Note: This page contains sample records for the topic em seu planejamento from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Novel SEU hardened PD SOI SRAM cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel SEU hardened 10T PD SOI SRAM cell is proposed. By dividing each pull-up and pull-down transistor in the cross-coupled inverters into two cascaded transistors, this cell suppresses the parasitic BJT and source-drain penetration charge collection effect in PD SOI transistor which causes the SEU in PD SOI SRAM. Mixed-mode simulation shows that this novel cell completely solves the SEU, where the ion affects the single transistor. Through analysis of the upset mechanism of this novel cell, SEU performance is roughly equal to the multiple-cell upset performance of a normal 6T SOI SRAM and it is thought that the SEU performance is 17 times greater than traditional 6T SRAM in 45nm PD SOI technology node based on the tested data of the references. To achieve this, the new cell adds four transistors and has a 43.4% area overhead and performance penalty.

Chengmin, Xie; Zhongfang, Wang; Xihu, Wang; Longsheng, Wu; Youbao, Liu

2011-11-01

2

SEU Performance of TAG Based Flip Flops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe heavy ion test results for two new SEU tolerant latches based on transition nand gates, one for single rail asynchronous and the other for dual rail synchronous designs, implemented in AMI 0.5microprocess.

Shuler, Robert L.; Kouba, Coy; O'Neill, Patrick M.

2005-01-01

3

SEU\\/SRAM as a process monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SEU\\/SRAM is a 4-kbit static random access memory (SRAM) designed to detect single-event upsets (SEU's) produced by high-energy particles, either in space or on the ground. This device was used to determine the distribution of the memory cell spontaneous flip potential. The variance in this potential was determined to be due to the variation in the threshold voltage of

Brent R. Blaes; Martin G. Buehler

1994-01-01

4

A model for proton-induced SEU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a method for predicting proton-induced single-event upset (SEU) rates in devices exposed to given proton fluxes, within a particular spacecraft shielding. The approach uses experimental heavy-ion cross-section data, combined with nuclear reaction calculations, in order to determine the proton-induced SEU cross section versus proton energy relationship. Calculations for two devices, the Fairchild 932422 RAM and the Intel

T. Bion; J. Bourrieau

1989-01-01

5

Critical issues regarding SEU in avionics  

SciTech Connect

The energetic neutrons in the atmosphere cause microelectronics in avionic system to malfunction through a mechanism called single-event upsets (SEUs), and single-event latchup is a potential threat. Data from military and experimental flights as well as laboratory testing indicate that typical non-radiation-hardened 64K and 256K static random access memories (SRAMs) can experience a significant SEU rate at aircraft altitudes. Microelectronics in avionics systems have been demonstrated to be susceptible to SEU. Of all device types, RAMs are the most sensitive because they have the largest number of bits on a chip (e.g., an SRAM may have from 64K to 1M bits, a microprocessor 3K to 10K bits, and a logic device like an analog-to-digital converter, 12 bits). Avionics designers will need to take this susceptibility into account in current and future designs. A number of techniques are available for dealing with SEU: EDAC, redundancy, use of SEU-hard parts, reset and/or watchdog timer capability, etc. Specifications should be developed to guide avionics vendors in the analysis, prevention, and verification of neutron-induced SEU. Areas for additional research include better definition of the atmospheric neutrons and protons, development of better calculational models (e.g., those used for protons[sup 11]), and better characterization of neutron-induced latchup.

Normand, E. (Boeing Aerospace, Seattle, WA (United States)); McNulty, P.J. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States))

1993-01-01

6

Low power SEU immune CMOS memory circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors report a design improvement for CMOS static memory circuits hardened against single event upset (SEU) using a recently proposed logic/circuit design technique. This improvement drastically reduces static power consumption, reduces the number of transistors required in a D flip-flop design, and eliminates the possibility of capturing an upset state in the slave section during a clock transition.

Liu, M. N.; Whitaker, Sterling

1992-01-01

7

Scaling of SEU mapping and cross section, and proton induced SEU at reduced supply voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental study of heavy ion and proton induced SEU at reduced voltage (i.e. reduced critical charge) reveals interesting results. It is shown that the heavy ion cross section and microprobe mapping scale like the threshold LET and the parameter, which is almost invariant under bias changes, is the effective charge collection depth. For studying proton induced SEU and surface-barrier-detector

J. Barak; J. Levinson; A. Akkerman; E. Adler; A. Zentner; D. David; Y. Lifshitz; M. Hass; B. E. Fischer; M. Schlogl; M. Victoria; W. Hajdas

1999-01-01

8

Refined Transistor Model For Simulation Of SEU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equivalent base resistance added. Theoretical study develops equations for parameters of Gummel-Poon model of bipolar junction transistor: includes saturation current, amplification factors, charging times, knee currents, capacitances, and resistances. Portion of study concerned with base region goes beyond Gummel-Poon analysis to provide more complete understanding of transistor behavior. Extended theory useful in simulation of single-event upset (SEU) caused in logic circuits by cosmic rays or other ionizing radiation.

Zoutendyk, John A.; Benumof, Reuben

1988-01-01

9

Upper-Bound Estimates Of SEU in CMOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theory of single-event upsets (SEU) (changes in logic state caused by energetic charged subatomic particles) in complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices extended to provide upper-bound estimates of rates of SEU when limited experimental information available and configuration and dimensions of SEU-sensitive regions of devices unknown. Based partly on chord-length-distribution method.

Edmonds, Larry D.

1990-01-01

10

SEU Mitigation Techniques for Virtex FPGAs in Space Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRAM based logic devices such as FPGAs have some susceptibility to SEU and functional interruption. This paper describes several reliable mitigation techniques for the Virtex series FPGA architecture, which will retain functional integrity while static upsets are detected and corrected. Additionally, this paper demonstrates how an SEU in an FPGA can be corrected in 3us without disrupting operation of the

Carl Carmichael; Earl Fuller; Phil Blain; Michael Caffrey

1999-01-01

11

Simulation of SRAM SEU Sensitivity at Reduced Operating Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new NanoTCAD-to-Spectre interface is applied to perform mixed-mode SEU simulations of an SRAM cell. Results using newly calibrated TCAD cold temperature substrate mobility models, and BSIM3 compact models extracted explicitly for the cold temperature designs, indicate a 33% reduction in SEU threshold for the range of temperatures simulated.

Sanathanamurthy, S.; Ramachandran, V.; Alles, M. L.; Reed, R. A.; Massengill, L. W.; Raman, A.; Turowski, M.; Mantooth, A.; Woods, B.; Barlow, M.; Moen, K.; Bellini, M.; Sutton, A.; Cressler, J. D.

2009-01-01

12

14 MeV Neutrons SEU Cross Sections in Deep Submicron Devices Calculated Using Heavy Ion SEU Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ananalyticalmodelisdevelopedtocalculateneutron- induced SEU cross section in deep submicron devices from heavy ion SEU cross section. It is based on the energy spectra of the sec- ondaries of nuclear reactions which yields the LET dis- tribution of all secondary ions. The integration of this distribution function with the measured heavy ion cross section vs. LET yields then-SEUcrosssection.Tomakethecalculationsstraightforward, the neutron-induced LET distribution

Avner Haran; Joseph Barak; Leo Weissman; David David; Eitan Keren

2011-01-01

13

SEU43 fuel bundle shielding analysis during spent fuel transport  

SciTech Connect

The basic task accomplished by the shielding calculations in a nuclear safety analysis consist in radiation doses calculation, in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. The paper investigates the effects induced by fuel bundle geometry modifications on the CANDU SEU spent fuel shielding analysis during transport. For this study, different CANDU-SEU43 fuel bundle projects, developed in INR Pitesti, have been considered. The spent fuel characteristics will be obtained by means of ORIGEN-S code. In order to estimate the corresponding radiation doses for different measuring points the Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code will be used. Both codes are included in ORNL's SCALE 5 programs package. A comparison between the considered SEU43 fuel bundle projects will be also provided, with CANDU standard fuel bundle taken as reference. (authors)

Margeanu, C. A.; Ilie, P.; Olteanu, G. [Inst. for Nuclear Research Pitesti, No. 1 Campului Street, Mioveni 115400, Arges County (Romania)

2006-07-01

14

Test results for SEU and SEL immune memory circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results for three SEU logic/circuit hardened CMOS memory circuits verify upset and latch-up immunity for two configurations to be in excess of 120 MeV cm(exp 2)/mg using a commercial, non-radiation hardened CMOS process. Test chips from three separate fabrication runs in two different process were evaluated.

Wiseman, D.; Canaris, J.; Whitaker, S.; Gambles, J.; Arave, K.; Arave, L.

1993-01-01

15

SEU tolerant computer based on the R3000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have built and tested a Single Event Upset (SEU) tolerant computer (STC) based on the MIPS Inc. R3000 processor. Testing in a proton environment is ongoing. The design of this computer was postulated in previous work and based upon extensive radiation ...

J. L. Kaschmitter D. B. Butner D. L. Shaeffer N. J. Colella C. L. McKnett

1993-01-01

16

Use of light-ion-induced SEU in devices under reduced bias to evaluate their SEU cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-event upset (SEU) cross section was measured for several devices under reduced bias with light ions, in particular ?-particles. The results show that ?-particles can be used, in a simple manner, for testing devices in order to save accelerator time. A proportionality law was found for scaling the reduced bias results to normal operation bias.

J. Barak; A. Haran; E. Adler; M. Azoulay; J. Levinson; A. Zentner; D. David; B. E. Fischer; M. Heiss; D. Betel

2004-01-01

17

Variation in SEU sensitivity of dose-imprinted CMOS SRAMs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors report on an experimental study of dose-induced changes in SEU (single-event-upset) sensitivity of CMOS static RAMs. Two time regimes were investigated following exposure of memories to cobalt-60 gamma rays: the near term, within a few hours after exposure, and the long term, after many days. Samples were irradiated both at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The latter procedure was used in order to freeze in the damage state until SEU measurements could be made prior to annealing. Results show that memories damaged by dose are more sensitive to upsets by heavy ions. The induced changes are substantial: threshold linear energy transfer (LET) values decreased by as much as 46 percent and asymptotic cross sections increased by factors of two to four (unannealed samples).

Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Kim, H. S.

1989-01-01

18

SEU tolerant computer based on the R3000  

SciTech Connect

We have built and tested a Single Event Upset (SEU) tolerant computer (STC) based on the MIPS Inc. R3000 processor. Testing in a proton environment is ongoing. The design of this computer was postulated in previous work and based upon extensive radiation effects testing performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This computer is based entirely on commercially available parts. The purpose of these tests is to demonstrate the capability of using non-radiation hardened parts in an SEU environment, in this case Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with upset mitigation through fault tolerant hardware and software design methodologies. The hardware and software designs are described in detail, the test setup and test parameters are given and test results are presented.

Kaschmitter, J.L.; Butner, D.B.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); McKnett, C.L.; Coakley, P.G. (JAYCOR, Inc., Santa Monica, CA (United States))

1993-01-30

19

The SEU and Total Dose Response of the INMOS Transputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The INMOS Transputer is a unique 32-bit processor intended for parallel processing applications. Initial application evaluation by the European Space Agency (ESA) has shown the device to be of major interest in the areas of image processing and fault tolerance. An SEU and total dose evaluation program has been carried out using Californium-252, a Tandem Accelerator, Cobalt-60 and 150 keV

J. Thomlinson; L. Adams; R. Harboe-Sorensen

1987-01-01

20

QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL (?) EM ÁREAS DE EXPANSÃO URBANA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO SOBRE A PERDA DA COBERTURA VEGETAL DO BAIRRO PARQUE VERDE - BELÉM\\/PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

O crescimento acelerado das cidades acarretou sérios prejuízos à qualidade ambiental das áreas de expansão urbana, pois a ocupação urbana desordenada configurada nestes espaços substituiu de forma degradante o espaço natural transformando-o em espaço construído sem qualquer planejamento urbano que levasse em conta a vegetação como componente essencial da qualidade de vida humana. Dentro deste contexto, o bairro Parque Verde,

CIÊNCIA EDUCAÇÃO; SUELLEN CRISTINA; VIDAL COSTA; NÍVIA BERNA DA SILVEIRA CORRÊA

21

SEU-tolerant IQ detection algorithm for LLRF accelerator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy accelerators use RF field to accelerate charged particles. Measurements of effective field parameters (amplitude and phase) are tasks of great importance in these facilities. The RF signal is downconverted in frequency but keeping the information about amplitude and phase and then sampled in ADC. One of the several tasks for LLRF control system is to estimate the amplitude and phase (or I and Q components) of the RF signal. These parameters are further used in the control algorithm. The XFEL accelerator will be built using a single-tunnel concept. Therefore electronic devices (including LLRF control system) will be exposed to ionizing radiation, particularly to a neutron flux generating SEUs in digital circuits. The algorithms implemented in FPGA/DSP should therefore be SEU-tolerant. This paper presents the application of the WCC method to obtain immunity of IQ detection algorithm to SEUs. The VHDL implementation of this algorithm in Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA is presented, together with results of simulation proving the algorithm suitability for systems operating in the presence of SEUs.

Grecki, M.

2007-08-01

22

Simple Calculations of Proton SEU Cross Sections from Heavy Ion Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple expressions, based on previous analytical and empirical models for the energy deposited by protons through their p+Si interactions, are proposed for calculating proton induced SEU cross sections from heavy ion cross sections in devices with sub-micron sensitive volumes. Calculations for modern devices yield good agreement with the experiments. The implications on calculating SEU rates in space are discussed

J. Barak

2006-01-01

23

Effect of Mg 2+ and Ti IV doping on the luminescence of Y 2O 2S:Eu 3+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Y 2O 2S:Eu 3+,Mg 2+,Ti IV ( xEu = 0.028, xMg = 0.086, xTi = 0.03) materials were prepared with the flux fusion method. According to X-ray powder diffraction, the materials had the hexagonal crystal structure. The emission of Y 2O 2S:Eu 3+,Mg 2+,Ti IV was centered at 627 nm ( ?exc : 250 nm) due to the 5D 0 ? 7F 2 transition of Eu 3+. The excitation spectra ( ?em : 627 nm) showed broad bands at 240 and 320 nm due to the O 2- ? Eu 3+ and S 2- ? Eu 3+ charge transfer transitions, respectively. The latter band can also overlap with the Ti ? Eu 3+ energy transfer. In the excitation spectra with synchrotron radiation, in addition to the O 2- ? Eu 3+ and S 2- ? Eu 3+ charge transfer transitions, excitation over the band gap was observed at 4.8 eV (258 nm). The red persistent luminescence due to the 5D 0 ? 7F 2 emission from Eu 3+ residing in the regular Y 3+ site of the host was ca. 10 min with 1 min fluorescent lamp irradiation. In addition, a very broad band was observed at 600 nm probably due to the Ti 3+ emission.

Hölsä, Jorma; Laamanen, Taneli; Lastusaari, Mika; Malkamäki, Marja; Niittykoski, Janne; Zych, Eugeniusz

2009-10-01

24

Extension of a Proton SEU Cross Section Model to Include 14 MeV Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for estimating proton SEU cross sections from heavy-ion test data has been extended to include 14 MeV neutrons. Accuracy is less consistent for neutrons, but predictions can still be used for upper bounds.

Larry D. Edmonds; Farokh Irom

2008-01-01

25

Upper bound SEU rate for devices in an isotropic or nonisotropic flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for constructing upper bound estimates for device single event upset (SEU) rates is presented. A directional Heinrich flux, as a function of direction, must be known. A computer code, included, converts the directional Heinrich flux into an 'effective flux'. The effective flux provides a simple way to estimate upper bound SEU rates for devices with a known normal incident cross section versus LET curve.

Edmonds, Larry D.

1991-01-01

26

SEU testing of a novel hardened register implemented using standard CMOS technology  

SciTech Connect

A novel memory structure, designed to tolerate SEU perturbations, has been implemented in registers and tested. The design was completed using a standard submicron nonradiation hardened CMOS technology. This paper presents the results of heavy ions tests which evidence the noticeable improvement of the SEU-robustness with an increased LET threshold and reduced cross-section, without significant impact to die real estate, write time, or power consumption.

Monnier, T.; Roche, F.M.; Cosculluela, J.; Velazco, R.

1999-12-01

27

Design and qualification of the SEU/TD Radiation Monitor chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Single-Event Upset/Total Dose (SEU/TD) Radiation Monitor chip. The Radiation Monitor is scheduled to fly on the Mid-Course Space Experiment Satellite (MSX). The Radiation Monitor chip consists of a custom-designed 4-bit SRAM for heavy ion detection and three MOSFET's for monitoring total dose. In addition the Radiation Monitor chip was tested along with three diagnostic chips: the processor monitor and the reliability and fault chips. These chips revealed the quality of the CMOS fabrication process. The SEU/TD Radiation Monitor chip had an initial functional yield of 94.6 percent. Forty-three (43) SEU SRAM's and 14 Total Dose MOSFET's passed the hermeticity and final electrical tests and were delivered to LL.

Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.; Soli, George A.; Zamani, Nasser; Hicks, Kenneth A.

1992-10-01

28

TSC696E: a SPARC V8 processor with SEU protection built-in architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To fulfill the always increasing computing power required by airborne equipment's, ESA has carried out the development of the LEON, a SPARC v8 processor. This device, available as a soft macro, is commonly targeting commercial and space markets. Therefore, to resist against radiation inherent to space environment, its design is highly configurable so as SEU protection mechanisms can be implemented without significant penalty. The work described in this paper presents the design by Atmel(1) of a 0.35?m technology demonstrator implementing the Fault Tolerant version of the LEON aiming at the validation of the SPARC standard compliance as well as SEU protection efficiency verification. Both functional validation and radiation results are reviewed with special attention to SEU induced errors circumventing actions.

Corbiere, T.

2002-12-01

29

Beta engineering and circuit styles for SEU hardening PD-SOI SRAM cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOI technologies have long been used for SEU-hardened SRAMs and other radiation-hard circuits. However, to maintain their advantages in the submicron regime, it is essential that the strength of the floating body effects (FBE) and the role of the parasitic bipolar transistor (PBJT) should be minimized. In this work these are achieved by reducing the gain ? of the PBJT by controlling the carrier recombination lifetime of the SOI film. Two sets of devices (A and B) were fabricated on 0.35 ?m PD SOI technology, where Device A underwent a lifetime "killing"-processing step to control the single event upset (SEU) vulnerability. These devices were experimentally characterized and simulated and the results verified the benefits of lifetime "killing". Additional SEU control was achieved by optimizing the circuit design of the cell through the incorporation of suitable delay elements.

Ioannou, Dimitris P.; Ioannou, Dimitris E.

2004-11-01

30

Combustion synthesis of Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red phosphors of Y2O2S:Eu3+ were synthesized by combustion reactions from mixed metal nitrate reactants and a fuel CH4N2S with ignition temperatures of 450°C. Sulfur was produced by CH4N2S decomposed at high temperature. Y2O3 decomposed by Y(NO3) 3 reacted in Sulfur atmosphere to synthesize Y2O2S host. From altering the ratio of CH4N2S and metal nitrate, the pure phase Y2O2S:Eu3+ red phosphor was obtained. The conclusion was proved by XRD patterns and emission spectrum.

Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yong; Li, Xu; Li, Xingmin

2006-01-01

31

Variation in proton-induced upsets rates from large solar flares using an improved SEU model  

SciTech Connect

Proton integral flux measurements during solar energetic particle (SEP) events, from the CPME instrument onboard the IMP-8 satellite, and the proton detector on the GOES-7 satellite, were utilized to calculate proton-induced SEU. An improved two-parameter SEU cross section model was used for three RAM devices. The log of the 239 actual RAM upsets on the TDRS-1 satellite during the Oct. 19, 1989 SEP event allowed a comparison between the recorded number of upset/chip per day, and those predicted based on the GOES-7 data, the 2-parameter model and the shielding distribution curve.

Normand, E. (Boeing Aerospace Co., Seattle, WA (USA)); Stapor, W.J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA))

1990-12-01

32

Simulation of SEU Cross-sections using MRED under Conditions of Limited Device Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the simulation of Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections using the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) resistance and electrode diffusion (MRED) tool using "Best guess" assumptions about the process and geometry, and direct ionization, low-energy beam test results. This work will also simulate SEU cross-sections including angular and high energy responses and compare the simulated results with beam test data for the validation of the model. Using MRED, we produced a reasonably accurate upset response model of a low-critical charge SRAM without detailed information about the circuit, device geometry, or fabrication process

Lauenstein, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Warren, K. M.; Pellish, J. A.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Sierawski, B. D.; Massengill, L. W.; Dodd, P. E.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Felix, J. A.; Schwank, J. R.

2007-01-01

33

Design and Qualification of the SEU/TD Radiation Monitor Chip.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Single-Event Upset/Total Dose (SEU/TD) Radiation Monitor chip. The Radiation Monitor is scheduled to fly on the Mid-Course Space Experiment Satellite (MSX). The Radiation Monitor chip consi...

M. G. Buehler B. R. Blaes G. A. Soli N. Zamani K. A. Hicks

1992-01-01

34

O USO DE ANIMAIS EM PESQUISAS CIENTÍFICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historicamente, atividades didáticas e de pesquisa utilizando animais são realizadas desde a Antigüidade. Inicialmente, muitas destas práticas eram executadas por pessoas interessadas em aprofundar o seu conhecimento sobre um determinado assunto, porém, sem a exigência da aplicação de um método sistematizado de investigação. Com o passar do tempo esta sistematização incorporou-se às práticas didático-científicas, sendo realizadas por pessoas capacitadas para

Marcia Mocellin Raymundo; José Roberto Goldim

35

Luminescence properties of Eu3+ and TiIV/ZrIV doped yttrium oxysulfides (Y2O2S:Eu3+,TiIV/ZrIV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red emitting Y2O2S:Eu3+,TiIV (or ZrIV, xEu: 0.01, xTi/Zr: 0.003/0.015/0.03) materials were prepared with a flux method. According to X-ray powder diffraction, the materials have the hexagonal crystal structure. The UV excited (?exc: 250 nm) emission maximum was observed at 628 nm due to the 5D0?7F2 transition of Eu3+. The excitation spectra (?em: 628 nm) consist of broad bands centered at 240 and 320 nm due to the charge transfer transitions O2-?Eu3+ and S2-?Eu3+, respectively. Red persistent luminescence was observed with a maximum at 628 nm, as well. Persistent luminescence was the strongest with the TiIV co-doping though the intensity of persistent luminescence decreased with the increasing amount of both the TiIV and ZrIV co-dopants. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the Y2O2S:Eu3+,TiIV materials consist of bands at ca. 110 and 200 °C. In Y2O2S:Eu3+,ZrIV, similar bands are observed at lower temperatures viz. at ca. 100 and 180 °C. TL weakens when the amount of co-dopants is increased. The TiIV co-doped materials have stronger TL than the ZrIV co-doped materials. The deconvolution of TL glow curves revealed three distinct traps with depths ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 eV.

Bettentrup, H.; Eskola, K. O.; Hölsä, J.; Kotlov, A.; Lastusaari, M.; Malkamäki, M.

2010-11-01

36

SEU-sensitive volumes in bulk and SOI SRAMs from first-principles calculations and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale three-dimensional (3D) device simulations, focused ion microscopy, and broadbeam heavy-ion experiments are used to determine and compare the SEU-sensitive volumes of bulk-Si and SOI CMOS SRAMs. Single-event upset maps and cross-section curves calculated directly from 3D simulations show excellent agreement with broadbeam cross section curves and microbeam, charge collection and upset images for 16 K bulk-Si SRAMs. Charge-collection and

P. E. Dodd; A. R. Shaneyfelt; K. M. Horn; D. S. Walsh; G. L. Hash; T. A. Hill; B. L. Draper; J. R. Schwank; F. W. Sexton; P. S. Winokur

2001-01-01

37

Design and qualification of the SEU\\/TD Radiation Monitor chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Single-Event Upset\\/Total Dose (SEU\\/TD) Radiation Monitor chip. The Radiation Monitor is scheduled to fly on the Mid-Course Space Experiment Satellite (MSX). The Radiation Monitor chip consists of a custom-designed 4-bit SRAM for heavy ion detection and three MOSFET's for monitoring total dose. In addition the Radiation Monitor chip was tested

Martin G. Buehler; Brent R. Blaes; George A. Soli; Nasser Zamani; Kenneth A. Hicks

1992-01-01

38

Altitude and latitude variations in avionics SEU and atmospheric neutron flux  

SciTech Connect

The direct cause of single event upsets in SRAMs at aircraft altitudes by the atmospheric neutrons has previously been documented. The variation of the in-flight SEU rate with latitude is demonstrated by new data over a wide range of geographical locations. New measurements and models of the atmospheric neutron flux are also evaluated to characterize its variation with altitude, latitude and solar activity.

Normand, E.; Baker, T.J. (Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States))

1993-12-01

39

SEU results from the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments (APEX) satellite  

SciTech Connect

The APEX satellite, launched in August of 1994, had a solid state data recorder (SSDR) as its onboard data storage system. The recorder contained 220 4Mbit X 1 Hitachi DRAMs of which 176 were routinely interrogated for SEUs and corrected with an EDAC code. Corrections were recorded in the spacecraft housekeeping files and are the basis of this study. The SEU rates and spatial locations are compared to in-situ particle measurements and to ground test results from devices from the same lot flown. The results show that properly designed SSDRs are a viable alternative to conventional tap recording systems for all orbits in near-Earth space.

Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)] [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States); Koga, R. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Holeman, E.G.; Delorey, D.E. [Boston Coll., Newton, MA (United States). Inst. for Space Research] [Boston Coll., Newton, MA (United States). Inst. for Space Research

1995-12-01

40

A INFORMAÇÃO SOBRE A SATISFAÇÃO DO CONSUMIDOR E SEU PAPEL NA GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE EM EMPRESAS DE ALIMENTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer satisfaction is one of the most frequently focused themes in specialized publications and widely recognized as one of the main objectives of the quality management activities within the companies. Thus, information about consumer satisfaction is of great importance mainly to enterprises to the consumer market as the food industry. This paper results from a qualitative research based on case

Roberto Giloli Rotondaro; Isabel Cristofoletti; Aymeé Tamara Torres

41

An SEU analysis approach for error propagation in digital VLSI CMOS ASICs  

SciTech Connect

A critical issue in the development of ASIC designs is the ability to achieve first pass fabrication success. Unsuccessful fabrication runs have serious impact on ASIC costs and schedules. The ability to predict an ASICs radiation response prior to fabrication is therefore a key issue when designing ASICs for military and aerospace systems. This paper describes an analysis approach for calculating static bit error propagation in synchronous VLSI CMOS circuits developed as an aid for predicting the SEU response of ASIC`s. The technique is intended for eventual application as an ASIC development simulation tool which can be used by circuit design engineers for performance evaluation during the pre-fabrication design process in much the same way that logic and timing simulators are used.

Baze, M.P.; Bartholet, W.G.; Dao, T.A. [Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Buchner, S. [SFA Inc., Landover, MD (United States)] [SFA Inc., Landover, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

42

Using Pipelined XNOR Logic to Reduce SEU Risks in State Machines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-event upsets (SEUs) pose great threats to avionic systems state machine control logic, which are frequently used to control sequence of events and to qualify protocols. The risks of SEUs manifest in two ways: (a) the state machine s state information is changed, causing the state machine to unexpectedly transition to another state; (b) due to the asynchronous nature of SEU, the state machine's state registers become metastable, consequently causing any combinational logic associated with the metastable registers to malfunction temporarily. Effect (a) can be mitigated with methods such as triplemodular redundancy (TMR). However, effect (b) cannot be eliminated and can degrade the effectiveness of any mitigation method of effect (a). Although there is no way to completely eliminate the risk of SEU-induced errors, the risk can be made very small by use of a combination of very fast state-machine logic and error-detection logic. Therefore, one goal of two main elements of the present method is to design the fastest state-machine logic circuitry by basing it on the fastest generic state-machine design, which is that of a one-hot state machine. The other of the two main design elements is to design fast error-detection logic circuitry and to optimize it for implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture: In the resulting design, the one-hot state machine is fitted with a multiple-input XNOR gate for detection of illegal states. The XNOR gate is implemented with lookup tables and with pipelines for high speed. In this method, the task of designing all the logic must be performed manually because no currently available logic synthesis software tool can produce optimal solutions of design problems of this type. However, some assistance is provided by a script, written for this purpose in the Python language (an object-oriented interpretive computer language) to automatically generate hardware description language (HDL) code from state-transition rules.

Le, Martin; Zheng, Xin; Katanyoutant, Sunant

2008-01-01

43

Experimental determination of single-event upset (SEU) as a function of collected charge in bipolar integrated circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-Event Upset (SEU) in bipolar integrated circuits (ICs) is caused by charge collection from ion tracks in various regions of a bipolar transistor. This paper presents experimental data which have been obtained wherein the range-energy characteristics of heavy ions (Br) have been utilized to determine the cross section for soft-error generation as a function of charge collected from single-particle tracks which penetrate a bipolar static RAM. The results of this work provide a basis for the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling in bipolar ICs.

Zoutendyk, J. A.; Malone, C. J.; Smith, L. S.

1984-01-01

44

High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at...

D. L. Shaeffer J. L. Kaschimitter J. R. Kimbrough J. W. Wilburn S. M. Denton

1991-01-01

45

Validity of Using a Fixed Analog Input for Evaluating the SEU Sensitivity of a Flash Analog-to-Digital Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SEU rate in a flash ADC (AD9058) on board a space experiment varied by more than an order of magnitude, depending on the input. A pulsed laser aided in elucidating the reasons, which were found to be the result of the unique design of the AD9058.

Buchner, Stephen; Campbell, Arthur B.; Sternberg, Andrew; Massengill, Lloyd; McMorrow, Dale; Dyer, Clive

2003-01-01

46

A new approach to accelerate SEU sensitivity evaluation in circuits with embedded memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current circuit complexity requires faster fault injection techniques to allow the evaluation of a high number of faults in a reasonable time. In particular, FPGA emulation has proven to be a performance effective method to analyze the behavior of digital circuits in the presence of soft errors due to SEU effects. In general, fault emulation-based solutions that use circuit instrumentation to inject faults in the literature does not consider the fault emulation in circuits with embedded memories. The few existing proposals that study this kind of circuits are oriented to inject faults in microprocessors, are slow solutions with respect to the injection in flip-flops and with a poor capacity to analyze the circuit behavior, due to the limited accessibility in memories (a word memory per clock cycle). Embedded memories are more and more usual and large in modern designs, and therefore, the emulation of the embedded memories is a problem of rising importance. The proposed models presented in this work allow the fault emulation in embedded memories, injection faults and observing their effects in a fast way.

Portela-García, M.; Garcia Valderas, M.; Lopez-Ongil, C.; Entrena, L.

2009-05-01

47

Role of the ssu and seu Genes of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 in Utilization of Sulfonates and Sulfonate Esters as Sulfur Sources†  

PubMed Central

Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was found to be able to utilize a broad range of sulfonates and sulfonate esters as sulfur sources. The two gene clusters potentially involved in sulfonate utilization, ssuD1CBA and ssuI-seuABC-ssuD2, were identified in the genome of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 by similarity searches. While the ssu genes encode proteins resembling Ssu proteins from Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, the seu gene products exhibited similarity to the dibenzothiophene-degrading Dsz monooxygenases of Rhodococcus strain IGTS8. Growth tests with the C. glutamicum wild-type and appropriate mutant strains showed that the clustered genes ssuC, ssuB, and ssuA, putatively encoding the components of an ABC-type transporter system, are required for the utilization of aliphatic sulfonates. In C. glutamicum sulfonates are apparently degraded by sulfonatases encoded by ssuD1 and ssuD2. It was also found that the seu genes seuA, seuB, and seuC can effectively replace ssuD1 and ssuD2 for the degradation of sulfonate esters. The utilization of all sulfonates and sulfonate esters tested is dependent on a novel putative reductase encoded by ssuI. Obviously, all monooxygenases encoded by the ssu and seu genes, including SsuD1, SsuD2, SeuA, SeuB, and SeuC, which are reduced flavin mononucleotide dependent according to sequence similarity, have SsuI as an essential component. Using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, the ssu and seu gene cluster was found to be expressed considerably more strongly during growth on sulfonates and sulfonate esters than during growth on sulfate.

Koch, D. J.; Ruckert, C.; Rey, D. A.; Mix, A.; Puhler, A.; Kalinowski, J.

2005-01-01

48

High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

SciTech Connect

Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions in order to simulate the actual operation of each part. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rate for a 500-km orbit during quiet solar conditions, the King 1972 solar flare, and the August 4, 1972, event modeled by Adams et al. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschimitter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-08-15

49

High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event.

Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschmiter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-12-01

50

O planejamento estrategico como insumo da qualidade em empresas de energia eletrica. (The strategical planning as quality intake in electric power utilities).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology for a strategical plan elaboration aiming the electric power distribution sector is shown, including the following steps: thr company business; company goal; environmental analysis; definition of the company behaviour principles, guidelines,...

A. Silva Filho M. L. R. Cordeiro

1992-01-01

51

Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

2003-08-01

52

An Area/Delay Efficient Dual-Modular Flip-Flop with Higher SEU/SET Immunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the process scaling, semiconductor devices are becoming more sensitive to soft errors since amount of critical charges are decreasing. In this paper, we propose an area/delay efficient dual modular flip-flop, which is tolerant to SEU (Single Event Upset) and SET (Single Event Transient). It is based on a “BISER” (Built-in Soft Error Resilience). The original BISER FF achieves small area but it is vulnerable to an SET pulse on C-elements. The proposed dual modular FF doubles C-elements and weak keepers between master and slave latches, which enhances SET immunity considerably with paying small area-delay product than the conventional delayed TMR FFs.

Furuta, Jun; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi; Onodera, Hidetoshi

53

An investigation of the imaging characteristics of the Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor for application in X-ray detectors of digital mammography.  

PubMed

Y2O2S:Eu laboratory prepared screens were evaluated as mammographic image receptors and were compared to similarly prepared screens of Gd2O2S:Tb and Y2O2S:Tb phosphor materials, often used in X-ray imaging detectors. The evaluation was performed by determining the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the spatial frequency dependent Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). Y2O2S:Eu exhibited higher DQE values at low frequencies and given its good spectral matching with digital optical detectors, it may be appropriate for use in X-ray digital mammography. PMID:9650263

Cavouras, D; Kandarakis, I; Panayiotakis, G S; Kanellopoulos, E; Triantis, D; Nomicos, C D

1998-08-01

54

Validity of Using a Fixed Analog Input for Evaluating the SEU Sensitivity of a Flash Analog-to-Digita1 Converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SEU rate in a flash ADC (AD9058) on board a space experiment varied by more than an order of magnitude, depending on the input. A pulsed laser aided in elucidating the reasons, which were found to be the result of the unique design of the AD9058.

Buchner, Stephen; Campbell, Arthur; Sternberg, Andrew; Massengill, Lloyd; McMorrow, Dale; Dyer, Clive

2003-01-01

55

ESTUDO DA LIGAÇÃO CRUZADA INDUZIDA PELO FORMALDEÍDO EM CÁPSULAS DE GELATINA DURA Study of formaldehyde induced cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O formaldeído é um agente desnaturante que induz a ligação cruzada covalente na gelatina, sendo um dos agentes utilizados para a promoção da gastro-resistência em formas farmacêuticas gelatinosas, contudo, seu uso carece de avaliações minuciosas e da definição de protocolos específicos para as diversas classes de fármacos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a ligação cruzada induzida pelo formaldeído

Ana Lúcia; T. C. Zampieri; Eliana M. Lima; Danielle G. A. Diniz

56

Organizacoes de Intermediacao Em Transferencia de Technologia: Seu Papel NA Inovacao Technologica (Organizations of Intermediation in Technology Transfer: Its Role in Technological Innovation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role and the modus operandi of some organizations supposed to promote the approximation between the productive sector and the research institutions in Brazil are analyzed. The first part of the work is a survey of the literature on the process of tech...

S. A. Perilo

1987-01-01

57

Effects of Target Fragmentation on Evaluation of LET Spectra From Space Radiation in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Environment: Impact on SEU Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

1995-01-01

58

Effects of target fragmentation on evaluation of LET spectra from space radiation in low-earth orbit (LEO) environment: impact on SEU predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

1995-01-01

59

Influence of vacuum upon preparation and luminescence of Si4+ and Ti4+ codoped Gd2O2S:Eu phosphor.  

PubMed

As a novel red long afterglow phosphor, Si(4+) and Ti(4+) ion codoped Gd2O2S:Eu phosphor with spherical morphology, sub-micrometer size and narrow particle size distribution was synthesized by solid-state reaction in vacuum. The vacuum synthesis mechanism was determined by thermal analysis. The crystal structure, luminescence properties and mechanisms were investigated respectively by XRD, SEM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results show that well-crystallized Gd2O2S:Eu,Si,Ti phosphors are of hexagonal structure which is in agreement with the standard powder peak positions of Gd2O2S hexagonal phase. It displays pure red emission because of the strongest peaks at 627nm and 617nm which are attributed to energy transfer ((5)D0-(7)F2). There is a little blue shift of charge transfer excitation band in the excitation spectra between the bulk and sub-micrometer-sized samples, which may stem from size dependent shift and different lattice distortion in the position of the Eu(3+)-ligand electron transfer absorption/excitation band. To further study the influence of the impurities in Gd2O2S:Eu crystals on crystal growth, the simulated crystal face and its XRD patterns were illustrated. The preferred orientation of crystal growth changed from crystal face (101) to (100) thus to result in different luminescence mechanisms. PMID:24583471

Wang, Fei; Yang, Bin; Liu, Dachun; Ma, Wenhui; Chen, Xiumin; Dai, Yongnian

2014-05-21

60

Um modelo computacional para determinacao de alternativas de expansao de custo minimo em planejamento de sistemas de transmissao. (A computational model for determining the minimal cost expansion alternatives in transmission systems planning).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computational model for determining an economical transmission expansion plan, based in the decomposition techniques is presented. The algorithm was used in the Brazilian South System and was able to find an optimal solution, with a low computational re...

L. M. V. Pinto M. V. F. Pereira A. Nunes

1989-01-01

61

A comparative investigation of Lu2SiO5:Ce and Gd2O2S:Eu powder scintillators for use in x-ray mammography detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant powder scintillator in most medical imaging modalities for decades has been Gd2O2S:Tb due to the very good intrinsic properties and overall efficiency. Apart from Gd2O2S:Tb, there are alternative powder phosphor scintillators such as Lu2SiO5:Ce and Gd2O2S:Eu that have been suggested for use in various medical imaging modalities. Gd2O2S:Eu emits red light and can be combined mainly with digital mammography detectors such as CCDs. Lu2SiO5:Ce emits blue light and can be combined with blue sensitivity films, photocathodes and some photodiodes. For the purposes of the present study, two scintillating screens, one from Lu2SiO5:Ce and the other from Gd2O2S:Eu powders, were prepared using the method of sedimentation. The screen coating thicknesses were 25.0 and 33.1 mg cm-2 respectively. The screens were investigated by evaluating the following parameters: the output signal, the modulation transfer function, the noise equivalent passband, the informational efficiency, the quantum detection efficiency and the zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency. Furthermore, the spectral compatibility of those materials with various optical detectors was determined. Results were compared to published data for the commercially employed 'Kodak Min-R film-screen system', based on a 31.7 mg cm-2 thick Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor. For Gd2O2S:Eu, MTF data were found comparable to those of Gd2O2S:Tb, while the MTF of Lu2SiO5:Ce was even higher resulting in better spatial resolution and image sharpness properties. On the other hand, Gd2O2S:Eu was found to exhibit higher output signal and zero-frequency detective quantum efficiency than Lu2SiO5:Ce.

Michail, C. M.; Fountos, G. P.; David, S. L.; Valais, I. G.; Toutountzis, A. E.; Kalyvas, N. E.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Panayiotakis, G. S.

2009-10-01

62

Asymmetric SEU in SOI SRAMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially depleted (PD) 0.15 ?m CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) SRAMs were exposed to heavy ions, 14 MeV neutrons, and protons. The upset threshold and saturated cross section LET values were determined from heavy ion exposures. The SRAMs were then exposed at various angles of incidence with respect to a 14 MeV neutron source to a total fluence of 4×1013 n\\/cm2. The

P. J. McMarr; M. E. Nelson; S. T. Liu; D. Nelson; K. J. Delikat; P. Gouker; B. Tyrrell; H. Hughes

2005-01-01

63

An SEU immune logic family  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.

Canaris, J.

1991-01-01

64

EMS System Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system plan for an eight-county, primarily rural district of south central Oklahoma is presented. Demographic and area characteristics of the district are described. The existing EMS resources such as: manpower (physicia...

G. L. Dahl R. Eidson

1975-01-01

65

EMS Student Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

Ogle, Patrick

66

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the triglyceride-lowering component and in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis  

PubMed Central

Background In folklore, some people take the decoction of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis (CSFP) for lowering blood lipids. The present study is designed to evaluate the lipid-lowering activities of CSFP, and search for its pharmacodynamical material. Methods CSFP was extracted by water and 75% ethanol, respectively. The extracts of CSFP for reducing serum lipid levels were evaluated on mouse model of hyperlipidemia. The optimized extract was subjected to the bioactivity-guided fractionation in which the liquid-liquid extraction, collumn chromatography, the in vivo and in vitro models of hyperlipidemia were utilized. The structure of active component was determined by 13 C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Results The 75% ethanol extract of CSFP decreased the serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Followed a separation process for the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP, the fraction B was proved to be an active fraction for lowering lipid in vivo and in vitro experiments, which could significantly decrease the serum TC and TG levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and remarkably decrease the increase of TG in primary mouse hepatocytes induced by high glucose and the increase of TG in HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid. The fraction B2, isolated from B on bioactivity-guided fractionation, could significantly decrease TG level in HepG2 cells. One compound with the highest content in B2 was isolated and determined as luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by NMR spectra. It could significantly reduce the TG level in HepG2 cells, and inhibited the accumulation of lipids by oil red O stain. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP could improve in vitro and in vivo lipid accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside might be a leading pharmacodynamical material of CSFP for lowering lipids.

2012-01-01

67

SEU and SEL response of the Westinghouse 64K E-2PROM, analog devices AD7876 12-bit ADC, and the Intel 82527 Serial Communications Controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Westinghouse SA3823 64K E(sup 2)PROM radiation-hardened SONOS non-volatile memory exhibited a single-event-upset (SEU) threshold in the read mode of 60 MeV-sq cm/mg and 40 MeV-sq cm/mg for data latch errors. The minimum threshold for address latch errors was 35 MeV-sq cm/mg. Hard errors were observed with Kr at V(sub p) = 8.5 V and with Xe at Programming voltages (V(sub p)) as low as 7.5 V. No hard errors were observed with Cu at any angle up to V(sub p) = II V. The system specification of no hard errors for Ar ions or lighter was exceeded. No single-event latchup (SEL) was observed in these devices for the conditions examined. The Analog Devices AD7876 12bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) had an upset threshold of 2 MeV-cm(sup 2)/mg for all values of input voltage (V(sub in)), while the worst-case saturation cross section of approximately 2 x 10(exp -3)sq cm as measured with V(sub in) = 4.49 V. No latchup was observed. The Intel 82C527 serial communications controller exhibited a minimum threshold for upset of 2 MeV-cm(exp 4)/mLi, and a saturation cross section of about 5 x 10(exp-4)sq cm. For latchup the minimum threshold was measured at 17 MeV-sq cm/mg, and cross section saturated at about 3 x10(exp -4)sq cm. Error rates for the expected applications are presented.

Sexton, F. W.; Hash, G. L.; Connors, M. P.; Murray, J. R.; Schwank, J. R.; Winokur, P. S.; Bradley, E. G.

68

EM International. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

Not Available

1993-07-01

69

EM and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic theme of the EM algorithm, to repeatedly use complete-data methods to solve incomplete data problems, is also a theme of several more recent statistical techniques. These techniques—multiple imputation, data augmentation, stochastic relaxation, and sampling importance resampling—combine simulation techniques with complete-data methods to attack problems that are difficult or impossible for EM.

Donald B. Rubin

1991-01-01

70

Imaging performance of a thin Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor scintillating screen coupled to a high resolution CMOS sensor under X-ray radiographic conditions: comparison with Gd2O2S:Eu conventional phosphor screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate the imaging characteristics of the Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor thin screen coupled to a high resolution CMOS sensor under radiographic conditions. Parameters such as the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) were investigated at 70 kVp under three exposure levels (20 mAs, 63 mAs and 90 mAs). Since Lu2O3:Eu emits light in the red wavelength range, the imaging characteristics of a 33.3 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Eu conventional phosphor screen were also evaluated for comparison purposes. The Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor powder was produced by the combustion synthesis, using urea as fuel. A scintillating screen of 30.2 mg/cm2 was prepared by sedimentation of the nanophosphor powder on a fused silica substrate. The CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu detector`s imaging characteristics were evaluated using an experimental method proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) guidelines. It was found that the CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor system has higher MTF values compared to the CMOS/Gd2O2S:Eu sensor/screen combination in the whole frequency range examined. For low frequencies (0 to 2 cycles/mm) NNPS values of the CMOS/Gd2O2S:Eu system were found 90% higher compared to the NNPS values of the CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor system, whereas from medium to high frequencies (2 to 13 cycles/mm) were found 40% higher. In contrast with the CMOS/ Gd2O2S:Eu system, CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor system appears to retain high DQE values in the whole frequency range examined. Our results indicate that Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor is a promising scintillator for further research in digital X-ray radiography.

Seferis, I.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.; Zeler, J.; Liaparinos, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Fountos, G.; Zych, E.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

2014-03-01

71

Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

2003-08-01

72

Deterministic annealing EM algorithm.  

PubMed

This paper presents a deterministic annealing EM (DAEM) algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation problems to overcome a local maxima problem associated with the conventional EM algorithm. In our approach, a new posterior parameterized by `temperature' is derived by using the principle of maximum entropy and is used for controlling the annealing process. In the DAEM algorithm, the EM process is reformulated as the problem of minimizing the thermodynamic free energy by using a statistical mechanics analogy. Since this minimization is deterministically performed at each temperature, the total search is executed far more efficiently than in the simulated annealing. Moreover, the derived DAEM algorithm, unlike the conventional EM algorithm, can obtain better estimates free of the initial parameter values. We also apply the DAEM algorithm to the training of probabilistic neural networks using mixture models to estimate the probability density and demonstrate the performance of the DAEM algorithm. PMID:12662837

Ueda, N; Nakano, R

1998-03-01

73

Decay time characteristics of La2O2S:Eu and La2O2S:Tb for use within an optical sensor for human skin temperature measurement  

SciTech Connect

We focus on the development of a remote temperature sensing technology, i.e., an optical laser-based sensor, using thermographic phosphors for medical applications, particularly within an electromagnetically hostile magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. A MRI scanner uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate images of the inside of the body. The quality of the image improves with increasing magnetic resonance; however, the drawback of applying a greater magnetic strength is the inducement of heat into the body tissue. Therefore, monitoring the patient's temperature inside MRI is vital, but until now, a practical solution for temperature measurement did not exist. We show europium doped lanthanum oxysulphide (La2O2S:Eu) and terbium doped lanthanum oxysulphide (La2O2S:Tb) are both temperature sensitive to a low temperature range of 10-50 deg. C when under ultraviolet (UV) excitation. The emission spectra and decay time characteristics of these phosphors were demonstrated. The results indicate that La2O2S:Eu has a quenching rate of 13.7 m deg. C{sup -1} and 4 m deg. C{sup -1} at 512 nm and 538 nm, respectively. In addition, La2O2S:Tb has a lower quenching rate of 4.19 m deg. C{sup -1} at 548 nm due to its faster decay time.

Yap, Sook Voon; Ranson, Robert M.; Cranton, Wayne M.; Koutsogeorgis, Demosthenes

2008-09-20

74

A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

Garcia-Rissmann, A.

2003-08-01

75

EM Radiation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EM Radiation program displays the electric field vectors (in the x-y plane) and magnetic field contours (for the field in the z direction) calculated from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials for a charged particle. The default scenario shows the resulting radiation from a charged particle in simple harmonic motion. Additional particle trajectories can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. EM Radiation is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of electromagnetism. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the em_radiation.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other electromagnetism programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or electromagnetism.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

76

emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

2012-01-01

77

On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

2003-08-01

78

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

79

The energy transfer phenomena and colour tunability in Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) micro-fibers for white emission in solid state lighting applications.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the structural, optical and photometric characterization of an Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor (Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+)) for near white emission in solid state lighting. A series of Y2O2S phosphors doped with Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The microstructures of the as-synthesized phosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results reveal that the obtained powder phosphors have a single-phase hexagonal structure and also indicate that the incorporation of the dopants/co-dopants did not affect the crystal structure. The SEM images reveal the morphology of the prepared phosphors as an intense interpenetrating network of interconnected micro-fibers with a diameter of about 0.15 ?m. The band gap of the phosphors was calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function. The Eu(3+), Dy(3+) doped and Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) co-doped phosphors illuminated with ultraviolet light showed characteristic red luminescence corresponding to the (5)D0?(7)FJ transitions of Eu(3+) and characteristic blue and yellow luminescence corresponding to the (4)F9/2?(6)H15/2 or (4)F9/2?(6)H13/2 transitions of Dy(3+). The luminescence spectra, the energy transfer efficiency and the decay curves of the phosphors indicated that there exists a strong energy transfer from Dy(3+) to Eu(3+) and this was demonstrated to be a resonant type via a dipole-quadrupole reaction. Furthermore, the critical distance of the Eu(3+) and Dy(3+) ions have also been calculated. By utilizing the principle of energy transfer it was also demonstrated that with an appropriate tuning of the activator content the Y2O2S:Eu(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors can exhibit a great potential to act as single-emitting component phosphors for white light emission in solid state lighting technology. PMID:24710323

Som, S; Mitra, P; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Terblans, J J; Swart, H C; Sharma, S K

2014-07-14

80

A model for proton-induced SEU  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method for predicting proton-induced single event effect (SEE) rates in devices exposed to given proton fluxes, within a particular spacecraft shielding. The approach uses heavy-ion cross section experimental data, combined with nuclear reaction calculations, in order to determine proton-induced SEE cross section versus proton energy relationship. Calculations for two devices, the Fairchild 932422 RAM and the Intel 2164A dRAM, for which heavy-ion test data was available, are presented and compared with the results of Bendel and with ground based experimental data. Available on-orbit SEE data are used and compared with the authors predictions. A comparison of predicted SEE rates for both protons and cosmic rays at various 60{degrees} circular orbits is discussed. Good agreement is found in all cases.

Bion, T.; Bourrieau, J. (Dept. d'Etudes et de Recherches en Technologie Spatiale, Center d'Etudes de Recherches de Toulouse, 31055 Toulouse cedex, (FR))

1989-12-01

81

VIRTEX-4 VQ static SEU Characterization Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the result of the combined efforts of members within the Xilinx Radiation Test Consortium (XRTC), sometimes known as the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium. The XRTC is a voluntary association of aerospace entities, including leading aerospace companies, universities and national laboratories, combining resources to characterize reconfigurable FPGAs for aerospace applications. Previous publications of Virtex-4 radiation results are for commercial (non-epitaxial) devices; see, for example, Refs. 1-4. A notable exception is Ref. 5, which presents XRTC upset measurements of storage elements in the PowerPC405s in the XQR4VFX60. This report of upset susceptibility to heavy ions and protons of the static memory elements in the Virtex-4QV family is a direct parallel to the XRTC report on the thin epitaxial devices in the Virtex-2 family released four years ago.

Allen, Gregory; Swift, Gary; Carmichael, Carl

2008-01-01

82

ABBEY THEATRE: UM DRAMATURGO ENCONTRA SEU CAMINHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Millington Synge's presence was fundamental to the foundation and development of the Abbey Theatre, the main support to the Irish Dramatic Movement. Known as the most polemical playwright of this theatre in its early days, Synge was also one of its main directors. This approach tries to show the importance of the Abbey Theatre, which changed the Irish Drama

Geraldo Ferreira de Lima

83

EMS Course Coordinator's Implementation Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is intended to clarify the responsibilities of an instructor-coordinator responsible for coordinating an emergency medical services (EMS) training program and to describe many of the materials now available for use in coordinating EMS training. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the nature and scope of the…

Cockrum, Jim

84

Identified EM Earthquake Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

2014-05-01

85

XI SIMPÓSIO DE ESPECIALISTAS EM PLANEJAMENTO DA OPERAÇÃO E EXPANSÃO ELÉTRICA XI SYMPOSIUM OF SPECIALISTS IN ELECTRIC OPERATIONAL AND EXPANSION PLANNING High Voltage Static VAR Compensators with Adaptive Control Systems: A Comparison among Studies in PSCAD\\/EMTDC™ and Tests in Real Time Digital Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents the simulations results of stro ng and small disturbances in PSCAD \\/ EMTDC™, performed in the area of influence of Funil and Bom Jesus da Lapa Static VAR Compensators (SVCs), considering a detailed modeling of 230 and 500kV power grids associated to such equipments. A detailed modeling of Funil SVC is used and the infl uence

XI SEPOPE; Manfredo Correia Lima

86

EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

87

Spatial EM jamming: A countermeasure against EM Analysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-Magnetic Analysis has been identified as an efficient technique to retrieve the secret key of cryptographic algorithms. Although similar mathematically speaking, Power or Electro-Magnetic Analysis have different advantages in practice. Among the advantages of EM Analysis, the feasibility of attacking limited and bounded area of integrated systems is the key one. Within this context, the contribution of this paper is

Francois Poucheret; Lyonel Barthe; Pascal Benoit; Lionel Torres; Philippe Maurine; Michel Robert

2010-01-01

88

Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18  

PubMed Central

The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.

Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

2002-01-01

89

Žem?s dangos skaitmenini? vaizd? identifikavimo analiz?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straipsnyje nagrin?jamas žem?s dangos skaitmenini? vaizd? identifikavimas taikant kovariacini? funkcij? ir Wavelet (bang?) teorij?. Dviej? skaitmenini? vaizd? arba pavieni? vaizd? autokovariacini? funkcij? ?ver?iai skai?iuojami pagal atsitiktines funkcijas, sudarytas iš skaitmenini? vaizd? pikseli? vektori? pavidalu. Pikseli? vektori? ?ver?iai gaunami skleidžiant skaitmenini? vaizd? pikseli? masyvus viena eilute. Tyrimams panaudoti HJ-DEM Ikonos palydoviniai vaizdai, kai kartografin? projekcija n?ra ortografin?, ir skaitmeninio vaizdo ta\\vsk? masteliai skirtingi. Kei?iant skaitmeninio vaizdo mastel? pavieni? pikseli? spalv? bang? dažniai lieka nekintantys, t. y. const, ir kovariacini? funkcij? skai?iavimo proced?rose mastelio kaitos ?taka nepasirei\\vskia. Vaizdams identifikuoti taikytas RGB formato spalv? spektras. Analizuota RGB spektro dedam?j? bei spalv? tenzoriaus ?taka skaitmenini? vaizd? kovariacini? funkcij? ?ver?iams. Skaitmenini? vaizd? tapatumas ?vertinamas pagal koreliacijos koeficient? reikšmi? kait? atitinkam? reikšmi? diapazone, taikant sudaryt? kompiuterin? program?.

Skeivalas, Jonas; Aleknien?, Edita; Ge?yt?, Silvija

2010-01-01

90

Deterministini? ir geostatistini? interpoliavimo metod? taikymas Žem?s paviršiui modeliuoti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analizuojamas Žem?s paviršiaus trimatis modeliavimas pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius matavimo duomenis, taikant tiesin?, svorin? ir Kriging interpoliavimo metodus. Interpoliavimo algoritmai pertvarkyti ir pritaikyti MATLAB paketo vykdomajam kodui. Sudarytoji programa Geo3D skirta erdviniams duomenims vaizduoti pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius duomenis. Geo3D programa sudaryti trima?iai Žem?s paviršiaus modeliai ?vertinti bei palyginti su modeliais, sukurtais reljefo vaizdavimo programa WinSurf.

Nareiko, Viktor; Ruzgien?, Birut?; ?selis, Adomas

2010-01-01

91

Three-wave mixing of volume EM, surface EM and surface acoustic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have investigated the diffraction of volume EM waves into surface EM waves (or vice versa) by surface acoustic (SA) waves, i.e. the three-wave mixing of volume EM, surface EM and SA waves, using a Kretschmann (prism\\/Ag film\\/air) configuration with the SA waves propagating in the Ag film. The diffraction intensity was measured as a function of the angle

H. Talaat; W. P. Chen; E. Burstein

1982-01-01

92

DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-02-01

93

School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

Education Resource Strategies, 2012

2012-01-01

94

Risco no mercado de arroz em casca  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho avaliou as características das séries de retornos, normalmente encontradas em séries financeiras, para dados do mercado de arroz em casca ao produtor do Rio Grande do Sul. Um modelo da classe GARCH (1,1) tipo VaR foi utilizado para obter previsões da variância condicional e verificar o risco incorrido pelas posições comprada e vendida no mercado de arroz

Andreia Cristina de Oliveira Adami; Geraldo SantAna de Camargo Barros

2008-01-01

95

Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.

2003-08-01

96

Evolução química em galáxias compactas azuis (BCGs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho, a formação estelar e evolução quí mica em galáxias Compactas Azuis (Blue Compact Galaxies - BCGs) foram estudadas através da comparação de previsões de modelos de evolução quí mica a várias razões de abundância quí mica observadas nestas galáxias. Modelos detalhados com recentes dados de nucleossí ntese e que levam em consideração o papel desempenahdo por supernovas de ambos os tipos (II e Ia) na evolução galáctica foram desenvolvidos para as BCGs permitindo seguir a evolução de vários elementos quí micos (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, e Fe). O modelo é caracterizado pelas prescrições adotadas para a formação estelar, a qual ocorre em vários surtos de atividade separados por longos perí odos quiescentes. Após ajustar os melhores modelos aos dados observacionais, as previsões destes modelos foram comparadas também a razões de abundância observadas em sistemas Damped Lyman alpha (DLAs) e a origem do N (primária ou secundária) foi discutida. Alguns dos resultados obtidos são: i) as razões de abundância observadas nas BCGs são reproduzidas por modelos com 2 a 7 surtos de formação estelar com eficiência entre n = 0.2-0.9 Gano-1; ii) os baixos valores de N/O observados nestas galáxias são um resultado natural de uma formação estelar em surtos; iii) os modelos para BCGs podem reproduzir os dados dos DLAs, iv) uma quantidade "baixa" de N primário produzido em estrelas de alta massa pode ser uma explicação para os baixos valores de [N/a] observados em DLAs.

Lanfranchi, G. A.; Matteucci, F.

2003-08-01

97

EM International, July 1994, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

Not Available

1994-10-01

98

Project X RFQ EM Design  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

Romanov, Gennady; /Fermilab; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

2012-05-09

99

Manufacturing Methods of Multi-ingredient Compost with EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is performed for increasing the integrated effect of EM by reasonable mixing of EM solution and multi-ingredient compost in agriculture. This compost has been manufactured by treating organic materials with EM and culturing other beneficial bacteria with high density, and by adding some minerals. The organic substrates were fermented by EM. There was a definite difference between organic

H. G. Ryang; M. S. Rim; Y. H. Rim; C. U. Chang; C. G. Kang; D. C. Yang

100

Consumo e Fermentação Ruminal de Proteínas em Função de Suplementação Alimentar Energética e Protéica em Novilhos1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de suplementação energética sobre o consumo e a fermentação ruminal de proteínas em dois níveis de proteína dietética (6 e 20%). Quatro novilhos mestiços fistulados no rúmen foram utilizados em um quadrado latino e os tratamentos arranjados em um fatorial 2 × 2, em que as dietas testadas constituíram-se de: A. só feno; B.

Natália Guarino; Souza Barbosa; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newandram Jham; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Antônio Bento Mâncio; José Carlos Pereira; Juliana Silva Oliveira

101

Fontes de metionina em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos totais ou digestíveis para frangas de reposição leves e semipesadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de duas fontes de metionina (em pó ou líquida) em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis ou totais para frangas de reposição leves e semipesadas, nas fases inicial (de 1 a 6 semanas de idade) e de crescimento (de 11 a 16 semanas de idade). Em

Luiz Gustavo Rombola; Douglas Emygdio de Faria; Bruno José Deponti; Flávio Henrique Araujo Silva; Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho; Otto Mack Junqueira

2008-01-01

102

Antibody responses against Em18 and Em16 serodiagnostic markers in alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients from northwest China.  

PubMed

Western blot analysis was carried out in order to evaluate new serodiagnostic markers, Em18 and Em16, for differentiation of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) from cystic echinococcosis (CE) using 36 serum samples from hydatid patients from Xinjiang, China, where AE and CE are both endemic and one double infection case has been reported. All AE cases except one (5/6) who exhibited a calcified lesion and a single case of double infection showed antibody responses against Em18 and Em16. Some of CE patient sera (6/22) showed antibody response against Em16 except one who showed that against Em18. Analyses of IgG subclass responses against Em18 and Em16 were carried out using all serum samples showing antibody responses against Em18 and/or Em16 (seven CE, five AE, and one AE + CE) and additional samples of three CE and 22 AE from Sichuan, China. IgG4 was the most predominant antibody subclass. Em18 and Em16 were recognized by both IgG4 and IgG1 (in most cases) or by either IgG4 or IgG1 (in minor cases) or by IgG3 (in very rare cases). Neither Em18 nor Em16 was recognized by IgG2 antibodies. The usefulness of Em18 and Em16 as potential new markers for serological differentiation of human AE and CE, respectively, is discussed. PMID:9354966

Ito, A; Wen, H; Craig, P S; Ma, L; Nakao, M; Horii, T; Pang, X L; Okamoto, M; Itoh, M; Osawa, Y; Wang, X G; Liu, Y H

1997-02-01

103

Revisão sistemática sobre obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - O propósito deste estudo foi revisar, de forma sistemática, a literatura nacional sobre a prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade em adolescentes. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed e Bireme, através dos descritores: \\

Rafael Miranda Tassitano; Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório; Pedro C Hallal

104

Naval Electromagnetic (EM) Gun Technology Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Research Advisory Committee was asked in May 2003 to conduct an assessment of the current maturity of electromagnetic (EM) gun technology for the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development & Acquisition). Specifically, the Committee ...

J. Bachkosky D. Katz R. Rumpf W. Weldon

2003-01-01

105

Naval Electromagnetic (EM) Gun Technology Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Research Advisory Committee was asked in May 2003 to conduct an assessment of the current maturity of electromagnetic (EM) gun technology for the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development & Acquisition). Specifically, the Commit...

J. Bachkosky D. Katz R. Rumpf W. Weldon

2004-01-01

106

Evaluation of Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B-Western blots, Em2 plus-ELISA and four other tests for differential serodiagnosis of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and 20 cystic echinococcosis (CE) cases in humans, confirmed clinically or pathologically, were analyzed serologically by Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B subunit (8 kDa)-Western blots (Em18-, Em16-, AgB-WBs) and five other serological tests including commercially available Em2plus-ELISA and IHA. Some serologically doubtful AE cases were rechecked parasitologically or histopathologically. In Em18-WB and Em2plus-ELISA, five and four of

Akira Ito; Liang Ma; Malgorzata Paul; Jerzy Stefaniak; Zbigniew S. Pawlowski

1998-01-01

107

EMS adaptation for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

2010-12-01

108

de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos de energia elétrica em equipamentos utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte utilizados em galpão de frangos de corte  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 FCAV\\/UNESP. Fone: (16) 3209-2637 3 FCAV\\/UNESP. Fone: (16) 3209-2654 Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Resumo: Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar o consumo e o custo da energia elétrica em um galpão comercial de frangos de corte, durante dois ciclos de criação, inverno e verão. Foram realizadas medidas de consumo dos ventiladores, nebulizadores, lâmpadas e comedouros durante o manejo de

José E. P. Turco; Luiz F. S. A. Ferreira; Renato L. Furlan

109

Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS) Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These videos introduce middle- and high school-age learners to the electromagnetic spectrum. The product consists of 8 animations including an introduction to electromagnetic waves and one animation for each wavelength of the EM spectrum (Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Each wavelength of the EM spectrum offers a construct to illustrate and teach about NASA sensors, missions, and science. Emphasis is placed on relevant science, such as lunar exploration, and hot science topics, such as climate change. The examples and narrative for each wavelength animation build on the learnersâ prior knowledge then introduces examples from NASA missions. These examples explore the use of spectral analysis and visualizations that help scientists make discoveries about the world around us using EM waves.

Benesch, Troy

2009-01-01

110

SEU/SET Tolerant Phase-Locked Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phase-locked loop (PLL) is an old and widely used circuit for frequency and phase demodulation, carrier and clock recovery, and frequency synthesis [1]. Its implementations range from discrete components to fully integrated circuits and even to firmware or software. Often the PLL is a highly critical component of a system, as for example when it is used to derive the on-chip clock, but as of this writing no definitive single-event upset (SET)/single-event transient (SET) tolerant PLL circuit has been described. This chapter hopes to rectify that situation, at least in regard to PLLs that are used to generate clocks. Older literature on fault-tolerant PLLs deals with detection of a hard failure, which is recovered by replacement, repair, or manual restart of discrete component systems. Several patents exist along these lines (6349391, 6272647, and 7089442). A newer approach is to harden the parts of a PLL system, to one degree or another, such as by using a voltage-based charge pump or a triple modular redundant (TMR) voted voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). A more comprehensive approach is to harden by triplication and voting (TMR) all the digital pieces (primarily the divider) of a frequency synthesis PLL, but this still leaves room for errors in the VCO and the loop filter. Instead of hardening or voting pieces of a system, such as a frequency synthesis system (i.e., clock multiplier), we will show how the entire system can be voted. There are two main ways of doing this, each with advantages and drawbacks. We will show how each has advantages in certain areas, depending on the lock acquisition and tracking characteristics of the PLL. Because of this dependency on PLL characteristics, we will briefly revisit the theory of PLLs. But first we will describe the characteristics of voters and their correct application, as some literature does not follow the voting procedure that guarantees elimination of errors. Additionally, we will find that voting clocks is a bit trickier than voting data where an infallible clock is assumed. It is our job here to produce (or recover) that assumed infallible clock!

Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

2010-01-01

111

SEU and latch-up results on transputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

IMST805 and IMST225 transputers are being considered for space applications. With a view to predict their in orbit behaviour, their sensitivity to Single Event Phenomena has been evaluated under heavy ions

F. Bezerra; R. Velazco; A. Assoum; D. Benezech

1996-01-01

112

O FREEWARE HOT POTATOES E SEU POTENCIAL COMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to reflect about the production and implementation of interactive exercises created with the Hot Potatoes software in Foreign Language classes. These exercises were applied to High School students at Prieto Martinez State School in Curitiba. The activities were made available on a web site and the students accessed them in the school computer laboratory. The Hot Potatoes

FERRAMENTA DE APRENDIZAGEM; LENY GALLEGO DONDA

2007-01-01

113

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

2009-01-01

114

Methods and circuitry for reconfigurable SEU/SET tolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device is disclosed in one embodiment that has multiple identical sets of programmable functional elements, programmable routing resources, and majority voters that correct errors. The voters accept a mode input for a redundancy mode and a split mode. In the redundancy mode, the programmable functional elements are identical and are programmed identically so the voters produce an output corresponding to the majority of inputs that agree. In a split mode, each voter selects a particular programmable functional element output as the output of the voter. Therefore, in the split mode, the programmable functional elements can perform different functions, operate independently, and/or be connected together to process different parts of the same problem.

Shuler, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

115

A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

2003-08-01

116

Risk Communication Within the EM Program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

Edelson, M.

2003-02-26

117

Synthesis, characterization and adsorption capacities of microporous titanosilicate EMS3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A titanosilicate, named EMS-3, has been synthesized using the organic base TMAOH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) and Na ion, as structure directing agents, under hydrothermal conditions. The XRD pattern of EMS-3 contains sharp and broad reflections typical of a partially disordered structure. EMS-3 has low thermal stability, indeed XRD pattern shows a decreased resolution after thermal treatment at 300°C. An amorphous phase

C. Rizzo; A. Carati; R. Millini; G. Bellussi; W. O. Parker Jr.; S. Zanardi

2006-01-01

118

EM21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge

Andrew P. Fellinger; Michael W. Rinker; Eric J. Berglin; Richard L. Minichan; Micheal R. Poirier; Phillip A. Gauglitz; Bruce A. Martin; Brian K. Hatchell; Eloy Saldivar; O Dennis Mullen; Noel F. Chapman; Beric E. Wells; Peter W. Gibbons

2009-01-01

119

EMS response to an airliner crash.  

PubMed

This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained. PMID:22853919

Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

2012-06-01

120

Áreas de Risco em Manaus: Inventário preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho pautou-se em mapear as ocorrências registradas pela Defesa Civil Municipal (SEMDEC), nos anos de 2005 a 2008, com a finalidade de identificar as áreas mais afetadas por eventos adversos (alagação e deslizamento). Para tanto, foram utilizadas a base cartográfica Google Earth e QGIS. Uma das principais dificuldades foi a localização precisa dos eventos, pois as bases cartográficas

Denise Rodrigues Cruz; Karla R. Mendes Cassiano; Reinaldo Corrêa Costa

2009-01-01

121

ESPÉCIES DO GÊNERO Eimeria (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) EM TAMANDUÁS-BANDEIRA (Myrmecophaga tridactyla LINNAEUS, 1758) EM CATIVEIRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT:- FREITAS, F.L. DA C.; ALMEIDA, K. DE S.; ZANETTI, A.S.; NASCIMENTO, A.A. DO; MACHADO, C. R.; MACHADO, R.Z. (Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity). Espécies do gênero Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) em Tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) em cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1, p.

FAGNER LUIZ DA C. FREITAS; ANDRÉ S. ZANETTI; CÉLIO R. MACHADO; ROSANGELA Z. MACHADO

122

Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

1992-01-01

123

The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel

2012-01-01

124

Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes  

SciTech Connect

The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

1996-07-01

125

Simplex EMS users knock company's service support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplex Tape Recorder Co. is not responding fast enough to please some of its energy management system (EMS) users who need service or new parts. The users complain that Simplex load-shedding, time-of-day control, and duty-cycling functions do not compare with the quality of its security and fire functions. Company spokesmen claim that service and parts are available on a 24-hour

Cohn

1982-01-01

126

Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

2003-08-01

127

TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 Call, and accepted for further\\u000a studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds\\u000a tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini–Huygens\\u000a mission. These

A. Coustenis; S. K. Atreya; T. Balint; R. H. Brown; M. K. Dougherty; F. Ferri; M. Fulchignoni; D. Gautier; R. A. Gowen; C. A. Griffith; L. I. Gurvits; R. Jaumann; Y. Langevin; M. R. Leese; J. I. Lunine; C. P. McKay; X. Moussas; I. Müller-Wodarg; F. Neubauer; T. C. Owen; F. Raulin; E. C. Sittler; F. Sohl; C. Sotin; G. Tobie; T. Tokano; E. P. Turtle; J.-E. Wahlund; J. H. Waite; K. H. Baines; J. Blamont; A. J. Coates; I. Dandouras; T. Krimigis; E. Lellouch; R. D. Lorenz; A. Morse; C. C. Porco; M. Hirtzig; J. Saur; T. Spilker; J. C. Zarnecki; E. Choi; N. Achilleos; R. Amils; P. Annan; D. H. Atkinson; Y. Bénilan; C. Bertucci; B. Bézard; G. L. Bjoraker; M. Blanc; L. Boireau; J. Bouman; M. T. Capria; E. Chassefière; P. Coll; M. Combes; J. F. Cooper; A. Coradini; F. Crary; T. Cravens; I. A. Daglis; E. de Angelis; C. de Bergh; I. de Pater; C. Dunford; G. Durry; O. Dutuit; D. Fairbrother; F. M. Flasar; A. D. Fortes; R. Frampton; M. Fujimoto; M. Galand; O. Grasset; M. Grott; T. Haltigin; A. Herique; F. Hersant; H. Hussmann; W. Ip; R. Johnson; E. Kallio; S. Kempf; M. Knapmeyer; W. Kofman; R. Koop; T. Kostiuk; N. Krupp; M. Küppers; H. Lammer; L.-M. Lara; P. Lavvas; S. Le Mouélic; S. Lebonnois; S. Ledvina; J. Li; T. A. Livengood; R. M. Lopes; J.-J. Lopez-Moreno; D. Luz; P. R. Mahaffy; U. Mall; J. Martinez-Frias; B. Marty; T. McCord; C. Menor Salvan; A. Milillo; D. G. Mitchell; R. Modolo; O. Mousis; M. Nakamura; C. D. Neish; C. A. Nixon; D. Nna Mvondo; G. Orton; M. Paetzold; J. Pitman; S. Pogrebenko; W. Pollard; O. Prieto-Ballesteros; P. Rannou; K. Reh; L. Richter; F. T. Robb; R. Rodrigo; S. Rodriguez; P. Romani; M. Ruiz Bermejo; E. T. Sarris; P. Schenk; B. Schmitt; N. Schmitz; D. Schulze-Makuch; K. Schwingenschuh; A. Selig; B. Sicardy; L. Soderblom; L. J. Spilker; D. Stam; A. Steele; K. Stephan; D. F. Strobel; K. Szego; C. Szopa; R. Thissen; M. G. Tomasko; D. Toublanc; H. Vali; I. Vardavas; V. Vuitton; R. A. West; R. Yelle; E. F. Young

2009-01-01

128

TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M. R.; Lunine, J. I.; McKay, C. P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E. C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P.; Wahlund, J. -E.; Waite, J. H.; Baines, K. H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D. H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I. A.; de Angelis, E.; de Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F. M.; Fortes, A. D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L. -M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic, S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C. M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C. D.; Nixon, C. A.; Mvondo, D. N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F. T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M. R.; Sarris, E. T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L. J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D. F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

2009-01-01

129

Em18 and Em16, new serologic marker epitopes for alveolar echinococcosis in western blot analysis, are the only two epitopes recognized by commercially available weak positive (cut off) sera for Em2plus-ELISA.  

PubMed

The assay system for antibody responses against Em2, the most specific antigen for serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), has been established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) but not by Western blot assay, since Em2 antigen is not protein but carbohydrate in nature. Recently we reported that previously undescribed protein epitopes, designated Em18 and Em16 due to their molecular weights, were good serologic markers for AE by Western blot analysis. It has been shown that Em18 and Em16 are the only two epitopes recognized by commercially available weak positive (cut off) sera for the Em2plus-ELISA. PMID:8583132

Ito, A; Osawa, Y; Nakao, M; Horii, T; Okamoto, M; Itoh, M; Yamashita, T

1995-12-01

130

Modelling of patient EMS exposure: translating pharmacokinetics of EMS in vitro and in animals into patients.  

PubMed

In order to support the toxicological risk assessment for the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) exposure of patients ingesting contaminated Viracept tablets (Müller and Singer, 2009), there was a need to correlate the effects observed in in vivo genotoxicity studies with mice to EMS exposure and to estimate human exposure to EMS at the level of contamination of Viracept tablets. The species differences in volume of distribution of EMS, a key factor for determination of its C(max), were small in the species investigated (mouse, rat, monkey), the species differences in clearance, the key factor involved in AUC assessment, were large (Lavé et al., 2009). Because of this uncertainty in extrapolation of clearance across species we used a conservative approach for human exposure predictions in terms of AUC where clearance was assumed to solely reflect the chemical stability of EMS neglecting additional clearance pathways such as metabolism and exhalation. This approach was compared to the estimates obtained from allometric scaling based on rat clearance, the species leading to the lowest clearance predicted in man. We found that both approaches led to nearly identical predictions of the human AUC. Thus, we predict a human AUC of 13 microM h for patients ingesting the most contaminated Viracept tablets, corresponding to a maximal daily intake of 0.055 mg/kg of EMS. The C(max) of EMS in these patients is predicted to be 0.85 microM. In order to provide a basis for toxicological risk assessment, these maximal human AUC and C(max) values are to be compared to the AUC and C(max) values in mice at the EMS dose of 25mg/kg which was found to be the threshold dose for induction of mutagenic effects, i.e. the dose at which no mutagenic effects were observed (Gocke et al., 2009-a). We calculate AUC and C(max) in mice at the threshold dose to be 350 microM h and 315 microM, respectively. Thus we conclude that a large safety factor can be deduced, whatever the basis of comparison, as is discussed in detail by Müller et al. (2009). PMID:19695316

Lavé, Thierry; Paehler, Axel; Grimm, Hans Peter; Gocke, Elmar; Müller, Lutz

2009-11-12

131

Blind subspace-based channel estimation using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an application of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to the problem of blind estimation of single-input multiple-output (SIMO), finite-impulse-response (FIR) channels. We first assume Gaussian input to formulate an EM-based estimation of the signal subspace of the output covariance matrix. This Gaussian assumption allows us to utilize knowledge from EM-based probabilistic principle component analysis (P-PCA). Next, we show that

Koji Harada; Hideaki Sakai

2009-01-01

132

A New Semi-Supervised EM Algorithm for Image Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main tasks in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is to reduce the gap between low-level visual features and high-level human concepts. This paper presents a new semi-supervised EM algorithm (NSS-EM), where the image distribution in feature space is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian densities. Due to the statistical mechanism of accumulating and process-ing meta knowledge, the NSS-EM

Anlei Dong; Bir Bhanu

2003-01-01

133

Immunoblot evaluation of the species-specificity of Em18 and Em16 antigens for serodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunoblot study to confirm the species-specificity of the diagnostic antigens Em18 and Em16 of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex extract showed that both antigens cross-reacted with sera from cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients. The 18 kDa component was detectable by 75% of the sera from active alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patients, while only 31% detected Em16. Western blot analysis also showed that AE

Niroshini Nirmalan; Philip S. Craig

1997-01-01

134

Best Practices for Protecting EMS Responders during Treatment and Transport of Victims of Hazardous Substance Releases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OSHA has developed a guide for emergency medical service (EMS) responders who provide medical assistance release. This guide is intended for employers of EMS responders and discusses the measures these employers need to take to protect their EMS responder...

2009-01-01

135

Doenças cerebrovasculares em pacientes entre 15 e 40 anos: achados neuropatológicos em 47 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - As doenças cerebrovasculares em pacientes entre 15 e 40 anos são pouco estudadas na literatura latino americana, principalmente no que tange aos achados neuropatológicos. Analisamos 47 encéfalos provenientes de necrópsias completas realizadas no período de 1987 a 1997 selecionados com base na faixa etária e alteração neuropatológica básica envolvendo fenômenos vasculares. Destes 47 casos analisados, 26 eram (55,3%)

Everton M. Maggio; Mário R. Montemór-Netto; Emerson L. Gasparetto; Jorge S. Reis-Filho; Fábio A. Tironi; Luiz F. Bleggi Torres

2001-01-01

136

Via de parto em gestações sucessivas em adolescentes: estudo de 714 casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: analisar a associação da via de partos consecutivos de 714 gestantes adolescentes, que pariram na Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001. Pacientes e Métodos: em estudo prospectivo, analítico, transversal, tipo incidência, foi analisada a sucessão das vias de parto da primeira até a quarta gestação de 714

Vamberto Oliveira de Azevedo Maia; Alessandra Costa de Azevedo Maia; Fábio Lima Queiroga; Vamberto Oliveira de Azevedo Maia Filho; Aline Brandão de Araújo; Luís André Marinho Lippo; Rivaldo Mendes de Albuquerque

2004-01-01

137

Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS activities through VPP geographic units. In summary, the ISMS and VPP process at the INEEL provided the basic framework of management support and worker involvement to implement our EMS. A cross-functional communication team was established to facilitate the implementation with great success. Communication has been an effective tool for implementing an ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL.

Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

2004-04-01

138

EM threat analysis for wireless systems.  

SciTech Connect

Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

2006-06-01

139

10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved  

10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

2014-01-01

140

Stochastic EM-based TFBS motif discovery with MITSU  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to the problem of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motif discovery and underlies the most widely used motif discovery algorithms. In the wider field of probabilistic modelling, the stochastic EM (sEM) algorithm has been used to overcome some of the limitations of the EM algorithm; however, the application of sEM to motif discovery has not been fully explored. Results: We present MITSU (Motif discovery by ITerative Sampling and Updating), a novel algorithm for motif discovery, which combines sEM with an improved approximation to the likelihood function, which is unconstrained with regard to the distribution of motif occurrences within the input dataset. The algorithm is evaluated quantitatively on realistic synthetic data and several collections of characterized prokaryotic TFBS motifs and shown to outperform EM and an alternative sEM-based algorithm, particularly in terms of site-level positive predictive value. Availability and implementation: Java executable available for download at http://www.sourceforge.net/p/mitsu-motif/, supported on Linux/OS X. Contact: a.m.kilpatrick@sms.ed.ac.uk

Kilpatrick, Alastair M.; Ward, Bruce; Aitken, Stuart

2014-01-01

141

Tactical EMS: An emerging opportunity in graduate medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Modification of traditional emergency medical services (EMS) principles and procedures for use in the tactical law enforcement setting is emerging as a subspecialty of emergency medicine. Few opportunities exist to train physicians in the principles of tactical medicine, and no studies demonstrate the effectiveness of physician-level training in tactical EMS. Methods: A standardized eight-hour CONTOMS (Counter Terrorism Operations Medical

William P. Bozeman; Edward R. Eastman

2002-01-01

142

Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm for Gaussian Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expectation-Maximization(EM) algorithm and gradient-based approaches for maximum likelihood learning of finite Gaussian mixtures. We show that the EM step in parameter space is obtained from the gradient via a projection matrix $P$, and we provide an expl...

M. Jordan L. Xu

1995-01-01

143

Quality Improvement in EMS: A Unique and Challenging Necessity.  

PubMed

Quality Improvement (QI) is required in all aspects of the healthcare field. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) poses unique QI challenges. This article explores some of these challenges and provides some points to consider when performing QI in EMS services. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-08.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25083952

Tsai, Devin; Choi, Bryan; Sullivan, Francis; Williams, Kenneth A

2014-01-01

144

PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF MEMS FOR ELECTRO MAGNETIC (EM) DEVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent year's electromagnetic (EM) devices are used more frequently in a network by military as well as civilian applications for communications, navigation, sensing and data storage. This trend leads to an increasing use of EM devices which may result in a complex operation in the future. It creates electronic warfare and disturbances. This process can be prevented by imposing a

Himanshu Shekhar; J. Sam; Jeba Kumar; Joselin Retna Kumar

2009-01-01

145

THE DOE EM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM VISION - AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is in an era of shrinking budgets and increasing scrutiny of the budget that is provided. This is occurring at a time when EM has established a new, aggressive approach to environmental restoration and disposition of legacy waste inventory. This approach, as outlined in the guidance for the Accelerating Cleanup:

J. Walker USDOE

146

As implicações do trabalho em cooperativas de trabalhadores rurais  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperativa de trabalho é um meio pelo qual os trabalhadores rurais se organizam e gerenciam suas forças com maior poder de barganha no mercado, para alcançar melhores condições de trabalho, particularmente em situações em que se encontram desprovidos total ou parcialmente de direitos trabalhistas. Enquanto trabalhadores autônomos, por meio da assistência social da cooperativa, os associados podem melhor adequar

Geraldo Magela Braga; Leonardo Pinheiro Deboçã; José Mauro Ferraz Andrade; Rosiane Maria Lima Gonçalves

2007-01-01

147

Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Antibioticoterapia em Crianças com Pneumonia Therapy with Antibiotics in Childhood Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumonia é responsável por elevadas taxas de hospitalização e óbito na faixa etária pediátrica, especialmente em crianças menores de cinco anos. Um grande número de microorganismos pode causar pneumonia na infância; no entanto, há nítido predomínio dos agentes bacterianos, principalmente do Streptococcus pneumoniae, entre os casos fatais. A terapia antimicrobiana é, portanto, um importante meio de controle da mortalidade por

Adriana O. Rocha; Delano S. Valois; Jovita S. Araújo; Lívia M. B. Mendes; Lucas C. S. Oliveira; N. Alcântara

2007-01-01

148

Comparação do desempenho de pré-escolares, mediante teste de desenvolvimento de Denver, antes e após intervenção nutricional  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO — A análise de performance psicomotora de crianças institucionalizadas é de fundamental importância no planejamento de atividades edu- cativas. Estudos anteriores têm mostrado prejuízos desta função em crianças de creches. OBJETIVO. Comparar o desempenho no teste de triagem de Denver em crianças de 2 a 6 anos de idade, de creches conveniadas com a Prefeitura de São Paulo, antes

M. Fisberg; M. R. Pedromônico; J. A. P. Braga; A. M. A. Ferreira; C. Pini; S. C. C. Campos; S. O. Lemes; S. Silva; R. S. Silva; T. M. Andrade

1997-01-01

149

The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

2009-12-01

150

Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems  

SciTech Connect

In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1998-07-01

151

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-12-01

152

Evaluation of Fracture Azimuth by EM Wave and Elastic Wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fracture system plays an important role in the development of underground energy, for example enhanced geothermal system (EGS), oil shale and shale gas, etc. Therefore, it becomes more and more important to detect and evaluate the fracture system. Geophysical prospecting is an useful method to evaluate the characteristics of the subsurface fractures. Currently, micro-seismology, multi-wave seismic exploration, and electromagnetic (EM) survey are reported to be used for the purpose. We are studying a method using both elastic wave and EM wave to detect and evaluate the fracture azimuth in laboratory. First, we build a 3D horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI) model, shown in the figure 1, by dry parallel fractures system, which was constructed by plexiglass plates and papers. Then, we used the ultrasonic system to obtain reflected S-wave data. Depending on the shear wave splitting, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the algorithm of Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, we used the full Polarimetric ultra wide band electromagnetic (FP-UWB-EM) wave System, shown in the figure 2, to obtain full polarimetric reflected EM-wave data. Depending on the rotation of the EM wave polarimetry, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the the ration between maximum amplitude of co-polarimetric EM wave and maximum amplitude of cross-polarimetric EM wave. Finally, we used both EM-wave data and S-wave data to evaluate the fracture azimuth by the method of cross plot and statistical mathematics. To sum up, we found that FP-UWB-EM wave can be used to evaluated the fracture azimuth and is more accurate than ultrasound wave. Also joint evaluation using both data could improve the precision.

Feng, X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, C.; Lu, Q.; Zeng, Z.; Liang, W.; Yu, Y.; Ren, Q.

2013-12-01

153

ESTUDO DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL DE ÁREAS VERDES:UMA PROPOSTA DE PLANEJAMENTO E MONITORAMENTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact study must be a methodological instrument to planning and control process environmental of green areas. The boarding of this problematic borne from the observations and reflections on the social relations chains and of interests conflicts that constitutes the society x environment. This work has for goal to discuss and to introduce the methodologies used in environmental impact

Gustavo Henrique de Oliveira

2008-01-01

154

LAN based data communication in modern energy management systems (EMS)  

SciTech Connect

The use of energy management systems (EMS) demands high reliability, real-time behavior and more and more economical systems. The last demand requires use of inexpensive standard components, whenever possible. The following article discusses realization of EMS, especially system communication, with respect to these constraints. Problems due to conventional use of standardized communication protocols in distributed supervisory systems in general and highly-reliable systems in particular are shown. Multicast communication concepts are presented as solutions, using standardized protocols in a problem specific way. The presented concepts fulfill the necessity of using standard components as well as the specific demands towards EMS.

Dieterle, W.; Kochs, H.D. [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science] [Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Computer Science; Dittmar, E. [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)] [ABB Netzleittechnik Gmbh, Ladenburg (Germany)

1996-02-01

155

Application of the Chameleon Model to EM Field Momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chameleon scalar field model proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents an alternative mechanism for circumventing the constraints from local tests of gravity by mediating a fifth force for cosmological expansion, which could result in experimental signatures detectable through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups in the vicinity of oscillating matter. In this paper, the oscillation of a dielectric by a crossed EM field is investigated in light of the Chameleon model. An EM excited Chameleon field-force equation is developed and compared to several EM experiments using the Barium Titanate based dielectric material.

Robertson, Glen A.

2008-01-01

156

EMS control chosen instead of refrigeration, HVAC upgrade  

SciTech Connect

A Wisconsin supermarket decided on the basis of costs to install an energy management system (EMS) to improve the store's energy efficiency rather than invest in new refrigerating equipment at this time. When the next remodeling occurs in two years, the store will purchase new equipment using energy savings from the EMS to help defray the costs. The store selected an EMS with distributed processing that can expand to control new equipment. It expects a 22% drop in energy bills and a two-year payback of the $50,000 investment. Details of the system's functions describe some of the 53 control points.

Watson, F.

1984-05-07

157

Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Síndrome Metabólica em Crianças e Adolescentes Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Síndrome Metabólica caracteriza-se pela associação de fatores de risco cardiovascular, como obesidade, resistência à insulina, dislipidemia e hipertensão arterial. Sua prevalência geral em crianças e adolescentes norte-americanos é de 3-4%, mas atinge 28,7% naqueles com Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC) = percentil 95. Observa-se que os fatores predisponentes à síndrome se manifestam desde a vida intra-uterina. Apesar de bem

Cristhine L. Chagas; Diego G. Figuerôa; Ênio H. Rios; Gérson Carvalho; Gustavo Mascarenhas; Ives D. Barbosa; João M. Braghiroli; João N. Tupiná; Mariana F. Miranda; Naiara A. Fraga; Luis F. Adan

2007-01-01

158

E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

2005-10-03

159

Truncated and constrained helical analogs of antimicrobial esculentin-2EM.  

PubMed

Esculentin-2EM is a 37-residue, cationic, amphipathic, ?-helical antimicrobial peptide isolated from a Korean frog, Glandirama emeljanovi. Many studies revealed that truncation of this peptide results in substantial decreases in its antimicrobial activity. Lee and his colleagues have recently reported that a 23-residue esculentin-2EM analog containing a tryptophanyl substitution at position 16 showed a significant recovery of the antimicrobial activity of the parent peptide. Here we report a new series of 15-residue esculentin-2EM analogs which are constrained into an ?-helical conformation via an oct-4-enyl cross-link. The resulting 'stapled' derivatives displayed remarkable increases not only in antimicrobial activity but also in helical content and protease resistance compared to Lee's original 23-residue esculentin-2EM analog. The preliminary data obtained in this work strongly supports the potential of our strategy for the development of a new class of peptide antibiotics. PMID:24211019

Pham, Thanh Kim; Kim, Do-Hee; Lee, Bong-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo

2013-12-15

160

Structure of Matter, Forces, EM Waves, Spectroscopy, Doppler Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These supplemental class notes cover the basic properties of matter, the nature of forces, the electromagnetic spectrum, and how astronomers exploit the properties of the EM spectrum to deduce the physical nature of distant objects.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

161

Digital C4I Interoperability: The EM Protection Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, a unified protection methodology is applied to a digital mobile C4I platform subjected to several human-generated and nature- generated EM environments and effects. The unclassified values for self-induced electromagnetic interference (EMI)...

R. Pfeffer

2000-01-01

162

Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) System for Grumman Maglev Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low ve...

S. S. Kalsi

1994-01-01

163

E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with Fluka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

G. Battistoni A. Fasso A. Ferrari J. Ranfit A. Rubbia P. R. Sala

2006-01-01

164

NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

Blackburn, Lindy L.

2011-01-01

165

EM clustering analysis of diabetes patients basic diagnosis index.  

PubMed

Cluster analysis can group similar instances into same group and different instances into different groups. It assigns classes to samples without known the classes in advance. EM clustering algorithm can find number of distributions of generating data and build "mixture models". It identifies groups that are either overlapping or varying sizes and shapes. In this project, by using EM in Weka system, diabetes patient basic diagnosis index data have been analyzed for clustering. PMID:16779444

Wu, Cai; Steinbauer, Jeffrey R; Kuo, Grace M

2005-01-01

166

Preliminary Experiment of EM Technology on Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of EM4 on improving the quality of waste water. The experiment was conducted in two locations of candy factory, viz Nestle and Trebor Companies in Jakarta. The EM4 was treated in laboratory condition to the effluent of waste water of non adjusted pH (pH 4.0) and adjusted pH (pH 7.44)

Gede Ngurah Wididana

167

An LTCC design technique based on FDTD EM simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described the Low Technology Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) design methodology at TMRND based on FDTD EM simulations that are required when designing the RF\\/microwave circuit. In this paper, 3D EM analysis and optimization with Finite Different Time Domain (FDTD) software Empire XcCeltrade from IMST was applied to achieve accurate modeling of the RF\\/microwave circuit using LTCC technology. A multilayer

Zulkifli Ambak; Rosidah Alias; Azmi Ibrahim; Sabrina Mohd Shapee; Samsiah Ahmad; Mohamed Razman Yahya; A. Mat

2007-01-01

168

Elevated ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept®, Roche): overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roche's protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept®) produced between March 2007-June 2007 was found to contain elevated levels of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a known mutagen (alkylator) – leading to a global recall of the drug. EMS levels in a daily dose (2,500 mg Viracept\\/day) were predicted not to exceed a dose of ~2.75 mg\\/day (~0.055 mg\\/kg\\/day based on 50 kg patient).

Anton Pozniak; Lutz Müller; Miklos Salgo; Judith K Jones; Peter Larson; David Tweats

2009-01-01

169

Electromagnetic divergence correction for 3D anisotropic EM modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now, the application of divergence correction has been focusing on the electromagnetic (EM) isotropic modeling. However, in regions where the earth demonstrates strong electrical anisotropy due to lamina or faults saturated with water, the traditional divergence corrections may not be working for EM modeling. In this paper, based on the divergence-free property of the current density, we propose a divergence correction technique to speed up the EM modeling process for a 3D arbitrarily anisotropic earth. The volume current density weighting method is adopted for the discretization of divergence correction, so it can be applied to non-uniform grid model. By enforcing the constraints associated with the divergence-free property, the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) iterations and the total computational time for the EM modeling are largely reduced. Furthermore, we discuss how to divide the QMR process into sections and the influence of the number of iterations and the normalized residual on the solution process. We take a helicopter-borne EM system over a 3D earth with arbitrarily electrical anisotropy as an example to examine the effectiveness of our anisotropic divergence correction technique on the EM modelings.

Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun

2013-09-01

170

Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

2003-08-01

171

Evaluation of Use of Recombinant Em18 and Affinity-Purified Em18 for Serological Differentiation of Alveolar Echinococcosis from Cystic Echinococcosis and Other Parasitic Infections  

PubMed Central

To further evaluate recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) for immunodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis, 208 serum samples were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To comparatively assess the results of rEm18-ELISA, ELISA and immunoblot analysis with two affinity-purified native antigens were also performed with 45 selected serum samples. The results indicate that rEm18 is highly useful for serodiagnosis.

Xiao, Ning; Mamuti, Wulamu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Gottstein, Bruno; Schantz, Peter M.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

2003-01-01

172

Evaluation of Use of Recombinant Em18 and Affinity-Purified Em18 for Serological Differentiation of Alveolar Echinococcosis from Cystic Echinococcosis and Other Parasitic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further evaluate recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) for immunodiagnosis of human alveolar echino- coccosis, 208 serum samples were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To compara- tively assess the results of rEm18-ELISA, ELISA and immunoblot analysis with two affinity-purified native antigens were also performed with 45 selected serum samples. The results indicate that rEm18 is highly useful for serodiagnosis.

Ning Xiao; Wulamu Mamuti; Hiroshi Yamasaki; Yasuhito Sako; Minoru Nakao; Kazuhiro Nakaya; Bruno Gottstein; Peter M. Schantz; Marshall W. Lightowlers; Philip S. Craig; Akira Ito

2003-01-01

173

Immunoblot evaluation of the species-specificity of Em18 and Em16 antigens for serodiagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis.  

PubMed

An immunoblot study to confirm the species-specificity of the diagnostic antigens Em18 and Em16 of Echinococcus multilocularis protoscolex extract showed that both antigens cross-reacted with sera from cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients. The 18 kDa component was detectable by 75% of the sera from active alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patients, while only 31% detected Em16. Western blot analysis also showed that AE sera recognized a band in the 18 kDa region of E. granulosus protoscolex extract, which was different from the 16/17 kDa subunit of antigen B. The results suggested that Em18 antigen is present in E. granulosus as well as E. multilocularis, and that some CE patients may have serum antibody against this antigen. PMID:9373662

Nirmalan, N; Craig, P S

1997-01-01

174

A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

175

EM Task 9 - Centrifugal Membrane Filtration  

SciTech Connect

This project is designed to establish the utility of a novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology for the remediation of liquid mixed waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in support of the DOE Environmental Management (EM) program. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., a small business and owner of the novel centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to establish the applicability of the technology to DOE site remediation and the commercial viability of the technology for liquid mixed waste stream remediation. The technology is a uniquely configured process that makes use of ultrafiltration and centrifugal force to separate suspended and dissolved solids from liquid waste streams, producing a filtered water stream and a low-volume contaminated concentrate stream. This technology has the potential for effective and efficient waste volume minimization, the treatment of liquid tank wastes, the remediation of contaminated groundwater plumes, and the treatment of secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, as well as the liquid waste stream generated during decontamination and decommissioning activities.

Stevens, B.G.; Stepan, D.J.; Hetland, M.D.

1998-11-01

176

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

1998-12-31

177

Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

Shively, R. Jay

1993-01-01

178

Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective. To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods. Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May-August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results. 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7-98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7-100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6-99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7-92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1-36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions. Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

McMullan, Jason T; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

2014-01-01

179

Thermal Insulation Performance Test with an EM Shielding MLI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a thermal insulation performance test with an EM (electromagnetic) shielding MLI (multi-layer insulator) and have compared its performances with a conventional MLI thermal insulation. The test was done in a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen temperature shroud. The temperatures at various locations in the MLI were measured to obtain their effective emittances. The EM shielding provides an additional layer of copper fabric as an EM shielding layer, inserted in between conventional MLI layers to enhance EM shielding. The shielding MLI will be used for a lunar radar sounder to protect it from noise emitted by other instruments on board of the spacecraft in the SELENE mission, which is a collaboration mission between ISAS and NASDA. The lunar radar sounder has wide-band and highly sensitive radio wave receivers to detect weak signals in a ``noiseless'' environment on the far side of the moon. The desired signals are extremely weak, especially in the range between 1 MHz and 30 MHz. The EM shielding MLI was also tested and confirmed that its shielding effect was desirable in the specified range.

Iida, T.; Iijima, Y.; Nakazawa, S.

2004-06-01

180

International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

2011-01-01

181

EMS Stretcher "Misadventures" in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries  

PubMed Central

Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events.

Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

2012-01-01

182

Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

2003-08-01

183

Influence of PCB and Attached Line of Hardware on Electromagnetic (EM) Information Leakage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) radiation from information hardware under normal operating conditions can compromise secret information (EM information leakage), for example, operations or processed data contained in the hardware. Methods for analyzing EM radiation with the intention of extracting secret information have been proposed, and EM side-channel attacks on cryptographic hardware are a major concern. This paper investigates how EM information leakage changes with the configuration of information hardware, focusing on the frequency characteristics of the hardware. We assume that frequency characteristics of the EM radiation correspond to physical aspects of the hardware configuration. To address the issue of information leakage, this paper presents a novel analysis of EM radiation from information hardware by using a model circuit board. Through this model we show that the intensity of EM emission can be related to the layout of the hardware.

Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Ohmura, Kouhei; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sone, Hideaki

184

Analytical Prediction of EM Scattering by Complex Obstacles Within Electrically Large Open Cavities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this paper is to describe an analytical technique for predicting the electromagnetic(EM) scattering by complex obstacles within electrically large open waveguide cavities. This topic is of relevance to EM scattering and EMC type applications...

P. H. Pathak

1991-01-01

185

How to migrate a proprietary EMS into an open system  

SciTech Connect

Energy Management Software (EMS) is a proprietary third party product and hence cannot be easily installed. One driving force behind every user`s effort to migrate is the significant need to get away from proprietary systems, including proprietary protocols. Manufacturing message specification (MMS) is an internationally standardized messaging system for exchanging real-time data and supervisory control information between networked devices and/or computer applications. It is independent of the application function being performed and the developer of the device or the application. This paper describes several utility company`s efforts in migrating to MMS-based EMS systems. 4 figs.

Tweedy, J.; McGinnis, D.; Hird, R.; Carr, D.

1996-02-01

186

Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

Barber, J.

1982-05-24

187

Noninvasive monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites using airborne EM technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usage of conventional airborne EM methods for studies related to CO2 sequestration reservoirs have been restricted up to date due to depth and system noise limitations. Recently a family of new EM systems was developed and launched in Canada, allowing superior depth of investigation to that of the conventional EM systems. Depending on the resistivity of the area such systems

V. Kaminski; W. P. Harbert; J. M. Legault

2009-01-01

188

Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. The total number of flight line was 4580 km, and the explored surface was in excess of 2000 km2. After acquisition, data were processed to eliminate coupling with infrastructures, and noise. Inversions was then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion. The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-resistive units, then modeled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modeling was also the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which may possibly represent hydrogeological or hydrothermal bodies. The litho-resitive 3D model is now under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image thermal conductivity variations at depth.

Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

2012-12-01

189

An On-Line EM Algorithm Applied to Kernel PCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernel principal component analysis (Pca) is a recent method for non-linear feature extraction. Applying kernel Pca to a data set with N patterns requires storing and nding the eigenvectors of a N N kernel matrix. This paper describes how an Expectation-Maximization (Em) algorithm for standard Pca can be adapted to kernel Pca without having to store the kernel matrix. Experimental

Perry Moerland

2000-01-01

190

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicopter EMS for Trauma Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of helicopter EMS for trauma patients. Methods: We applied a cost-effectiveness analysis from the service provider's perspective to cost and effectiveness estimates. The cost estimates comprise direct operating costs and additional survivors' hospital costs. The effectiveness estimates were calculated with the TRISS methodology from literature sources and data from a cohort of patients transported

Peter A Gearhart; Richard Wuerz; A. Russell Localio

1997-01-01

191

Communications technology guidelines for EMS\\/SCADA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Guideline Technical Paper is to provide a summary of the different communications technologies available for use or application with EMS\\/SCADA system projects. All of the various communication media are addressed with a brief description along with tables of the advantages and disadvantages of each and recommendations for choosing the most appropriate communication technology. The technologies discussed

Donald J. Marihart

2001-01-01

192

Reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring with crosshole EM  

SciTech Connect

Crosshole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 m. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile using the LLNL frequency domain crosshole EM system. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then 6 and 12 months later to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the EM data before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images, from data collected before and after steam flooding, show resistivity changes that indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands although steam injection occurred in all three sand layers.

Wilt, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Torres-Verdin, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-06-01

193

Sobre as bases dos procedimentos investigativos em psicanálise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo O presente trabalho examina as bases da pesquisa psicanalítica. Parte das marcas deixadas nas investigações psicanalíticas pelos procedimentos científicos de disciplinas como a neurologia e a neurofisiologia no século XIX. Em seguida, acompanha o surgimento de um novo objeto, o sujeito do inconsciente, o qual, ainda que requeira operações que mantenham o rigor e a precisão característicos do pensamento

Anna Carolina; Lo Bianco

194

A connection between half-quadratic criteria and EM algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares (IRLS) and Residual Steepest descent (RSD) algorithms of robust statistics arise as special cases of half-quadratic schemes . Here, we adopt a statistical framework and we show that both algorithms are instances of the EM algorithm. The augmented dataset respectively involves a scale and a location mixture of Gaussians. The sufficient conditions for the construction cover

Frédéric Champagnat; Jérôme Idier

2004-01-01

195

Germinação de Sementes de Forrageiras em Diferentes Profundidades de Semeadura  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Aluno de graduação em Agronomia - UNIFENAS Abstract: The experiment was conducted at José do Rosário Vellano University - UNIFENAS, in Alfenas, MG, with the purpose of evaluating the germination of forage seeds at different sowing depths. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replicates, four forages plants and four sowing depths being utilized, amounting to 20

Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Geraldo Benedito de Souza Almeida; Paulo Roberto; Correa Landgraf; Gustavo Augusto Andrade; Paulo de Figueiredo Vieira

196

Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression

H. Sigurdsson; S. N. Carey; D. Wilson

2005-01-01

197

Transparent EMI Shielding for EM Windows and Domes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shielding from electromagnetic interference (EMI) can be provided for EM windows and domes by application of a thin transparent conductive coating. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings 0.8 microns thick can be reactively sputtered onto many materials such as g...

W. T. Pawlewicz G. L. Brown R. H. Sobieske D. L. Jones B. L. Woodham

1983-01-01

198

Síndrome da cabeça caída em doença do neurônio motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A síndrome da cabeça caída é causada por diminuição de força nos músculos extensores do pescoço sendo encontrada em diversas doenças neuro m u s c u l a res, bem como, na esclerose lateral amiotrófica. D e s c revemos o caso de três mulheres com diagnóstico de doença do neurônio motor com quadro clínico de disfagia

Paulo José Lorenzoni; Marcos Christiano Lange; Cláudia S. K. Kay; Luiz G. M. P. de Almeida; Hélio A. G. Teive; Rosana H. Scola; Lineu C. Werneck

2006-01-01

199

ML\\/EM Reconstruction Algorithm for Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform non-destructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In this paper we present a Maximum Likelihood \\/ Expectation Maximization (ML\\/EM) tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed

Larry Schultz; Gary Blanpied; Konstantin Borozdin; Andrew Fraser; Alexei Klimenko; Nicholas Hengartner; Chris Morris; Christopher Orum; Michael Sossong

2006-01-01

200

A Generalized Partial Credit Model: Application of an EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial credit model (PCM) with a varying slope parameter is developed and called the generalized partial credit model (GPCM). The item step parameter of this model is decomposed to a location and a threshold parameter, following Andrich's (1978) rating scale formulation. The EM algorithm for estimating the model parameters is derived. The performance of this generalized model is compared

Eiji Muraki

1992-01-01

201

Modified Helical Method for Determining e\\/m  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the helical method a cathode-ray tube is inserted in a solenoid and e\\/m determined from the condition for focusing deflected electrons to a spot on the screen. This has been modified by substituting alternating current in the solenoid and simultaneously supplying a voltage to the deflection plates proportional to the solenoid current. As a result, all electrons move in

Bernard L. Miller

1959-01-01

202

Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

2012-01-01

203

Alterações hepáticas em roedores com cisticercos de Taenia taeniformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A Taenia taeniformis é um parasito gastrointestinal, pertencente à classe Cestoda, ordem Cyclophilidea e família Taenidae. Este parasito, infecta roedores e felinos principalmente, embora em circunstância s anormais possa parasitar seres humanos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar alterações nas enzimas hepáticas decorrentes de um surto por cisticercos de Taenia taeniformis no fígado de roedores. Ratos (Rattus norvergicus) e

Aleksandro S. SILVA; Patrícia WOLKMER; Carolina K. TRAESEL

204

Factors associated with the safety of EMS helicopters.  

PubMed

The accident rate for emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters is thought to be approximately twice the rate for other commercial (Part 135) helicopters. This observation has led to numerous news reports and to the publication of conclusions of a National Transportation Safety Board investigation. The data for these reports come from investigations of EMS helicopter accidents and incidents. The authors surveyed all listed civilian EMS helicopter programs to examine both helicopter ambulance mishaps and the number of safely completed missions. Epidemiological methods were then used to compare the safety records of different groups of EMS helicopters. The single most important factor identified was the number of flights made by the program during the study period: busy programs had an eightfold lower accident rate (P less than .0005) and a three-fold lower total mishap (accidents + incidents) rate (P less than .0005) than less active programs. Programs with the ability to fly under instrument flight rules (IFR) at the pilots discretion had no mishaps (P = .044) during the study period. Multivariate analysis shows this IFR capability to be marginally significant as an independent factor (P = .099). PMID:1994933

Low, R B; Dunne, M J; Blumen, I J; Tagney, G

1991-03-01

205

DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL E SOJICULTURA EM RORAIMA: TRAJETÓRIAS ANTAGÔNICAS OU CONCILIÁVEIS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quando há o entendimento de que crescimento e desenvolvimento são sinônimos, tende-se a prezar uma dimensão do desenvolvimento em detrimento das outras, o que acaba por prejudicar a população por meio de carências nas condições de vida e destruição do meio ambiente principalmente. O ideal do desenvolvimento sustentável surge na tentativa de harmonizar crescimento econômico, igualdade social e preservação ambiental.

Luciana Dal Gianluppi; Paulo Dabdab Waquil

2008-01-01

206

A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

2013-02-01

207

Modelo Conceitual de Segurança para uma Arquitetura Multidomínio em Telemedicina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A comunicação e a troca de informações de maneira rápida e segura entre centros hospitalares geograficamente distribuídos tornam-se cada vez mais importantes em um cenário de telemedicina. Nesse contexto, pode-se compartilhar informações clínicas sensíveis, como a história do paciente, a fim de se ob- ter maior qualidade e precisão no atendimento ao paciente, com custos relativos menores. Este

João F. M. Figueiredo; Eduardo P. Serafim; Walber J. A. Silva; Diego S. A. Pizzol; Gustavo H. M. B. Motta

208

Vision: EM-erging Motion-Detecting Circuits.  

PubMed

How does the brain compare visual inputs over space and time to extract motion? Electron microscopic (EM) and molecular analyses reveal a new circuit architecture for motion processing in Drosophila. An offset in the weighting of synaptic connections and differential use of fast and slow nicotinic receptors suggests a mechanism that can implement spatiotemporal comparisons. PMID:24845666

Silies, Marion; Clandinin, Thomas R

2014-05-19

209

Effective Teaching of Photonics E&M Theory Using COMSOL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photonics and optical communications, after the exuberant growth and subsequent down turn in late 1990s and early 2000s, have entered a more mature and stable growth phase. As the technology of choice for long distance, high data rate, and high performance communication systems underlying the now ubiquitous Internet communications, photonics and optical communication professionals are and will continue to be in high demand. Because electromagnetic (E&M) theory is the foundation of photonics and optical communications, mastery of E&M theory is essential for those electrical engineering (EE) students who want to develop a career in this field. Traditionally, rigorous analytic skills in advanced mathematics especially in subjects such as partial differential equations (PDE) and linear algebra are a must to the understanding and applications of E&M theory, as well as photonic device and waveguide designs. However, as practical designs grow in complexity, even the most sophisticated and advanced analytic techniques in these mathematical subject areas can quickly fall short of being a suitable practical design tool. Standard industry practices utilize comprehensive software simulation packages to address these design needs. It is therefore appropriate and advantageous for EE students to learn and more importantly visualize the E&M theory by combining the basic mathematical principles, e.g., the Maxwell equations and wave equations, with practical software tools that they are more likely to use in their professional life. This paper discusses the introduction of COMSOL, a predominant industry PDE solver, to senior EE undergraduates as a learning tool of fundamental concepts in photonics such as transverse electrical (TE) modes and transverse magnetic (TM) modes in planar waveguide designs. This teaching method improves teaching effectiveness of E&M field and wave theory by helping the students better understand mathematical complexities through this readily available and reliable software tool. In addition to the theory, the students also gain the design capability using these industry standard software packages, and therefore bridging the gap between theory and practice.

2009-10-08

210

EM calibration based on Post OPC layout analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design for Manufacturability (DFM) involves changes to the design and CAD tools to help increase pattern printability and improve process control. Design for Reliability (DFR) performs the same to improve reliability of devices from failures such as Electromigration (EM), gate-oxide break down, hot carrier injection (HCI), Negative Bias Temperature Insatiability (NBTI) and mechanical stress effects. Electromigration (EM) occurs due to migration or displacement of atoms as a result of the movement of electrons through a conducting medium. The rate of migration determines the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) which is modeled as a function of temperature and current density. The model itself is calibrated through failure analysis (FA) of parts that are deemed to have failed due to EM against design parameters such as linewidth. Reliability Verification (RV) of a design involves verifying that every conducting line in a design meets certain MTTF threshold. In order to perform RV, current density for each wire must be computed. Current itself is a function of the parasitics that are determined through RC extraction. The standard practice is to perform the RC extraction and current density calculation on drawn, pre-OPC layouts. If a wire fails to meet threshold for MTTF, it may be resized. Subsequently, mask preparation steps such as OPC and PSM introduce extra features such as SRAFs, jogs,hammerheads and serifs that change their resistance, capacitance and current density values. Hence, calibrating EM model based on pre-OPC layouts will lead to different results compared to post-OPC layouts. In this work, we compare EM model calibration and reliability check based on drawn layout versus predicted layout, where the drawn layout is pre-OPC layout and predicted layout is based on litho simulation of post-OPC layout. Results show significant divergence between these two approaches, making a case for methodology based on predicted layout.

Sreedhar, Aswin; Kundu, Sandip

2010-03-01

211

A Hybrid EM and Monte Carlo EM Algorithm and Its Application to Analysis of Transmission of Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary In epidemics of infectious diseases such as influenza, an individual may have one of four possible final states: prior immune, escaped from infection, infected with symptoms, and infected asymptomatically. The exact state is often not observed. In addition, the unobserved transmission times of asymptomatic infections further complicate analysis. Under the assumption of missing at random, data-augmentation techniques can be used to integrate out such uncertainties. We adapt an importance-sampling-based Monte Carlo EM (MCEM) algorithm to the setting of an infectious disease transmitted in close contact groups. Assuming the independence between close contact groups, we propose a hybrid EM-MCEM algorithm that applies the MCEM or the traditional EM algorithms to each close contact group depending on the dimension of missing data in that group, and discuss the variance estimation for this practice. In addition, we propose a bootstrap approach to assess the total Monte Carlo error and factor that error into the variance estimation. The proposed methods are evaluated using simulation studies. We use the hybrid EM-MCEM algorithm to analyze two influenza epidemics in the late 1970s to assess the effects of age and pre-season antibody levels on the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the viruses.

Yang, Yang; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie

2012-01-01

212

ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps  

PubMed Central

Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods.

de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

2012-01-01

213

Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality  

PubMed Central

This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P?EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P?EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

2013-01-01

214

Erosão em compósitos à base de fibras de vidro\\/kevlar e resina epóxi de uso aeronáutico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo principal o estudo e a análise da eficiência de dois diferentes tipos de recobrimentos usados na proteção contra o processo de desgaste por erosão em substratos fabricados em materiais compósitos poliméricos de uso aeronáutico, dando ênfase às peças fabricadas em fibras de vidro \\/ kevlar impregnadas com resina epóxi. Revestimentos protetores baseados em um

Rogério A. Silva; Mirabel C. Rezende

2003-01-01

215

Avaliação do índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade e desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação criados em sistemas em camas sobrepostas em condições de verão  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Um estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o sistema de criação em camas sobrepostas de maravalha e de casca de arroz, em comparação ao piso tradicional de concreto e sua influência no desempenho dos animais com base no ITGU (Índice de Temperatura de Globo negro e Umidade), no ganho de peso, no consumo de ração, na

Ilda de Fátima Ferreira Tinôco; Cecília de Fátima Souza; Paulo Armando Victoria de Oliveira; Robson Mendes de Paulo; Josiane Aparecida Campos; Cinara da Cunha Siqueira Carvalho; Marcelo Bastos Cordeiro

2007-01-01

216

Lysis in the well-fixed shell: "hold 'em" or "fold 'em".  

PubMed

Periacetabular osteolysis is the greatest challenge for longevity of total hip arthroplasty. The generation of wear debris from the bearing surface is inevitably going to cause bone loss around the implants. The challenges for the arthroplasty surgeon in managing this problem are: detection, knowing when to intervene surgically, and choosing the best reconstructive option. From a surgical standpoint, the options for addressing osteolysis are: (1) liner exchange with or without bone grafting of lytic lesions; or (2) complete component revision. The advantages of "holding 'em" include a faster surgery, no bony disruption, a quicker recovery for the patient, and cost. The downside of isolated liner exchange is that there is a high rate of instability, there may be incomplete access to the lytic lesions, and the limitations of the existing component. There have been techniques developed to provide access to the retroacetabular lesions, particularly superolaterally via a trap-door technique. Alternatively, other surgeons have advocated injection of bone graft substitutes in the retroacetabular regions to fill osteolytic defects. However, one may not be able to take advantage of newer bearing materials, larger head sizes, or component reposition to improve stability and wear properties. The advantages of a complete component revision are access to lytic lesions, and the ability to modify component position and take advantage of newer technologies. The disadvantages are cost, a longer recovery, and bony disruption. Each method of addressing acetabular osteolysis has compelling reasons to use it; individual patient factors such as component type, size of lesion, and remaining bone will play a role in selecting the treatment. PMID:20839674

Su, Edwin P

2010-09-01

217

EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

218

Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.  

PubMed

Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

2008-01-01

219

Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

Kalsi, Swarn S.

1994-01-01

220

Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.

2003-08-01

221

EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.  

PubMed

In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

2014-01-01

222

Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference

D. N. Smithe; D. Karipides; P. Stoltz; G. Cheng; H. Wang

2011-01-01

223

DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.

2013-07-01

224

EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum  

PubMed Central

In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant.

Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gael; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-Rene

2014-01-01

225

Partially supervised learning using an EM-boosting algorithm.  

PubMed

Training data in a supervised learning problem consist of the class label and its potential predictors for a set of observations. Constructing effective classifiers from training data is the goal of supervised learning. In biomedical sciences and other scientific applications, class labels may be subject to errors. We consider a setting where there are two classes but observations with labels corresponding to one of the classes may in fact be mislabeled. The application concerns the use of protein mass-spectrometry data to discriminate between serum samples from cancer and noncancer patients. The patients in the training set are classified on the basis of tissue biopsy. Although biopsy is 100% specific in the sense that a tissue that shows itself to have malignant cells is certainly cancer, it is less than 100% sensitive. Reference gold standards that are subject to this special type of misclassification due to imperfect diagnosis certainty arise in many fields. We consider the development of a supervised learning algorithm under these conditions and refer to it as partially supervised learning. Boosting is a supervised learning algorithm geared toward high-dimensional predictor data, such as those generated in protein mass-spectrometry. We propose a modification of the boosting algorithm for partially supervised learning. The proposal is to view the true class membership of the samples that are labeled with the error-prone class label as missing data, and apply an algorithm related to the EM algorithm for minimization of a loss function. To assess the usefulness of the proposed method, we artificially mislabeled a subset of samples and applied the original and EM-modified boosting (EM-Boost) algorithms for comparison. Notable improvements in misclassification rates are observed with EM-Boost. PMID:15032790

Yasui, Yutaka; Pepe, Margaret; Hsu, Li; Adam, Bao-Ling; Feng, Ziding

2004-03-01

226

Parameter estimation of superimposed signals using the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally efficient algorithm for parameter estimation of superimposed signals based on the two-step iterative EM (estimate-and-maximize, with an E step and an M step) algorithm is developed. The idea is to decompose the observed data into their signal components and then to estimate the parameters of each signal component separately. The algorithm iterates back and forth, using the current

MEIR FEDER; EHUD WEINSTEIN

1988-01-01

227

Swine Waste Management Through Kyusei Nature Farming and EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten swine farms were installed waste management systems. Farm size was different from 200 to 3,000 pigs. Pigs were managed under a fully automated system. Treatments were made with 2 x 3 Latin square arrangements. Two seasonal effects were hot summer (25 - 35 0C) and cold winter (10 - -15 0C). Three EM levels were 1:1,000, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 dilution

Sangsoo Sun; Byungjin Ahn; Kyuho Myung; Kwanghyun Kim

228

A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures.

Scheres, Sjors H.W.

2012-01-01

229

EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).  

PubMed

Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future. PMID:21950142

Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

2011-01-01

230

Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

Not Available

2012-07-01

231

The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C. [Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)] [Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

2013-07-01

232

Generalized EM-type reconstruction algorithms for emission tomography.  

PubMed

We provide a general form for many reconstruction estimators of emission tomography. These estimators include Shepp and Vardi's maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the quadratic weighted least squares (WLS) estimator, Anderson's WLS estimator, and Liu and Wang's multi-objective estimator, and others. We derive a generic update rule by constructing a surrogate function. This work is inspired by the ML-EM (EM, expectation maximization), where the latter naturally arises as a special case. A regularization with a specific form can also be incorporated by De Pierro's trick. We provide a general and quite different convergence proof compared with the proofs of the ML-EM and De Pierro. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm monotonically decreases the cost function and automatically meets nonnegativity constraints. We have introduced a mechanism to provide monotonic, self-constraining, and convergent algorithms, from which some interesting existing and new algorithms can be derived. Simulation results illustrate the behavior of these algorithms in term of image quality and resolution-noise tradeoff. PMID:22665503

Teng, Yueyang; Zhang, Tie

2012-09-01

233

Retrospectively exploring the importance of items in the decision to leave the emergency medical services (EMS) profession and their relationships to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and likelihood of returning to EMS.  

PubMed

An exit survey was returned by a sample of 127 respondents in fully compensated positions who left the EMS profession, most within 12 months prior to filling out the exit survey. A very high percentage continued to work after leaving EMS. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each of 17 items in affecting their decision to leave EMS. A higher than anticipated response to a "not applicable" response choice affected the usability of 8 of these items. Nine of the 17 items had at least 65 useable responses and were used for further analysis. Within these 9, stress/burnout and lack of job challenges had the highest importance in affecting the decision to leave EMS, while desire for better pay and benefits had the lowest importance. Desire for career change was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and negatively related to likelihood of returning to EMS. Stress/burnout was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS. Study limitations and future research issues are briefly discussed. PMID:21695362

Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan

2011-01-01

234

What variables affect public perceptions for EMS meeting general community needs?  

PubMed

In the fall, 2010, a phone survey of 928 respondents examined two research questions: does the general public perceive Emergency Medical Services (EMS) as meeting their community needs? And what factors or correlates help to explain EMS meeting community needs? To maximize geographical representation across the contiguous United States, a clustered stratified sampling strategy was used based upon zip codes across the 48 states. Results showed strong support by the sample for perceiving that EMS was meeting their general community needs. 17 percent of the variance in EMS meeting community needs was collectively explained by the demographic and perceptual variables in the regression model. Of the correlates tested, the strongest relationship was found between greater admiration for EMS professionals and higher perception of EMS meeting community needs. Study limitations included sampling households with only landline (no cell) phones, using a simulated emergency situation, and not collecting gender data. PMID:22735824

Blau, Gary; Hochner, Arthur; Portwood, James

2012-01-01

235

A hybrid EM and Monte Carlo EM algorithm and its application to analysis of transmission of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

In epidemics of infectious diseases such as influenza, an individual may have one of four possible final states: prior immune, escaped from infection, infected with symptoms, and infected asymptomatically. The exact state is often not observed. In addition, the unobserved transmission times of asymptomatic infections further complicate analysis. Under the assumption of missing at random, data-augmentation techniques can be used to integrate out such uncertainties. We adapt an importance-sampling-based Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization (MCEM) algorithm to the setting of an infectious disease transmitted in close contact groups. Assuming the independence between close contact groups, we propose a hybrid EM-MCEM algorithm that applies the MCEM or the traditional EM algorithms to each close contact group depending on the dimension of missing data in that group, and discuss the variance estimation for this practice. In addition, we propose a bootstrap approach to assess the total Monte Carlo error and factor that error into the variance estimation. The proposed methods are evaluated using simulation studies. We use the hybrid EM-MCEM algorithm to analyze two influenza epidemics in the late 1970s to assess the effects of age and preseason antibody levels on the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the viruses. PMID:22506893

Yang, Yang; Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie

2012-12-01

236

EMS-CO2 Welding: A New Approach to Improve Droplet Transfer Characteristics and Welding Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, to improve the stability of droplet transfer and reduce the spatter of pure carbon dioxide gas shield welding (CO2 welding), we propose a new welding method called EMS-CO2 welding by applying an additional longitudinal electromagnetic field to a CO2 welding process (abbr. EMS-CO2 welding). The characteristics of droplet transfer, welding formation and microstructure between EMS-CO2 welding and

Jian Luo; Qian Luo; Xiangjie Wang; Xiaochuan Wang

2010-01-01

237

An EM Algorithm for Estimating SPECT Emission and Transmission Parameters from Emission Data Only  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood (ML) expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm (called EM-IntraSPECT) is presented for simultaneously estimating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) emission and attenuation parameters from emission data alone. The algorithm uses the activity within the patient as transmission tomography sources, with which attenuation coefficients can he estimated. For this initial study, EM-IntraSPECT was tested on computer-simulated attenuation and emission maps representing

Andrzej Król; James E. Bowsher; Stephen H. Manglos; David H. Feiglin; Martin P. Tornai; F. Deaver Thomas

2001-01-01

238

Comprehensive regional trauma\\/Emergency Medical Services (EMS) delivery systems: The United States experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early 1970's, as an outgrowth of the American military experience, several pioneer regional trauma\\/EMS programs showed the way for better planning, organization, and resource deployment for trauma\\/EMS systems in the civilian community. The experience of the mid and late 1970's has brought an even wider implementation and modeling of trauma\\/EMS care systems with identification of specific patient problems, designation

David R. Boyd; R. Adams Cowley

1983-01-01

239

EM-ANN models for microstrip vias and interconnects in dataset circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for accurate and efficient modeling of monolithic microwave\\/millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components by using electromagnetically trained artificial neural network (EM-ANN) software modules is presented. Full-wave EM analysis is employed to characterize MMIC components. Structures for simulation are chosen using design of experiments (DOE) methodology. EM-ANN models are then trained using physical parameters as inputs and S-parameters

Paul M. Watson; Kuldip C. Gupta

1996-01-01

240

Effect of PU.1 Phosphorylation on Interaction with NF-EM5 and Transcriptional Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PU.1 recruits the binding of a second B cell-restricted nuclear factor, NF-EM5, to a DNA site in the immunoglobulin kappa 3' enhancer. DNA binding by NF-EM5 requires a protein-protein interaction with PU.1 and specific DNA contacts. Dephosphorylated PU.1 bound to DNA but did not interact with NF-EM5. Analysis of serine-to-alanine mutations in PU.1 indicated that serine 148 (Ser148) is required

Jagan M. R. Pongubala; Charles van Beveren; Sujatha Nagulapalli; Michael J. Klemsz; Scott R. McKercher; Richard A. Maki; Michael L. Atchison

1993-01-01

241

Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

Chang, F. C.

2000-01-12

242

Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs.

2011-01-01

243

EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges  

SciTech Connect

EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

2009-04-10

244

SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Electrostatics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of resources for teaching electrostatics constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. Included are homework questions, concept tests, student tutorials, lecture notes, and information about common student difficulties in the topic and ways to address these difficulties. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-06-29

245

SEI: Junior E&M I Course Materials - Math Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of resources for teaching mathematical fundamentals of electro- and magnetostatics constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course. Included are homework questions, concept tests, and information about common student difficulties in the topic and ways to address these difficulties. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-06-29

246

Testing For EM Upsets In Aircraft Control Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of transient electrical signals evaluated in laboratory tests. Method of evaluating nominally fault-tolerant, aircraft-type digital-computer-based control system devised. Provides for evaluation of susceptibility of system to upset and evaluation of integrity of control when system subjected to transient electrical signals like those induced by electromagnetic (EM) source, in this case lightning. Beyond aerospace applications, fault-tolerant control systems becoming more wide-spread in industry; such as in automobiles. Method supports practical, systematic tests for evaluation of designs of fault-tolerant control systems.

Belcastro, Celeste M.

1994-01-01

247

A compulsator driven rapid-fire EM gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computator-driven railgun is an attractive alternative to the homopolar generator-inductor-switch configuration, especially for repetitive duty. A conceptual design of rapid-fire EM-gun system is presented. The generator is sized to accelerate a 0.08-kg projectile to 2 to 3 km/s at a 60 pulse-per-second repetition rate. Initial design parameters are discussed, and example current and velocity waveforms are given. The generator is discharged at the proper phase angle to provide a current zero just as the projectile exits the muzzle of the railgun.

Pratap, S. B.; Bird, W. L.; Godwin, G. L.; Weldon, W. F.

1984-03-01

248

Caucasicosides E-M, furostanol glycosides from Helleborus caucasicus.  

PubMed

Nine furostanol glycosides, namely caucasicosides E-M, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Helleborus caucasicus, along with 11 known compounds including nine furostanol glycosides, a bufadienolide and an ecdysteroid. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESIMS(n) analyses. The steroidal composition of leaves of H. caucasicus shows as particular feature the occurrence of steroidal compounds belonging to the 5? series, unusual for Helleborus species, and in particular, caucasicosides F-H are based on a 5?-polyhydroxylated steroidal aglycon never reported before. PMID:21893324

Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

2011-12-01

249

SEI: Junior E&M Course Materials - Electrodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of resources for teaching electrodynamics. Included are homework questions, concept tests, student tutorials, and information about common student difficulties in the topic and ways to address these difficulties. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891. Because this topic is not typically taught in depth in the courses used in developing these course materials, these materials are less complete than the other sections.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-09-24

250

SEU Testing of a Multi-Gbps Fiber Optic Transceiver Operating Over Parallel Ribbon Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multi-Gbps parallel fiber optic transceiver based on 850 nm GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting (VCSEL) and PIN optoelectronic devices and silicon-on-sapphire integrated circuitry. We present the results of heavy ion single event upset testing.

C. B. Kuznia; J. F. Ahadian; R. J. Pommer; R. Hagan

2007-01-01

251

A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for Single Event Upset (SEU)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for single event upset was prepared to assist new experimenters in preparing and directing tests. How to estimate parts vulnerability and select an irradiation facility is described. A broad brush description of JPL equipment is given, certain necessary pre-test procedures are outlined and the roles and testing guidelines for on-site test personnel are indicated. Detailed descriptions of equipment needed to interface with JPL test crew and equipment are not provided, nor does it meet the more generalized and broader requirements of a MIL-STD document. A detailed equipment description is available upon request, and a MIL-STD document is in the early stages of preparation.

Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C.

1984-01-01

252

Defect-sensitivity analysis of an SEU immune CMOS logic family  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fault testing of resistive manufacturing defects is done on a recently developed single event upset immune logic family. Resistive ranges and delay times are compared with those of traditional CMOS logic. Reaction of the logic to these defects is observed for a NOR gate, and an evaluation of its ability to cope with them is determined.

Ingermann, Erik H.; Frenzel, James F.

1992-01-01

253

Evaluation of SEU and crosstalk effects in network-on-chip switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of designs increases and the technology scales down into the deep sub-micron domain, devices and interconnections are subject to new types of malfunctions and failures. This work intends to evaluate the effect of Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and crosstalk faults in a Network-on-Chip switch by performing fault injection simulations, allowing an accurate analysis of the impact of

Arthur Pereira Frantz; Fernanda Lima Kastensmidt; Luigi Carro; Érika F. Cota

2006-01-01

254

Radiation Characterization, and SEU Mitigation, of the Virtex FPGA for Spcce-Based Reconfigurable computing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orbital remote sensing instruments and systems benefit from high performance, adaptable computing systems. Field programmable SRAM-based gate arrays (FPGAs) are usually the chosen platform for real-time reconfigurable computing. This technology is driven ...

E. Fuller M. Caffrey

2000-01-01

255

Caracterização física e química de frutos de abacate visando a seu potencial para extração de óleo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four avocado varieties from the germplasm collection of the Fruit Center of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas, were evaluated as a possible raw material for oil extraction. The varieties were analyzed concerning the proportions of fruit components (pulp, peel and seed) and the amounts of moisture and fatty substances found in the fresh pulp. The fatty acid profile of the

João Shojiro Tango; Cássia Regina Limonta Carvalho; Nilberto Bernado Soares

2004-01-01

256

Development and a SEU Test of a TDC LSI for the ATLAS Muon Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new TDC LSI (AMT-2) for the ATLAS Muon detector has been developed. The AMT-2 chip is a successor of the previous prototype chip (AMT-1). The design of the chip was polished up for aiming mass production of 20,000 chips in year 2002. Especially, power consumption of the chip was reduced to less than half of the previous chip by

Yasuo Arai; Yoshikazu Kurumisawa; Tsuneo Emura

257

Influence of cell structure on the SEU sensitivity of a SRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have experimentally studied the single event upset sensitivity of CMOS on an epilayer 64 Kbit SRAM test vehicle. The device cross sections have been measured using accelerator beams and we have investigated the influence of the memory cell structure on the asymptotic cross section

T. Bion; T. Corbiere; O. Musseau

1993-01-01

258

Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

2008-04-01

259

Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

2011-06-24

260

An evaluation of success factors using the AHP to implement ISO 14001-based EMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s growing concern in environment awareness forces manufacturers to strive for implementing competitive strategies in environmental management. With the introduction of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) standard in 1996, many manufacturing companies are facing a decision problem of whether or not to implement the ISO 14001 based EMS. The authors have studied the critical success factors to be considered

Kwai-Sang Chin; Simon Chiu; V. M. Rao Tummala

1999-01-01

261

Influência do veículo na eficácia da reposição de potássio em ratos hipocalêmicos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: Pacientes após cirurgia cardíaca são comumente tratados com diuréticos para controle de volume plasmático. A preocupação de distúrbios hipocalêmicos em adultos antes, durante ou após a cirurgia já foi ressaltada anteriormente, visto o risco de arritmias cardíacas. Clinicamente, a diluição da solução de potássio (K+) para administração por via intravenosa, em situações que requerem a sua reposição é

Márcio Petenusso; Vitor Engrácia Valenti; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Eduardo Colombari; Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca; Monica Akemi Sato

2009-01-01

262

Estimation of Item Response Models Using the EM Algorithm for Finite Mixtures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a detailed description of maximum parameter estimation for item response models using the general EM algorithm. In this paper the models are specified using a univariate discrete latent ability variable. When the latent ability variable is discrete the distribution of the observed item responses is a finite mixture, and the EM…

Woodruff, David J.; Hanson, Bradley A.

263

Theoretical and experimental investigations of gravity modification by specially conditioned EM radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordinary electromagnetic (em) fields do not couple significantly with those that underlie gravitation and give rise to inertia, and it is suggested that this is because they are of different field essence and form. It is also suggested that a much stronger electro-gravitic coupling might be accomplished for effective propulsion by conditioning ordinary em fields into configurations that are similar

H. D. Froning; T. W. Barrett

2000-01-01

264

EmBOINC: An emulator for performance analysis of BOINC projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BOINC is a platform for volunteer computing. The server component of BOINC embodies a number of schedul- ing policies and parameters that have a large impact on the projects throughput and other performance metrics. We have developed a system, EmBOINC, for studying these policies and parameters. EmBOINC uses a hybrid ap- proach: it simulates a population of volunteered clients (in-

Trilce Estrada; Michela Taufer; Kevin Reed; David P. Anderson

2009-01-01

265

DIFERENCIAÇÃO OU NECESSIDADE NA CERTIFICAÇÃO ISO 9001: UMA ANÁLISE EM DUAS EMPRESAS AGROINDUSTRIAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente estudo de caso foi realizado em duas organizações agroindustriais, a AGCO do Brasil Comércio e Indústria Ltda. e a Tecno Moageira S\\/A, tratando-se de um estudo de caso de natureza exploratória e descritiva, que objetivou analisar os motivos pelos quais essas organizações implementaram a certificação ISO 9001, em torno da seguinte problemática: Qual o real interesse da certificação

Alexandre Melo Abicht; Alessandra Carla Ceolin; Augusto Faria Correa; Paulo Rodrigo Pereira; Tania Nunes da Silva

2008-01-01

266

neuromuscular sobre o consumo máximo de oxigênio e salto vertical em atletas iniciantes de voleibol  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO As alterações ocorridas na performance motora de jovens en- volvidos em treinamentos especializados ainda não são muito cla- ras. Este é um conhecimento de suma importância para a correta prescrição desses treinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do treinamento nas variáveis neuromotoras e orgânicas de jovens atletas na modalidade voleibol em diferentes momen- tos do programa.

Alexandre Altini Neto; Ídico Luiz Pellegrinotti; Maria Imaculada; L. Montebelo

267

Evidence-based performance measures for emergency medical services systems: a model for expanded EMS benchmarking.  

PubMed

There are few evidence-based measures of emergency medical services (EMS) system performance. In many jurisdictions, response-time intervals for advanced life support units and resuscitation rates for victims of cardiac arrest are the primary measures of EMS system performance. The association of the former with patient outcomes is not supported explicitly by the medical literature, while the latter focuses on a very small proportion of the EMS patient population and thus does not represent a sufficiently broad selection of patients. While these metrics have their place in performance measurement, a more robust method to measure and benchmark EMS performance is needed. The 2007 U.S. Metropolitan Municipalities' EMS Medical Directors' Consortium has developed the following model that encompasses a broader range of clinical situations, including myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, bronchospasm, status epilepticus, and trauma. Where possible, the benefit conferred by EMS interventions is presented in the number needed to treat format. It is hoped that utilization of this model will serve to improve EMS system design and deployment strategies while enhancing the benchmarking and sharing of best practices among EMS systems. PMID:18379908

Myers, J Brent; Slovis, Corey M; Eckstein, Marc; Goodloe, Jeffrey M; Isaacs, S Marshal; Loflin, James R; Mechem, C Crawford; Richmond, Neal J; Pepe, Paul E

2008-01-01

268

EMS Agenda for the Future: Where We Are … Where We Want to Be  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 30 years, emergency medical services (EMS) in the United States have experienced explosive growth. The American health care system is now transforming, providing an opportune time to examine what we have learned over the past three decades in order to create a vision for the future of EMS. Over the course of several months, a multidisciplinary steering

Theodore R Delbridge; Bob Bailey; John L Chew; Alasdair KT Conn; Jack J Krakeel; Dan Manz; David R Miller; Patricia J O'Malley; Susan D Ryan; Daniel W Spaite; Ronald D Stewart; Robert E Suter; E. Marie Wilson

1998-01-01

269

Bayesian reconstructions from emission tomography data using a modified EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method of reconstruction from single-photon emission computerized tomography data is proposed. This method builds on the expectation-maximization (EM) approach to maximum likelihood reconstruction from emission tomography data, but aims instead at maximum posterior probability estimation, which takes account of prior belief about smoothness in the isotope concentration. A novel modification to the EM algorithm yields a practical method.

PETER J. GREEN

1990-01-01

270

Multipurpose design optimization of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle based on genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electromagnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200 km\\/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined

Shinichi Kusagawa; Jumpei Baba; Katsuhiko Shutoh; Eisuke Masada

2004-01-01

271

Competência social e empatia: um estudo sobre resiliência com crianças em situação de pobreza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social competence and empathy: Study about resilience with children in poverty Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a competência social e a empatia em crianças escolares que vivem em situação de po- breza. Participaram da pesquisa 100 crianças, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre seis e nove anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Teste das Histórias Incompletas (THI)

Alessandra Marques Cecconello; Sílvia Helena Koller

2000-01-01

272

Programa em Educação a Distância para a Melhoria das Condições de Aprendizagem da Matemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A fim de fundamentar uma ação pedagógica diferenciada, frente ao elevado número de reprovações e desistências que ocorrem em disciplinas iniciais de Matemática na Universidade de Caxias do Sul, apresentamos um programa através do qual investigamos as reais possibilidades de constituir nova opção para alunos reprovados em Cálculo Diferencial e Integral I. Num ambiente virtual de aprendizagem os

Isolda G. De Lima; Laurete Z. Sauer

273

Influência da irrigação e do genótipo na produção de castanha em cajueiro-anão-precoce  

Microsoft Academic Search

(2) Resumo - Avaliou-se a influência da irrigação e do genótipo na produção de castanha em cajueiro-anão- precoce (Anacardium occidentale L.) durante três anos. Foram estudados três clones (CP 09, CP 76 e CP 1001) e quatro regimes hídricos (testemunha sem irrigação e intervalos de irrigação de um, três e cinco dias). O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso,

Vitor Hugo de Oliveira; Levi de Moura Barros; Raimundo Nonato de Lima

2003-01-01

274

Prevalência de sobrepeso\\/obesidade em crianças e adolescentes com constipação crônica funcional  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUmO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência do sobrepeso\\/obesidade em um grupo de crianças com constipação crônica funcional. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 257 crianças de dois a 15 anos com constipação crônica funcional diag- nosticada segundo critérios de Roma II, atendidas con- secutivamente em clínica terciária de gastroenterologia pediátrica. Informações demográficas, clínicas, diagnós - ticas e antropométricas foram obtidas de prontuários. O

Francisca Teresa V. Faleiros; Cristiane Camargo Omae; Cristiane Yoshie Nakazawa; Mary de Assis Carvalho; Nilton Carlos Machado

2008-01-01

275

NEW ISOTOPES OF EMANATION AND FRANCIUM: ²²³Em, ²²⁴Em, AND ²²⁴Fr  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the products of the interaction of thorium with 230 ; Mev protons revealed evidence for the existence of the neutron-excess isotopes: ; Em²²³, Em²²⁴, and Fr²²⁴. The existence of these three new ; isotopes was confirmed by identification of their decay products: Ra²²³ and ; Ra²²⁴. (auth);

Bellido

1961-01-01

276

The simulated online EM algorithm for latent factor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of latent factor models are treated in an integrated maximum likelihood context where one parameter is marginalized and another is estimated. An extension to the online Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is employed the simulated online Expectation Maximization algorithm. Both these algorithms apply to exponential family models, but the simulated version of the algorithm can make use of Monte Carlo simulation to compute the stochastic E-steps while maintaining the convergence properties of the original online EM algorithm. A class of important latent factor models are identified that can be expressed in complete data exponential family form, the algorithm is applied to one of these models Itakura-Saito Non-negative Matrix Factorisation. An additional parameter is introduced into this model and it is conjectured if this is set to a high value the posterior variance of the parameters is reduced and estimation becomes easier. Simulations are provided that support this conjecture, although online estimation for models with even a modest number of components continues to be hampered by the presence of local minima.

Rohde, D.; Cappé, O.; Dikmen, O.

2012-10-01

277

CONTRIBUIÇÃO DA GEOESTATÍSTICA PARA O PLANEJAMENTO EXPERIMENTAL DE UMA PASTAGEM DO SISTEMA INTEGRADO DE PRODUÇÃO AGROECOLÓGICA (FAZENDINHA KM47)  

Microsoft Academic Search

GONÇALVES, M. G.; FARIAS, L. N.; COSTA, A. D.; MOTA, L. dos S.; OLIVEIRA, B. L. DE; CEDDIA, M. B.; VIEIRA, S. R. Geoestatiscal contribution to experimental planning of pasture located in the Agro ecological Integrated System of Production. Revista Universidade Rural: Série Ciências da Vida, Seropédica, RJ: EDUR, v. 25, n.1, p. 01-05, jan.-jun., 2005. In order to evaluate

MARCELLO GUERREIRO GONÇALVES; LUISMAR NOGUEIRA FARIAS; ALESSANDRA DALLA COSTA; LENILSON DOS SANTOS MOTA; BRUNO LEVINO DE OLIVEIRA; MARCOS BACIS CEDDIA; SIDNEY ROSA VIEIRA

278

Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2012-03-01

279

Qualidade de frutos de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado em função do número de frutos por planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO-Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado, com dois e três frutos por planta, utilizando fibra da casca de coco e fertirrigação. Para tanto, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, com delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições.

Renata Castoldi; Hamilton César de Oliveira Charlo; Pablo Forlan Vargas; Leila Trevizan Braz

2008-01-01

280

Hybrid BEM\\/FEM Calculation of Thermal Rise in the Human Eye Exposed to Time Harmonic EM Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human eye being unprotected by the layer of skin and bones is one of the most sensitive organs to EM radiation. The absorption of EM radiation is quantified in terms of SAR and to calculate the SAR the knowledge of complete electric field distribution inside the eye is necessary. In this paper the problem of distribution of near EM field

Hrvoje Dodig

2005-01-01

281

ON SPEEDING UP THE EM ALGORITHM IN PATTERN RECOGNITION: A COMPARISON OF INCREMENTAL AND MULTIRESOLUTION KD-TREE-BASED APPROACHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite mixture models implemented via the EM algo- rithm are being increasingly used in a wide range of problems in the context of unsupervised statistical pattern recognition. As each E-step visits each feature vector on a given iteration, the EM algorithm requires considerable computation time in its application to large data sets. We consider two approaches, an incremental EM (IEM)

Shu Kay Ng; Geoffrey John McLachlan

2002-01-01

282

The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667  

SciTech Connect

One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable regulatory milestones, they can provide a comprehensive work plan for not only the board, but also regulators, site contractors, and DOE. Because the work plans are reviewed and approved by DOE, they carry some weight in holding local boards of the EM SSAB accountable. This structure provides the basis for local boards to achieve their primary function, to provide DOE with information, advice, and recommendations concerning issues affecting the EM program at the site. (authors)

Young, Ralph [Paducah Citizens Advisory Board (United States)] [Paducah Citizens Advisory Board (United States)

2013-07-01

283

Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)] [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

1995-08-01

284

PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3–6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co–organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in these proceedings represent the talks of the invited speakers as written immediately after the symposium. The volume starts with a contribution by organizers Jan Walleczek and Gerhard Grössing, essentially explaining why emergent quantum mechanics, and other deterministic approaches to quantum theory, must be considered viable approaches in quantum foundations today. This is followed by the exposition of Stephen Adler's talk who introduced to a general audience key questions at the current frontiers of quantum mechanics during the opening evening (with the contents of his conference talk appearing elsewhere). The conference proceedings then continues with the presentations as given in their chronological order i.e. starting with the opening talk of the scientific program by Gerard 't Hooft. While the page number was restricted for all invited speakers, the paper by Jeff Tollaksen was given more space, as his invited collaborator Yakir Aharonov was unable to deliver a separate talk, in order to represent both contributions in one paper. Note that the talks of all speakers, including the talks of those who could not be represented in this volume (M. Arndt, B. Braverman, C. Brukner, S. Colin, Y. Couder, B. Poirier, A. Steinberg, G. Weihs and H. Wiseman) are freely available on the conference website as video presentations (http://www.emqm13.org). The organizers wish to express their gratitude to Siegfried Fussy and Herbert Schwabl from AINS for the organizational support. The organizers also wish to thank Bruce Fetzer, President and CEO, John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust, and the Members of the Board of Trustees, for their strong support and for funding this symposium. We also wish to thank the Austrian Academy of Sciences for allowing the symposium to be held on their premises, and Anton Zeilinger, President of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, for his welcome address. The expertise of the Members of the Scientific Advisory Board of the EmQM13 symposium, Ana Maria Cetto (Mexico), Lajos Diósi (Budapest), Maurice de Gosson (Vienna), Edward Nelson (Princeton), The

2014-04-01

285

SEI: Junior E&M I Course Materials - Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework question collection was constructed over the course of four semesters of a transformed junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course on electro- and magneto-statics. Many questions are related to textbook problems, but with added elements of explanation, sense-making, estimation or approximation, real-world connections, and multiple-representations. Not all these homework questions were used in the course design project. Some problems used include detailed instructor notes, including statistics on student performance on each homework problem assigned. The homework solutions are only available to instructors by writing the authors, Steven.Pollock@colorado.edu This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2010-06-10

286

Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

2011-03-01

287

TrakEM2 Software for Neural Circuit Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

A key challenge in neuroscience is the expeditious reconstruction of neuronal circuits. For model systems such as Drosophila and C. elegans, the limiting step is no longer the acquisition of imagery but the extraction of the circuit from images. For this purpose, we designed a software application, TrakEM2, that addresses the systematic reconstruction of neuronal circuits from large electron microscopical and optical image volumes. We address the challenges of image volume composition from individual, deformed images; of the reconstruction of neuronal arbors and annotation of synapses with fast manual and semi-automatic methods; and the management of large collections of both images and annotations. The output is a neural circuit of 3d arbors and synapses, encoded in NeuroML and other formats, ready for analysis.

Cardona, Albert; Saalfeld, Stephan; Schindelin, Johannes; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Preibisch, Stephan; Longair, Mark; Tomancak, Pavel; Hartenstein, Volker; Douglas, Rodney J.

2012-01-01

288

Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors  

SciTech Connect

Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Lea, W.A. [Speech Science Institute, P.O. Box 240428, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124 (United States)] [Speech Science Institute, P.O. Box 240428, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124 (United States)

1998-01-01

289

Imaging protein three-dimensional nanocrystals with cryo-EM.  

PubMed

Flash-cooled three-dimensional crystals of the small protein lysozyme with a thickness of the order of 100 nm were imaged by 300 kV cryo-EM on a Falcon direct electron detector. The images were taken close to focus and to the eye appeared devoid of contrast. Fourier transforms of the images revealed the reciprocal lattice up to 3 Å resolution in favourable cases and up to 4 Å resolution for about half the crystals. The reciprocal-lattice spots showed structure, indicating that the ordering of the crystals was not uniform. Data processing revealed details at higher than 2 Å resolution and indicated the presence of multiple mosaic blocks within the crystal which could be separately processed. The prospects for full three-dimensional structure determination by electron imaging of protein three-dimensional nanocrystals are discussed. PMID:23633595

Nederlof, Igor; Li, Yao Wang; van Heel, Marin; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

2013-05-01

290

Risk Factors for Hypothermia in EMS-treated Burn Patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Hypothermia has been associated with increased mortality in burn patients. We sought to characterize the body temperature of burn patients transported directly to a burn center by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel and identify the factors independently associated with hypothermia. Methods. We utilized prospective data collected by a statewide trauma registry to carry out a nested case-control study of burn patients transported by EMS directly to an accredited burn center between 2000 and 2011. Temperature at hospital admission ?36.5°C was defined as hypothermia. We utilized registry data abstracted from prehospital care reports and hospital records in building a multivariable regression model to identify the factors associated with hypothermia. Results. Forty-two percent of the sample was hypothermic. Burns of 20-39% total body surface area (TBSA) (OR 1.44; 1.17-1.79) and ?40% TBSA (OR 2.39; 1.57-3.64) were associated with hypothermia. Hypothermia was also associated with age > 60 (OR 1.50; 1.30-1.74), polytrauma (OR 1.58; 1.19-2.09), prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale <8 (OR 2.01; 1.46-2.78), and extrication (OR 1.49; 1.30-1.71). Hypothermia was also more common in the winter months (OR 1.54; 1.33-1.79) and less prevalent in patients weighing over 90 kg (OR 0.63; 0.46-0.88). Conclusions. A substantial proportion of burn patients demonstrate hypothermia at hospital arrival. Risk factors for hypothermia are readily identifiable by prehospital providers. Maintenance of normothermia should be stressed during prehospital care. PMID:24460465

Weaver, Matthew D; Rittenberger, Jon C; Patterson, P Daniel; McEntire, Serina J; Corcos, Alain C; Ziembicki, Jenny A; Hostler, David

2014-01-01

291

Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

2003-08-01

292

Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: dados diagnósticos e resultados terapêuticos em 241 casos Primary lung abscess: diagnostic findings and results of the treatment in 241 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINOPSE São mostrados aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos do abscesso pulmonar de aspiração. No período de 1968 a 2002 foram reunidos e estudados 241 casos da doença - 199 em homens e 42 em mulheres, com média de idade de 41,3 anos. Em 69% dos pacientes esteve presente a ingestão de álcool e em 64% o hábito tabágico. Tosse, expectoração, febre

ÂNGELA P. ZIEGLER; José S. Moreira; Rua Carlos Von Koseritz

293

An Ems-Sensitivity Factor in Maize Conditioning Albino Leaf Stripes  

PubMed Central

A description is given for a recessive EMS-sensitivity factor conditioning albino leaf stripes. In the homozygous condition, there is low frequency of spontaneous leaf stripes. EMS, depending on the concentration, increases markedly the frequency of the stripes in 100% of the treated plants. The effects of EMS, given to the seeds, starts to appear from the 6th to 7th leaf and persists in all the leaves throughout the life cycle of the M1 plants. Only about 20–25% of the M2 plants showed some variegation. These variegated M2 plants were not distributed at random among the different ear-to-row M2 rows.

Efron, Y.

1974-01-01

294

Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S. [Empros Power Systems Control, Plymouth, MN (United States)] [Empros Power Systems Control, Plymouth, MN (United States)

1996-02-01

295

Reservoir characterization and process monitoring with EM methods. 1994 Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past five years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have applied the EM induction method to the problem of petroleum reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) monitoring. The goal is to develop practica...

M. Wilt

1995-01-01

296

Use of low power EM radar sensors for speech articulator measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions such as the vocal fold oscillations, jaw, tongue, and the soft palate. Data on vocal fold motions, that correlate well with established laboratory techni...

J. F. Holzrichter G. C. Burnett

1997-01-01

297

Synthesis and formation of an EMS correlated contaminant in biotechnologically manufactured L-tryptophan.  

PubMed

Contaminants in biotechnologically manufactured L-Tryptophan (Trp) are suspected to be responsible for the outbreak of an unknown autoimmune disease in 1989. The contaminants, found in Trp-lots of a Japanese manufacturer, are classified in EMS-correlated and non EMS-correlated substances. Up to now six EMS-correlated substances are known. One of these compounds is 2-(3'-indolylmethyl)-indole (IMT). IMT was detected as a major contaminant in two investigated EMS-associated trp-samples. In a seven step chemical synthesis IMT was obtained for use as a reference substance. A model system to investigate the formation of IMT was created using Trp and 3-indolylmethanol (IM). IMT formation was observed at acidic and alkaline pH-values and the optimal molar ratio of Trp to IM is 100:1. In addition an IMT formation was observed from indole, formaldehyde and Trp as well as from Trp and 3-indolylacetaldehyde. PMID:10721091

Müller, B; Pacholski, C; Simat, T; Steinhart, H

1999-01-01

298

Applications of the EM Algorithm to the Estimation of Bayesian Hyperparameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Applications of the EM algorithm to the estimation of Bayesian hyperparameters are discussed and reviewed in the context of the author's philosophy involving the inductive and pragmatic modelling of sampling distributions and prior structures. Frequently ...

T. Leonard

1982-01-01

299

A Zernike-moment-based non-local denoising filter for cryo-EM images.  

PubMed

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) plays an important role in determining the structure of proteins, viruses, and even the whole cell. It can capture dynamic structural changes of large protein complexes, which other methods such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis find difficult. The signal-to-noise ratio of cryo-EM images is low and the contrast is very weak, and therefore, the images are very noisy and require filtering. In this paper, a filtering method based on non-local means and Zernike moments is proposed. The method takes into account the rotational symmetry of some biological molecules to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cryo-EM images. The method may be useful in cryo-EM image processing such as the automatic selection of particles, orientation determination, and the building of initial models. PMID:23564187

Wang, Jia; Yin, Changcheng

2013-04-01

300

Observações simultâneas no óptico e infravermelho próximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A existência de variações rápidas de brilho em alguns blazares é um fenômeno bem comprovado, mas até agora não sabemos ao certo quais são os mecanismos físicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade é a ausência de observações multibanda simultâneas que poderiam fornecer vínculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discussão estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relação à variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos até vários meses, com observações simultâneas em seis bandas espectrais (óptico e infravermelho próximo). Para tanto dois telescópios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados são apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram características bastante diferentes, inclusive em relação à existência de variabilidade nos índices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira detecção de variações em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidências da presença de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variação em R ocorrendo antes (o contrário do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observações indicam que as variações de brilho em blazares são o resultado da ação de mais de um fenômeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenários físicos são sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

2003-08-01

301

Experimental study of the E(m, ?)/E(m, 1064) ratio as a function of wavelength, fuel type, height above the burner and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of soot have been studied for many years with a particular attention focused on refractive index. In the present study, the two-excitation wavelength laser-induced incandescence technique has been applied to determine the ratio of the soot absorption function as a function of the wavelength. The advantage of this technique is to provide the determination of the E(m) ratio using a non-intrusive laser-based method without being disturbed by scattering. Measurements have been carried out in a methane premixed flat flame and in a diesel turbulent spray one. Four pairs of wavelength have been used to evaluate the spectral behavior of E(m) ratios from ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR). The two-excitation wavelength LII method implies heating soot the same way using two different laser excitations. Particular operating conditions must be selected to insure the equality of the LII signals, such an equality being necessary to derive the E(m) ratio. A laser excitation at 1064 nm has been chosen as a reference, and the obtained results have been compared with those issued from the use of UV and visible wavelengths of 266, 355, 532 and 660 nm. Results show a significant decrease of the E(m) ratio from UV to visible while it tends to become constant from 532 nm to NIR. The use of different experimental conditions allows to analyze the dependence of the E(m) ratios with the height above the burner, the fuel type and the soot temperature. No significant influence of these parameters has been pointed out on the relative E(m) values determined in the flame conditions investigated here.

Bejaoui, S.; Lemaire, R.; Desgroux, P.; Therssen, E.

2013-10-01

302

Fully EM algorithms for the quasi-neutral, zero-electron-inertia model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm has been developed to compute the electromagnetic signature of impulsive currents in quasi-neutral, collisionless plasmas. Such plasmas are common in laser target chambers, space physics, and EMP generating events. Traditional models[1] used in this regime make the Darwin assumption that neglects purely EM waves. Computing electro-magnetic pulse behavior (EMP) requires the solution of the EM wave equations. Other

Dennis Hewett

2009-01-01

303

Parallel Electromagnetic Simulation for Electric Large Target by EMS-FMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development framework of parallel electromagnetic simulation software EMS-FMM based on multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) is present in this paper. EMS-FMM can solve large-scale scattering problem of 10 million scale with a complexity of O (Nlog N), so it's efficient for electric large target. It's implemented by C and Fortran with MPI communication on cluster DeepComp 7000. Implementation of

Wu Wang; Yangde Feng; Xuebin Chi

2010-01-01

304

Using EM to Obtain Asymptotic Variance-Covariance Matrices: The SEM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is a popular, and often remarkably simple, method for maximum likelihood estimation in incomplete-data problems. One criticism of EM in practice is that asymptotic variance–covariance matrices for parameters (e.g., standard errors) are not automatic byproducts, as they are when using some other methods, such as Newton–Raphson. In this article we define and illustrate a procedure

Xiao-Li Meng; Donald B. Rubin

1991-01-01

305

SELETIVIDADE E CONTROLE POR MISTURAS DE HERBICIDAS EM ALGODOEIRO HERBÁCEO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Utilizam-se misturas de herbicidas para evitar a resistência de plantas daninhas a herbicidas e obter melhor eficiência de controle das plantas daninhas. Conduziu-se, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Algodão, Barbalha, CE, experimento objetivando avaliar o efeito de misturas duplas, triplas e quádruplas de herbicidas, envolvendo Diuron, pendimethalin, metolachlor e oxadiazon, aplicadas em pré-emergência, no controle de plantas daninhas em

ANTONIA ELIENE DUARTE; JOSÉ RODRIGUES PEREIRA; JOÃO BOSCO PITOMBEIRA; MARIA ARLENE PESSOA DA SILVA; FANUEL PEREIRA DA SILVA

306

Direct EM based optimization of advanced waffle-iron and rectangular combline filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast hybrid mode-matching (MM)\\/finite-element (FE) method is applied for the direct EM based optimization of advanced waffle-iron filters and coax-fed rectangular combline filters. The proposed technique, which combines the efficiency of the MM with the flexibility of the FE technique, achieves the direct EM based optimization of these components within typically an overnight run on a PC. The CAD

F. Arndt; Joem Brandt

2002-01-01

307

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation

M. Wilt; C. Schenkel; C. Torres-Verdin; Ki Ha Lee; Hung-Wen Tseng

1994-01-01

308

The Distance to SN 1999em in NGC 1637 from the Expanding Photosphere Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 30 optical spectra and 49 photometric epochs sampling the first 517 days after discovery of supernova (SN) 1999em and derive its distance through the expanding photosphere method (EPM). SN 1999em is shown to be a Type II-plateau (II-P) event, with a photometric plateau lasting until about 100 days after explosion. We identify the dominant ions responsible for most

Douglas C. Leonard; Alexei V. Filippenko; Elinor L. Gates; Weidong Li; Ronald G. Eastman; Aaron J. Barth; Schelte J. Bus; Ryan Chornock; Alison L. Coil; Sabine Frink; Carol A. Grady; Alan W. Harris; Matthew A. Malkan; Thomas Matheson; Andreas Quirrenbach; Richard R. Treffers

2002-01-01

309

X-ray, Optical, and Radio Observations of SN 1999em and SN 1998S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Type II-P (plateau) Supernova (SN) 1999em and Type IIn (narrow emission line) SN 1998S have enabled estimation of the profile of the SN ejecta, the structure of the circumstellar medium (CSM) established by the pre-SN stellar wind, and the nature of the shock interaction. SN 1999em is the first and only Type II-P detected at both X-ray

D. Pooley; W. H. G. Lewin; D. W. Fox; J. M. Miller; C. K. Lacey; S. D. Van Dyk; K. W. Weiler; R. A. Sramek; A. V. Filippenko; D. C. Leonard; S. Immler; R. A. Chevalier; A. C. Fabian; C. Fransson; K. Nomoto

2001-01-01

310

Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

Shively, Robert J.

1990-01-01

311

Helicopter-borne measurements of sea ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) system, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of sea ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and

Christian Haas; John Lobach; Stefan Hendricks; Lasse Rabenstein; Andreas Pfaffling

2009-01-01

312

Fast, simultaneous and robust VLF-EM data denoising and reconstruction via multivariate empirical mode decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) is important in many different applications, i.e, environmental, archeological, geotechnical studies, etc. In recent years, improving and enhancing VLF-EM data containing complex numbers (bivariate) was presented by several authors in order to produce reliable models, generally using univariate empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Applying univariate EMD separately on each data is problematic. This results in a different number of misaligned Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) which can complicate the selection of some IMFs for denoising process. Thus, a filtering method based on the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) approach to decompose simultaneously bivariate data is proposed. In this paper we address two issues by employing the recently introduced noise assisted MEMD (N-A MEMD) for improving bivariate VLF-EM data. Firstly, the N-A MEMD to decompose bivariate measurement of the VLF-EM data into IMFs and a residue is defined as VLF-EM signal or unwanted noise. Secondly, the proposed method is used to enhance VLF-EM data and to reject unwanted noise. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a synthetic data with two added sinusoids. To demonstrate the robustness of the N-A MEMD method, the method was tested on added-noise synthetic data sets and the results were compared to the Ensemble EMD (EEMD) and Bivariate EMD (BEMD). The N-A MEMD gave more robust and accurate results than the EEMD and BEMD methods and the method required less CPU time to obtain the IMFs compared to EEMD. The method was also tested on several field data sets. The results indicate that the filtered VLF-EM data based on the N-A MEMD make the data easier to interpret and to be analyzed further. In addition, the 2D resistivity profile estimated from the inversion of filtered VLF-EM data results was appropriate to the geological condition.

Sungkono; Bahri, Ayi S.; Warnana, Dwa D.; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Santosa, Bagus J.

2014-06-01

313

Two EM-type channel estimation algorithms for OFDM with transmitter diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study channel estimation for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems utilizing transmitter diversity and operating over multipath fading channels. Two expectation-maximization (EM)-type algorithms are introduced and compared with each other in terms of convergence rate. At each iteration and for every OFDM link, the EM-type algorithms partition the problem of estimating a multi-input channel into independent channel estimations for each

Yongzhe Xie; Costas N. Georghiades

2003-01-01

314

The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

Fix, N. J.

2008-02-11

315

Very Fast EM-Based Mixture Model Clustering Using Multiresolution Kd-Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering is important in many fields including manufacturing, biology,finance, and astronomy. Mixture models are a popular approachdue to their statistical foundations, and EM is a very popular methodfor finding mixture models. EM, however, requires many accesses ofthe data, and thus has been dismissed as impractical (e.g. (Zhang, Ramakrishnan,& Livny, 1996)) for data mining of enormous datasets.We present a new algorithm,

Andrew W. Moore

1998-01-01

316

Visualizing Proteins and Macromolecular Complexes by Negative Stain EM: from Grid Preparation to Image Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Single particle electron microscopy (EM), of both negative stained or frozen hydrated biological samples, has become a versatile tool in structural biology 1. In recent years, this method has achieved great success in studying structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes 2, 3. Compared with electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), in which frozen hydrated protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice 4, negative staining is a simpler sample preparation method in which protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of dried heavy metal salt to increase specimen contrast 5. The enhanced contrast of negative stain EM allows examination of relatively small biological samples. In addition to determining three-dimensional (3D) structure of purified proteins or protein complexes 6, this method can be used for much broader purposes. For example, negative stain EM can be easily used to visualize purified protein samples, obtaining information such as homogeneity/heterogeneity of the sample, formation of protein complexes or large assemblies, or simply to evaluate the quality of a protein preparation. In this video article, we present a complete protocol for using an EM to observe negatively stained protein sample, from preparing carbon coated grids for negative stain EM to acquiring images of negatively stained sample in an electron microscope operated at 120kV accelerating voltage. These protocols have been used in our laboratory routinely and can be easily followed by novice users.

Booth, David S.; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Cheng, Yifan

2011-01-01

317

Method for estimating dynamic EM tracking accuracy of surgical navigation tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tracking systems have been used for several years in image guided medical procedures. Vendors often state static accuracies of a single retro-reflective sphere or LED. Expensive coordinate measurement machines (CMM) are used to validate the positional accuracy over the specified working volume. Users are interested in the dynamic accuracy of their tools. The configuration of individual sensors into a unique tool, the calibration of the tool tip, and the motion of the tool contribute additional errors. Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems are considered an enabling technology for many image guided procedures because they are not limited by line-of-sight restrictions, take minimum space in the operating room, and the sensors can be very small. It is often difficult to quantify the accuracy of EM trackers because they can be affected by field distortion from certain metal objects. Many high-accuracy measurement devices can affect the EM measurements being validated. EM Tracker accuracy tends to vary over the working volume and orientation of the sensors. We present several simple methods for estimating the dynamic accuracy of EM tracked tools. We discuss the characteristics of the EM Tracker used in the GE Healthcare family of surgical navigation systems. Results for other tracking systems are included.

Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; Beauregard, Lee; Anderson, Peter

2006-03-01

318

High-speed computation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution backprojection algorithms. However, two major drawbacks have impeded the routine use of the EM algorithm, namely, the long computational time due to slow convergence and the large memory required for the storage of the image, projection data and the probability matrix. In this study, the authors attempts to solve these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor system. The authors have implemented an extended hypercube (EH) architecture for the high-speed computation of the EM algorithm using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PEs). The authors discuss and compare the performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, CD 4360 mainframe, and on the EH system. The results show that the computational speed performance of an EH using DSP chips as PEs executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 130 times better than that of the CD 4360 mainframe. The EH topology is expandable with more number of PEs.

Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India))

1994-10-01

319

Anisotropic 3D inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obviating the need for ocean bottom receivers, the towed streamer EM system enables CSEM data to be acquired simultaneously with seismic over very large areas in frontier and mature basins for higher production rates and more cost effective than conventional marine CSEM. The towed streamer EM data are currently processed and delivered as a spectrum of frequency-domain responses. We apply a 3D anisotropic inversion methodology for towed streamer EM data that includes a moving sensitivity domain. Our implementation is based on the 3D contraction integral equation method for computing the EM responses and Fréchet derivatives, and uses the re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient method for minimizing the objective functional with focusing regularization. We present an actual case study for the 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province in the North Sea, and demonstrate our ability to image the Troll West Oil and Gas Provinces. We conclude that 3D anisotropic inversion of the data from the current generation of towed streamer EM system can adequately recover both the vertical and horizontal resistivities in anisotropic hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

Mattsson, J.; Midgley, J.; Zhdanov, M. S.; ENDO, M.

2013-12-01

320

Visualizing proteins and macromolecular complexes by negative stain EM: from grid preparation to image acquisition.  

PubMed

Single particle electron microscopy (EM), of both negative stained or frozen hydrated biological samples, has become a versatile tool in structural biology. In recent years, this method has achieved great success in studying structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes. Compared with electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), in which frozen hydrated protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice, negative staining is a simpler sample preparation method in which protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of dried heavy metal salt to increase specimen contrast. The enhanced contrast of negative stain EM allows examination of relatively small biological samples. In addition to determining three-dimensional (3D) structure of purified proteins or protein complexes, this method can be used for much broader purposes. For example, negative stain EM can be easily used to visualize purified protein samples, obtaining information such as homogeneity/heterogeneity of the sample, formation of protein complexes or large assemblies, or simply to evaluate the quality of a protein preparation. In this video article, we present a complete protocol for using an EM to observe negatively stained protein sample, from preparing carbon coated grids for negative stain EM to acquiring images of negatively stained sample in an electron microscope operated at 120kV accelerating voltage. These protocols have been used in our laboratory routinely and can be easily followed by novice users. PMID:22215030

Booth, David S; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Cheng, Yifan

2011-01-01

321

New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247  

SciTech Connect

A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

Krahn, Steven [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States); Sutter, Herbert [Consultant, 910 Laurel Green Dr., North Canton, OH, 44720 (United States)] [Consultant, 910 Laurel Green Dr., North Canton, OH, 44720 (United States); Johnson, Hoyt [DOE-EM, 1000 Independence Ave., Washington, DC, 20585 (United States)] [DOE-EM, 1000 Independence Ave., Washington, DC, 20585 (United States)

2013-07-01

322

Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and rapid vertical mixing, inducing the highest instantaneous suspended sediment flux measured during the tidal cycle. During decelerating flood currents a lutocline is again established at a certain distance above the consolidated river bed. During slack water after the flood phase the concentration gradient increases and the thickness of the fluid mud layer below is constant, also during a significant part of the ebb phase. As water depth decreases during ebb, entrainment occurs only at the upper part of the fluid mud layer. The suspended sediment flux is low compared to the flood phase. These observations are further elaborated using turbulence parameters obtained from ADV and ADCP, explaining the difference between ebb and flood concerning the vertical location of the maximum concentration gradient. This study is funded through DFG-Research Center / Excellence Cluster "The Ocean in the Earth System". The Senckenberg Institute and the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute are acknowledged for technical support.

Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

2014-05-01

323

Electromagnetic (EM) wave attachment to femtosecond laser plasma filaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis outlines a theoretical and experimental analysis of utilizing plasma filaments generated by a femtosecond class laser system as a means for transmission of Radio Frequency (RF) electro-magnetic waves. Theoretically, the plasma filaments are modeled as complex cylindrical wires in space for single and dual wire configurations. Attenuation as a function of distance is calculated for single wire TE mode propagation and dual wire TEM mode propagation. Minimum attenuation is shown to be dependant on filament diameter, electron density and filament separation (for the dual wire case). Initial experimental validation of theoretical models is performed with copper wire filament surrogates. RF/plasma filament interaction is then demonstrated in a rectangular waveguide fixture. Filament electron density enhancement is demonstrated in cylindrical resonant RF cavities (2.6 GHz and 0.9 GHz) where an increase in pulse width of attached EM waves beyond lifetimes of typical ultra-fast laser generated plasma filaments is observed. Transmission of RF energy out of resonant cavities along a filament is demonstrated further validating transmission theory.

Friedman, Daniel Clint

324

EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

Nelson, S.D.

1994-10-01

325

SEI: Junior E&M I Course Materials - Student Difficulties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of student difficulties identified in a junior-level Electricity and Magnetism course during four semesters of a curriculum transformation project. These resource documents present the research findings of this project that resulted from: interviews with students using âthink-aloudâ protocol as they worked through problems or diagrammed their understanding using concept maps; observations during help sessions and tutorials; student questions during lecture; student performance on concept tests / clicker questions; student performance on homework and exams; and student performance on the conceptual assessment developed for the course. In addition to student difficulties, these documents include the learning goals associated with each topic and class activities developed by other institutions to address that topic. Those who wish to learn more about these activities activities should steven.pollock@colorado.edu. This material was developed as part of a education research-based course transformation for junior level E&M. All of the resources developed for this course are available, sorted by individual topic and type, at http://www.compadre.org/psrc/items/Relations.cfm?ID=7891.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Kinney, Edward; Dubson, Michael

2010-06-10

326

Estuarine nitrite maxima and nitrifying bacteria (Ems-Dollard estuary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrifying bacteria were isolated from the Ems-Dollard estuary and cultured in batch as well as in continuous cultures. It was shown that the ammonia oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas are able to adapt to the whole estuarine salinity range, though they react to salinity changes initially with an increased lag phase. At the culture conditions (25°C, salinity 15) the ammonia as well as the nitrite oxidizer ( Nitrobacter) had specific maxium growth rates (? m) and half saturation values ( Ks) that are similar to those reported for non-marine conditions. For Nitrosomonas from the Dollard ? m and Ks at 25°C are 0.036 h -1 and 55.4 ?mol · 1 -1 ammonia for Nitrobacter 0.064 h -1 and 267.2 ?mol · 1 -1 nitrite respectively. From a mixed continuous culture of both organisms it is concluded that below 95 ?mol · 1 -1 O 2 oxidation of nitrite and below 32.5 ?mol · 1 -1 O 2 also the oxidation of ammonia is inhibited. It is argued that oxygen limitation in the top sediments of the Dollard is responsible for development of a nitrite maximum in sediment pore water and for a relative high ratio of ammonia oxidizers to nitrite oxidizers. By resuspension of bacteria associated with suspended particles their anomalous ratio is contributing to nitrite development in the water phase also.

Helder, W.; De Vries, R. T. P.

327

If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

Wellard, Stanley J.

2012-10-01

328

EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by the inhibition of TGF-? signaling in lung fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fourteen-membered ring macrolides have been effective in reducing chronic airway inflammation and also preventing lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice via anti-inflammatory effects. EM703 is a new derivative of erythromycin (EM) without the bactericidal effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of EM703 in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrosis in mice. METHODS:

Ying Ji Li; Arata Azuma; Jiro Usuki; Shinji Abe; Kuniko Matsuda; Toshiaki Sunazuka; Takako Shimizu; Yukiyo Hirata; Hirofumi Inagaki; Tomoyuki Kawada; Satoru Takahashi; Shoji Kudoh; Satoshi Omura

2006-01-01

329

Evolução da morfologia de fases de blendas PA6\\/AES em extrusora de dupla rosca e moldagem por injeção  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A evolução da morfologia de fases em blendas não reativas e reativas de poliamida-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila\\/EPDM\\/estireno (AES) em uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional foi investigada. A evolução da morfologia de fases ao longo da extrusora de rosca dupla foi monitorada através da coleta de pequenas amostras em válvulas no barril da extrusora e caracterização por microscopia

Adriane Bassani; Elias Hage Jr; Luiz A. Pessan; Ana V. Machado; José A. Covas

2005-01-01

330

Investigation of EMS based on fuzzy logic controller for an ICE\\/battery\\/UC hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EMS(energy management strategy) based on fuzzy logic is presented in this paper ,which is designed in MATLAB and Simulink to control the torque of the engine. The required torque and the SOC(state of charge) of the battery and UC (ultracapacitor) are used as the inputs of the EMS. The EMS is mainly consisted of two FLCs(fuzzy logic controller) ,which

Shijing Xu

2011-01-01

331

Mapping Coastal Wetlands Using EM and Airborne Lidar: a Texas Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined EM induction and airborne lidar measurements with vegetation surveys along two transects across Mustang Island, a Texas barrier island, to examine whether EM and lidar can be used to map coastal wetlands and associated geomorphic environments. Lidar-derived elevations correlate well with National Wetland Inventory (NWI) upland, palustrine, estuarine, and marine units. Lidar can be used to map wetland habitat more accurately and in greater detail than is feasible from aerial photographs and limited field checks, approaching that achievable on the ground. Where vegetation is dense, lidar-derived elevations may represent the top of massed vegetation rather than the ground surface, leading to potential habitat misclassification. Measurements of shallow electrical conductivity using a ground-based EM instrument range over three orders of magnitude and also correlate well with NWI habitat and geomorphic unit. High conductivities are measured within marine and estuarine NWI units and in salt marsh, wind-tidal flat, and forebeach environments. Low conductivities are measured within upland and palustrine NWI habitats and in dune, VBF, and fresh marsh environments. Conductivity profiles possess more mappable detail than is present on NWI maps. Tests of an airborne EM sensor towed 30 m above the ground yielded insufficient resolution. Elevation and conductivity are inversely correlated along the transects. EM and lidar readily discern saline- and fresh-water environments and complement traditional wetland classification by helping distinguish environments that have similar signatures on aerial photographs. There is some overlap in elevation and conductivity among similar habitats and environments, but a statistical classification based on integrated data from lidar, EM, and aerial photographs can achieve greater resolution and accuracy than current remote-sensing methods. Future work should include evaluating the effect of vegetation density on lidar-beam penetration, quantifying seasonal change in ground conductivity in fresh and saline environments, examining the geographic variability of elevation and conductivity, and further evaluating the use of airborne EM sensors to measure conductivity at multiple exploration depths simultaneously.

Paine, J. G.; White, W. A.; Smyth, R. C.; Andrews, J. R.; Gibeaut, J. C.

2005-12-01

332

Noninvasive monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites using airborne EM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usage of conventional airborne EM methods for studies related to CO2 sequestration reservoirs have been restricted up to date due to depth and system noise limitations. Recently a family of new EM systems was developed and launched in Canada, allowing superior depth of investigation to that of the conventional EM systems. Depending on the resistivity of the area such systems are capable of recording response from targets emplaced at the depths of up to 2 kilometers below surface. These systems are powered by natural (telluric and storm lightning) EM fields and are particularly sensitive to contrast in electrical properties of the subsurface, rather than absolute values of the conductivities, which make these systems suitable for usage in both resistive and conductive environments, including the subsurface identification and mapping of gas, hydrocarbons, liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2. Based on the well log data collected at one of the proposed sequestration sites, forward modeling has been carried out in order to study which changes in electrical properties of reservoir rocks before and after the introduction of CO2 to the sequestration reservoir are sufficient to provide enough contrast so they become detectable by EM systems. The results of the modeling showed that under favourable conditions it is possible to differentiate between brine-filled reservoirs versus CO2-filled reservoir at a depth of more than 1 kilometer with the main controlling parameters being reservoir effective porosity, thickness, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content of the pore-filling fluid and CO2 saturation after the injection. EM surveying can play a crucial role in studies of moderately deep-seated reservoirs, specifically can assist in monitoring CO2 injection and migration and can provide some additional data regarding the CO2 saturation level. The benefits of application of these new EM systems compared with 3D reflection seismic, VSP, gravity, and other geophysical methods will also be discussed.

Kaminski, V.; Harbert, W. P.; Legault, J. M.

2009-12-01

333

EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

334

The wheat Em promoter drives reporter gene expression in embryo and aleurone tissue of transgenic barley and rice.  

PubMed

The early methionine (Em) proteins are members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) group of proteins that have been considered to be embryo specific. The ability of a 646-bp wheat Em promoter to control green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was investigated in transgenic barley and rice. Seeds of transgenic plants expressed gfp in the developing embryo but also in the aleurone layer. The 646-bp Em promoter also directed strong gfp expression in cells comprising the junction between the endosperm transfer cells and cells of the aleurone layer. Em-gfp expression in transgenic barley showed differences in spatial and temporal control when compared with that observed in transgenic rice. Em-gfp expression was also detected in mature aleurone cells of transgenic barley and rice with and without abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated the presence of Em and Em-homologous transcript in embryo, aleurone and endosperm tissues of wheat and of barley and rice, respectively. These results suggest that Em proteins may be expressed in both the embryo and aleurone during seed development, possibly providing protection against desiccation in these two tissues that survive seed drying. They may also have a similar role in these tissues during germination. The Em promoter from wheat may be useful in the expression of novel genes in cereal grains, as an embryo- and aleurone-specific promoter complementing other available endosperm- and pericarp-specific promoters to collectively increase the expression of transgenes in seeds. PMID:17173630

Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert James

2005-07-01

335

Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

Waters, John K.

2011-01-01

336

Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

337

Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same area, this additional information would be taken into account in computing a risk assessment.

Shively, R. J.

1992-01-01

338

New Advances for a joint 3D inversion of multiple EM methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) methods are routinely applied to image the subsurface from shallow to regional structures. Individual EM methods differ in their sensitivities towards resistive and conductive structures as well as in their exploration depths. Joint 3D inversion of multiple EM data sets can result in significantly better resolution of subsurface structures than the individual inversions. Proper weighting between different EM data is essential, however. We present a recently developed weighting algorithm to combine magnetotelluric (MT), controlled source EM (CSEM) and DC-geoelectric (DC) data. It is well known that MT data are mostly sensible to regional conductive structures, whereas, CSEM and DC data are more suitable to recover more shallow and resistive structures. Our new scheme is based on weighting individual components of the total data gradient after each model update. Norms of each data residual are used to assess how much weight individual components of the total data gradient must have to achieve an equal contribution of all data sets in the inverse model. A numerically efficient way to search for appropriate weighting factors could be established by applying a bi-diagonalization procedure to the sensitivity matrix. Thereby, the original inverse problem can be projected onto a smaller dimension in which the search of weighting factors is numerically cheap. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed weighting schemes and explore the model domain with synthetic data sets.

Meqbel, N. M.; Ritter, O.

2013-12-01

339

PWR loss-of-coolant accident analysis capability of the WRAP-EM system  

SciTech Connect

The modular computational system known as the Water Reactor Analysis Package (WRAP) has been extended to provide the computational tools required to perform a complete analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The new system is known as the WRAP-EM (Evaluation Model) system and will be used by NRC to interpret and evaluate reactor vendor EM methods and computed results. The system for PWR-EM analysis is comprised of several computer codes which have been developed to analyze a particular phase of a LOCA. These codes include GAPCON for calculation of initial fuel conditions, WRAP (the previously developd SRL analog of RELAP4/MOD5) for analysis of the system blowdown and refill, the FLOOD option in WRAP for analysis of the reflood phase, and FRAP for the calculation of the behavior of the hot fuel pin. In addition, a PWR steady-state initialization procedure has been developed to provide the initial operating state of the reactor system. The PWR-EM system is operational and is being evaluated to determine the adequacy and consistency of the physical models employed for EM analysis.

Gregory, M.V.; Beranek, F.

1980-08-01

340

Association of Disomic Chromosome Loss with Ems-Induced Conversion in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Experimental tests with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a previously proposed model suggesting a causal relationship between disomic chromosome loss (n + 1 ? n) and centromere-adjacent mitotic gene conversion were performed. Disomic haploid cells heteroallelic at two loci on the left arm of chromosome III were exposed to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) under nonlethal conditions; EMS-induced prototrophic gene convertants were selected and tested for coincident chromosome loss. The principal results are: (1) The frequency of chromosome loss among EMS-induced gene convertants selected to arise near the centromere is markedly enhanced over basal levels and remains constant, independent of EMS exposure. There is little such enhancement among EMS-induced convertants selected to arise far from the centromere. (2) Chromosome loss is almost completely associated with induced conversion of the centromere-proximal allele at the centromere-adjacent heteroallelic locus. This result is identical to (and confirms) results found previously for spontaneous loss-associated conversion. (3) The conversion polarity at the centromere-adjacent locus among unselected (nonloss-associated) induced or spontaneous mitotic convertants is identical to that among meiotic convertants and markedly favors the contromere-distal allele. These findings are wholly consistent with, and strengthen, the hypothesis that structural involvement of centromeric regions in nearby recombinational events may interfere with proper segregational function and lead to mitotic chromosome loss.

Campbell, Douglas

1980-01-01

341

Boson Model of Quantized EM-Field and Nature of Photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental result, obtained by Dirac, that the dynamical system, which consists of the ensemble of identical bosons is equivalent to the dynamical system, which consists of the ensemble of oscillators, was used to show, that the presence of scalar charge function ?(vec r, t) to be peer force characteristic of electromagnetic (EM) field along with vector force characteristics vec E(vec r,t), vec H(vec r,t), that was established earlier, agrees with charge neutrality of photons. The simplest analogue in its mathematical description in the physics of condensed matter is the chain of bosonic (spin S = 1) carbon atoms in trans-polyacetylene. It has been shown, that neutral photons are topological relativistic solitons with nonzero spin value, which is equal to ½ instead of prevalent viewpoint, that the photons possess by spin S = 1. Naturally, they have nonzero size, that is, they cannot be considered to be point objects. At the same time, the main excitations in so called "doped" rest massless "boson-atomic" structure of EM-field will be charged spinless EM-solitons. It seems to be reasonable to suggest, that "doping" can be effective by propagation of EM-field in the medium like to rain-clouds, although detailed mechanism has to be additionally studied. The representation of photons to be the result of spin-charge separation effect in rest massless "boson-atomic" structure of EM-field makes substantially more clear the nature of corpuscular-wave dualism.

Yerchuck, Dmitri; Dovlatova, Alia; Alexandrov, Andrey

2014-03-01

342

VLSI implementation of uterus image segmentation using multi-feature EM algorithm based on Gabor filter: FPGA implementation of uterus image segmentation using multi-feature EM algorithm based on Gabor filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the image is segmented effectively based on texture feature by reducing the noise. For effective image segmentation Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm based on Gabor filter is used. The EM algorithm is applied on 2D Ultrasonic image of uterus and tested. The Gabor function has been recognized by its multiresolution properties and the precision of locating the texture features

S. Malarkhodi; R. S. D. W. Banu; M. Malarvizhi

2010-01-01

343

Fully EM algorithms for the quasi-neutral, zero-electron-inertia model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm has been developed to compute the electromagnetic signature of impulsive currents in quasi-neutral, collisionless plasmas. Such plasmas are common in laser target chambers, space physics, and EMP generating events. Traditional models[1] used in this regime make the Darwin assumption that neglects purely EM waves. Computing electro-magnetic pulse behavior (EMP) requires the solution of the EM wave equations. Other algorithms designed to treat this problem [2] are susceptible to round-off problems in our applications. The current algorithm, based on the same physics model, is to be much more forgiving in regions of low density or low magnetic field. Results and initial V&V analysis will be presented.[4pt] [1] ``Low-frequency EM (Darwin) applications in plasma simulations'', Hewett, CPC, 84, pg 243, May 1994[0pt] [2] ``A fully electromagnetic model for high density plasma simulations'' Jones, Thomas, Mason, and Winske, 13^th Conference on the Numerical Simulations of Plasmas, 1983.

Hewett, Dennis

2009-11-01

344

Diffusion-based EM algorithm for distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures in wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

Distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures has many applications in wireless sensor network (WSN), and its energy-efficient solution is still challenging. This paper presents a novel diffusion-based EM algorithm for this problem. A diffusion strategy is introduced for acquiring the global statistics in EM algorithm in which each sensor node only needs to communicate its local statistics to its neighboring nodes at each iteration. This improves the existing consensus-based distributed EM algorithm which may need much more communication overhead for consensus, especially in large scale networks. The robustness and scalability of the proposed approach can be achieved by distributed processing in the networks. In addition, we show that the proposed approach can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimation for Gaussian mixtures. Simulation results show the efficiency of this approach. PMID:22163956

Weng, Yang; Xiao, Wendong; Xie, Lihua

2011-01-01

345

Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors  

SciTech Connect

Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

1999-05-12

346

Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

2014-06-01

347

OsLEA1a, a new Em-like protein of cereal plants.  

PubMed

Proteins abundant in seeds during the late stages of development, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, are associated with desiccation tolerance. More than 100 of the group I LEA genes, also termed Em genes, have been identified from plants, bacteria and animals. The wide distribution indicates the functional importance of these genes. In the present study, we characterized a novel Em-like gene, OsLEA1a of rice (Oryza sativa). The encoded OsLEA1a protein has an N-terminal sequence similar to that of other plant Em proteins but lacks a 20-mer motif that is the most significant feature of typical Em proteins. The location of the sole intron indicates that the second exon of OsLEA1a is the mutated product of a typical Em gene. Transcriptome analysis revealed OsLEA1a mainly expressed in embryos, with no or only a few transcripts in osmotic stress-treated vegetative tissues. Structural analysis revealed that the OsLEA1a protein adopts high amounts of disordered conformations in solution and undergoes desiccation-induced conformational changes. Macromolecular interaction studies revealed that OsLEA1a protein interacts with non-reducing sugars and phospholipids but not poly-l-lysine. Thus, although the OsLEA1a protein lost its 20-mer motif, it is still involved in the formation of bioglasses with non-reducing sugars or plasma membrane. However, the protein does not function as a chaperone as do other groups of hydrophilic LEA proteins. The orthologs of the OsLEA1a gene had been identified from various grasses but not in dicot plants. Genetic analysis indicated that rice OsLEA1a locates at a 193 kb segment in chromosome 1 and is conserved in several published cereal genomes. Thus, the ancestor of Em-like genes might have evolved after the divergence of monocot plants. PMID:21097897

Shih, Ming-Der; Huang, Lin-Tzu; Wei, Fu-Jin; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Hoekstra, Folkert A; Hsing, Yue-Ie C

2010-12-01

348

Consensus among flexible fitting approaches improves the interpretation of cryo-EM data  

PubMed Central

Cryo-elecron microscopy (Cryo-EM) can provide important structural information of large macromolecular assemblies in different conformational states. Recent years have seen an increase in structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by fitting a high-resolution structure into its low-resolution cryo-EM map. A commonly used protocol for accommodating the conformational changes between the X-ray structure and the cryo-EM map is rigid body fitting of individual domains. With the emergence of different flexible fitting approaches, there is a need to compare and revise these different protocols for the fitting. We have applied three diverse automated flexible fitting approaches on a protein dataset for which rigid domain fitting (RDF) models have been deposited in the PDB. In general, a consensus is observed in the conformations, which indicates a convergence from these theoretically different approaches to the most probable solution corresponding to the cryo-EM map. However, the result shows that the convergence might not be observed for proteins with complex conformational changes or with missing densities in cryo-EM map. In contrast, RDF structures deposited in the PDB can represent conformations that not only differ from the consensus obtained by flexible fitting but also from X-ray crystallography. Thus, this study emphasizes that a “consensus” achieved by the use of several automated flexible fitting approaches can provide a higher level of confidence in the modeled configurations. Following this protocol not only increases the confidence level of fitting, but also highlights protein regions with uncertain fitting. Hence, this protocol can lead to better interpretation of cryo-EM data.

Ahmed, Aqeel; Whitford, Paul C.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Tama, Florence

2011-01-01

349

The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of the Emergency Medical Services response to a bombing of a United States Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 19 April 1995. The explosion emanated from a rented truck parked in the front of the building. The force of the explosion destroyed three of the four support columns in the front of the building and resulted in a pancaking effect of the upper floors onto the lower floors. There were three distinct phases of the medical response: 1) Immediately available local EMS ambulances and staff; 2) Additional ambulances staffed by recalled, off-duty personnel; and 3) mutual-aid ambulances and personnel from the surrounding communities. There were 361 persons in the building at the time of the explosion, 163 of these perished. Within the first hour of the explosion, 139 patients were transported to area hospitals. Of these, 32% were in critical condition. During the day of the explosion, 444 persons were treated for physical injuries: 410 of these were related to the explosion and 14, including one with fatal injuries, were sustained during search and rescue attempts. A total of 354 (80%) were treated and released from emergency departments, and 90 (20%) were admitted to hospitals. Six of the transported victims either were dead on arrival to the emergency department or died after admission to the hospital. Of those who died, 95% of the deaths were related to blunt trauma associated with the collapse of the structure. Only three persons were extricated alive after the first five hours following the explosion. The scene became flooded with volunteers who, although their intentions were to provide help and aid to those injured, created a substantial logistical problem for Incident Command. Several other lessons were learned: 1) Telephone lines and cells became overloaded, but the Hospital Emergency Administrative Radio system was operational only in three of the 15 hospitals; 2) Volunteer personnel should have responded to the hospitals and not to the scene; and 3) Training was an essential for the success of such a response. Thus, the success of this operation was a function of the intense training, practice, and coordination between multiple agencies. PMID:10187007

Maningas, P A; Robison, M; Mallonee, S

1997-01-01

350

EMT Defibrillation Does Not Increase Survival From Sudden Cardiac Death in a Two-Tiered Urban-Suburban EMS System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) by EMS initial responders is widely advocated. Evidence supporting the use of AEDs is based largely on the experience of one metropolitan area, with effect on survival in many systems not yet proved. We conducted this study to determine whether the addition of AEDs to an EMS system with a response time

Thomas A Sweeney; Jeffrey W Runge; Michael A Gibbs; Janet M Raymond; Robert W Schafermeyer; H. James Norton; Madeline J Boyle-Whitesel

1998-01-01

351

Intervenções em consciência fonológica e aprendizagem da linguagem escrita 1 Interventions in phonological conscience and learning of the written language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Vários estudos evidenciam alta associação entre a consciência fonológica e as habilidades de ler e escrever. Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar pesquisas de intervenção em consciência fonológica e seus efeitos sobre a aprendizagem da linguagem escrita. São identificados três tipos de pesquisas: com adultos analfabetos, com crianças em dificuldade na aprendizagem da escrita e com pré-escolares.

Maria José dos Santos

352

Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of inf...

1994-01-01

353

Effect of EM on Soil Quality, Fruit Quality and Yield of Orange Trees in a Brazilian Citrus Orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field investigation was conducted during 1993-94 on citrus in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the interactions of EM with soil, leaves, mite populations, fruit quality and yield of orange trees. The study was designed to test the ability of Effective Microorganisms (EM) to significantly change a number of soil parameters in the citrus agroecosystem. Climate of

A. D. Paschoal; S. K. Homma; A. B. Sanches; M. C. S. Nogueira

354

Discrimination Using the Geonics EM63 in a Cued Interrogation Mode at Fort McClellan, AL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data were collected at the former Fort McClellan to test the Geonics EM63 deployed in a cued interrogation mode. Except for one 37mm and several 60mm seed items, all munitions encountered were 75mm or 3.8 inch shrapnel rounds. The EM63 surveys were cued o...

S. Billings

2009-01-01

355

Quality assurance guidance for laboratory assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities  

SciTech Connect

This document is one of several guidance documents developed to support the EM (DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management) Analytical Services program. Its purpose is to introduce assessment plates that can be used to conduct performance assessments of an organization`s or project`s ability to meet quality goals for analytical laboratory activities. These assessment plates are provided as non-prescriptive guidance to EM-support organizations responsible for collection of environmental data for remediation and waste management programs at DOE facilities. The assessments evaluate objectively all components of the analytical laboratory process to determine their proper selection and use.

Not Available

1994-05-01

356

A laboratory experiment on EM backscatter from Farley-Buneman and gradient drift waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities are reported. It is noted that the study is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent ideas on EM scattering by equatorial and high-latitude ionospheric waves and irregularities. It is shown through separate backscattering from fast and slow ion beam modes that a beam of EM radiation actually provides, in backscatter, information on the spectral content of the scattering medium.

Alport, M. J.; Dangelo, N.; Pecseli, H. L.

1981-01-01

357

ModEM: A modular system for inversion of electromagnetic geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe implementation of a modular system of computer codes for inversion of electromagnetic geophysical data, referred to as ModEM. The system is constructed with a fine level of modular granularity, with basic components of the inversion – forward modeling, sensitivity computations, inversion search algorithms, model parametrization and regularization, data functionals – interchangeable, reusable and readily extensible. Modular sensitivity computations and generic interfaces to parallelized inversion algorithms provide a ready framework for rapid implementation of new applications or inversion algorithms. We illustrate the code?s versatility and capabilities for code reuse through implementation of 3D magnetotelluric (MT) and controlled-source EM (CSEM) inversions, using essentially the same components.

Kelbert, Anna; Meqbel, Naser; Egbert, Gary D.; Tandon, Kush

2014-05-01

358

Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

1980-01-01

359

LEC1, FUS3, ABI3 and Em expression reveals no correlation with dormancy in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Dormant Arabidopsis seeds require stratification and light for germination. To study gene expression during establishment, maintenance and release of dormancy, various Arabidopsis ecotypes that are different in their degree of dormancy were investigated; three nsm mutants that lack the stratification-dependency, and the precocious germination and reduced dormancy of the abi3-1 mutant (insensitive to ABA). Genes examined by mRNA abundance include LEC1, FUS3 and ABI3, transcription factors that are major regulators of embryo development and, at least indirectly, play some role in the control of dormancy. Moreover, the late embryogenesis marker genes, AtEm1 and AtEm6, were examined in relation to the state of dormancy. The expression of LEC1, FUS3 and ABI3 mRNA is only marginally different during seed development in various strong or moderate dormancy wild types, nsm mutants and abi3-1. Therefore, it is unlikely that these transcription factors directly control the establishment of dormancy in Arabidopsis. Sole and various combina tions of light, temperature, and after-ripening regimes that alter germination behaviour were examined to determine if the expression of ABI3, AtEm1 and AtEm6 mRNAs were correlated with dormancy-breaking processes. ABI3 expression is influenced by cold and light, in a similar way in both dormant and non-dormant wild-type seeds. ABI3 transcript abundance in the nsm1 and nsm2 mutants is higher and in the nsm5-1 mutant is marginally lower than in wild-type seeds, but changes due to temperature and light factors are very similar to those that occur in wild-type seeds. The abundances of AtEm1 and AtEm6 mRNAs are equally affected by imbibition and cold temperature in mature and after-ripened seeds. The LEA transcript abundances for AtEm1 and AtEm6 are reduced in nsm mutants in a common, ABI3-independent pathway. PMID:14676287

Baumbusch, Lars O; Hughes, D Wayne; Galau, Glenn A; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

2004-01-01

360

The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key workforce measures – turnover rates and costs – where previously none have existed. Local EMS directors and policymakers at all levels of government may find the results and study methodology useful towards designing and evaluating programs targeting the EMS workforce.

Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

2010-01-01

361

Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.

2011-11-01

362

Variação da independência funcional em idosos hospitalizados relacionada a variáveis sociais e de saúde Variation in functional independence in hospitalized elderly related to social and health variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de envelhecimento, as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as hospitalizações podem causar declínio funcional em idosos. Alguns fatores podem potencializar esse comprometimento funcional como gênero, número de internações, presença de acompanhante e medicações em uso. Objetivo: Identificar a variação da capacidade funcional em idosos no decorrer da hospitalização e relacionar a diferença com variáveis sociais e de saúde.

Kozue Kawasaki; Maria José D'Elboux Diogo

2007-01-01

363

Composição florística da vegetação arbórea de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecídua em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e espécies de maior ocorrência na região  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação, conservação da biodiversidade e apoio à legislação ambiental. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição florística de um trecho da Reserva da Biologia, em Viçosa, MG, em regeneração natural há 80

Walnir Gomes Ferreira Júnior; Alexandre Francisco da Silva; João Augusto Alves Meira Neto; Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud Schaefer; Arildo de Souza Dias; Maíra Ignácio; Maria Cláudia Melo Pacheco de Medeiros

2007-01-01

364

Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in different locations throughout the process line of beef slaughtering Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência e a população de bactérias do género Aeromonas em diferentes pontos do fluxo- grama de abate bovino, em estabelecimento de alto nível higiéni- co-sanitário, foram investigados produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate, desde a chegada dos animais até a carne desossada e pronta para comercialização. Das 30 amostras colhidas em cada

CIÊNCIAS VETERINÁRIAS; O. D. Rossi Júnior; L. A. Amaral; A. Nader Filho; R. P. Schocken-Iturrino

365

ADAPTABILIDADE E ESTABILIDADE DE REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE SOJA AO OÍDIO, EM CASA DE VEGETAÇÃO ADAPTABILITY AND STABILITY OF REACTION OF SOYBEAN GENOTYPES TO POWDERY MILDEW, IN GREENHOUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de genótipos de soja em relação ao oídio, por meio de estudos de adaptabilidade e de estabilidade, em casa de vegetação, durante cinco épocas de avaliação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, disposto em parcelas subdivididas, com 15 tratamentos e três tipos de controle (parcial, total e sem controle) representando as

Derval Gomes PEREIRA; Tuneo SEDIYAMA; Cosme Damião CRUZ; Múcio Silva REIS

366

In Situ Data Processing With Workflow-based Embedded Cyberinfrastructure (emCI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decreasing cost of sensors and sensor networks has led to the wide scale adoption of this technology by large numbers of scientists for the collection of data in the field. At the same time, advances in both hardware and software have resulted in increased processing power at the sensor, enabling sensors in the field to do more than just data collection. With an increase in the number of sensors and deployments, scientists need tools for the configuration, operation, and debugging problems on their sensor networks. Furthermore, as the amount of data increases, scientists need a way to quickly and easily tag, process, archive, and share their datasets. Without proper tools, it is common for data processing to happen weeks or sometimes months after it is collected. This leads to important events being missed and makes real-time data analysis impossible. Additionally, because data is often manually processed through a series of repetitive steps, the analysis is susceptible to errors that are hard to track after data is combined and shared among researchers. Our emCI (embedded cyberinfrastructure) toolkit enables researchers to easily collect, analyze, and share their data. emCI provides a web-portal with upload/download capabilities that accept data in a number of different formats and ultimately can be used to archive data and share datasets among scientists. emCI uses an embedded general-purpose computer in the field for interfacing with sensors, coordinating data collection, and providing reliable data transfer to the emCI web portal. emCI relies on workflow technologies to automate data processing pipelines and to provide provenance information. In particular, emCI uses the Pegasus Workflow Management System as a core component, adapting it to the embedded computation environment. emCI allows scientists to distribute tasks among sensors in field and servers in the lab. In-situ processing using embedded workflows enable data reduction and validation in the field. Scientists can also create embedded workflows for data analysis and sensor retasking, allowing for much faster response to events in the field as well as disconnected operation from the emCI portal. Workflows executed at the emCI portal can include heavier computations, and combine data from multiple sensors by performing data analysis on data from multiple sources. The emCI portal also supports workflows for data transfers, visualization, and the automatic monitoring of the embedded infrastructure. We have prototyped the emCI toolkit in a project that uses automated digital cameras and weather stations for observing climate change based on plant phenology observations. In this application, embedded workflows are being used to coordinate the field data collection, reduce and analyze image data in the field, and retask cameras based on embedded triggers. We are currently in the process of moving our deployment from prototype to production stage at the Stunt Ranch UC Reserve in the Santa Monica Mountains.

Mehta, G.; Silva, F.; Graham, E. A.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Rundel, P.

2011-12-01

367

Evaluation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with Affinity-Purified Em18 and an ELISA with Recombinant Em18 for Differential Diagnosis of Alveolar Echinococcosis: Results of a Blind Test  

PubMed Central

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is the most potentially lethal parasitic zoonosis of the nontropical areas in the northern hemisphere, where cystic echinococcosis (CE) is also endemic. Both AE and CE are highly endemic in China, and both serologic detection of echinococcosis, either AE or CE, and differentiation of AE from CE are crucial problems. Evaluation of Western blot analysis (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Em18 antigen, using affinity-purified and recombinant Em18, was carried out “blindly” using 60 human sera from patients diagnosed in France. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available Echinococcus WB immunoglobulin G (IgG) kit developed in France. The Em18 WB and Echinococcus WB IgG showed very similar results for detection of AE. Both affinity-purified Em18 or a recombinant Em18 WB and Echinococcus WB IgG seem useful for identification of AE, and the latter seems appropriate for both AE and CE, whereas affinity-purified Em18 ELISA and the newly developed recombinant Em18 ELISA appear to be suitable for detection of AE, especially for epidemiological surveys.

Ito, Akira; Xiao, Ning; Liance, Martine; Sato, Marcello O.; Sako, Yasuhito; Mamuti, Wulamu; Ishikawa, Yuji; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Bardonnet, Karine; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Vuitton, Dominique A.

2002-01-01

368

Estimation of elliptical basis function parameters by the EM algorithm with application to speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes to incorporate full covariance matrices into the radial basis function (RBF) networks and to use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the basis function parameters. The resulting networks, referred to as elliptical basis function (EBF) networks, are evaluated through a series of text-independent speaker verification experiments involving 258 speakers from a phonetically balanced, continuous speech corpus (TIMIT).

Man-Wai Mak; Sun-Yuan Kung

2000-01-01

369

Identificação dos vegetais destinados a ornamentação de praças, parques e creches em Campina Grande, PB  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O Horto Florestal Lauro Pires Xavier, situado às margens do açude de Bodocongó, em Campina Grande-PB é uma importante unidade mantida pela prefeitura no sentido de preservação e conservação de espécies. Através do viveiro, o município tem condição de aumentar as áreas verdes, proporcionando lazer e bem estar à população. Esse trabalho tem como tema à identificação dos vegetais

Mário Luiz Farias Cavalcanti; Ivan Coelho Dantas; Giselle Medeiros da Costa Silva; Luciana de Luna Costa; Maria José Benício Barros; Ronny Soffiantini Lira

370

SAR reduction for mobile phones based on analysis of EM absorbing material characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent explosive increase of the use of mobile communication handsets, there has been a growing concern about possible hazard to a human body, especially head part, exposed to the EM fields radiated from handsets. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is normally used for one of the important criteria to evaluate the degree of the hazard. The SAR is

Minseok Jung; Bomson Lee

2003-01-01

371

Sintomas Depressivos e Qualidade de Vida em Indivíduos com Epilepsia por Esclerose Mesial Temporal  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Introdução: Dificuldades no trabalho, em relacionamentos interpessoais, familiares e sociais, a percepção do estigma, da discriminação dentre outros têm sido associados aos estados depressivos interictais, influen- ciando negativamente a qualidade de vida (QV) das pessoas com epilepsia. A depressão tem alta prevalência (20 a 55%) nas epilepsias, sendo vista como o fator mais importante no julgamento do paciente sobre

Neide Barreira Alonso; Tatiana Indelicato da Silva; Ana Carolina Westphal; Auro Mauro Azevedo

372

An EM Algorithm for Fitting a 4-Parameter Logistic Model to Binary Dose-Response Data  

PubMed Central

This article is motivated by the need of biological and environmental scientists to fit a popular nonlinear model to binary dose-response data. The 4-parameter logistic model, also known as the Hill model, generalizes the usual logistic regression model to allow the lower and upper response asymptotes to be greater than zero and less than one, respectively. This article develops an EM algorithm, which is naturally suited for maximum likelihood estimation under the Hill model after conceptualizing the problem as a mixture of subpopulations in which some subjects respond regardless of dose, some fail to respond regardless of dose, and some respond with a probability that depends on dose. The EM algorithm leads to a pair of functionally independent 2-parameter optimizations and is easy to program. Not only can this approach be computationally appealing compared to simultaneous optimization with respect to all four parameters, but it also facilitates estimating covariances, incorporating predictors, and imposing constraints. This article is motivated by, and the EM algorithm is illustrated with, data from a toxicology study of the dose effects of selenium on the death rates of flies. Other biological and environmental applications, as well as medical and agricultural applications, are also described briefly. Computer code for implementing the EM algorithm is available as supplemental material online.

Dinse, Gregg E.

2010-01-01

373

A geographic information system simulation model of EMS: reducing ambulance response time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response time is a very important factor in determining the quality of prehospital EMS. Our objective was to model the response by Israeli ambulances and to offer model-derived strategies for improved deployment of ambulances to reduce response time. Using a geographic information system (GIS), a retrospective review of computerized ambulance call and dispatch logs was performed in two different regional

Kobi Peleg; Joseph S. Pliskin

2004-01-01

374

A spectral domain approach to modelling of EM scattering for Synthetic Aperture Radar target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fourier-based technique for electromagnetic (EM) wave reconstruction with application to polarimetric airborne and spaceborne radar data exploitation is presented. The method is different from conventional modelling techniques for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications as a result of the full electromagnetic treatment of field interactions with the scatterer, the possibility of introducing new and controllable feature classes for target classification,

R. Sabry; P. W. Vachon

2005-01-01

375

Miocene basalts in northwestern Taiwan: Evidence for EM-type mantle sources in the continental lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cenozoic extension around the Taiwan Strait resulted in intraplate basalt volcanism in the Fujian-Taiwan region of the southeastern China continental margin. In northwestern Taiwan, the basalt volcanism took place in two distinct periods: the early Miocene (23-20 Ma), with the eruption of alkali basalt only, and the late Miocene (13-9 Ma), marked by the emplacement of various basalt types. The early Miocene basalts have uniform Sr?Nd?Pb isotope compositions comparable with those of the other Fujian-Taiwan basalts, which are believed to have originated from a "plum-pudding" type convecting mantle. These basalts display EM2-type lead isotope signature like that observed in seamount basalts from the South China Sea. By contrast, the late Miocene basalts show distinctive isotope characteristics indicating additional involvement of an EM1-type mantle source that has never been identified before for any volcanics in southern China. We propose that the "enriched mantle" components (EMI and EM2) reside in different levels of the continental lithospheric mantle. Reactivation of the unique EM1 source may be ascribed to the arc-continent collision in Taiwan during the last 12 million years which terminated the intraplate volcanism around this region.

Chung, Sun-Lin; Jahn, Bor-Ming; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Typhoon; Chen, Cheng-Hong

1995-02-01

376

Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flo...

M. Wilt C. Schenkel M. Wratcher I. Lambert C. Torres-Verdin

1996-01-01

377

A Note on Parameter Estimation for Lazarsfeld's Latent Class Model Using the EM Algorithm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analysis is formulated as a problem of estimating parameters in a finite mixture distribution. The EM algorithm is used to find the maximum likelihood estimates, and the case of categorical variables with more than two categories is considered. (Author)

Everitt, B. S.

1984-01-01

378

Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

Sanford, P.C. [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States)] [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States); Moe, M.A. [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)] [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States); Hombach, W.G. [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States)] [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Urdangaray, R. [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)] [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

2013-07-01

379

Determining the Properties and Capabilities of an Existing Experimental Large Loop EM61 Underwater UXO Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to UXSON-04-03, Dillon Consulting Ltd (DCL) investigated the response of a prototype Large Loop EM61 Marine System. The system was originally conceived in 2002 for a marine UXO survey of Wright's Cove near Halifax, Nova Scotia, to detect accum...

2006-01-01

380

Maximum Likelihood Computations with Repeated Measures: Application of the EM Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to consider the use of the EM algorithm (Dempster, Laird, and Rubin 1977) for both maximum likelihood (ML) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation in a general repeated measures setting using a multivariate normal data model with linear mean and covariance structure (Anderson 1973). Several models and methods of analysis have been proposed in

Nan Laird; Nicholas Lange; Daniel Stram

1987-01-01

381

A tailored ML-EM algorithm for reconstruction of truncated projection data using few view angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data with a small number of views. In this note, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data with different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views.

Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

2013-06-01

382

Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The potential impact of efforts in Europe to improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is unclear, in part, because estimates of incidence and survival are uncertain. The aim of the investigation was to determine a representative European incidence and survival from cardiac arrest in all-rhythms and in ventricular fibrillation treated by the emergency medical services (EMS).

Christie Atwood; Mickey S. Eisenberg; Johan Herlitz; Thomas D. Rea

2005-01-01

383

EM, MCMC, and Chain Flipping for Structure from Motion with Unknown Correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Learning spatial models from sensor data often raises a challenging data association problem,of relating parameters in the model to individual measurements. This paper proposes an algorithm based on EM, which simultaneously solves the model learning and the data association problem. The algorithm is developed,in the context of the the structure from motion problem, which is the problem of learning

Frank Dellaert; Steven M. Seitz; Charles E. Thorpe; Sebastian Thrun

2003-01-01

384

Hybrid analysis (MM-UTD) of EM scattering from finned convex objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a formidable task to analyze the electromagnetic (EM) scattering from complex structures containing both electrically large and small parts because, in general, neither low nor high frequency techniques alone can provide a tractable solution to this problem. The method of moments (MM) is a very accurate mathematical technique which is commonly used to solve the governing integral equation

M. Hsu; P. H. Pathak

1995-01-01

385

Is It Round? Spectropolarimetry of the Type IIp Supernova 1999EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first multiepoch spectropolarimetry of a Type II plateau supernova (SN II-P), with optical observations of SN 1999em on days 7, 40, 49, 159, and 163 after discovery. These data are used to probe the geometry of the electron scattering atmosphere before, during, and after the plateau phase, which ended roughly 90 days after discovery. Weak continuum polarization

Douglas C. Leonard; Alexei V. Filippenko; David R. Ardila; Michael S. Brotherton

2001-01-01

386

Dynamic partnership: A new approach to EM technology commercialization and deployment  

SciTech Connect

The task of restoring nuclear defense complex sites under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program presents an unprecedented challenge to the environmental restoration community. Effective and efficient cleanup requires the timely development or modification of novel cleanup technologies applicable to radioactive wastes. Fostering the commercialization of these innovative technologies is the mission of EM-50, the EM Program Office of Science and Technology. However, efforts are often arrested at the {open_quotes}valley of death,{close_quotes} the general term for barriers to demonstration, commercialization, and deployment. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a not-for-profit, contract-supported organization focused on research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C) of energy and environmental technologies, is in the second year of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) designed to deliver EM technologies into the commercial marketplace through a unique combination of technical support, real-world demonstration, and brokering. This paper profiles this novel approach, termed {open_quotes}Dynamic Partnership,{close_quotes} and reviews the application of this concept to the ongoing commercialization and deployment of four innovative cleanup technologies. 2 tabs.

Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H. [and others

1996-12-31

387

A Monte Carlo EM Algorithm for De Novo Motif Discovery in Biomolecular Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motif discovery methods play pivotal roles in deciphering the genetic regulatory codes (i.e., motifs) in genomes as well as in locating conserved domains in protein sequences. The Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is one of the most popular methods used in de novo motif discovery. Based on the position weight matrix (PWM) updating technique, this paper presents a Monte Carlo version

Chengpeng Bi

2009-01-01

388

Medicina Baseada em Evidências: a arte de aplicar o conhecimento científico na prática clínica  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Este artigo foi escrito com o objetivo de descrever o conceito de Medicina Baseada em Evidências (MBE) e as competências necessárias para a sua prática. MBE deve ser vista como a integração da experiência clínica com a capacida- de de analisar e aplicar racionalmente a informa- ção científica ao cuidar de pacientes. A aplicação de métodos e estratégias

A. A. Lopes

2000-01-01

389

Shashlyk EM calorimeter prototype readout by MAPD with superhigh pixel density for COMPASS II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new-generation high-granularity Shashlyk EM calorimeter readout by micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) with precision thermostabilization based on the Peltier element is designed, constructed end tested. MAPD-3N with superhigh pixel density 1.5×104 mm-2 and area 3×3 mm2 manufactured by the Zecotek Company were used in the photodetector unit.

Anfimov, N.; Anosov, V.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Fedoseev, D.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Khovanskiy, N.; Krumshtein, Z.; Leitner, R.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olchevski, A.; Rezinko, T.; Selyunin, A.; Rybnikov, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Savin, I.; Tchalyshev, V.; Zhmurin, P.

2013-08-01

390

Influência da Proximidade Geográfica na Dinâmica Inovativa de Firmas Localizadas em Sistemas Locais de Inovação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propõe-se uma discussão a respeito da compreensão da dinâmica inovativa de firmas pertencentes a Sistemas Locais de Produção (SLPs). O objetivo é compreender a dinâmica inovativa de firmas localizadas em SLPs por meio das características dos fluxos de informação e conhecimento estabelecidos pelas firmas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma investigação de campo comparativa entre dois aglomerados do segmento produtor de

Janaína Ruffoni; Wilson Suzigan

2012-01-01

391

Solução Paralela em Agregado de PCs de um Código de Elementos Finitos Aplicado à Elasticidade Linear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados comparativos de desempenho de códigos paralelos, baseados no método dos elementos finitos aplicado à elasticidade linear para problemas estruturais, que utilizam o método dos gradientes conjugados para solução do sistema de equações. Os programas foram executados em um agregado de PCs, por ser uma opção economicamente viável, já que utiliza tecnologia depurada de alta

Flávia R. Villa Verde; Roberta R. Ferreira; Gerson H. Pfitscher

392

Recursive estimate-maximize (EM) algorithms for time varying parameters with applications to multiple target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the application of EM algorithm to the classical problem of multiple target tracking (MTT) for a known number of targets. Conventional algorithms, have a computational complexity that depends exponentially on the targets' number, and usually divide the problem into a localization stage and a tracking stage. The new algorithms achieve a linear dependency, and integrate those hire stages.

L. Frenkel; M. Feder

1995-01-01

393

De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

394

Características estruturais e índice de tombamento de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk em pastagens diferidas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre a densidade populacional de perfilhos, a massa dos componentes morfológicos da forragem e o índice de tombamento em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos: o primeiro denominado ano 1 e, o segundo, ano 2. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, segundo o

Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Domicio do Nascimento Júnior; Augusto César de Queiroz; José Ivo Ribeiro Júnior

2009-01-01

395

Tailored ML-EM Algorithm for Reconstruction of Truncated Projection Data using Few View-Angles  

PubMed Central

Dedicated cardiac Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view-angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data at small number of views. In this paper, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data at different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views.

Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

2013-01-01

396

The Statistical Analysis of General Processing Tree Models with the EM Algorithm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statistical analysis of processing tree models is advanced by showing how the parameters of estimation and hypothesis testing, based on the likelihood functions, can be accomplished by adapting the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The adaptation makes it easy to program a personal computer to accomplish the stages of statistical…

Hu, Xiangen; Batchelder, William H.

1994-01-01

397

Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

2013-01-01

398

COMPORTAMENTO DE ÓLEOS VEGETAIS EM FRITURAS DESCONTÍNUAS DE PRODUTOS PRÉ-FRITOS CONGELADOS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 h. Nas amostras dos óleos procederam-se as determinações analíticas: compostos polares totais, dienos conjugados, índice de ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e medida da estabilidade oxidativa. Os resultados, em duplicata, obtidos das determinações analíticas foram submetidos às análises de variância, empregando um esquema fatorial, no delineamento inteiramente casual, de modo a determinar a influência

Patrícia Vieira DEL RÉ; Neuza JORGE

399

Longer term impacts of transformed courses on student conceptual understanding of E&M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured upper-division physics majors' performance using two research-based conceptual instruments in E&M, the BEMA [1] and the CUE (Colorado Upper Division Electrostatics assessment[2].) The BEMA has been given pre/post in freshman E&M (Physics II) courses, and the BEMA and CUE have been given pre/post in several upper-division E&M courses. Some of these data extend over 10 semesters. We used PER-based techniques to transform the introductory and upper-division courses starting in Fall 2004 and 2007, respectively [2, 3]. Our longitudinal data allow us to measure ``fade'' on BEMA performance between freshman and junior year. We investigate the effects of curricula on students by comparing juniors who were enrolled in traditional vs. transformed physics as freshmen, as well as those who were enrolled in traditional or transformed upper-division E&M I, using both BEMA and CUE measures. We find that while freshman reforms significantly impact BEMA scores, junior-level reforms affect CUE but not BEMA outcomes.

Pollock, Steven J.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.

2009-11-01

400

LINFANGITE CRÔNICA EM POTRO: RELATO DE CASO CHRONIC LYMPHANGITIS IN A FOAL: CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Este trabalho relata um caso de linfangite crônica em membro posterior de um potro, o qual se originou a partir de um abcesso mal tratado. Diferentes terapias foram realizadas buscando-se redução de edema de tecidos moles, aumento da circulação vascular sangüínea e linfática e eliminação da infecção. Porém, os sinais clínicos foram apenas parcialmente resolvidos com as terapias e

G. RIBEIRO; DI FILIPPO

401

EM algorithm-based hyperparameters estimator for bayesian image denoising using BKF prior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to a novel hyperparameters estimator for bayesian denoising of images using the Bessel K Forms prior which we recently developed. More precisely, this approach is based on the EM algorithm. The simulation results show that this estimator offers good performances and is slightly better compared to the cumulant-based estimator suggested in. A comparative study is carried

Larbi Boubchir; Bruno Durning; Eric Petit

2011-01-01

402

Artificial neural networks for fast and accurate EM-CAD of microwave circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for achieving fast and accurate computer-aided design (CAD) of microwave circuits is described. The proposed approach enhances the ability to utilize electromagnetic (EM) analysis techniques in an interactive CAD environment through the application of neurocomputing technology. Specifically, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) is implemented to model monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) passive elements using the element's

Gregory L. Creech; Bradley J. Paul; Christopher D. Lesniak; Thomas J. Jenkins; Mark C. Calcatera

1997-01-01

403

A comparison between the simulated annealing and the EM algorithms in normal mixture decompositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the performances of the simulated annealing and the EM algorithms in problems of decomposition of normal mixtures according to the likelihood approach. In this case the likelihood function has multiple maxima and singularities, and we consider a suitable reformulation of the problem which yields an optimization problem having a global solution and at least a smaller number of

Salvatore Ingrassia; Corso Italia

1992-01-01

404

A row-action alternative to the EM algorithm for maximizing likelihood in emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum likelihood (ML) approach to estimating the radioactive distribution in the body cross section has become very popular among researchers in emission computed tomography (ECT) since it has been shown to provide very good images compared to those produced with the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is an often-used iterative approach for maximizing the

Jolyon Browne; Alvaro R. De Pierro

1996-01-01

405

Innovation on Energy Power Technology (17)Development of EMS\\/SCADA in TEPCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective Load Dispatching Automatic Controller (ELDAC) is an EMS\\/SCADA system for Central Load Dispatching Office in Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc. This paper introduces the progress of development of ELDAC, which forecasts demand, sets up the most efficient generation schedule, and controls total power from generators.

Mamoru Suzuki

2009-01-01

406

Innovation on Energy Power Technology (17)Development of EMS/SCADA in TEPCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective Load Dispatching Automatic Controller (ELDAC) is an EMS/SCADA system for Central Load Dispatching Office in Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc. This paper introduces the progress of development of ELDAC, which forecasts demand, sets up the most efficient generation schedule, and controls total power from generators.

Suzuki, Mamoru

407

Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.  

PubMed

Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help. PMID:23097838

Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

2012-10-01

408

MERCADO DE TRABALHO EM EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA: REESTRUTURAÇÃO PRODUTIVA, RELAÇÕES DE TRABALHO E INTERVENÇÃO PROFISSIONAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: No processo de preparação profissional, as discussões sobre mercado de trabalho quase sempre se concentram em apresentar os possíveis locais de intervenção, deixando de analisar a complexidade das relações de trabalho e a reestruturação produtiva. Desta forma, desejando despertar para o interesse dessa temática no universo da Educação Física, os objetivos deste artigo são: a) caracterizar a estruturação e

Rita de Cássia; Garcia Verenguer

409

A New View of the EM Algorithm that Justifies Incremental and Other Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new view of the EM algorithm for maximum likelihood estimationin situations with unobserved variables. In this view, both the E and the M stepsof the algorithm are seen as maximizing a joint function of the model parametersand of the distribution over unobserved variables. From this perspective, it iseasy to justify an incremental variant of the algorithm in

Radford M. Neal; Geoffrey E. Hinton

1993-01-01

410

Integrated models for the analysis of biological effects of EM fields used for mobile communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the modalities of interaction of electromagnetic (EM) fields with biological material is a key point in the identification of possible induced effects. Since the beginnings of bioelectromagnetic research studies, most of the attention has been focused on the effects on nervous systems and neuronal cells. The importance of this target has recently increased due to the wide

Francesca Apollonio; Micaela Liberti; G. D'Inzeo; L. Tarricone

2000-01-01

411

Estimation of variance components: what is missing in the EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EM algorithm is a frequently advocated algorithm for the estimation of variance components. A faster converging algorithm is developed using alternative parameter-izations based on the analysis of variance. The procedure is exemplified using designs with two and three variance components and with multivariate designs using parameter values relevant to animal breeding data.

R. Thompson; K. Meyer

1986-01-01

412

EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: Implications for surveillance and prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective Opioid (including prescription opiate) abuse and overdose rates in the US have surged in the past decade. The dearth and limitations of opioid abuse and overdose surveillance systems impede the development of interventions to address this epidemic. We explored evidence to support the validity of emergency medical services (EMS) data on naloxone administration as a possible proxy for estimating incidence of opioid overdose. Methods We reviewed data from Baltimore City Fire Department EMS patient records matched with dispatch records over a thirteen month time period (2008-2009), and census 2008 data. We calculated incidence rates and patient demographic and temporal patterns of naloxone administration, and examined patient evaluation data associated with naloxone administration. Results were compared to the demographic distributions of the EMS patient and city population and to prior study findings. Results Of 116,910 EMS incidents during the study period for patients 15 years and older, EMS providers administered naloxone 1,297 times (1.1% of incidents), an average of 100 administrations per month. Overall incidence was 1.87 administrations per 1,000 population per year. Findings indicated naloxone administration peaked in summer months (31% of administrations), weekends (32%), and late afternoon (4-5:00pm [8%]); and there was a trend toward peaking in the first week of the month. The incidence of suspected opioid overdose was highest among males, whites, and those in the 45-54 year age group. Findings on temporal patterns were comparable to findings from prior studies. Demographic patterns of suspected opioid overdose were similar to medical examiner reports of demographic patterns of fatal drug or alcohol related overdoses in Baltimore in 2008-9 (88% of which involved opioids). The findings on patient evaluation data suggest some inconsistencies with previously recommended clinical indications of opioid overdose. Conclusions While our findings suggest limitations of EMS naloxone administration data as a proxy indicator of opioid overdose, the results provide partial support of the data for estimating opioid overdose incidence and suggest ways to improve such data. The study findings have implications for an EMS role in conducting real-time surveillance and treatment and prevention of opioid abuse and overdose.

Knowlton, Amy; Weir, Brian; Hazzard, Frank; Olsen, Yngvild; McWilliams, Junette; Fields, Julie; Gaasch, Wade

2013-01-01

413

Determining and Prioritizing the Organizational Determinants of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Improving the organization of pre-hospital emergency to provide emergency medical services (EMS), as a part of health system, plays an important role in timely and properly response to incidents, as well as, reducing mortalities and disabilities. Objective This study was conducted to determine the organizational determinants of emergency medical services in Iran and analyze their relationship and prioritize them. Materials and Methods The present study is kind of descriptive and cross-sectional study that has been conducted on the first half of 2010 using DEMATEL method (a group decision-making technique). Required data were collected using a questionnaire from a sample of 30 Iranian experts in pre-hospital emergency, who were selected using available sampling method. Results The determinants of establishing an independent EMS organization as a policy maker and observer organization, providing services through public organizations such as Emergency 115, private organizations partnership in pre-hospital emergency system, and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as organizational determinants. Also, establishing an independent EMS organization and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as the most affecting and affected organizational determinants, respectively, with the coordinates (1.01 and 1.01) and (0.85 and - 0.85) in the pre-hospital emergency organizational determinants graph. Conclusions Emergency medical services should be considered as a system with its independent components. Establishing an independent EMS organization, integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management, as well as, extending the possibility of providing EMS through private sector are essential in order to make fundamental reforms in providing emergency medical services in Iran.

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin

2013-01-01

414

Investigating metal removal potential by Effective Microorganisms (EM) in alginate-immobilized and free-cell forms.  

PubMed

Metal removal potential of both alginate-immobilized and free-cells of Effective Microorganisms (EM-1™ Inoculant) was investigated in this study. Results revealed that removal of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) followed a similar trend where alginate-immobilized EM were more efficient compared to free-cells of EM. For these metals, 0.940, 2.695 and 4.011 mg g(-1) of Cr(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) were removed compared to only 0.160, 0.859 and 0.755 mg ml(-1) removed by free-cells, respectively. The higher efficiency of alginate-immobilized EM was primarily attributed to the alginate matrix. This was evident when both alginate-immobilized EM and plain alginate beads (without EM), were not significantly different in their removal efficacies. Presence of alginate also enhanced the use of the biosorbents as maximum metal sorption was achieved after 120 min as opposed to only 60 min for free-cells. EM per se in immobilized or free-cell forms did not enhance metal removal efficacy. PMID:24001691

Ting, Adeline Su Yien; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Ikmal Hafiz Mahamad; Tan, Wei Shang

2013-11-01

415

Drug-resistant T-lymphoid tumors undergo apoptosis selectively in response to an antimicrotubule agent, EM011  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that EM011, a synthetic compound, binds tubulin with a higher affinity than the founding compound, noscapine, without changing total microtubule polymer mass. Now we show that EM011 is potently effective against vinblastine-resistant human lymphoblastoid line CEM/VLB100 and its parental vinblastine-sensitive line CEM. The cytotoxicity is mediated by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by altered plasma membrane asymmetry, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, activation of caspase-3, and increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, oral EM011 treatment of nude mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts results in pronounced tumor regression by triggering apoptosis and significantly lengthens the survival time of mice. EM011 treatment does not have obvious side effects in tissues with frequently dividing cells, such as the spleen and duodenum. In addition, EM011 does not show any toxicity in the liver, lung, heart, brain, and sciatic nerve. More importantly, EM011 does not affect hematopoiesis as determined by complete blood count profiles. These findings suggest that EM011 may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for oral treatment of drug-resistant human lymphomas. (Blood. 2006;107:2486-2492)

Aneja, Ritu; Zhou, Jun; Vangapandu, Surya N.; Zhou, Binfei; Chandra, Ramesh; Joshi, Harish C.

2006-01-01

416

EM-Fold: De novo Folding of ?-helical Proteins Guided by Intermediate Resolution Electron Microscopy Density Maps  

PubMed Central

Summary Over the last ten years the number of cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM) experiments yielding medium resolution (7–10 Å) density maps of proteins has greatly increased. At this resolution ?-helices can be identified as density rods while ?-strand or loop regions are not as easily discerned. Thus, for mostly ?-helical proteins the general arrangement of secondary structure elements in space is revealed while their connectivity remains unknown. We are proposing a novel computational protein structure prediction algorithm “EM-Fold” that resolves the connectivity ambiguity by placing predicted ?-helices into the density rods, adds missing backbone coordinates in loop regions, and finally builds all-atom models by constructing side chain coordinates. In a benchmark of ten mainly ?-helical proteins of known structure a native-like model is identified in seven cases (RMSD 3.9 to 7.1 Å). The three failures can be attributed to inaccuracies in the secondary structure prediction step that precedes EM-Fold. EM-Fold has been applied to the ~6 Å resolution cryoEM density map of protein IIIa from human adenovirus. This predominantly ?-helical capsid protein is involved in viral assembly, maturation, and cell entry. We report the first topological model for the ?-helical 400 residue N-terminal region of protein IIIa showing interactions with neighboring capsid proteins. Beyond its importance in cryoEM, EM-Fold has the potential to interpret medium resolution density maps in X-ray crystallography.

Lindert, Steffen; Staritzbichler, Rene; Wotzel, Nils; Karakas, Mert; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Meiler, Jens

2013-01-01

417

Effect of organic-inorganic hybrid P123-em-SBA15 on lithium transport properties of composite polymer electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel PEO-based composite polymer electrolyte by using organic-inorganic hybrid EO20PO70EO20-emmesoporous silica (P123-em-SBA15) as the filler has been developed. The experiment results show that P123-em-SBA15 can\\u000a enhance the lithium-ion transference number of the composite polymer electrolyte, which is induced by the special topology\\u000a structure of P123 in P123-em-SBA15 hybrid. In addition, room temperature ionic conductivity of the composite polymer electrolyte

Jingyu Xi; Xiaobin Huang; Xiaozhen Tang

2004-01-01

418

200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.  

PubMed

This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities commence will be an important component of future strategies. More sophisticated EMD, CAD and AVL technologies will also play an indispensable role in reforming system design and daily operations. In light of the events of Sept. 11 and events yet to occur, EMS managers and providers face significant operational challenges. Overcoming these challenges will require leadership, a willingness to question and change tradition and the ability to cope with the discomfort of changing demands and uncertainty. Maintaining the hard-fought successes of EMS will increasingly require more imagination and the willingness of current and future practitioners to study, develop and implement innovative approaches to addressing future requirements. PMID:11858002

Cady, Geoff

2002-02-01

419

Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

2003-08-01

420

Determination of the thalidomide analogues 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidine-3-yl)phthalimidine (EM 12), 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidine-4-yl)phthalimidine (EM 16) and their metabolites in biological samples.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of the thalidomide analogues EM 12 and EM 16 and their metabolites has been developed. Following an optional extraction, samples were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ion depression. The recovery of the extraction procedures was 65-80%. The method has been applied to pharmacokinetic studies in small laboratory animals and in vitro model experiments. PMID:2501333

Winckler, K; Klinkmüller, K D; Schmahl, H J

1989-03-24

421

Environmental Technology Verification Report. Field Portable Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer, Bruker-Franzen Analytical Systems, Inc. EM640(T).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bruker-Franzen EM640 GC/MS consists of a temperature-programmable gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The field transportable system used a small gas chromatographic column and accompanying mass spectrometer to provide separation, identi...

W. Enfield S. F. Bender M. R. Keenan S. M. Thornberg M. M. Hightower

1997-01-01

422

Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical elec...

L. C. Bartel

1993-01-01

423

Educational Program for EMS (Emergency Medical Services) Systems Administration and Planning. Module U - Computers and Information Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instructional module on computers and information systems is presented as part of an educational program for emergency medical services (EMS) systems administration and planning. The program consists of 23 such modules, which can be adapted to a variet...

M. Howells B. A. Cooper

1977-01-01

424

SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: Proton irradiation test results and spaceflight SEU data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton test and space-flight single event effect data for NASA's first fiber optic data bus are presented. Bit error rate predictions based on a proton direct ionization model agree well with flight data for proton-belt and solar-flare effects. Specifically, the authors discuss the SEUs (single event upsets) seen in space during the first months of the SAMPEX (Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric

Kenneth A. LaBel; Paul Marshall; Cheryl Dale; Christina M. Crabtree; E. G. Stassinopoulos; Jay T. Miller; Michele M. Gates

1993-01-01

425

Air pollution and its impact on the cardiovascular system Poluição atmosférica e seu impacto no sistema cardiovascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the great medical advances, cardiovascular disease remains one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, especially in industrialized countries. It develops as a result of countless complex interactions between genetic factors such as those related to age, sex, family history, weight, and post-menopausal status in women; and to environment-related factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, eating habits, physical

Marjorie Paris Colombini

426

Effectiveness of Internal vs. External SEU Scrubbing Mitigation Strategies in a Xilinx FPGA: Design, Test, and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare two scrubbing mitigation schemes for Xilinx FPGA devices. The design of the scrubbers is briefly discussed along with an examination of mitigation limitations. Proton and Heavy Ion data are then presented and analyzed.

Berg, Melanie; Poivey C.; Petrick, D.; Espinosa, D.; Lesea, Austin; LaBel, K. A.; Friendlich, M; Kim, H; Phan, A.

2008-01-01

427

A software solution to estimate the SEU-induced soft error rate for systems implemented on SRAM-based FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SRAM-based FPGAs are very susceptible to radiation-induced Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) in space applications. The failure mechanism in FPGA's configuration memory differs from those in traditional memory device. As a result, there is a growing demand for methodologies which could quantitatively evaluate the impact of this effect. Fault injection appears to meet such requirement. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to analyze the soft errors in SRAM-based FPGAs. This method is based on in depth understanding of the device architecture and failure mechanisms induced by configuration upsets. The developed programs read in the placed and routed netlist, search for critical logic nodes and paths that may destroy the circuit topological structure, and then query a database storing the decoded relationship of the configurable resources and corresponding control bit to get the sensitive bits. Accelerator irradiation test and fault injection experiments were carried out to validate this approach.

Zhongming, Wang; Zhibin, Yao; Hongxia, Guo; Min, Lu

2011-05-01

428

SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: Proton irradiation test results and spaceflight SEU data  

SciTech Connect

The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) was launched in July of 1992 as part of the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission. The SEDS utilizes NASA's first MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Multiplexed Data Bus (or 1773 bus) to communicate with other spacecraft subsystems in the space environment. The 1773 bus is the fiber optic version of the MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus, a electronic wire bus used in many avionics applications. The authors present proton test and space flight single event effect data for NASA's first fiber optic data bus. Bit error rate predictions based on a new proton direct ionization model agree well with flight data for proton belt and solar flare effects.

LaBel, K.A.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Miller, J.T. (NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Marshall, P. (NRL/SFA, Washington, DC (United States)); Dale, C. (NRL, Washington, DC (United States)); Crabtree, C.M. (Hughes/ST Systems Corp., Seabrook, MD (United States)); Gates, M.M. (Jackson and Tull, Seabrook, MD (United States))

1993-12-01

429

Further study on in-situ measurement of complex EM parameters with a flanged open-ended coaxial probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement system based on open-ended coaxial probe technique is set up to characterize the EM properties of radar-absorbing material situ. Frequency-varying method (FVM), which simultaneously extracts complex EM-parameters, i.e. ? and ?, by intentionally varying the test frequency to obtain two different reflections, is further studied with an emphasis on several key techniques. Criterions for a right order of

Chen ChunPing; Xu Deming; Niu Maode; Zhou Shiping

2004-01-01

430

X-Ray, Optical, and Radio Observations of the Type II Supernovae 1999em and 1998S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Type II-P (plateau) supernova SN 1999em and Type IIn (narrow emission line) SN 1998S have enabled estimation of the profile of the SN ejecta, the structure of the circumstellar medium (CSM) established by the pre-SN stellar wind, and the nature of the shock interaction. SN 1999em is the first Type II-P detected at both X-ray and radio

David Pooley; Walter H. G. Lewin; Derek W. Fox; Jon M. Miller; Christina K. Lacey; Schuyler D. Van Dyk; Kurt W. Weiler; Richard A. Sramek; Alexei V. Filippenko; Douglas C. Leonard; Stefan Immler; Roger A. Chevalier; Andrew C. Fabian; Claes Fransson; Ken'ichi Nomoto

2002-01-01

431

Echinococcus multilocularis: molecular characterization of EmSmadE, a novel BR-Smad involved in TGF-? and BMP signaling.  

PubMed

Smad transcription factors are central components of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways in metazoans, and regulate key developmental processes such as body axis formation or regeneration. In the present study, we have identified and characterized a novel member of this protein family, EmSmadE, in the human parasitic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. The cDNA of the corresponding gene, emsmadE, was fully sequenced and shown to encode a protein with considerable homologies to known members of the receptor regulated Smad (R-Smad) family of a wide variety of organisms. EmSmadE contains highly conserved MH1- and MH2-domains and, on the basis of sequence features around the L3 loop region, could be assigned to the BR-Smad subfamily that typically transmits BMP signals. RT-PCR analyses indicated expression of emsmadE in all larval stages that are involved in the infection of the intermediate host. Yeast two-hybrid interaction studies demonstrated that EmSmadE can form homodimers, and is capable of heterodimer formation with the previously identified common Smad (Co-Smad) EmSmadD and the R-Smads, EmSmadA, and EmSmadB. In a heterologous expression system, EmSmadE was specifically phosphorylated at a conserved C-terminal SSVS motif by the human BMP type I receptor and, despite being structurally a BR-Smad, also by the human TGF-? type I receptor. Taken together, these data indicate that EmSmadE is a functionally active R-Smad that is involved in larval Echinococcus development. The data presented herein will be important for further analyses on the role of TGF-?/BMP signaling pathways in Echinococcus pattern formation and differentiation. PMID:21802416

Epping, Kerstin; Brehm, Klaus

2011-10-01

432

Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a partially purified Em18/16 enriched fraction.  

PubMed Central

An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using partially purified Eml8/16 enriched fraction (PP-Em18/16) prepared by isoelectric focusing was evaluated for serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The PP-Em18/16-ELISA was compared with Em2plus-ELISA by using sera from AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients in China, where both AE and CE are endemic; sera from CE patients in Australia, where only CE exists; and sera from patients with cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, or sparganosis in Korea, where no indigenous AE or CE exists. We used Em2plus-ELISA as a standard ELISA and found 24.6% (17 of 69 specimens) cross-reactivity with sera from CE. Furthermore, some of the sera from paragonimiasis, sparganosis, and cysticercosis patients were also cross-reactive in the Em2plus-ELISA. When we tested for similar cross-reactivity in the same sera from CE patients by PP-Em18/16-ELISA (23.2%, 16 of 69), it became evident that the specificity of the PP-Em18/16-ELISA was better than that of the Em2plus-ELISA, since no sera from patients with the examined parasitic diseases except CE showed cross-reactivity. Some CE patients from China showed exceptionally high levels of antibody in comparison with those of CE patients from Australia, where no AE occurs. It is speculated that these patients with strongly positive cases of CE from China may have been exposed to both species of Echinococcus.

Ito, A; Ma, L; Itoh, M; Cho, S Y; Kong, Y; Kang, S Y; Horii, T; Pang, X L; Okamoto, M; Yamashita, T; Lightowlers, M W; Wang, X G; Liu, Y H

1997-01-01

433

An EM algorithm based on an internal list for estimating haplotype distributions of rare variants from pooled genotype data  

PubMed Central

Background Pooling is a cost effective way to collect data for genetic association studies, particularly for rare genetic variants. It is of interest to estimate the haplotype frequencies, which contain more information than single locus statistics. By viewing the pooled genotype data as incomplete data, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is the natural algorithm to use, but it is computationally intensive. A recent proposal to reduce the computational burden is to make use of database information to form a list of frequently occurring haplotypes, and to restrict the haplotypes to come from this list only in implementing the EM algorithm. There is, however, the danger of using an incorrect list, and there may not be enough database information to form a list externally in some applications. Results We investigate the possibility of creating an internal list from the data at hand. One way to form such a list is to collapse the observed total minor allele frequencies to “zero” or “at least one”, which is shown to have the desirable effect of amplifying the haplotype frequencies. To improve coverage, we propose ways to add and remove haplotypes from the list, and a benchmarking method to determine the frequency threshold for removing haplotypes. Simulation results show that the EM estimates based on a suitably augmented and trimmed collapsed data list (ATCDL) perform satisfactorily. In two scenarios involving 25 and 32 loci respectively, the EM-ATCDL estimates outperform the EM estimates based on other lists as well as the collapsed data maximum likelihood estimates. Conclusions The proposed augmented and trimmed CD list is a useful list for the EM algorithm to base upon in estimating the haplotype distributions of rare variants. It can handle more markers and larger pool size than existing methods, and the resulting EM-ATCDL estimates are more efficient than the EM estimates based on other lists.

2013-01-01

434

Risk Factor Selection in Rate Making: EM Adaptive LASSO for Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression Models.  

PubMed

Risk factor selection is very important in the insurance industry, which helps precise rate making and studying the features of high-quality insureds. Zero-inflated data are common in insurance, such as the claim frequency data, and zero-inflation makes the selection of risk factors quite difficult. In this article, we propose a new risk factor selection approach, EM adaptive LASSO, for a zero-inflated Poisson regression model, which combines the EM algorithm and adaptive LASSO penalty. Under some regularity conditions, we show that, with probability approaching 1, important factors are selected and the redundant factors are excluded. We investigate the finite sample performance of the proposed method through a simulation study and the analysis of car insurance data from SAS Enterprise Miner database. PMID:24433227

Tang, Yanlin; Xiang, Liya; Zhu, Zhongyi

2014-06-01

435

Statistical analysis of the influence of forces on particles in EM driven recirculated turbulent flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper contains an analysis of the statistical distribution of forces affecting non-conducting particles dispersed in an EM induced recirculated flow in induction furnaces. The simulation is conducted adopting the LES-based Euler-Lagrange approach in the limit of dilute conditions (one-way coupling). It is done by means of a development of OpenFOAM software code. The used Lagrange equation for particle tracking includes drag, EM, buoyancy, lift, acceleration and added mass forces. The relevant approximations for the forces are chosen on the basis of the statistical analysis of the non-dimensional parameters (particle Reynolds number, shear stress and acceleration parameter). The effect of force distribution on particle homogenization is described under different density ratios and particle sizes. The recommendations of the consistence of the Lagrange model for the simulation of the particle motion in the laboratory scale induction crucible furnace are given in conclusion.

Š?epanskis, M.; Jakovi?s, A.; Baake, E.

2011-12-01

436

Using cryo-EM to measure the dipole potential of a lipid membrane  

PubMed Central

The dipole potential of a lipid bilayer membrane accounts for its much larger permeability to anions than cations and affects the conformation and function of membrane proteins. The absolute value of the dipole potential has been very difficult to measure, although its value has been estimated to range from 200 to 1,000 mV from ion translocation rates, the surface potential of lipid monolayers, and molecular dynamics calculations. Here, a point charge probe method was used to investigate the dipole potentials of both ester and ether lipid membranes. The interactions between electrons and lipid molecules were recorded by phase-contrast imaging using cryo-EM. The magnitude and the profile of the dipole potential along the bilayer normal were obtained by subtracting the contribution of the atomic potential from the cryo-EM image intensity. The peak dipole potential was estimated to be 510 and 260 mV for diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine and diphytanylphosphatidylcholine, respectively.

Wang, Liguo; Bose, Pulkit S.; Sigworth, Fred J.

2006-01-01

437

Research-Based Course Materials and Assessments for Upper-Division Electrodynamics (E&M II)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Favorable outcomes from ongoing research at the University of Colorado Boulder on student learning in junior-level electrostatics (E&M I) have led us to extend this work to upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II). We describe here our development of a set of research-based instructional materials designed to actively engage students during lecture (including clicker questions and other in-class activities); and an instrument for assessing whether our faculty-consensus learning goals are being met. We also discuss preliminary results from several recent implementations of our transformed curriculum, plans for the dissemination and further refinement of these materials, and offer some insights into student difficulties in advanced undergraduate electromagnetism.

Baily, Charles; Dubson, Michael; Pollock, Steven J.

2013-05-28

438

Validation of Cryo-EM Structure of IP3R1 Channel  

PubMed Central

Summary About a decade ago, three electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) single particle reconstructions of IP3R1 were reported at low resolution. Disturbingly, these structures bore little similarity to one another, even at the level of quaternary structure. Recently, we published an improved structure of IP3R1 at ~1 nm resolution. However, this structure did not bear any resemblance to any of the three previously published structures, leading to the question of why the new structure should be considered more reliable than the original three. Here we apply several methods, including class-average/map comparisons, tilt-pair validation, and use of multiple refinement software packages, to give strong evidence for the reliability of our recent structure. The map resolution and feature resolvability are assessed with the ‘gold standard’ criterion. This approach is generally applicable to assessing the validity of cryo-EM maps of other molecular machines.

Murray, Stephen C.; Flanagan, John; Popova, Olga B.; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J.; Serysheva, Irina I.

2013-01-01

439

Repeat EMS Use by Older Adults in a Rural Community: Impact on Research Methods and Study Length  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the proportion of EMS requests in a rural community made by unique, non-institutionalized, older adults, or individuals making their first request of EMS services during the study period, and the impact on research parameters. METHODS This study was a retrospective chart review of patients age 65 and older cared for by the Geneseo Fire Department Ambulance between February 2004 – May 2005 (period 1), and July 2006 – October 2007 (period 2). The Geneseo Fire Department Ambulance response territory is a rural community in Upstate New York. We obtained demographic information including age, race, gender, call location, and the frequency of EMS use from the medical record, as well as clinical information including level of prehospital care, chief complaint, and disposition. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis, along with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over two 16-month periods, approximately 70% of the EMS calls by community dwelling (non-institutionalized) older adults were from unique individuals. The monthly proportion ranged from between 75–100% during the first four months to between 43–80% for the remaining 12 months for both groups. CONCLUSION In rural, prehospital studies that enroll older adults and last more than four months, approximately 70% of EMS requests are made by unique older adults, or individuals making their first request of EMS services. Investigators must consider these results when estimating the enrollment period for prehospital studies.

Shah, Manish N.; Swanson, Peter; Rajasekaran, Karthik; Dozier, Ann

2008-01-01

440

Avaliação das áreas verdes em espaços públicos no município de Guarapuava\\/PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apresenta-se neste artigo uma proposta metodológica para se avaliar o desempenho das áreas verdes públicas do Município de Guarapuava\\/PR, mais especificamente sua arborização de acompanhamento viário de sua área central. Guarapuava é uma cidade que conta com aproximadamente 160 mil habitantes, situada na região centro-sul do Estado. A proposta metodológica que ora se apresenta, aplicada em parcela do município, foi

Carlos Roberto Loboda; Bruno Luiz Domingos de Angelis; Generoso de Angelis Neto; Eraldo Schunk da Silva

2007-01-01

441

Direct 4D list mode parametric reconstruction for PET with a novel EM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a direct method for producing images of kinetic parameters from list mode PET data. The time-activity curve for each voxel is described by a one-tissue compartment, 2-parameter model. Extending previous EM algorithms, a new spatiotemporal complete data space was introduced to optimize the maximum likelihood function. This leads to a straightforward parametric image update equation with moderate additional

Jianhua Yan; Beata Planeta-Wilson; Richard E. Carson

2008-01-01

442

3D coupled electro-mechanics for MEMS: applications of CoSolve-EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are often designed on scales at which electrostatic forces are capable of moving or deforming the parts of the system. In this regime accurate prediction of device behavior may require 3D coupled simulations between the electrostatic and mechanical domains. We have recently developed CoSolve-EM, a coupled solver for 3D quasi-static electro-mechanics. In this paper, we demonstrate the

J. R. Gilbert; R. Legtenberg; S. D. Senturia

1995-01-01

443

EMS- and radiation-induced mutation frequencies at individual loci in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.  

PubMed

Average mutation frequencies per locus per dose of mutagen - EMS, X-rays and fast neutrons - were estimated from 15 different loci of Arabidopsis thaliana. These loci relate to clearly distinguishable phenotypic mutant groups, each affected by a limited number of loci. There were significant differences in mutation rate between individual loci. The proposition of a linear relationship between DNA content and mutation frequency per locus is rejected. PMID:7062928

Koornneef, M; Dellaert, L W; van der Veen, J H

1982-03-01

444

Real-Time Auditory and Visual Talker Tracking Through Integrating EM Algorithm and Particle Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents techniques that enable a talker tracking for effective human-robot interaction. We propose new way of\\u000a integrating an EM algorithm and a particle filter to select an appropriate path for tracking the talker. It can easily adapt\\u000a to new kinds of information for tracking the talker with our system. This is because our system estimates the position of

Hyun-don Kim; Kazunori Komatani; Tetsuya Ogata; Hiroshi G. Okuno

2007-01-01

445

3D Coupled Electromechanics for MEMS: Applications of CoSolve-EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are often designed on scales at which electrostatic forces are capable of moving or deforming the parts of the system. In this regime accurate prediction of device behavior may require 3D coupled simulations between the electrostatic and mechanical domains. We have recently developed CoSolve-EM, a coupled solver for 3D quasi-static electro-mechanics. In this paper, we demonstrate the

J. R. Gilbert; R. Legtenberg; S. D. Senturia

1993-01-01

446

An EM algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes

J. C. Long; R. C. Williams; M. Urbanek

1995-01-01

447

visceral, leptina, grelina e a prevalência de esteatose hepática não alcoólica (NAFLD) em adolescentes obesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações promovi- das, por intervenção multidisciplinar, nas concentrações plasmáti- cas de grelina e leptina, adiposidade visceral e prevalência de es- teatose hepática não alcoólica (NAFLD), em adolescentes obesos. Foram avaliados 28 adolescentes obesos, 16 meninas (IMC 34,58 ± 3,86kg\\/m2) e 12 meninos (IMC 37,08 ± 3,17kg\\/m2), com idade entre 15 e

Ana R. Dâmaso; Lian Tock; Sérgio Tufik; Wagner L. Prado; Sérgio G. Stella; Mauro Fisberg; Isa P. Cintra; Danielle A. Caranti; Kãli O. Siqueira; Cláudia M. Nascimento; Lila M. Oyama; Henrique M. Lederman; Dejaldo Cristofalo; Hanna K. Antunes; Aniella Comparoni; Luana C. Santos; Marco T. Mello

448

Surgical treatment for paediatric patients with moyamoya disease by indirect revascularization procedures (EDAS, EMS, EMAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Surgical results of paediatric patients with Moyamoya disease who were treated by indirect revascularization procedures are reported. Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS), encephalomyo-arterio-synangiosis (EMAS), and\\/or encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) were performed on 47 sides of 29 children with Moyamoya disease. The results of those non-anastomotic EC-IC bypass procedures were evaluated clinically, angiographically, and by computed tomography (CT). Postoperative external carotid angiograms showed a good

T. Matsushima; S. Fujiwara; S. Nagata; K. Fujii; M. Fukui; K. Kitamura; K. Hasuo

1989-01-01

449

EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

1993-01-01

450

Is it Round? Spectropolarimetry of the Type IIP Supernova 1999em  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of a type II plateau\\u000asupernova (SN II-P), with optical observations of SN 1999em on days 7, 40, 49,\\u000a159, and 163 after discovery. These data are used to probe the geometry of the\\u000aelectron-scattering atmosphere before, during, and after the plateau phase,\\u000awhich ended roughly 90 days after discovery. Weak continuum polarization with

Douglas C. Leonard; Alexei V. Filippenko; David R. Ardila; Michael S. Brotherton

2000-01-01

451

Polioencefalomalacia em bovinos nos estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Sªo Paulo 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nakano L., Lemos R.A.A. & Riet-Correa F. 2000. (Polioencephalomalacia in cattle in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Sªo Paulo.) Polioencefalomalacia em bovinos nos estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Sªo Paulo. Pesquisa VeterinÆria Brasileira 20(3):119-125. Depto Patologia, Fac. VeterinÆria, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Thirty outbreaks of polioencephalomalacia (PEM) were diagnosed from August

Luciano Nakazato; Ricardo A. A. Lemos; Franklin Riet-Correa

2000-01-01

452

Expert verification of the knowledge base of FEED--a feedback expert system for EMS documentation.  

PubMed

Feedback Expert System for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Documentation (FEED) has a rule-based knowledge base (KB) that was verified against specifications in a focus group consisting of six experts. The focus group suggested changes in almost all rules discussed, indicating that the KB did not meet specifications at that stage of development. However, enough information was gathered to address these issues in the next iteration of development. PMID:18999259

Saini, Devashish; Orthner, Helmuth F; Berner, Eta S; Mirza, Muzna; Godwin, Charles J; Brown, Todd B

2008-01-01

453

Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS

Chen Gu; Menglin Liu; Huawei Xing; Tong Zhou; Wensheng Yin; Jun Zong; Zhenghe Han

2005-01-01