR)

Seeger, Raymond J.

1971-01-01

417

Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of these discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activit...

T. H. Nguyen

2003-01-01

418

Rhizoctonia in Natural Grassland Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN investigation into various aspects of the microbiology of natural grassland soils is being carried out in these laboratories to serve as a guide in future studies on the microbiology of soils under introduced pasture grasses.

R. H. Thornton

1956-01-01

419

Natural Gas Issues and Trends  

EIA Publications

Final issue of this report. Provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

Information Center

1999-04-01

420

Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook  

EIA Publications

A presentation to the National Association of State Energy Officials 2005 Energy Outlook Conference, in Washington, DC, on February 17, 2005, giving EIA's outlook for petroleum and natural gas supply, demand, and prices.

Information Center

2005-02-18

421

Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia is the dominant natural gas supplier to Europe and neighboring former Soviet states, as well as a major provider of oil. Some countries are entirely or largely dependent upon Russian energy supplies, particularly other Soviet successor states. As s...

B. A. Gelb

2007-01-01

422

Adhesion-Induced DNA Naturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA adsorption and naturation is modeled via two interacting flexible homopolymers coupled to a solid surface. DNA denatures if the entropy gain for unbinding the two strands overcomes the loss of binding energy. When adsorbed to a surface, the entropy gain is smaller than in the bulk, leading to a stronger binding and, upon neglecting self-avoidance, absence of a denatured phase. Now consider conditions where the binding potentials are too weak for naturation, and the surface potential too weak to adsorb single strands. In a variational approach it is shown that their combined action may lead to a naturated adsorbed phase. Conditions for the absence of naturation and adsorption are derived too. The phase diagram is constructed qualitatively.

Allahverdyan, A. E.; Gevorkian, Zh. S.; Hu, Chin-Kun; Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

2006-03-01

423

Bioactive natural products from Lysobacter.  

PubMed

The gliding Gram-negative Lysobacter bacteria are emerging as a promising source of new bioactive natural products. These ubiquitous freshwater and soil microorganisms are fast growing, simple to use and maintain, and genetically amenable for biosynthetic engineering. This Highlight reviews a group of biologically active and structurally distinct natural products from the genus Lysobacter, with a focus on their biosyntheses. Although Lysobacter sp. are known as prolific producers of bioactive natural products, detailed molecular mechanistic studies of their enzymatic assembly have been surprisingly scarce. We hope to provide a snapshot of the important work done on the lysobacterial natural products and to provide useful information for future biosynthetic engineering of novel antibiotics in Lysobacter. PMID:22898908

Xie, Yunxuan; Wright, Stephen; Shen, Yuemao; Du, Liangcheng

2012-11-01

424

Learning the Nature of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Eye on Education column, published in BioScience, stresses the importance of teaching the nature of science to students and provides examples of ways in which undergraduate educators are doing so.

Susan Musante (American Institute of Biological Sciences;)

2005-10-01

425

Salmonella in Natural Animal Casings  

PubMed Central

Destruction of salmonellae in inoculated and naturally contaminated natural animal casings was studied. Salmonellae were effectively destroyed (99.999%) in inoculated hog casings after exposure for 24 h to saturated brine at pH 4.0 and 10.0 adjusted with acetic acid and sodium hydroxide, respectively. Treatment of inoculated hog and sheep casings in saturated brine or saturated brine with citric acid was not nearly as effective as brine containing acetic acid or sodium hydroxide. Salmonellae in naturally contaminated hog casings were virtually eliminated after 21 days of storage in crystalline sodium chloride. Salmonella in sheep and hog casings were eliminated after 7 days of storage in crystalline salt. Treatment of naturally contaminated hog casings with glycerin-salt or sorbitol-salt solutions was not as effective in destroying salmonellae as treatment with crystalline salt.

Gabis, D. A.; Silliker, J. H.

1974-01-01

426

Natural disasters and the lung.  

PubMed

As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. PMID:21244570

Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

2011-04-01

427

Inactivation of Naturally Occurring Enteroviruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to compare the kinetics of chlorine inactivation of a naturally-shed virus and its tissue culture grown counterpart. Since inactivation studies require purified preparation possessing high infectivity titer and low chlorine de...

A. R. Beasley W. Lichter L. L. Wellham

1980-01-01

428

A quantum of natural selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern evolutionary synthesis, which marries Darwin's theory of natural selection with Mendel's genetics, was developed around the same time as quantum mechanics. Is there any connection between the two?

Lloyd, Seth

2009-03-01

429

Arctic Haze: Natural or Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Progress Report: August 1976 - July 1977; Publications; ('Nature' article: The Asian source of Arctic haze bands; 'AAAS' article: Asian desert dust over Alaska: Anatomy of an Arctic haze episode; 'Science' article: Arctic-wide aerosol pollution;...

K. A. Rahn G. E. Shaw

1977-01-01

430

Natural Human-Computer Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research work in relation to Natural Human-Computer Interaction concerns the theorization and development of systems that understand and recognize human communicative actions in order to engage people in a dialogue between them and their surroundings.

D'Amico, Gianpaolo; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Dini, Fabrizio; Landucci, Lea; Torpei, Nicola

431

Natural Language Processing for Biosurveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information described in electronic clinical reports can be useful for both detection and characterization of outbreaks. However,\\u000a the information is in unstructured, free-text format and is not available to computerized applications. Natural Language processing\\u000a methods structure free-text information by classifying, extracting, and encoding details from the text. We provide a brief\\u000a description of the types of natural Language processing techniques

Wendy W. Chapman; Adi V. Gundlapalli; Brett R. South; John N. Dowling

432

Alternative sources of natural rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material\\u000a used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural\\u000a rubber harvested from the Brazilian rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. Primarily due to its molecular structure and high molecular weight (>1

H. Mooibroek; K. Cornish

2000-01-01

433

Drug discovery from natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural product compounds are the source of numerous therapeutic agents. Recent progress to discover drugs from natural product\\u000a sources has resulted in compounds that are being developed to treat cancer, resistant bacteria and viruses and immunosuppressive\\u000a disorders. Many of these compounds were discovered by applying recent advances in understanding the genetics of secondary\\u000a metabolism in actinomycetes, exploring the marine environment

Vincent P. Gullo; James McAlpine; Kin S. Lam; Dwight Baker; Frank Petersen

2006-01-01

434

Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moreover, Russian natural gas is imported in large quantities by European countries and represents very high percentages of the total gas consumption of a number of them. (See Table 1 and Table 2). For example, Russia exported 1.3 tcf of natural gas to Germany, 0.9 tcf to Italy and to Ukraine, 0.7 tcf to Belarus, 0.5 tcf to Turkey, and

Bernard A. Gelb

435

Benefit analysis for natural hazards.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to develop the ex ante perspective for benefit analysis with natural hazards. It defines an ex ante evaluation of the economic benefits that arise from policies designed to reduce either the risk of or the detrimental effects associated with a natural hazard. In the process the paper compares the ex ante and ex post perspectives and discusses the prospects for implementing the framework by measuring the valuation concepts that are developed. PMID:3602503

Smith, V K

1986-09-01

436

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23 percent in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10 percent to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8 percent to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-07-23

437

Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at

Edelson

2003-01-01

438

US Vulnerability to Natural Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters result from the coincidence of natural events with the built environment. Our nation's infrastructure is growing at an exponential rate in many areas of high risk, and the Federal government's liability is increasing proportionally. By superimposing population density with predicted ground motion from earthquakes, historical hurricane tracks, historical tornado locations, and areas within the flood plain, we are able to identify locations of high vulnerability within the United States. We present a comprehensive map of disaster risk for the United States that is being produced for the Senate Natural Hazards Caucus. The map allows for the geographic comparison of natural disaster risk with past disaster declarations, the expenditure of Federal dollars for disaster relief, population increase, and variations of GDP. Every state is vulnerable to natural disasters. Although their frequency varies considerably, the annualized losses for disaster relief from hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods are approximately equivalent. While fast-growing states such as California and Florida remain highly vulnerable, changes in the occurrence of natural events combined with population increases are making areas such as Texas, North Carolina, and the East Coast increasingly vulnerable.

van der Vink, G.; Apgar, S.; Batchelor, A.; Carter, C.; Gail, D.; Jarrett, A.; Levine, N.; Morgan, W.; Orlikowski, M.; Pray, T.; Raymar, M.; Siebert, A.; Shawa, T. W.; Wallace, C.

2002-05-01

439

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

440

Natural gas monthly, July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

NONE

1995-07-21

441

Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients: mushrooms, feverfew, tea, and wheat complex.  

PubMed

Natural ingredients are frequently used in an effort to address cosmetic concerns such as fine lines, wrinkles, uneven tone, and texture. Many of these ingredients found in nature possess potent antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Some, such as mushroom extracts, are even capable of accelerating the skin turnover rate and repairing dermal molecular components that provide structure and elasticity to the skin. Others, such as green tea, provide photoprotection against ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. In this manuscript, the cosmetic benefits of mushrooms, feverfew, and tea are discussed in the context of their ability to improve the appearance of the skin. The healing effects that wheat complex can have on damaged hair are also addressed.

<em>J Drugs Dermatol.em> 2013;12(suppl 9):s133-s136. PMID:24002162

Bowe, Whitney P

2013-09-01

442

Lietuvos teritorijos žem?s plutos deformacij? ir seismotektoninio potencialo ryšys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lietuvoje yra statini?, kelian?i? ekologinio pavojaus gr?sm? (Ignalinos atomin? elektrin?, Mažeiki? naftos perdirbimo ?mon?, chemijos gamyklos Jonavoje bei K?dainiuose ir pan.). Seisminiai ?vykiai gali sutrikdyti ši? ?moni? veikl? ir net lemti didel? pavoj? aplinkai, t. y. gali b?ti sukelta didel? aplinkos tarša chemin?mis bei radioaktyviosiomis medžiagomis. Seisminius ?vykius lemia teritorijos seismotektoninis potencialas. Seismotektoninis potencialas ir Žem?s plutos deformacijos yra tarpusavyje susij? rei\\vskiniai, kuriuos sukelia dažnai tie patys giluminiai procesai Žem?s gelm?se. Žem?s plutos deformacij? tyrimas yra vienas iš informacijos šaltini? prognozuojant teritorijos seismotektonin? aktyvum?. Straipsnyje nagrin?jamos Žem?s plutos horizontaliosios deformacijos, nustatomi Žem?s plutos ?tempi? poky?iai Lietuvos teritorijoje pagal GPS matavim? duomenis. Atlikus tyrimus pagal pateikiam? Žem?s plutos horizontali?j? deformacij? ir ?tempi? tyrimo metodik?, gauti nauji horizontali?j? deformacij? charakteristik? bei ?tempi? poky?i? rezultatai ir nustatytos j? s?sajos su seismotektoniniu potencialu.

Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Stanionis, Arminas; Levinskait?, Daiva

2010-01-01

443

Natural hazards need not lead to natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Charles Meade of the National Research Council and Thomas Jordan of MIT, the Loma Prieta, Northridge, and Kobe earthquakes resulted in 6000 deaths and $130 billion in property damage, not to mention months of disruption and years of psychological damage. But in spite of their structural and human toll, none of these seismic events was unusual. Each year, an average of 17 earthquakes occur that are stronger than the Loma Prieta quake (6.9 Mw).And so it is with many natural disasters in recent years. Despite the popular perception that Earth is being ravaged more often today than during other points in geologic history, most scientists believe that nature is no more tempestuous than it has ever been. Nonetheless, property losses due to natural disasters have skyrocketed to an average of $1 billion per week—about 2-3 times the losses in the 1980s—and the public wants to know why.

Carlowicz, Michael

444

Calibration case study of natural source electromagnetic array data recorded over a well in Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Natural field electromagnetic acquired conventionally, at a number of sparsely spaced single sites, can suffer from spatial aliasing and significant distortive shallow effects which severely limit its geophysical applications. A new mode of data acquisition which measures the electric field continuously along a profile has been developed by F.X. Boxtick. These data can be processed to remove shallow effects while maintaining the deep penetration characteristics of the natural electromagnetic (EM) fields. Processing and modeling techniques for such data are discussed and demonstrated on both synthetic and field data. Very good agreement with actual borehole data is demonstrated.

Shoemaker, C.L.; Shoham, Y.; Hockey, R.

1989-02-01

445

DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-02-01

446

Natural pigments and sacred art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The iconographer uses earthly creations to create divine images: "Thine own of Thine own we offer unto Thee." (Byzantine Liturgy). Thus, by combining geology with art and religion, I can render homage to God through His creation by using minerals of the Planet Earth, as natural pigments in painting His image.

Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

2010-05-01

447

Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L. J.; Langer, W. H.; Sachs, J. S.

2002-01-01

448

Natural Transformation of Myxococcus xanthus?†  

PubMed Central

Myxococcus xanthus belongs to the delta class of the proteobacteria and is notable for its complex life-style with social behaviors and relatively large genome. Although previous observations have suggested the existence of horizontal gene transfer in M. xanthus, its ability to take up exogenous DNA via natural transformation has not been experimentally demonstrated. In this study, we achieved natural transformation in M. xanthus using the autonomously replicating myxobacterial plasmid pZJY41 as donor DNA. M. xanthus exopolysaccharide (EPS) was shown to be an extracellular barrier for transformation. Cells deficient in EPS production, e.g., mutant strains carrying ?difA or ?epsA, became naturally transformable. Among the inner barriers to transformation were restriction-modification systems in M. xanthus, which could be partially overcome by methylating DNA in vitro using cell extracts of M. xanthus prior to transformation. In addition, the incubation time of DNA with cells and the presence of divalent magnesium ion affected transformation frequency of M. xanthus. Furthermore, we also observed a potential involvement of the type IV pilus system in the DNA uptake machinery of M. xanthus. The natural transformation was totally eliminated in the ?pilQ/epsA and ?tgl/epsA mutants, and null mutation of pilB or pilC in an ?epsA background diminished the transformation rate. Our study, to the best of our knowledge, provides the first example of a naturally transformable species among deltaproteobacteria.

Wang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Li, Yuezhong; Shi, Wenyuan

2011-01-01

449

Natural transformation of Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed

Myxococcus xanthus belongs to the delta class of the proteobacteria and is notable for its complex life-style with social behaviors and relatively large genome. Although previous observations have suggested the existence of horizontal gene transfer in M. xanthus, its ability to take up exogenous DNA via natural transformation has not been experimentally demonstrated. In this study, we achieved natural transformation in M. xanthus using the autonomously replicating myxobacterial plasmid pZJY41 as donor DNA. M. xanthus exopolysaccharide (EPS) was shown to be an extracellular barrier for transformation. Cells deficient in EPS production, e.g., mutant strains carrying ?difA or ?epsA, became naturally transformable. Among the inner barriers to transformation were restriction-modification systems in M. xanthus, which could be partially overcome by methylating DNA in vitro using cell extracts of M. xanthus prior to transformation. In addition, the incubation time of DNA with cells and the presence of divalent magnesium ion affected transformation frequency of M. xanthus. Furthermore, we also observed a potential involvement of the type IV pilus system in the DNA uptake machinery of M. xanthus. The natural transformation was totally eliminated in the ?pilQ/epsA and ?tgl/epsA mutants, and null mutation of pilB or pilC in an ?epsA background diminished the transformation rate. Our study, to the best of our knowledge, provides the first example of a naturally transformable species among deltaproteobacteria. PMID:21378184

Wang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Li, Yuezhong; Shi, Wenyuan

2011-03-04

450

Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation  

PubMed Central

We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of ‘natural pedagogy’ in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.

Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, Gyorgy

2011-01-01

451

Natural time analysis of critical phenomena: the case of pre-fracture electromagnetic emissions.  

PubMed

Criticality of complex systems reveals itself in various ways. One way to monitor a system at critical state is to analyze its observable manifestations using the recently introduced method of natural time. Pre-fracture electromagnetic (EM) emissions, in agreement to laboratory experiments, have been consistently detected in the MHz band prior to significant earthquakes. It has been proposed that these emissions stem from the fracture of the heterogeneous materials surrounding the strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault, preventing the relative slipping. It has also been proposed that the fracture of heterogeneous material could be described in analogy to the critical phase transitions in statistical physics. In this work, the natural time analysis is for the first time applied to the pre-fracture MHz EM signals revealing their critical nature. Seismicity and pre-fracture EM emissions should be two sides of the same coin concerning the earthquake generation process. Therefore, we also examine the corresponding foreshock seismic activity, as another manifestation of the same complex system at critical state. We conclude that the foreshock seismicity data present criticality features as well. PMID:23822482

Potirakis, S M; Karadimitrakis, A; Eftaxias, K

2013-06-01

452

Transformation & Uncertainty. Some Thoughts on Quantum Probability Theory, Quantum Statistics, and Natural Bundles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PHD thesis is concerned with uncertainty relations in quantum probability theory, state estimation in quantum stochastics, and natural bundles in differential geometry. After some comments on the nature and necessity of decoherence in open systems and its absence in closed ones, we prove sharp, state-independent inequalities reflecting the Heisenberg principle, the necessity of decoherence and the impossibility of perfect joint measurement. These bounds are used to judge how far a particular measurement is removed from the optimal one. We do this for a qubit interacting with the quantized EM field, continually probed using homodyne detection. We calculate to which extent this joint measurement is optimal. We then propose a two-step strategy to determine the (possibly mixed) state of n identically prepared qubits, and prove that it is asymptotically optimal in a local minimax sense, using `Quantum Local Asymptotic Normality' for qubits. We propose a physical implementation of QLAN, based on interaction with the quantized EM field. In differential geometry, a bundle is called `natural' if diffeomorphisms of the base lift to automorphisms of the bundle. We slightly extend this notion to `infinitesimal naturality', requiring only vector fields (infinitesimal diffeomorphisms) to lift. We classify these bundles. Physical fields that transform under (infinitesimal) space-time transformations must be described in terms of (infinitesimally) natural bundles. All spin structures are infinitesimally natural. Our framework thus encompasses Fermionic fields, for which the notion of a natural bundle is too restrictive. Interestingly, generalized spin structures (e.g. spin-c structures) are not always infinitesimally natural. We classify the ones that are. Depending on the gauge group at hand, this can significantly reduce the number of allowed space-time topologies.

Janssens, Bas

2010-11-01

453

DESENVOLVIMENTO VEGETATIVO E PRODUÇÃO DE VARIEDADES DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR EM RELAÇÃO À DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA E UNIDADES TÉRMICAS Vegetative development and production of sugarcane varieties as a function of water availability and thermic units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work had the aim of evaluating the growth standard and yield of different sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) varieties with meteorogical parameter, during the plant and ratoon crop cane in Mesas regions of Alagoas. This work was carried out in an experimental area of Agrometeorology used a randomized outline with five repetition and four treatments: varieties RB92579, RB931530, SP79-1011 e

José Leonaldo Souza; Iêdo Teodoro; Geraldo Veríssimo; Souza Barbosa; Gilson Moura Filho; Ricardo Araújo; Ferreira Júnior

454

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE TECNOLOGIA PARA A FABRICAÇÃO DE DOCE EM MASSA COM ARAÇÁ-PÊRA (Psidium acutangulum D. C.) PARA O PEQUENO PRODUTOR Development of a technology for the processing of araça pera jam for small producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Araça Pera (Psidium acutangulum D.C., Myrtaceae) is a native plant from the Amazon region. The fruit is very pulpy (yields 75.67% after peeling and seedling), has a delicate, pleasant flavor, a peel like fine leather, which has to be taken off for it is bitter. It presents excessive acid content to be pleasant when eaten raw (pH 2.77; free acidity

Grace Maria; Ferreira C. Wille; E. Freitas de Macedo; Maria Lucia Masson; Sônia Cachoeira Stertz; Jucineide Matos Lima

455

Ciência, tecnologia e inovação em saúde e desenvolvimento social e qualidade de vida: teses para debate * Science, technology and innovation in healthcare and social development and life quality: theses to discuss  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents important theses for the development of science and technology in healthcare to be discussed in the XII National Health Conference. The study analyzes factors and processes identified in the literature that deter- mine the patterns of production, use and assess- ment of the healthcare technologies, which are part of the \\

Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes; José da Rocha Carvalheiro

456

Estudos de termoluminescencia em alguns cristais naturais. (Thermoluminescence studies on some natural crystals).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative study was performed on the minerals Amethyst, Calcite, Calamine, Spodumene, Feldspar, Rutile, and various types of Tourmaline, which can be used as thermoluminescent dosimeters. After the study and analysis of the thermoluminescent character...

M. C. P. Silva

1985-01-01

457

Second nature: on Gramsci's anthropology.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to convey the relevance of a Gramscian perspective in medical anthropology, stressing his anti-essentialist way of reasoning about 'nature'. The author claims that Gramsci's understandings of the bodily life of the state can deconstruct naturalized realities in ways that are helpful for the ethnographer engaged in the political anthropology of embodiment and the management of health, persons, and life itself. The paper is presented in three parts. An attempt is made, first, to frame the relevance of Gramsci for Italian medical anthropology and second, to explore the components of the Gramscian concept of 'second nature' within the perspective that he himself calls 'an anthropology'. Third, an example is given of how the proposed Gramscian insights could inform an ethnography on the biopolitical aspects for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently being carried out in Perugia. PMID:22612495

Pizza, Giovanni

2012-04-01

458

Natural gas monthly, February 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

459

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

460

Natural gas monthly, August 1996  

SciTech Connect

This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

NONE

1996-08-01

461

Deaths involving natural gas inhalation.  

PubMed

Death due to gas inhalation is accidental or suicidal. Natural gas can be a cause of death as a result of oxygen replacement in the atmosphere. Three male victims who were killed from gas inhalation are described in this study. One 19-year-old man attempted suicide using a combination of plastic bag suffocation and natural gas tube in his mouth. The other victim (24 years old man) attempted suicide by natural gas inhalation, and the cause of death of the third victim was inhalation of the vapor from a furnace that contained crude oil or gasoline. Methanol was detected in blood and liver samples by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGCMS). Carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and other drugs and poisons were not detected in blood and liver samples. PMID:20430818

Maryam, Akhgari; Elham, Bazmi

2010-04-29

462

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

463

It's Only Natural: Mother's Love, Mother's Milk  

MedlinePLUS

... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural It's Only Natural Every woman’s journey ...

464

National Registry of Natural Landmarks, June 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication lists all National Natural Landmarks (NNL) currently included on the National Registry of Natural Landmarks. This listing provides information on each landmarks natural values, designation date, and ownership type. This publication contai...

2009-01-01

465

Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic could hold about 22 percent of the worlds undiscovered conventional oil and natural gas resources. The prospects for Arctic oil and natural gas production are discussed taking into consideration the nature of the resources, the cost of developi...

P. Budzik

2009-01-01

466

Naturalized Philosophy of Science and Natural Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the philosophical controversy concerning naturalism, and investigates the role it might play in the science classroom. Argues that science students can benefit from explicit study of this controversy and from explicit consideration of the extent to which philosophy of science can be studied naturalistically. (PR)|

Siegel, Harvey

1993-01-01

467

Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate

M. C. Wood; E. Whitelaw; B. Doppelt; A. Burchell

2007-01-01

468

Naturally Speaking: A Systems Biology Tool with Natural Language Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper describes a systems biology software tool that can engage in a dialogue with a biologist by responding to questions posed to it in English (or another natural language) regarding the behavior of a complex biological system, and by suggesting a set of \\

Marco Antoniotti; Ian T. Lau; Bud Mishra

469

Valuing nature: From environmental impacts to natural capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic valuation of natural and environmental assets is now a well established practice. Economic analysis provides several methods for discovering the impact on social welfare associated with changes in the ability of these assets to provide different goods and services. In general terms, these valuation exercises have been performed in the framework of Environmental Impact Assessment or, more generally, Cost

Diego Azqueta; Daniel Sotelsek

2007-01-01

470

The Nature of US Natural Hazards Research, 1988-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous academic disciplines have contributed to the body of published research on natural hazards and disasters. Geologists, engineers, geographers, and sociologists have participated since the topic first emerged as a formal research agenda in the early 1950s. In more recent decades, psychologists, political scientists, economists, historians, archeologists, anthropologists, architects, computer scientists, and artists have added to our understanding of environmental

R. Hagelman III

2009-01-01

471

On adventure therapy and the natural worlds: Respecting nature's healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some forms of adventure therapy and adventure programming rely heavily on the outdoors to achieve their objectives of client change. Due to the dominant paradigm in psychology and psychotherapy, the natural worlds are not always considered to be a factor in the curative relationship, the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions being credited to program design, facilitation, and small group dynamics, among

Almut Beringer; Peter Martin

2003-01-01

472

Changing nature of investment risk in the natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of variability in earnings, gas distribution and transmission companies have exhibited a substantially greater degree of risk over the past five years than during the preceding five-year period. Most importantly, the regulated gas industries have exhibited a greater degree of risk than many nonregulated industries. The author concludes that those regulating the natural gas industry must recognize this

Copan

1983-01-01

473

Speech Modelling Using Subspace and EM Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speech waveform can be modelled as a piecewise-stationary linear stochastic state space system, and its parameters can be est imated using an expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm. One problem is the ini- tialisation of the EM algorithm. Standard initialisation s chemes can lead to poor formant trajectories. But these trajectories howev er are impor- tant for vowel intelligibility. The aim of

Gavin Smith; João F. G. De Freitas; Tony Robinson; Mahesan Niranjan

1999-01-01

474

himu-em: The French Polynesian connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

himu, em i and em ii are three of the main geochemical mantle components that give rise to oceanic island basalts [1]. They represent the end members that produce the extreme isotopic compositions measured on intraplate volcanics. In French Polynesia, all three mantle components are represented in volcanic rocks. The characteristic himu signature is found in Tubuai, Mangaia and Rurutu,

Catherine Chauvel; Albrecht W. Hofmann; Philippe Vidal

1992-01-01

475

EM international activities. February 1997 highlights  

SciTech Connect

EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

NONE

1997-02-01

476

National EMS Scope of Practice Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National EMS Scope of Practice Model is a continuation of the commitment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Health Resources and Services Administration to the implementation of the EMS Agenda for the Future. It is part of a...

2007-01-01

477

Introduction to the Nature Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian in Your Classroom is the third in a three-part series that brings together writing and other disciplines. In the lessons here, students exercise the observation skills that are essential to writing, visual art, and science. First, they try to use evocative language in describing pictures of birds from the SmithsonianâÂÂs National Zoo. They go on to record observations and to make hypotheses as they follow the behavior of animals on the National ZooâÂÂs live webcams. They can watch the giant pandas, the tigers, the cheetahs, the gorillas, or any of a dozen other species.These classroom activities are intended as a preface or complement to a project increasingly popular in elementary and middle schoolsâÂÂthe keeping of nature journals, whether on class outings or when the students are on their own. Included in the issue are words of advice for students from journal-keeping Smithsonian naturalists.The term nature journal seems to resist definition until we realize that the broadest definitions all apply. In Keeping a Nature Journal, the most popular recent book on the subject, Clare Walker Leslie puts it simply: âÂÂwhereas a diary or personal journal records your feelings toward yourself and others, a nature journal primarily records your responses to and reflections about the world of nature around you.âÂÂWith a subject as great as all outdoors, nature journals lend themselves to a wide range of expression. Sketches are often the most immediate way to capture the way things look. Deeper, written observations can be the basis for all kinds of creative writing.

2010-12-17

478

A new dialogue with nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real possibility to realize a ``new dialogue with Nature'' (after I. Prigogine and I. Stengers) is discussed. It is shown that a phenomenological approach which may be called Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy presents an attempt to give positive answers to these general questions: What type of general phenomenological information is actually contained in signals (time series or ``spatial series'' if spatial structures are studied) coming from complex natural systems of different content, and what is the physical meaning of this hidden information? What tools and methods allow anyone to extract this information in a correct way and in a desirable quantity? .

Timashev, S. F.

2000-02-01

479

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

480

Heat distribution by natural convection  

SciTech Connect

Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

1983-01-01

481

An attractor for natural supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an attractor mechanism which generates the more minimal supersymmetric standard model from a broad class of supersymmetry breaking boundary conditions. The hierarchies in the fermion masses and mixings are produced by the same dynamics and a natural weak scale results from gaugino mediation. These features arise from augmenting the standard model with a new SU(3) gauge group under which only the third generation quarks are charged. The theory flows to a strongly interacting fixed point which induces a negative anomalous dimension for the third generation quarks and a positive anomalous dimension for the Higgs. As a result, a split-family natural spectrum and the flavor hierarchies are dynamically generated.

Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo

2012-12-01

482

Nature: Web Specials: Sheep Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Nature_, the "international weekly journal of science," has created a web page to accompany the ground-breaking letter it published in the February 27, 1997 issue: "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells," by I. Wilmut, et al. The letter is available, as well as a Nature Opinion piece, and short articles of commentary by Axel Kahn of the INSERM Laboratory of Research on Genetics and Molecular Pathology at the Cochin Institute of Molecular Genetics, Paris, and Colin Stewart of the NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland. Note that the site is free, but registration is required.

1997-01-01

483

Flow of wet natural pozzolana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results on the flow and stability conditions for natural pozzolana, a natural volcanic sand widely used in concrete production. We measured different angles involved in equilibrium conditions for sand piles and relate them to the flux parameters necessary to produce a silo evacuation. We vary some of the geometrical parameters in the silo to inspect the different flux responses of the system. Results are showed as a function of humidity present in the system. In this way, we related critical angles with flux conditions through a silo under different geometric setups and different humidity degrees, thus setting up a basic phase diagram for flux.

Médici, M. E.; Benegas, O. A.; Aguirre, F.; Baudino, M. R.; Uñac, R. O.; Vidales, A. M.; Ippolito, I.

2009-05-01

484

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

485

MyNaturePhotos.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nature lovers and photographers are invited to upload and share their favorite wildlife photos in this straightforward, privately hosted Web site, a place where "viewers from around the world can see what animals, plants, and landscapes look like in other places." MyNaturePhotos.com currently features a modest collection of images grouped by class (all vertebrate): birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles. Future versions of this Web site will be organized by taxonomy and by geographic location, with plans to map out territories and migration routes of each species. This could be an interesting site to watch as contributions from visitors start to increase.

2003-01-01

486

Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis**  

PubMed Central

In Nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically pure form; however, on occasion Nature is known to produce enantiomerically opposite metabolites. These enantiomeric natural products can arise in Nature from a single species, or from different genera and/or species. Extensive research has been carried out over the years in an attempt to understand the biogenesis of naturally occurring enantiomers, however, many fascinating puzzles and stereochemical anomalies still remain.

Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Kreitman, Martin; Williams, Robert M.

2012-01-01

487

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2009-04-01

488

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2010-04-01

489

The Stereotypical Nature of Stereotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of male and female stereotypes of a sample of American students was examined by employing a matched-guise technique. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of more versus less obtrusive methods for measuring stereotypes, to study stereotyping effects in the presence of quasi-realistic information about individuals, and to address an assumed positive bias attached to

Richard N. Williams; Ximena de la Cruz; Wayne J. Hintze

1989-01-01

490

Nurturing the Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Historical stories of scientists provide an excellent opportunity to help students see that science is indeed a human endeavor and demonstrate the interrelationships among science, technology, and society. A number of engaging historical accounts illustrate characteristics of the nature of science. The story of Lise Meitner leads students through…

Reeves, Carolyn; Chessin, Debby; Chambless, Martha

2007-01-01

491

Norms, standards, and natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normative approach in natural resource management illustrates the progress that has been made in advancing theory and application in outdoor recreation research. This article integrates findings from a number of different studies to highlight the utility of the normative approach and provide an example of how efforts focused on a particular theoretical approach can enhance the quality of scientific

Bo Shelby; Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly

1996-01-01

492

Natural Rubber from Domestic Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States is wholly dependent upon imports of natural rubber from tropical countries and is the world’s largest consumer of this strategic raw material. Development of domestic rubber crops will create supply security for this strategic raw material, enhance rural development, and create bio...

493

Nature, Nurture, and Dynamic Interactionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an organismic, probabilistic epigenetic viewpoint, development arises from a dynamic interaction between qualitatively different, yet totally interdependent nature and nurture variables. The syntheses defining this interaction involve the quality and timing of each source providing a basis of these parameters in the other. Covariation among the parameters shows interorganism variability in ecologically valid milieus. Organisms consequently develop lawful characteristics

Richard M. Lerner

1978-01-01

494

Anticipations of Natural Philosophy: Maupertuis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING lately had occasion to examine the works of Maupertuis I, like Prof. Jevons, was struck by meeting with anticipatory glimpses of the modern theory of Natural Selection. The passage, given almost word for word by Lord Bolingbroke in the quotation made by Prof. Jevons, occurs somewhat incidentally in two parts of Maupertuis' writings ; in the memoir alluded to

W. H. Brewer

1873-01-01

495

The nature of sports marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports marketing has established itself over the last three decades not only as a very special form of marketing but also as an own subject of research. However, it is quite surprising that the nature of sports marketing is relatively unknown as different definitions of sports market-ing indicate. Indeed, a generally accepted definition does not exist to date and opinions

André W. Bühler; Gerd Nufer; Carsten Rennhak

2006-01-01

496

China's synthetic natural gas revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China has recently pushed for investments in large-scale coal-fuelled synthetic natural gas plants. The associated carbon emissions, water needs and wider environmental impacts are, however, mostly neglected and could lock the country into an unsustainable development path.

Yang, Chi-Jen; Jackson, Robert B.

2013-10-01

497

Modeling Natural Variation through Distribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This design study tracks the development of student thinking about natural variation as late elementary grade students learned about distribution in the context of modeling plant growth at the population level. The data-modeling approach assisted children in coordinating their understanding of particular cases with an evolving notion of data as an…

Lehrer, Richard; Schauble, Leona

2004-01-01

498

Bilateral trade in natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a March 1984 address to the Canadian-American Committee, Schlesinger notes that the American natural gas producer has been the main beneficiary of Canadian export policy, which has impeded Canadian exports. He reviews the history of bilateral gas exchanges and the 1954 Phillips decision, which set up conditions that were the inverse of a normal competitive market that no

1985-01-01

499

Costs to transport natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf

I. Leibson; S. T. Davenport; M. H. Muenzier

1987-01-01

500

Adaptation to natural flow regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods and droughts are important features of most running water ecosystems, but the alteration of natural flow regimes by recent human activities, such as dam building, raises questions related to both evolution and conservation. Among organisms inhabiting running waters, what adaptations exist for surviving floods and droughts? How will the alteration of the frequency, timing and duration of flow extremes

David A. Lytle; N. LeRoy Poff

2004-01-01